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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 17, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES


Subpart B—Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j)


Contents
§63.40   Applicability of §§63.40 through 63.44.
§63.41   Definitions.
§63.42   Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.
§63.43   Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed major sources.
§63.44   Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement.
§§63.45-63.49   [Reserved]
§63.50   Applicability.
§63.51   Definitions.
§63.52   Approval process for new and existing affected sources.
§63.53   Application content for case-by-case MACT determinations.
§63.54   Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.
§63.55   Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case-by-case determination of equivalent emission limitations.
§63.56   Requirements for case-by-case determination of equivalent emission limitations after promulgation of subsequent MACT standard.
Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates
Table 2 to Subpart B of Part 63—MON Source Categories

Source: 59 FR 26449, May 20, 1994, unless otherwise noted.

§63.40   Applicability of §§63.40 through 63.44.

(a) Applicability. The requirements of §§63.40 through 63.44 of this subpart carry out section 112(g)(2)(B) of the 1990 Amendments.

(b) Overall requirements. The requirements of §§63.40 through 63.44 of this subpart apply to any owner or operator who constructs or reconstructs a major source of hazardous air pollutants after the effective date of section 112(g)(2)(B) (as defined in §63.41) and the effective date of a title V permit program in the State or local jurisdiction in which the major source is (or would be) located unless the major source in question has been specifically regulated or exempted from regulation under a standard issued pursuant to section 112(d), section 112(h), or section 112(j) and incorporated in another subpart of part 63, or the owner or operator of such major source has received all necessary air quality permits for such construction or reconstruction project before the effective date of section 112(g)(2)(B).

(c) Exclusion for electric utility steam generating units. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to electric utility steam generating units unless and until such time as these units are added to the source category list pursuant to section 112(c)(5) of the Act.

(d) Relationship to State and local requirements. Nothing in this subpart shall prevent a State or local agency from imposing more stringent requirements than those contained in this subpart.

(e) Exclusion for stationary sources in deleted source categories. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to stationary sources that are within a source category that has been deleted from the source category list pursuant to section 112(c)(9) of the Act.

(f) Exclusion for research and development activities. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to research and development activities, as defined in §63.41.

[61 FR 68399, Dec. 27, 1996]

§63.41   Definitions.

Terms used in this subpart that are not defined in this section have the meaning given to them in the Act and in subpart A.

Affected source means the stationary source or group of stationary sources which, when fabricated (on site), erected, or installed meets the definition of “construct a major source” or the definition of “reconstruct a major source” contained in this section.

Affected States are all States:

(1) Whose air quality may be affected and that are contiguous to the State in which a MACT determination is made in accordance with this subpart; or

(2) Whose air quality may be affected and that are within 50 miles of the major source for which a MACT determination is made in accordance with this subpart.

Available information means, for purposes of identifying control technology options for the affected source, information contained in the following information sources as of the date of approval of the MACT determination by the permitting authority:

(1) A relevant proposed regulation, including all supporting information;

(2) Background information documents for a draft or proposed regulation;

(3) Data and information available for the Control Technology Center developed pursuant to section 113 of the Act;

(4) Data and information contained in the Aerometric Informational Retrieval System including information in the MACT data base;

(5) Any additional information that can be expeditiously provided by the Administrator; and

(6) For the purpose of determinations by the permitting authority, any additional information provided by the applicant or others, and any additional information considered available by the permitting authority.

Construct a major source means:

(1) To fabricate, erect, or install at any greenfield site a stationary source or group of stationary sources which is located within a contiguous area and under common control and which emits or has the potential to emit 10 tons per year of any HAP's or 25 tons per year of any combination of HAP, or

(2) To fabricate, erect, or install at any developed site a new process or production unit which in and of itself emits or has the potential to emit 10 tons per year of any HAP or 25 tons per year of any combination of HAP, unless the process or production unit satisfies criteria in paragraphs (2) (i) through (vi) of this definition.

(i) All HAP emitted by the process or production unit that would otherwise be controlled under the requirements of this subpart will be controlled by emission control equipment which was previously installed at the same site as the process or production unit;

(ii) (A) The permitting authority has determined within a period of 5 years prior to the fabrication, erection, or installation of the process or production unit that the existing emission control equipment represented best available control technology (BACT), lowest achievable emission rate (LAER) under 40 CFR part 51 or 52, toxics—best available control technology (T-BACT), or MACT based on State air toxic rules for the category of pollutants which includes those HAP's to be emitted by the process or production unit; or

(B) The permitting authority determines that the control of HAP emissions provided by the existing equipment will be equivalent to that level of control currently achieved by other well-controlled similar sources (i.e., equivalent to the level of control that would be provided by a current BACT, LAER, T-BACT, or State air toxic rule MACT determination);

(iii) The permitting authority determines that the percent control efficiency for emissions of HAP from all sources to be controlled by the existing control equipment will be equivalent to the percent control efficiency provided by the control equipment prior to the inclusion of the new process or production unit;

(iv) The permitting authority has provided notice and an opportunity for public comment concerning its determination that criteria in paragraphs (2)(i), (2)(ii), and (2)(iii) of this definition apply and concerning the continued adequacy of any prior LAER, BATC, T-BACT, or State air toxic rule MACT determination;

(v) If any commenter has asserted that a prior LAER, BACT, T-BACT, or State air toxic rule MACT determination is no longer adequate, the permitting authority has determined that the level of control required by that prior determination remains adequate; and

(vi) Any emission limitations, work practice requirements, or other terms and conditions upon which the above determinations by the permitting authority are applicable requirements under section 504(a) and either have been incorporated into any existing title V permit for the affected facility or will be incorporated into such permit upon issuance.

Control technology means measures, processes, methods, systems, or techniques to limit the emission of hazardous air pollutants through process changes, substitution of materials or other modifications;

(1) Reduce the quantity of, or eliminate emissions of, such pollutants through process changes, substitution of materials or other modifications;

(2) Enclose systems or processes to eliminate emissions;

(3) Collect, capture or treat such pollutants when released from a process, stack, storage or fugitive emissions point;

(4) Are design, equipment, work practice, or operational standards (including requirements for operator training or certification) as provided in 42 U.S.C. 7412(h); or

(5) Are a combination of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.

Effective date of section 112(g)(2)(B) in a State or local jurisdiction means the effective date specified by the permitting authority at the time the permitting authority adopts a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction or major sources of HAP, or June 29, 1998 whichever is earlier.

Electric utility steam generating unit means any fossil fuel fired combustion unit of more than 25 megawatts that serves a generator that produces electricity for sale. A unit that co-generates steam and electricity and supplies more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 megawatts electric output to any utility power distribution system for sale shall be considered an electric utility steam generating unit.

Greenfield suite means a contiguous area under common control that is an undeveloped site.

List of Source Categories means the Source Category List required by section 112(c) of the Act.

Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission limitation for new sources means the emission limitation which is not less stringent that the emission limitation achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, and which reflects the maximum degree of deduction in emissions that the permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by the constructed or reconstructed major source.

Notice of MACT Approval means a document issued by a permitting authority containing all federally enforceable conditions necessary to enforce the application and operation of MACT or other control technologies such that the MACT emission limitation is met.

Permitting authority means the permitting authority as defined in part 70 or 71 of this chapter.

Process or production unit means any collection of structures and/or equipment, that processes assembles, applies, or otherwise uses material inputs to produce or store an intermediate or final product. A single facility may contain more than one process or production unit.

Reconstruct a major source means the replacement of components at an existing process or production unit that in and of itself emits or has that potential to emit 10 tons per year of any HAP or 25 tons per year of any combination of HAP, whenever:

(1) The fixed capital cost of the new components exceeds 50 percent of the fixed capital cost that would be required to construct a comparable process or production unit; and

(2) It is technically and economically feasible for the reconstructed major source to meet the applicable maximum achievable control technology emission limitation for new sources established under this subpart.

Research and development activities means activities conducted at a research or laboratory facility whose primary purpose is to conduct research and development into new processes and products, where such source is operated under the close supervision of technically trained personnel and is not engaged in the manufacture of products for sale or exchange for commercial profit, except in a de minimis manner.

Similar source means a stationary source or process that has comparable emissions and is structurally similar in design and capacity to a constructed or reconstructed major source such that the source could be controlled using the same control technology.

[61 FR 68399, Dec. 27, 1996]

§63.42   Program requirements governing construction or reconstruction of major sources.

(a) Adoption of program. Each permitting authority shall review its existing programs, procedures, and criteria for preconstruction review for conformity to the requirements established by §§63.40 through 63.44, shall make any additions and revisions to its existing programs, procedures, and criteria that the permitting authority deems necessary to properly effectuate §§63.40 through 63.44, and shall adopt a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP. As part of the adoption by the permitting authority of a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP, the chief executive officer of the permitting authority shall certify that the program satisfies all applicable requirements established by §§63.40 through 63.44, and shall specify an effective date for that program which is not later than June 29, 1998. Prior to the specified effective date, the permitting authority shall publish a notice stating that the permitting authority has adopted a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP and stating the effective date, and shall provide a written description of the program to the Administrator through the appropriate EPA Regional Office. Nothing in this section shall be construed either:

(1) To require that any owner or operator of a stationary source comply with any requirement adopted by the permitting authority which is not intended to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP; or

(2) To preclude the permitting authority from enforcing any requirements not intended to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP under any other provision of applicable law.

(b) Failure to adopt program. In the event that the permitting authority fails to adopt a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP with an effective date on or before June 29, 1998, and the permitting authority concludes that it is able to make case-by-case MACT determinations which conform to the provisions of §63.43 in the absence of such a program, the permitting authority may elect to make such determinations. However, in those instances where the permitting authority elects to make case-by-case MACT determinations in the absence of a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP, no such case-by-case MACT determination shall take effect until after it has been submitted by the permitting authority in writing to the appropriate EPA Regional Adminstrator and the EPA Regional Administrator has concurred in writing that the case-by-case MACT determination by the permitting authority is in conformity with all requirements established by §§63.40 through 63.44. In the event that the permitting authority fails to adopt a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP with an effective date on or before June 29, 1998, and the permitting authority concludes that it is unable to make case-by-case MACT determinations in the absence of such a program, the permitting authority may request that the EPA Regional Administrator implement a transitional program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP in the affected State of local jurisdiction while the permitting authority completes development and adoption of a section 112(g) program. Any such transitional section 112(g) program implemented by the EPA Regional Administrator shall conform to all requirements established by §§63.40 through 63.44, and shall remain in effect for no more than 30 months. Continued failure by the permitting authority to adopt a program to implement section 112(g) with respect to construction or reconstruction of major sources of HAP shall be construed as a failure by the permitting authority to adequately administer and enforce its title V permitting program and shall constitute cause by EPA to apply the sanctions and remedies set forth in the Clean Air Act section 502(I).

(c) Prohibition. After the effective date of section 112(g)(2)(B) (as defined in §63.41) in a State or local jurisdiction and the effective date of the title V permit program applicable to that State or local jurisdiction, no person may begin actual construction or reconstruction of a major source of HAP in such State or local jurisdiction unless:

(1) The major source in question has been specifically regulated or exempted from regulation under a standard issued pursuant to section 112(d), section 112(h) or section 112(j) in part 63, and the owner and operator has fully complied with all procedures and requirements for preconstruction review established by that standard, including any applicable requirements set forth in subpart A of this part 63; or

(2) The permitting authority has made a final and effective case-by-case determination pursuant to the provisions of §63.43 such that emissions from the constructed or reconstructed major source will be controlled to a level no less stringent than the maximum achievable control technology emission limitation for new sources.

[61 FR 68400, Dec. 27, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 35032, June 30, 1999]

§63.43   Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed major sources.

(a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to an owner or operator who constructs or reconstructs a major source of HAP subject to a case-by-case determination of maximum achievable control technology pursuant to §63.42(c).

(b) Requirements for constructed and reconstructed major sources. When a case-by-case determination of MACT is required by §63.42(c), the owner and operator shall obtain from the permitting authority an approved MACT determination according to one of the review options contained in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Review options. (1) When the permitting authority requires the owner or operator to obtain, or revise, a permit issued pursuant to title V of the Act before construction or reconstruction of the major source, or when the permitting authority allows the owner or operator at its discretion to obtain or revise such a permit before construction or reconstruction, and the owner or operator elects that option, the owner or operator shall follow the administrative procedures in the program approved under title V of the Act (or in other regulations issued pursuant to title V of the Act, where applicable).

(2) When an owner or operator is not required to obtain or revise a title V permit (or other permit issued pursuant to title V of the Act) before construction or reconstruction, the owner or operator (unless the owner or operator voluntarily follows the process to obtain a title V permit) shall either, at the discretion of the permitting authority:

(i) Apply for and obtain a Notice of MACT Approval according to the procedures outlined in paragraphs (f) through (h) of this section; or

(ii) Apply for a MACT determination under any other administrative procedures for preconstruction review and approval established by the permitting authority for a State or local jurisdiction which provide for public participation in the determination, and ensure that no person may begin actual construction or reconstruction of a major source in that State or local jurisdiction unless the permitting authority determines that the MACT emission limitation for new sources will be met.

(3) When applying for a permit pursuant to title V of the Act, an owner or operator may request approval of case-by-case MACT determinations for alternative operating scenarios. Approval of such determinations satisfies the requirements of section 112(g) of each such scenario.

(4) Regardless of the review process, the MACT emission limitation and requirements established shall be effective as required by paragraph (j) of this section, consistent with the principles established in paragraph (d) of this section, and supported by the information listed in paragraph (e) of this section. The owner or operator shall comply with the requirements in paragraphs (k) and (l) of this section, and with all applicable requirements in subpart A of this part.

(d) Principles of MACT determinations. The following general principles shall govern preparation by the owner or operator of each permit application or other application requiring a case-by-case MACT determination concerning construction or reconstruction of a major source, and all subsequent review of and actions taken concerning such an application by the permitting authority:

(1) The MACT emission limitation or MACT requirements recommended by the applicant and approved by the permitting authority shall not be less stringent than the emission control which is achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, as determined by the permitting authority.

(2) Based upon available information, as defined in this subpart, the MACT emission limitation and control technology (including any requirements under paragraph (d)(3) of this section) recommended by the applicant and approved by the permitting authority shall achieve the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of HAP which can be achieved by utilizing those control technologies that can be identified from the available information, taking into consideration the costs of achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements associated with the emission reduction.

(3) The applicant may recommend a specific design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or a combination thereof, and the permitting authority may approve such a standard if the permitting authority specifically determines that it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce an emission limitation under the criteria set forth in section 112(h)(2) of the Act.

(4) If the Administrator has either proposed a relevant emission standard pursuant to section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or adopted a presumptive MACT determination for the source category which includes the constructed or reconstructed major source, then the MACT requirements applied to the constructed or reconstructed major source shall have considered those MACT emission limitations and requirements of the proposed standard or presumptive MACT determination.

(e) Application requirements for a case-by-case MACT determination. (1) An application for a MACT determination (whether a permit application under title V of the Act, an application for a Notice of MACT Approval, or other document specified by the permitting authority under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) shall specify a control technology selected by the owner or operator that, if properly operated and maintained, will meet the MACT emission limitation or standard as determined according to the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) In each instance where a constructed or reconstructed major source would require additional control technology or a change in control technology, the application for a MACT determination shall contain the following information:

(i) The name and address (physical location) of the major source to be constructed or reconstructed;

(ii) A brief description of the major source to be constructed or reconstructed and identification of any listed source category or categories in which it is included;

(iii) The expected commencement date for the construction or reconstruction of the major source;

(iv) The expected completion date for construction or reconstruction of the major source;

(v) the anticipated date of start-up for the constructed or reconstructed major source;

(vi) The HAP emitted by the constructed or reconstructed major source, and the estimated emission rate for each such HAP, to the extent this information is needed by the permitting authority to determine MACT;

(vii) Any federally enforceable emission limitations applicable to the constructed or reconstructed major source;

(viii) The maximum and expected utilization of capacity of the constructed or reconstructed major source, and the associated uncontrolled emission rates for that source, to the extent this information is needed by the permitting authority to determine MACT;

(ix) The controlled emissions for the constructed or reconstructed major source in tons/yr at expected and maximum utilization of capacity, to the extent this information is needed by the permitting authority to determine MACT;

(x) A recommended emission limitation for the constructed or reconstructed major source consistent with the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of this section;

(xi) The selected control technology to meet the recommended MACT emission limitation, including technical information on the design, operation, size, estimated control efficiency of the control technology (and the manufacturer's name, address, telephone number, and relevant specifications and drawings, if requested by the permitting authority);

(xii) Supporting documentation including identification of alternative control technologies considered by the applicant to meet the emission limitation, and analysis of cost and non-air quality health environmental impacts or energy requirements for the selected control technology; and

(xiii) Any other relevant information required pursuant to subpart A.

(3) In each instance where the owner or operator contends that a constructed or reconstructed major source will be in compliance, upon startup, with case-by-case MACT under this subpart without a change in control technology, the application for a MACT determination shall contain the following information:

(i) The information described in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) through (e)(2)(x) of this section; and

(ii) Documentation of the control technology in place.

(f) Administrative procedures for review of the Notice of MACT Approval. (1) The permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing, within 45 days from the date the application is first received, as to whether the application for a MACT determination is complete or whether additional information is required.

(2) The permitting authority will initially approve the recommended MACT emission limitation and other terms set forth in the application, or the permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing of its intent to disapprove the application, within 30 calendar days after the owner or operator is notified in writing that the application is complete.

(3) The owner or operator may present, in writing, within 60 calendar days after receipt of notice of the permitting authority's intent to disapprove the application, additional information or arguments pertaining to, or amendments to, the application for consideration by the permitting authority before it decides whether to finally disapprove the application.

(4) The permitting authority will either initially approve or issue a final disapproval of the application within 90 days after it notifies the owner or operator of an intent to disapprove or within 30 days after the date additional information is received from the owner or operator; whichever is earlier.

(5) A final determination by the permitting authority to disapprove any application will be in writing and will specify the grounds on which the disapproval is based. If any application is finally disapproved, the owner or operator may submit a subsequent application concerning construction or reconstruction of the same major source, provided that the subsequent application has been amended in response to the stated grounds for the prior disapproval.

(6) An initial decision to approve an application for a MACT determination will be set forth in the Notice of MACT Approval as described in paragraph (g) of this section.

(g) Notice of MACT Approval. (1) The Notice of MACT Approval will contain a MACT emission limitation (or a MACT work practice standard if the permitting authority determines it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce an emission standard) to control the emissions of HAP. The MACT emission limitation or standard will be determined by the permitting authority and will conform to the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) The Notice of MACT Approval will specify any notification, operation and maintenance, performance testing, monitoring, reporting and record keeping requirements. The Notice of MACT Approval shall include:

(i) In addition to the MACT emission limitation or MACT work practice standard established under this subpart, additional emission limits, production limits, operational limits or other terms and conditions necessary to ensure Federal enforceability of the MACT emission limitation;

(ii) Compliance certifications, testing, monitoring, reporting and record keeping requirements that are consistent with the requirements of §70.6(c) of this chapter;

(iii) In accordance with section 114(a)(3) of the Act, monitoring shall be capable of demonstrating continuous compliance during the applicable reporting period. Such monitoring data shall be of sufficient quality to be used as a basis for enforcing all applicable requirements established under this subpart, including emission limitations;

(iv) A statement requiring the owner or operator to comply with all applicable requirements contained in subpart A of this part;

(3) All provisions contained in the Notice of MACT Approval shall be federally enforceable upon the effective date of issuance of such notice, as provided by paragraph (j) of this section.

(4) The Notice of MACT Approval shall expire if construction or reconstruction has not commenced within 18 months of issuance, unless the permitting authority has granted an extension which shall not exceed an additional 12 months.

(h) Opportunity for public comment on the Notice of MACT Approval. (1) The permitting authority will provide opportunity for public comment on the Notice of MACT Approval, including, at a minimum:

(i) Availability for public inspection in at least one location in the area affected of the information submitted by the owner or operator and of the permitting authority's initial decision to approve the application;

(ii) A 30-day period for submittal of public comment; and

(iii) A notice by prominent advertisement in the area affected of the location of the source information and initial decision specified in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) At the discretion of the permitting authority, the Notice of MACT Approval setting forth the initial decision to approve the application may become final automatically at the end of the comment period if no adverse comments are received. If adverse comments are received, the permitting authority shall have 30 days after the end of the comment period to make any necessary revisions in its analysis and decide whether to finally approve the application.

(i) EPA notification. The permitting authority shall send a copy of the final Notice of MACT Approval, notice of approval of a title V permit application incorporating a MACT determination (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or other notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section to the Administrator through the appropriate Regional Office, and to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected States.

(j) Effective date. The effective date of a MACT determination shall be the date the Notice of MACT Approval becomes final, the date of issuance of a title V permit incorporating a MACT determination (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or the date any other notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section becomes final.

(k) Compliance date. On and after the date of start-up, a constructed or reconstructed major source which is subject to the requirements of this subpart shall be in compliance with all applicable requirements specified in the MACT determination.

(l) Compliance with MACT determinations. (1) An owner or operator of a constructed or reconstructed major source that is subject to a MACT determination shall comply with all requirements in the final Notice of MACT Approval, the title V permit (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or any other final notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, including but not limited to any MACT emission limitation or MACT work practice standard, and any notification, operation and maintenance, performance testing, monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements.

(2) An owner or operator of a constructed or reconstructed major source which has obtained a MACT determination shall be deemed to be in compliance with section 112(g)(2)(B) of the Act only to the extent that the constructed or reconstructed major source is in compliance with all requirements set forth in the final Notice of MACT Approval, the title V permit (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or any other final notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. Any violation of such requirements by the owner or operator shall be deemed by the permitting authority and by EPA to be a violation of the prohibition on construction or reconstruction in section 112(g)(2)(B) for whatever period the owner or operator is determined to be in violation of such requirements, and shall subject the owner or operator to appropriate enforcement action under the Act.

(m) Reporting to the Administrator. Within 60 days of the issuance of a final Notice of MACT Approval, a title V permit incorporating a MACT determination (in those instances where the owner or operator either is required or elects to obtain such a permit before construction or reconstruction), or any other final notice of approval issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the permitting authority shall provide a copy of such notice to the Administrator, and shall provide a summary in a compatible electronic format for inclusion in the MACT data base.

[20 FR 68401, Dec. 27, 1996]

§63.44   Requirements for constructed or reconstructed major sources subject to a subsequently promulgated MACT standard or MACT requirement.

(a) If the Administrator promulgates an emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority issues a determination under section 112(j) of the Act that is applicable to a stationary source or group of sources which would be deemed to be a constructed or reconstructed major source under this subpart before the date that the owner or operator has obtained a final and legally effective MACT determination under any of the review options available pursuant to §63.43, the owner or operator of the source(s) shall comply with the promulgated standard or determination rather than any MACT determination under section 112(g) by the permitting authority, and the owner or operator shall comply with the promulgated standard by the compliance date in the promulgated standard.

(b) If the Administrator promulgates an emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority makes a determination under section 112(j) of the Act that is applicable to a stationary source or group of sources which was deemed to be a constructed or reconstructed major source under this subpart and has been subject to a prior case-by-case MACT determination pursuant to §63.43, and the owner and operator obtained a final and legally effective case-by-case MACT determination prior to the promulgation date of such emission standard, then the permitting authority shall (if the initial title V permit has not yet been issued) issue an initial operating permit which incorporates the emission standard or determination, or shall (if the initial title V permit has been issued) revise the operating permit according to the reopening procedures in 40 CFR part 70 or part 71, whichever is relevant, to incorporate the emission standard or determination.

(1) The EPA may include in the emission standard established under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act a specific compliance date for those sources which have obtained a final and legally effective MACT determination under this subpart and which have submitted the information required by §63.43 to the EPA before the close of the public comment period for the standard established under section 112(d) of the Act. Such date shall assure that the owner or operator shall comply with the promulgated standard as expeditiously as practicable, but not longer than 8 years after such standard is promulgated. In that event, the permitting authority shall incorporate the applicable compliance date in the title V operating permit.

(2) If no compliance date has been established in the promulgated 112(d) or 112(h) standard or section 112(j) determination, for those sources which have obtained a final and legally effective MACT determination under this subpart, then the permitting authority shall establish a compliance date in the permit that assures that the owner or operator shall comply with the promulgated standard or determination as expeditiously as practicable, but not longer than 8 years after such standard is promulgated or a section 112(j) determination is made.

(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, if the Administrator promulgates an emission standard under section 112(d) or section 112(h) of the Act or the permitting authority issues a determination under section 112(j) of the Act that is applicable to a stationary source or group of sources which was deemed to be a constructed or reconstructed major source under this subpart and which is the subject of a prior case-by-case MACT determination pursuant to §63.43, and the level of control required by the emission standard issued under section 112(d) or section 112(h) or the determination issued under section 112(j) is less stringent than the level of control required by any emission limitation or standard in the prior MACT determination, the permitting authority is not required to incorporate any less stringent terms of the promulgated standard in the title V operating permit applicable to such source(s) and may in its discretion consider any more stringent provisions of the prior MACT determination to be applicable legal requirements when issuing or revising such an operating permit.

[61 FR 68404, Dec. 27, 1996]

§§63.45-63.49   [Reserved]

§63.50   Applicability.

(a) General applicability. (1) The requirements of this section through §63.56 implement section 112(j) of the Clean Air Act (as amended in 1990). The requirements of this section through §63.56 apply in each State beginning on the effective date of an approved title V permit program in such State. The requirements of this section through §63.56 do not apply to research or laboratory activities as defined in §63.51.

(2) The requirements of this section through §63.56 apply to:

(i) The owner or operator of affected sources within a source category or subcategory under this part that are located at a major source that is subject to an approved title V permit program and for which the Administrator has failed to promulgate emission standards by the section 112(j) deadlines. If title V applicability has been deferred for a source category, then section 112(j) is not applicable for sources in that category within that State, local or tribal jurisdiction until those sources become subject to title V permitting requirements; and

(ii) Permitting authorities with an approved title V permit program.

(b) Relationship to State and local requirements. Nothing in §§63.50 through 63.56 shall prevent a State or local regulatory agency from imposing more stringent requirements, as a matter of State or local law, than those contained in §§63.50 through 63.56.

(c) The procedures in §§63.50 through 63.56 apply for each affected source only after the section 112(j) deadline for the source category or subcategory in question has passed, and only until such time as a generally applicable Federal standard governing that source has been promulgated under section 112(d) or 112(h) of the Act. Once a generally applicable Federal standard governing that source has been promulgated, the owner or operator of the affected source and the permitting authority are not required to take any further actions to develop an equivalent emission limitation under section 112(j) of the Act.

(d) Any final equivalent emission limitation for an affected source which is issued by the permitting authority pursuant to §§63.50 through 63.56 prior to promulgation of a generally applicable Federal standard governing that source under section 112(d) or 112(h) of the Act shall be deemed an applicable Federal requirement adopted pursuant to section 112(j) of the Act. Each such equivalent emission limitation shall take effect upon issuance of the permit containing that limitation under section 112(j)(5) of the Act, and shall remain applicable to the source until such time as it may be revised or supplanted pursuant to the procedures established by §§63.50 through 63.56. Such a final equivalent emission limitation, and all associated requirements adopted pursuant to §63.52(f)(2), are directly enforceable under Federal law regardless of whether or not any permit in which they may be contained remains in effect.

[59 FR 26449, May 20, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 16605, Apr. 5, 2002; 68 FR 32601, May 30, 2003]

§63.51   Definitions.

Terms used in §§63.50 through 63.56 that are not defined in this section have the meaning given to them in the Act, or in subpart A of this part.

Affected source means the collection of equipment, activities, or both within a single contiguous area and under common control that is in a section 112(c) source category or subcategory for which the Administrator has failed to promulgate an emission standard by the section 112(j) deadline, and that is addressed by an applicable MACT emission limitation established pursuant to this subpart.

Available information means, for purposes of conducting a MACT floor finding and identifying control technology options under this subpart, any information that is available as of the date on which the first Part 2 MACT application is filed for a source in the relevant source category or subcategory in the State or jurisdiction; and, pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, is additional relevant information that can be expeditiously provided by the Administrator, is submitted by the applicant or others prior to or during the public comment period on the section 112(j) equivalent emission limitation for that source, or information contained in the information sources in paragraphs (1) through (5) of this definition.

(1) A relevant proposed regulation, including all supporting information;

(2) Relevant background information documents for a draft or proposed regulation.

(3) Any relevant regulation, information or guidance collected by the Administrator establishing a MACT floor finding and/or MACT determination.

(4) Relevant data and information available from the Clean Air Technology Center developed pursuant to section 112(l)(3) of the Act.

(5) Relevant data and information contained in the Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS).

(6) Any additional information that can be expeditiously provided by the Administrator, and

(7) Any information provided by applicants in an application for a permit, permit modification, administrative amendment, or Notice of MACT Approval pursuant to the requirements of this subpart.

(8) Any additional relevant information provided by the applicant.

Control technology means measures, processes, methods, systems, or techniques to limit the emission of hazardous air pollutants including, but not limited to, measures which:

(1) Reduce the quantity, or eliminate emissions, of such pollutants through process changes, substitution of materials or other modifications;

(2) Enclose systems or processes to eliminate emissions;

(3) Collect, capture, or treat such pollutants when released from a process, stack, storage or fugitive emissions point;

(4) Are design, equipment, work practice, or operational standards (including requirements for operator training or certification) as provided in 42 U.S.C. 7412(h); or

(5) Are a combination of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.

Enhanced review means a review process containing all administrative steps needed to ensure that the terms and conditions resulting from the review process can be incorporated using title V permitting procedures.

Equivalent emission limitation means an emission limitation, established under section 112(j) of the Act, which is equivalent to the MACT standard that EPA would have promulgated under section 112(d) or (h) of the Act.

Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission limitation for existing sources means the emission limitation reflecting the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of hazardous air pollutants (including a prohibition on such emissions, where achievable) that the Administrator, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reductions, and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by sources in the category or subcategory to which such emission standard applies. This limitation shall not be less stringent than the MACT floor.

Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission limitation for new sources means the emission limitation which is not less stringent than the emission limitation achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, and which reflects the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of hazardous air pollutants (including a prohibition on such emissions, where achievable) that the Administrator, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by sources in the category or subcategory to which such emission standard applies.

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor means:

(1) For existing sources:

(i) The average emission limitation achieved by the best performing 12 percent of the existing sources in the United States (for which the Administrator has emissions information), excluding those sources that have, within 18 months before the emission standard is proposed or within 30 months before such standard is promulgated, whichever is later, first achieved a level of emission rate or emission reduction which complies, or would comply if the source is not subject to such standard, with the lowest achievable emission rate (as defined in section 171 of the Act) applicable to the source category and prevailing at the time, in the category or subcategory, for categories and subcategories of stationary sources with 30 or more sources; or

(ii) The average emission limitation achieved by the best performing five sources (for which the Administrator has or could reasonably obtain emissions information) in the category or subcategory, for categories or subcategories with fewer than 30 sources;

(2) For new sources, the emission limitation achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source.

New affected source means the collection of equipment, activities, or both, that if constructed after the issuance of a section 112(j) permit for the source pursuant to §63.52, is subject to the applicable MACT emission limitation for new sources. Each permit must define the term “new affected source,” which will be the same as the “affected source” unless a different collection is warranted based on consideration of factors including:

(1) Emission reduction impacts of controlling individual sources versus groups of sources;

(2) Cost effectiveness of controlling individual equipment;

(3) Flexibility to accommodate common control strategies;

(4) Cost/benefits of emissions averaging;

(5) Incentives for pollution prevention;

(6) Feasibility and cost of controlling processes that share common equipment (e.g., product recovery devices);

(7) Feasibility and cost of monitoring; and

(8) Other relevant factors.

Permitting authority means the permitting authority as defined in part 70 of this chapter.

Research or laboratory activities means activities whose primary purpose is to conduct research and development into new processes and products where such activities are operated under the close supervision of technically trained personnel and are not engaged in the manufacture of products for commercial sale in commerce, except in a de minimis manner; and where the source is not in a source category, specifically addressing research or laboratory activities, that is listed pursuant to section 112(c)(7) of the Act.

Section 112(j) deadline means the date 18 months after the date for which a relevant standard is scheduled to be promulgated under this part, except that for all major sources listed in the source category schedule for which a relevant standard is scheduled to be promulgated by November 15, 1994, the section 112(j) deadline is November 15, 1996, and for all major sources listed in the source category schedule for which a relevant standard is scheduled to be promulgated by November 15, 1997, the section 112(j) deadline is December 15, 1999.

Similar source means that equipment or collection of equipment that, by virtue of its structure, operability, type of emissions and volume and concentration of emissions, is substantially equivalent to the new affected source and employs control technology for control of emissions of hazardous air pollutants that is practical for use on the new affected source.

Source category schedule for standards means the schedule for promulgating MACT standards issued pursuant to section 112(e) of the Act.

[59 FR 26449, May 20, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 21372, May 10, 1996; 64 FR 26314, May 14, 1999; 67 FR 16605, Apr. 5, 2002]

§63.52   Approval process for new and existing affected sources.

(a) Sources subject to section 112(j) as of the section 112(j) deadline. The requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section apply to major sources that include, as of the section 112(j) deadline, one or more sources in a category or subcategory for which the Administrator has failed to promulgate an emission standard under this part on or before an applicable section 112(j) deadline. Existing source MACT requirements (including relevant compliance deadlines), as specified in a title V permit issued to the source pursuant to the requirements of the subpart, must apply to such sources.

(1) The owner or operator must submit an application for a title V permit or for a revision to an existing title V permit or a pending title V permit meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) by the section 112(j) deadline if the owner or operator can reasonably determine that one or more sources at the major source belong in the category or subcategory subject to section 112(j).

(2) If an application was not submitted under paragraph (a)(1) of this section and if notified by the permitting authority, the owner or operator must submit an application for a title V permit or for a revision to an existing title V permit or a pending title V permit meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) within 30 days after being notified in writing by the permitting authority that one or more sources at the major source belong to such category or subcategory. Permitting authorities are not required to make such notification.

(3) The requirements in paragraphs (a)(3)(i) through (ii) of this section apply when the owner or operator has obtained a title V permit that incorporates a case-by-case MACT determination by the permitting authority under section 112(g) or has submitted a title V permit application for a revision that incorporates a case-by-case MACT determination under section 112(g), but has not submitted an application for a title V permit revision that addresses the emission limitation requirements of section 112(j).

(i) When the owner or operator has a title V permit that incorporates a case-by-case MACT determination by the permitting authority under section 112(g), the owner or operator must submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) for a title V permit revision within 30 days of the section 112(j) deadline or within 30 days of being notified in writing by the permitting authority that one or more sources at the major source belong in such category or subcategory. Using the procedures established in paragraph (e) of this section, the permitting authority must determine whether the emission limitations adopted pursuant to the prior case-by-case MACT determination under section 112(g) are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt pursuant to section 112(j) for the source in question. If the permitting authority determines that the emission limitations previously adopted to effectuate section 112(g) are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt to effectuate section 112(j) for the source, then the permitting authority must retain the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j). The title V permit applicable to that source must be revised accordingly. If the permitting authority does not retain the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j), the MACT requirements of this subpart are satisfied upon issuance of a revised title V permit incorporating any additional section 112(j) requirements.

(ii) When the owner or operator has submitted a title V permit application that incorporates a case-by-case MACT determination by the permitting authority under section 112(g), but has not received the permit incorporating the section 112(g) requirements, the owner or operator must continue to pursue a title V permit that addresses the emission limitation requirements of section 112(g). Within 30 days of issuance of that title V permit, the owner or operator must submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) for a change to the existing title V permit. Using the procedures established in paragraph (e) of this section, the permitting authority must determine whether the emission limitations adopted pursuant to the prior case-by-case MACT determination under section 112(g) are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt pursuant to section 112(j) for the source in question. If the permitting authority determines that the emission limitations previously adopted to effectuate section 112(g) are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt to effectuate section 112(j) for the source, then the permitting authority must retain the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j). The title V permit applicable to that source must be revised accordingly. If the permitting authority does not retain the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j), the MACT requirements of this subpart are satisfied upon issuance of a revised title V permit incorporating any additional section 112(j) requirements.

(b) Sources that become subject to section 112(j) after the section 112(j) deadline and that do not have a title V permit addressing section 112(j) requirements. The requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section apply to sources that do not meet the criteria in paragraph (a) of this section on the section 112(j) deadline and are, therefore, not subject to section 112(j) on that date, but where events occur subsequent to the section 112(j) deadline that would bring the source under the requirements of this subpart, and the source does not have a title V permit that addresses the requirements of section 112(j).

(1) When one or more sources in a category or subcategory subject to the requirements of this subpart are installed at a major source, or result in the source becoming a major source due to the installation, and the installation does not invoke section 112(g) requirements, the owner or operator must submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) within 30 days of startup of the source. This application shall be reviewed using the procedures established in paragraph (e) of this section. Existing source MACT requirements (including relevant compliance deadlines), as specified in a title V permit issued pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, shall apply to such sources.

(2) The requirements in this paragraph apply when one or more sources in a category or subcategory subject to this subpart are installed at a major source, or result in the source becoming a major source due to the installation, and the installation does require emission limitations to be established and permitted under section 112(g), and the owner or operator has not submitted an application for a title V permit revision that addresses the emission limitation requirements of section 112(j). In this case, the owner or operator must apply for and obtain a title V permit that addresses the emission limitation requirements of section 112(g). Within 30 days of issuance of that title V permit, the owner or operator must submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) for a revision to the existing title V permit. Using the procedures established in paragraph (e) of this section, the permitting authority must determine whether the emission limitations adopted pursuant to the prior case-by-case MACT determination under section 112(g) are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt pursuant to section 112(j) for the source in question. If the permitting authority determines that the emission limitations previously adopted to effectuate section 112(g) are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt to effectuate section 112(j) for the source, then the permitting authority must retain the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j). The title V permit applicable to that source must be revised accordingly. If the permitting authority does not retain the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j), the MACT requirements of this subpart are satisfied upon issuance of a revised title V permit incorporating any additional section 112(j) requirements.

(3) The owner or operator of an area source that, due to a relaxation in any federally enforceable emission limitation (such as a restriction on hours of operation), increases its potential to emit hazardous air pollutants such that the source becomes a major source that is subject to this subpart, must submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) for a title V permit or for an application for a title V permit revision within 30 days after the date that such source becomes a major source. This application must be reviewed using the procedures established in paragraph (e) of this section. Existing source MACT requirements (including relevant compliance deadlines), as specified in a title V permit issued pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, must apply to such sources.

(4) On or after April 5, 2002, if the Administrator establishes a lesser quantity emission rate under section 112(a)(1) of the Act that results in an area source becoming a major source that is subject to this subpart, then the owner or operator of such a major source must submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) for a title V permit or for a change to an existing title V permit or pending title V permit on or before the date 6 months after the date that such source becomes a major source. Existing source MACT requirements (including relevant compliance deadlines), as specified in a title V permit issued pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, shall apply to such sources.

(c) Sources that have a title V permit addressing section 112(j) requirements. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section apply to major sources that include one or more sources in a category or subcategory for which the Administrator fails to promulgate an emission standard under this part on or before an applicable section 112(j) deadline, and the owner or operator has a permit meeting the section 112(j) requirements, and where changes occur at the major source to equipment, activities, or both, subsequent to the section 112(j) deadline.

(1) If the title V permit already provides the appropriate requirements that address the events that occur under paragraph (c) of this section subsequent to the section 112(j) deadline, then the source must comply with the applicable new source MACT or existing source MACT requirements as specified in the permit, and the section 112(j) requirements are thus satisfied.

(2) If the title V permit does not contain the appropriate requirements that address the events that occur under paragraph (c) of this section subsequent to the section 112(j) deadline, then the owner or operator must submit an application for a revision to the existing title V permit that meets the requirements of §63.53(a). The application must be submitted within 30 days of beginning construction and must be reviewed using the procedures established in paragraph (e) of this section. Existing source MACT requirements (including relevant compliance deadlines), as specified in a title V permit issued pursuant to the requirements of this subpart, shall apply to such sources.

(d) Requests for applicability determination or notice of MACT approval. (1) An owner or operator who is unsure of whether one or more sources at a major source belong in a category or subcategory for which the Administrator has failed to promulgate an emission standard under this part may, on or before an applicable section 112(j) deadline, request an applicability determination from the permitting authority by submitting an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) by the applicable deadlines specified in paragraphs (a), (b), or (c) of this section.

(2) In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section, the owner or operator of a new affected source may submit an application for a Notice of MACT Approval before construction, pursuant to §63.54.

(e) Permit application review. (1) Each owner or operator who is required to submit to the permitting authority a Part 1 MACT application which meets the requirements of §63.53(a) for one or more sources in a category or subcategory subject to section 112(j) must also submit to the permitting authority a timely Part 2 MACT application for the same sources which meets the requirements of §63.53(b). Each owner or operator shall submit the Part 2 MACT application for the sources in a particular category or subcategory no later than the applicable date specified in table 1 to this subpart. The submission date specified in table 1 to this subpart for Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing shall apply to sources in each of the source categories listed in table 2 to this subpart. When the owner or operator is required by §§63.50 through 63.56 to submit an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) by a date which is after the date for a Part 2 MACT application for sources in the category or subcategory in question established by table 1 to this subpart, the owner or operator shall submit a Part 2 MACT application meeting the requirements of §63.53(b) within 60 additional days after the applicable deadline for submission of the Part 1 MACT application. Part 2 MACT applications must be reviewed by the permitting authority according to procedures established in §63.55. The resulting MACT determination must be incorporated into the source's title V permit according to procedures established under title V, and any other regulations approved under title V in the jurisdiction in which the affected source is located.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the owner or operator may request either an applicability determination or an equivalency determination by the permitting authority as provided in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Each owner or operator who submitted a request for an applicability determination pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section on or before May 15, 2002, which remains pending before the permitting authority on May 30, 2003, and who still wishes to obtain such a determination, must resubmit that request by July 29, 2003, or by the date which is 60 days after the Administrator publishes in the Federal Register a proposed standard under section 112(d) or 112(h) of the Act for the category or subcategory in question, whichever is later. Each request for an applicability determination which is resubmitted under this paragraph (e)(2)(i) must be supplemented to discuss the relation between the source(s) in question and the applicability provision in the proposed standard for the category or subcategory in question, and to explain why there may still be uncertainties that require a determination of applicability. The permitting authority must take action upon each properly resubmitted and supplemented request for an applicability determination within an additional 60 days after the applicable deadline for the resubmitted request. If the applicability determination is positive, the owner or operator must submit a Part 2 MACT application meeting the requirements of §63.53(b) by the date specified for the category or subcategory in question in Table 1 to this subpart. If the applicability determination is negative, then no further action by the owner or operator is necessary.

(ii) As specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, an owner or operator who has submitted an application meeting the requirements of §63.53(a) may request a determination by the permitting authority of whether emission limitations adopted pursuant to a prior case-by-case MACT determination under section 112(g) that apply to one or more sources at a major source in a relevant category or subcategory are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt pursuant to section 112(j) for the source in question. Such a request must be submitted by the date for the category or subcategory in question specified in Table 1 to this subpart. Any owner or operator who previously submitted such a request under a prior version of this paragraph (e)(2)(ii) need not resubmit the request. Each request for an equivalency determination under this paragraph (e)(2)(ii), regardless of when it was submitted, will be construed in the alternative as a complete application for an equivalent emission limitation under section 112(j). The process for determination by the permitting authority of whether the emission limitations in the prior case-by-case MACT determination are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt under section 112(j) must include the opportunity for full public, EPA, and affected State review prior to a final determination. If the permitting authority determines that the emission limitations in the prior case-by-case MACT determination are substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt under section 112(j), then the permitting authority must adopt the existing emission limitations in the permit as the emission limitations to effectuate section 112(j) for the source in question. If more than 3 years remain on the current title V permit, the owner or operator must submit an application for a title V permit revision to make any conforming changes in the permit required to adopt the existing emission limitations as the section 112(j) MACT emission limitations. If less than 3 years remain on the current title V permit, any required conforming changes must be made when the permit is renewed. If the permitting authority determines that the emission limitations in the prior case-by-case MACT determination under section 112(g) are not substantially as effective as the emission limitations which the permitting authority would otherwise adopt for the source in question under section 112(j), the permitting authority must make a new MACT determination and adopt a title V permit incorporating an appropriate equivalent emission limitation under section 112(j). Such a determination constitutes final action for purposes of judicial review under 40 CFR 70.4(b)(3)(x) and corresponding State title V program provisions.

(3) Within 60 days of submittal of the Part 2 MACT application, the permitting authority must notify the owner or operator in writing whether the application is complete or incomplete. The Part 2 MACT application shall be deemed complete on the date it was submitted unless the permitting authority notifies the owner or operator in writing within 60 days of the submittal that the Part 2 MACT application is incomplete. A Part 2 MACT application is complete if it is sufficient to begin processing the application for a title V permit addressing section 112(j) requirements. In the event that the permitting authority disapproves a permit application or determines that the application is incomplete, the owner or operator must revise and resubmit the application to meet the objections of the permitting authority. The permitting authority must specify a reasonable period in which the owner or operator is required to remedy the deficiencies in the disapproved or incomplete application. This period may not exceed 6 months from the date the owner or operator is first notified that the application has been disapproved or is incomplete.

(4) Following submittal of a Part 1 or Part 2 MACT application, the permitting authority may request additional information from the owner or operator. The owner or operator must respond to such requests in a timely manner.

(5) If the owner or operator has submitted a timely and complete application as required by this section, any failure to have a title V permit addressing section 112(j) requirements shall not be a violation of section 112(j), unless the delay in final action is due to the failure of the applicant to submit, in a timely manner, information required or requested to process the application. Once a complete application is submitted, the owner or operator shall not be in violation of the requirement to have a title V permit addressing section 112(j) requirements.

(f) Permit content. The title V permit must contain an equivalent emission limitation (or limitations) for the relevant category or subcategory determined on a case-by-case basis by the permitting authority, or, if the applicable criteria in subpart D of this part are met, the title V permit may contain an alternative emission limitation. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, early reductions made pursuant to section 112(i)(5)(A) of the Act must be achieved not later than the date on which the relevant standard should have been promulgated according to the source category schedule for standards.

(1) The title V permit must contain an emission standard or emission limitation that is equivalent to existing source MACT and an emission standard or emission limitation that is equivalent to new source MACT for control of emissions of hazardous air pollutants. The MACT emission standards or limitations must be determined by the permitting authority and must be based on the degree of emission reductions that can be achieved if the control technologies or work practices are installed, maintained, and operated properly. The permit must also specify the affected source and the new affected source. If construction of a new affected source or reconstruction of an affected source commences after a title V permit meeting the requirements of section 112(j) has been issued for the source, the new source MACT compliance dates must apply.

(2) The title V permit must specify any notification, operation and maintenance, performance testing, monitoring, and reporting and recordkeeping requirements. In developing the title V permit, the permitting authority must consider and specify the appropriate provisions of subpart A of this part. The title V permit must also include the information in paragraphs (f)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) In addition to the MACT emission limitation required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section, additional emission limits, production limits, operational limits or other terms and conditions necessary to ensure practicable enforceability of the MACT emission limitation.

(ii) Compliance certifications, testing, monitoring, reporting and recordkeeping requirements that are consistent with requirements established pursuant to title V and paragraph (h) of this section.

(iii) Compliance dates by which the owner or operator must be in compliance with the MACT emission limitation and all other applicable terms and conditions of the permit.

(A) The owner or operator of an affected source subject to the requirements of this subpart must comply with the emission limitation(s) by the date established in the source's title V permit. In no case shall such compliance date be later than 3 years after the issuance of the permit for that source, except where the permitting authority issues a permit that grants an additional year to comply in accordance with section 112(i)(3)(B) of the Act, or unless otherwise specified in section 112(i), or in subpart D of this part.

(B) The owner or operator of a new affected source, as defined in the title V permit meeting the requirements of section 112(j), that is subject to the requirements of this subpart must comply with a new source MACT level of control immediately upon startup of the new affected source.

(g) Permit issuance dates. The permitting authority must issue a title V permit meeting section 112(j) requirements within 18 months after submittal of the complete Part 2 MACT application.

(h) Enhanced monitoring. In accordance with section 114(a)(3) of the Act, monitoring shall be capable of demonstrating continuous compliance for each compliance period during the applicable reporting period. Such monitoring data shall be of sufficient quality to be used as a basis for directly enforcing all applicable requirements established under this subpart, including emission limitations.

(i) MACT emission limitations. (1) The owner or operator of affected sources subject to paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section must comply with all requirements of this subpart that are applicable to affected sources, including the compliance date for affected sources established in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section.

(2) The owner or operator of new affected sources subject to paragraph (c)(1) of this section must comply with all requirements of this subpart that are applicable to new affected sources, including the compliance date for new affected sources established in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(B) of this section.

[67 FR 16606, Apr. 5, 2002; 68 FR 32602, May 30, 2003]

§63.53   Application content for case-by-case MACT determinations.

(a) Part 1 MACT application. The Part 1 application for a MACT determination must contain the information in paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) The name and address (physical location) of the major source.

(2) A brief description of the major source and an identification of the relevant source category.

(3) An identification of the types of emission points belonging to the relevant source category.

(4) An identification of any affected sources for which a section 112(g) MACT determination has been made.

(b) Part 2 MACT application. (1) In compiling a Part 2 MACT application, the owner or operator may cross-reference specific information in any prior submission by the owner or operator to the permitting authority, but in cross-referencing such information the owner or operator may not presume favorable action on any prior application or request which is still pending. In compiling a Part 2 MACT application, the owner or operator may also cross-reference any part of a standard proposed by the Administrator pursuant to section 112(d) or 112(h) of the Act for any category or subcategory which includes sources to which the Part 2 application applies.

(2) The Part 2 application for a MACT determination must contain the information in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(v) of this section.

(i) For a new affected source, the anticipated date of startup of operation.

(ii) Each emission point or group of emission points at the affected source which is part of a category or subcategory for which a Part 2 MACT application is required, and each of the hazardous air pollutants emitted at those emission points. When the Administrator has proposed a standard pursuant to section 112(d) or 112(h) of the Act for a category or subcategory, such information may be limited to those emission points and hazardous air pollutants which would be subject to control under the proposed standard.

(iii) Any existing Federal, State, or local limitations or requirements governing emissions of hazardous air pollutants from those emission points which are part of a category or subcategory for which a Part 2 application is required.

(iv) For each identified emission point or group of affected emission points, an identification of control technology in place.

(v) Any additional emission data or other information specifically requested by the permitting authority.

(3) The Part 2 application for a MACT determination may, but is not required to, contain the following information:

(i) Recommended emission limitations for the affected source and support information consistent with §63.52(f). The owner or operator may recommend a specific design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, as an emission limitation.

(ii) A description of the control technologies that would be applied to meet the emission limitation including technical information on the design, operation, size, estimated control efficiency and any other information deemed appropriate by the permitting authority, and identification of the affected sources to which the control technologies must be applied.

(iii) Relevant parameters to be monitored and frequency of monitoring to demonstrate continuous compliance with the MACT emission limitation over the applicable reporting period.

[67 FR 16609, Apr. 5, 2002, as amended at 68 FR 32602, May 30, 2003]

§63.54   Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

The requirements of this section apply to an owner or operator who constructs a new affected source subject to §63.52(c)(1). The purpose of this section is to describe alternative review processes that the permitting authority may use to make a MACT determination for the new affected source.

(a) Review process for new affected sources. (1) If the permitting authority requires an owner or operator to obtain or revise a title V permit before construction of the new affected source, or when the owner or operator chooses to obtain or revise a title V permit before construction, the owner or operator must follow the procedures established under the applicable title V permit program before construction of the new affected source.

(2) If an owner or operator is not required to obtain or revise a title V permit before construction of the new affected source (and has not elected to do so), but the new affected source is covered by any preconstruction or preoperation review requirements established pursuant to section 112(g) of the Act, then the owner or operator must comply with those requirements in order to ensure that the requirements of section 112(j) and (g) are satisfied. If the new affected source is not covered by section 112(g), the permitting authority, in its discretion, may issue a Notice of MACT Approval, or the equivalent, in accordance with the procedures set forth in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, or an equivalent permit review process, before construction or operation of the new affected source.

(3) Regardless of the review process, the MACT determination shall be consistent with the principles established in §63.55. The application for a Notice of MACT Approval or a title V permit, permit modification, or administrative amendment, whichever is applicable, shall include the documentation required by §63.53.

(b) Optional administrative procedures for preconstruction or preoperation review for new affected sources. The permitting authority may provide for an enhanced review of section 112(j) MACT determinations for review procedures and compliance requirements equivalent to those set forth in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section.

(1) The permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing as to whether the application for a MACT determination is complete or whether additional information is required.

(2) The permitting authority will approve an applicant's proposed control technology, or the permitting authority will notify the owner or operator in writing of its intention to disapprove a control technology.

(3) The owner or operator may present in writing, within a time frame specified by the permitting authority, additional information, considerations, or amendments to the application before the permitting authority's issuance of a final disapproval.

(4) The permitting authority will issue a preliminary approval or issue a disapproval of the application, taking into account additional information received from the owner or operator.

(5) A determination to disapprove any application will be in writing and will specify the grounds on which the disapproval is based.

(6) Approval of an applicant's proposed control technology must be set forth in a Notice of MACT Approval (or the equivalent) as described in §63.52(f).

(c) Opportunity for public comment on Notice of MACT Approval. The permitting authority will provide opportunity for public comment on the preliminary Notice of MACT Approval prior to issuance, including, at a minimum,

(1) Availability for public inspection in at least one location in the area affected of the information submitted by the owner or operator and of the permitting authority's tentative determination;

(2) A period for submittal of public comment of at least 30 days; and

(3) A notice by prominent advertisement in the area affected of the location of the source information and analysis specified in §63.52(f). The form and content of the notice must be substantially equivalent to that found in §70.7 of this chapter.

(4) An opportunity for a public hearing, if one is requested. The permitting authority will give at least 30 days notice in advance of any hearing.

(d) Review by the EPA and affected States. The permitting authority must send copies of the preliminary notice (in time for comment) and final notice required by paragraph (c) of this section to the Administrator through the appropriate Regional Office, and to all other State and local air pollution control agencies having jurisdiction in affected States. The permitting authority must provide EPA with a review period for the final notice of at least 45 days and shall not issue a final Notice of MACT Approval until EPA objections are satisfied.

(e) Compliance with MACT determinations. An owner or operator of a major source that is subject to a MACT determination must comply with notification, operation and maintenance, performance testing, monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements established under §63.52(h), under title V, and at the discretion of the permitting authority, under subpart A of this part. The permitting authority must provide the EPA with the opportunity to review compliance requirements for consistency with requirements established pursuant to title V during the review period under paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Equivalency under section 112(l). If a permitting authority requires preconstruction review for new source MACT determinations under this subpart, such requirement shall not necessitate a determination under subpart E of this part.

[59 FR 26449, May 20, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 16610, Apr. 5, 2002]

§63.55   Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for affected sources subject to case-by-case determination of equivalent emission limitations.

(a) Requirements for permitting authorities. The permitting authority must determine whether the §63.53(a) Part 1 and §63.53(b) Part 2 MACT application is complete or an application for a Notice of MACT Approval is approvable. In either case, when the application is complete or approvable, the permitting authority must establish hazardous air pollutant emissions limitations equivalent to the limitations that would apply if an emission standard had been issued in a timely manner under section 112(d) or (h) of the Act. The permitting authority must establish these emissions limitations consistent with the following requirements and principles:

(1) Emission limitations must be established for the equipment and activities within the affected sources within a source category or subcategory for which the section 112(j) deadline has passed.

(2) Each emission limitation for an existing affected source must reflect the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of hazardous air pollutants (including a prohibition on such emissions, where achievable) that the permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by affected sources in the category or subcategory for which the section 112(j) deadline has passed. This limitation must not be less stringent than the MACT floor which must be established by the permitting authority according to the requirements of section 112(d)(3)(A) and (B) and must be based upon available information.

(3) Each emission limitation for a new affected source must reflect the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of hazardous air pollutants (including a prohibition on such emissions, where achievable) that the permitting authority, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable. This limitation must not be less stringent than the emission limitation achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source which must be established by the permitting authority according to the requirements of section 112(d)(3). This limitation must be based upon available information.

(4) The permitting authority must select a specific design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, when it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce an equivalent emission limitation due to the nature of the process or pollutant. It is not feasible to prescribe or enforce a limitation when the Administrator determines that hazardous air pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to capture such pollutant, or that any requirement for, or use of, such a conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State, or local law, or the application of measurement methodology to a particular class of sources is not practicable due to technological and economic limitations.

(5) Nothing in this subpart shall prevent a State or local permitting authority from establishing an emission limitation more stringent than required by Federal regulations.

(b) Reporting to EPA. The owner or operator must submit additional copies of its Part 1 and Part 2 MACT application for a title V permit, permit revision, or Notice of MACT Approval, whichever is applicable, to the EPA at the same time the material is submitted to the permitting authority.

[67 FR 16610, Apr. 5, 2002]

§63.56   Requirements for case-by-case determination of equivalent emission limitations after promulgation of subsequent MACT standard.

(a) If the Administrator promulgates a relevant emission standard that is applicable to one or more affected sources within a major source before the date a permit application under this paragraph (a) is approved, the title V permit must contain the promulgated standard rather than the emission limitation determined under §63.52, and the owner or operator must comply with the promulgated standard by the compliance date in the promulgated standard.

(b) If the Administrator promulgates a relevant emission standard under section 112(d) or (h) of the Act that is applicable to a source after the date a permit is issued pursuant to §63.52 or §63.54, the permitting authority must incorporate requirements of that standard in the title V permit upon its next renewal. The permitting authority must establish a compliance date in the revised permit that assures that the owner or operator must comply with the promulgated standard within a reasonable time, but not longer than 8 years after such standard is promulgated or 8 years after the date by which the owner or operator was first required to comply with the emission limitation established by the permit, whichever is earlier. However, in no event shall the period for compliance for existing sources be shorter than that provided for existing sources in the promulgated standard.

(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section shall apply.

(1) If the Administrator promulgates an emission standard under section 112(d) or (h) that is applicable to an affected source after the date a permit application under this paragraph is approved under §63.52 or §63.54, the permitting authority is not required to change the emission limitation in the permit to reflect the promulgated standard if the permitting authority determines that the level of control required by the emission limitation in the permit is substantially as effective as that required by the promulgated standard pursuant to §63.1(e).

(2) If the Administrator promulgates an emission standard under section 112(d) or (h) of the Act that is applicable to an affected source after the date a permit application is approved under §63.52 or §63.54, and the level of control required by the promulgated standard is less stringent than the level of control required by any emission limitation in the prior MACT determination, the permitting authority is not required to incorporate any less stringent emission limitation of the promulgated standard in the title V permit and may in its discretion consider any more stringent provisions of the MACT determination to be applicable legal requirements when issuing or revising such a title V permit.

Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 63—Section 112(j) Part 2 Application Due Dates

Due date MACT standard
10/30/03Combustion Turbines.
Lime Manufacturing.
Site Remediation.
Iron and Steel Foundries.
Taconite Iron Ore Processing.
Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing (MON).1
Organic Liquids Distribution.
Primary Magnesium Refining.
Metal Can (Surface Coating).
Plastic Parts and Products (Surface Coating).
Chlorine Production.
Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products (Surface Coating) (and Asphalt/Coal Tar Application—Metal Pipes).2
4/28/04Industrial Boilers, Institutional/Commercial Boilers and Process Heaters.3
Plywood and Composite Wood Products.
Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines.4
Auto and Light-Duty Truck (Surface Coating).
11/14/05Industrial Boilers, Institutional/Commercial Boilers, and Process Heaters.5
Hydrochloric Acid Production.6

1Covers 23 source categories, see Table 2 to this subpart.

2Two source categories.

3Includes all sources in the three categories, Industrial Boilers, Institutional/Commercial Boilers, and Process Heaters that burn no hazardous waste.

4Includes engines greater than 500 brake horsepower.

5Includes all sources in the three categories, Industrial Boilers, Institutional/Commercial Boilers, and Process Heaters that burn hazardous waste.

6Includes furnaces that produce acid from hazardous waste at sources in the category Hydrochloric Acid Production.

[68 FR 32603, May 30, 2003, as amended at 70 FR 39664, July 11, 2005]

Table 2 to Subpart B of Part 63—MON Source Categories

Manufacture of Paints, Coatings, and Adhesives.

Alkyd Resins Production.

Maleic Anhydride Copolymers Production.

Polyester Resins Production.

Polymerized Vinylidene Chloride Production.

Polymethyl Methacrylate Resins Production.

Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsions Production.

Polyvinyl Alcohol Production.

Polyvinyl Butyral Production.

Ammonium Sulfate Production-Caprolactam By-Product Plants.

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Production.

Benzyltrimethylammonium Chloride Production.

Carbonyl Sulfide Production.

Chelating Agents Production.

Chlorinated Paraffins Production.

Ethylidene Norbornene Production.

Explosives Production.

Hydrazine Production.

OBPA/1,3-Diisocyanate Production.

Photographic Chemicals Production.

Phthalate Plasticizers Production.

Rubber Chemicals Manufacturing.

Symmetrical Tetrachloropyridine Production.

[68 FR 32603, May 30, 2003]



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