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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of July 21, 2014

Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 700—GENERAL


Subpart B—Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products


Contents
§700.11   Cosmetics containing bithionol.
§700.13   Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs.
§700.14   Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.
§700.15   Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.
§700.16   Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.
§700.18   Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.
§700.19   Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.
§700.23   Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.
§700.25   Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.
§700.27   Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic products.
§700.35   Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

§700.11   Cosmetics containing bithionol.

(a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent bars, shampoos, creams, lotions, and bases used to hide blemishes. New evidence of clinical experience and photopatch tests indicate that bithionol is capable of causing photosensitivity in man when used topically and that in some instances the photosensitization may persist for prolonged periods as severe reactions without further contact with sensitizing articles. Also, there is evidence to indicate that bithionol may produce cross-sensitization with other commonly used chemicals such as certain halogenated salicylanilides and hexachlorophene. It is, therefore, the view of the Food and Drug Administration that bithionol is a deleterious substance which may render any cosmetic product that contains it injurious to users. Accordingly, any cosmetic containing bithionol is deemed to be adulterated under section 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(b) Regulatory proceedings may be initiated with respect to any cosmetic preparation containing bithionol shipped within the jurisdiction of the act after March 15, 1968.

§700.13   Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs.

(a) Mercury-containing cosmetic preparations have been represented for many years as skin-bleaching agents or as preparations to remove or prevent freckles and/or brown spots (so-called age spots). Preparations intended for such use are regarded as drugs as well as cosmetics. In addition to such use as skin-bleaching agents, mercury compounds have also been widely used as preservatives in cosmetics such as hand and body creams and lotions; hair shampoos, hair sets and rinses, hair straighteners, hair coloring, and other preparations; bath oils, bubble bath, and other bath preparations; makeup; antiperspirants and deodorants; and eye-area cosmetics.

(b) The toxicity of mercury compounds is extensively documented in scientific literature. It is well known that mercury compounds are readily absorbed through the unbroken skin as well as through the lungs by inhalation and by intestinal absorption after ingestion. Mercury is absorbed from topical application and is accumulated in the body, giving rise to numerous adverse effects. Mercury is a potent allergen and sensitizer, and skin irritation is common after topical application. Cosmetic preparations containing mercury compounds are often applied with regularity and frequency for prolonged periods. Such chronic use of mercury-containing skin-bleaching preparations has resulted in the accumulation of mercury in the body and the occurrence of severe reactions. Recently it has also been determined that microorganisms in the environment can convert various forms of mercury into highly toxic methyl mercury which has been found in the food supply and is now considered to be a serious environmental problem.

(c) The effectiveness of mercury-containing preparations as skin-bleaching agents is questionable. The Food and Drug Administration has not been provided with well controlled studies to document the effectiveness of these preparations. Although mercurial preservatives are recognized as highly effective, less toxic and satisfactory substitutes are available except in the case of certain eye-area cosmetics.

(d) Because of the known hazards of mercury, its questionable efficacy as a skin-bleaching agent, and the availability of effective and less toxic nonmercurial preservatives, there is no justification for the use of mercury in skin-bleaching preparations or its use as a preservative in cosmetics, with the exception of eye-area cosmetics for which no other effective and safe nonmercurial preservative is available. The continued use of mercurial preservatives in such eye-area cosmetics is warranted because mercury compounds are exceptionally effective in preventing Pseudomonas contamination of cosmetics and Pseudomonas infection of the eye can cause serious injury, including blindness. Therefore:

(1) The Food and Drug Administration withdraws the opinion expressed in trade correspondence TC-9 (issued May 13, 1939) and concludes that any product containing mercury as a skin-bleaching agent and offered for sale as skin-bleaching, beauty, or facial preparation is misbranded within the meaning of sections 502(a), 502(f)(1) and (2), and 502(j), and may be a new drug without approval in violation of section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Any such preparation shipped within the jurisdiction of the Act after January 5, 1973 will be the subject of regulatory action.

(2) The Food and Drug Administration withdraws the opinion expressed in trade correspondence TC-412 (issued Feb. 11, 1944) and will regard as adulterated within the meaning of section 601(a) of the Act any cosmetic containing mercury unless the cosmetic meets the conditions of paragraph (d)(2) (i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) It is a cosmetic containing no more than a trace amount of mercury and such trace amount is unavoidable under conditions of good manufacturing practice and is less than 1 part per million (0.0001 percent), calculated as the metal; or

(ii) It is a cosmetic intended for use only in the area of the eye, it contains no more than 65 parts per million (0.0065 percent) of mercury, calculated as the metal, as a preservative, and there is no effective and safe nonmercurial substitute preservative available for use in such cosmetic.

§700.14   Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

(a) Vinyl chloride has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic aerosol products including hair sprays. Where such aerosol products are used in the confines of a small room, as is often the case, the level of vinyl chloride to which the individual may be exposed could be significantly in excess of the safe level established in connection with occupational exposure. Evidence indicates that vinyl chloride inhalation can result in acute toxicity, manifested by dizziness, headache, disorientation, and unconsciousness where inhaled at high concentrations. Studies also demonstrate carcinogenic effects in animals as a result of inhalation exposure to vinyl chloride. Furthermore, vinyl chloride has recently been linked to liver disease, including liver cancer, in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride. It is the view of the Commissioner that vinyl chloride is a deleterious substance which may render any cosmetic aerosol product that contains it as an ingredient injurious to users. Accordingly, any cosmetic aerosol product containing vinyl chloride as an ingredient is deemed to be adulterated under section 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(b) Any cosmetic aerosol product containing vinyl chloride as an ingredient shipped within the jurisdiction of the Act is subject to regulatory action.

[39 FR 30830, Aug. 26, 1974]

§700.15   Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

(a) Halogenated salicylanilides (tribromsalan (TBS,3,4′,5-tribromosalicylanilide), dibromsalan (DBS,4′5-dibromosalicylanilide), metabromsalan (MBS, 3,5 - dibromosalicylanilide) and 3,3′,4,5′- tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA)) have been used as antimicrobial agents for a variety of purposes in cosmetic products. These halogenated salicylanilides are potent photosensitizers and cross-sensitizers and can cause disabling skin disorders. In some instances, the photosensitization may persist for prolonged periods as a severe reaction without further exposure to these chemicals. Safer alternative antimicrobial agents are available.

(b) These halogenated salicylanilides are deleterious substances which render any cosmetic that contains them injurious to users. Therefore, any cosmetic product that contains such a halogenated salicylanilide as an ingredient at any level for any purpose is deemed to be adulterated under section 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(c) Any cosmetic product containing these halogenated salicylanilides as an ingredient that is initially introduced into interstate commerce after December 1, 1975, that is not in compliance with this section is subject to regulatory action.

[40 FR 50531, Oct. 30, 1975]

§700.16   Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

(a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and/or cosmetics that are also drugs, as, for example, aerosol antiperspirants. Evidence indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs and other organs of experimental animals. When used in aerosol form, some zirconium will reach the deep portions of the lungs of users. The lung is an organ, like skin, subject to the development of granulomas. Unlike the skin, the lung will not reveal the presence of granulomatous changes until they have become advanced and, in some cases, permanent. It is the view of the Commissioner that zirconium is a deleterious substance that may render any cosmetic aerosol product that contains it injurious to users.

(b) Any aerosol cosmetic product containing zirconium is deemed to be adulterated under section 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(c) Any such cosmetic product introduced in interstate commerce after September 15, 1977 is subject to regulatory action.

[42 FR 41376, Aug. 16, 1977]

§700.18   Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

(a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic products. Recent information has become available associating chloroform with carcinogenic effects in animals. Studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute have demonstrated that the oral administration of chloroform to mice and rats induced hepatocellular carcinomas (liver cancer) in mice and renal tumors in male rats. Scientific literature indicates that chloroform is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, through the respiratory system, and through the skin. The Commissioner concludes that, on the basis of these findings, chloroform is a deleterious substance which may render injurious to users any cosmetic product that contains chloroform as an ingredient.

(b) Any cosmetic product containing chloroform as an ingredient is adulterated and is subject to regulatory action under sections 301 and 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Any cosmetic product containing chloroform in residual amounts from its use as a processing solvent during manufacture, or as a byproduct from the synthesis of an ingredient, is not, for the purpose of this section, considered to contain chloroform as an ingredient.

[41 FR 26845, June 29, 1976]

§700.19   Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

(a) Methylene chloride has been used as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally ranging from 10 to 25 percent. In a 2-year animal inhalation study sponsored by the National Toxicology Program, methylene chloride produced a significant increase in benign and malignant tumors of the lung and liver of male and female mice. Based on these findings and on estimates of human exposure from the customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that the use of methylene chloride in cosmetic products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that the use of this ingredient in cosmetic products may render these products injurious to health.

(b) Any cosmetic product that contains methylene chloride as an ingredient is deemed adulterated and is subject to regulatory action under sections 301 and 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

[54 FR 27342, June 29, 1989]

§700.23   Chlorofluorocarbon propellants.

The use of chlorofluorocarbons in cosmetics as propellants in self-pressurized containers is prohibited as provided in §2.125 of this chapter.

[43 FR 11317, Mar. 17, 1978]

§700.25   Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

(a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid oral hygiene products and vaginal products are not now packaged in tamper-resistant retail packages, there is the opportunity for the malicious adulteration of those cosmetic products with health risks to individuals who unknowingly purchase adulterated products and with loss of consumer confidence in the security of cosmetic product packages. The Food and Drug Administration has the authority and responsibility under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) to establish a uniform national requirement for tamper-resistant packaging of cosmetic liquid oral hygiene products or products used vaginally that will improve the packaging security and help assure the safety of those products. Such a cosmetic product for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper-resistant package or that is not properly labeled under this section is adulterated under section 601 of the act or misbranded under section 602 of the act, or both.

(b) Requirement for tamper-resistant package. Each manufacturer and packer who packages a cosmetic liquid oral hygiene product or vaginal product for retail sale shall package the product in a tamper-resistant package, if this product is accessible to the public while held for sale. A tamper-resistant package is one having an indicator or barrier to entry which, if breached or missing, can reasonably be expected to provide visible evidence to consumers that tampering has occurred. To reduce the likelihood of substitution of a tamper-resistant feature after tampering, the indicator or barrier to entry is required to be distinctive by design (e.g., an aerosol product container) or by the use of an identifying characteristic (e.g., a pattern, name, registered trademark, logo, or picture). For purposes of this section, the term “distinctive by design” means the packaging cannot be duplicated with commonly available materials or through commonly available processes. For purposes of this section, the term “aerosol product” means a product which depends upon the power of a liquified or compressed gas to expel the contents from the container. A tamper-resistant package may involve an immediate-container and closure system or secondary-container or carton system or any combination of systems intended to provide a visual indication of package integrity. The tamper-resistant feature shall be designed to and shall remain intact when handled in a reasonable manner during manufacture, distribution, and retail display.

(c) Labeling. Each retail package of a cosmetic product covered by this section, except aerosol products as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, is required to bear a statement that is prominently placed so that consumers are alerted to the specific tamper-resistant feature of the package. The labeling statement is also required to be so placed that it will be unaffected if the tamper-resistant feature of the package is breached or missing. If the tamper-resistant feature chosen to meet the requirement in paragraph (b) of this section is one that uses an identifying characteristic, that characteristic is required to be referred to in the labeling statement. For example, the labeling statement on a bottle with a shrink band could say “For your protection, this bottle has an imprinted seal around the neck.”

(d) Requests for exemptions from packaging and labeling requirements. A manufacturer or packer may request an exemption from the packaging and labeling requirements of this section. A request for an exemption is required to be submitted in the form of a citizen petition under §10.30 of this chapter and should be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from Tamper-resistant Rule.” The petition is required to contain the following:

(1) The name of the product.

(2) The reasons that the product's compliance with the tamper-resistant packaging or labeling requirements of this section is unnecessary or cannot be achieved.

(3) A description of alternative steps that are available, or that the petitioner has already taken, to reduce the likelihood that the product will be the subject of malicious adulteration.

(4) Other information justifying an exemption.

This information collection requirement has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under number 0910-0149.

(e) Effective date. Cosmetic products covered by this section are required to comply with the requirements of this section on the dates listed below except to the extent that a product's manufacturer or packer has obtained an exemption from a packaging or labeling requirement.

(1) Initial effective date for packaging requirements. (i) The packaging requirement in paragraph (b) of this section is effective on Feburary 7, 1983 for each affected cosmetic product (except vaginal tablets) packaged for retail sale on or after that date, except for the requirement in paragraph (b) of this section for a distinctive indicator or barrier to entry.

(ii) The packaging requirement in paragraph (b) of this section is effective on May 5, 1983 for each cosmetic product that is a vaginal tablet packaged for retail sale on or after that date.

(2) Initial effective date for labeling requirements. The requirement in paragraph (b) of this section that the indicator or barrier to entry be distinctive by design and the requirement in paragraph (c) of this section for a labeling statement are effective on May 5, 1983 for each affected cosmetic product packaged for retail sale on or after that date, except that the requirement for a specific label reference to any identifying characteristic is effective on February 6, 1984 for each affected cosmetic product packaged for retail sale on or after that date.

(3) Retail level effective date. The tamper-resistant packaging requirement of paragraph (b) of this section is effective February 6, 1984 for each affected cosmetic product held for sale on or after that date that was packaged for retail sale before May 5, 1983. This does not include the requirement in paragraph (b) of this section that the indicator or barrier to entry be distinctive by design. Products packaged for retail sale after May 5, 1983, as required to be in compliance with all aspects of the regulations without regard to the retail level effective date.

[47 FR 50451, Nov. 5, 1982; 48 FR 1707, Jan. 14, 1983; 48 FR 11427, Mar. 18, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 16664, Apr. 19, 1983; 48 FR 37624, Aug. 19, 1983]

Effective Date Note: See 48 FR 41579, Sept. 16, 1983, for a document announcing an interim stay of the effective date of certain provisions in paragraph (e)(3) of §700.25.

§700.27   Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic products.

(a) Definitions. The definitions and interpretations of terms contained in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) apply to such terms when used in this part. The following definitions also apply:

(1) Prohibited cattle materials means specified risk materials, small intestine of all cattle except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, material from nonambulatory disabled cattle, material from cattle not inspected and passed, or mechanically separated (MS) (Beef). Prohibited cattle materials do not include the following:

(i) Tallow that contains no more than 0.15 percent insoluble impurities, tallow derivatives, hides and hide-derived products, and milk and milk products, and

(ii) Cattle materials inspected and passed from a country designated under paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Inspected and passed means that the product has been inspected and passed for human consumption by the appropriate regulatory authority, and at the time it was inspected and passed, it was found to be not adulterated.

(3) Mechanically Separated (MS)(Beef) means a meat food product that is finely comminuted, resulting from the mechanical separation and removal of most of the bone from attached skeletal muscle of cattle carcasses and parts of carcasses that meet the specifications contained in 9 CFR 319.5, the regulation that prescribes the standard of identity for MS (Species).

(4) Nonambulatory disabled cattle means cattle that cannot rise from a recumbent position or that cannot walk, including, but not limited to, those with broken appendages, severed tendons or ligaments, nerve paralysis, fractured vertebral column, or metabolic conditions.

(5) Specified risk material means the brain, skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the wings of the sacrum), and dorsal root ganglia of cattle 30 months and older and the tonsils and distal ileum of the small intestine of all cattle.

(6) Tallow means the rendered fat of cattle obtained by pressing or by applying any other extraction process to tissues derived directly from discrete adipose tissue masses or to other carcass parts and tissues. Tallow must be produced from tissues that are not prohibited cattle materials or must contain not more than 0.15 percent insoluble impurities as determined by the method entitled “Insoluble Impurities” (AOCS Official Method Ca 3a-46), American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS), 5th Edition, 1997, incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, or another method equivalent in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to AOCS Official Method Ca 3a-46. You may obtain copies of the method from the AOCS (http://www.aocs.org) 2211 W. Bradley Ave. Champaign, IL 61821. Copies may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(7) Tallow derivative means any chemical obtained through initial hydrolysis, saponification, or trans-esterification of tallow; chemical conversion of material obtained by hydrolysis, saponification, or trans-esterification may be applied to obtain the desired product.

(b) Requirements. (1) No cosmetic shall be manufactured from, processed with, or otherwise contain, prohibited cattle materials.

(2) The small intestine is not considered prohibited cattle material if the distal ileum is removed by a procedure that removes at least 80 inches of the uncoiled and trimmed small intestine, as measured from the caeco-colic junction and progressing proximally towards the jejunum, or by a procedure that the establishment can demonstrate is equally effective in ensuring complete removal of the distal ileum.

(c) Records. (1) Manufacturers and processors of a cosmetic that is manufactured from, processed with, or otherwise contains, material from cattle must establish and maintain records sufficient to demonstrate that the cosmetic is not manufactured from, processed with, or does not otherwise contain, prohibited cattle materials.

(2) Records must be retained for 2 years after the date they were created.

(3) Records must be retained at the manufacturing or processing establishment or at a reasonably accessible location.

(4) The maintenance of electronic records is acceptable. Electronic records are considered to be reasonably accessible if they are accessible from an onsite location.

(5) Records required by this section and existing records relevant to compliance with this section must be available to FDA for inspection and copying.

(6) When filing entry with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the importer of record of a cosmetic manufactured from, processed with, or otherwise containing, cattle material must affirm that the cosmetic was manufactured from, processed with, or otherwise contains, cattle material and must affirm that the cosmetic was manufactured in accordance with this section. If a cosmetic is manufactured from, processed with, or otherwise contains, cattle material, then the importer of record must, if requested, provide within 5 days records sufficient to demonstrate that the cosmetic is not manufactured from, processed with, or does not otherwise contain, prohibited cattle material.

(7) Records established or maintained to satisfy the requirements of this subpart that meet the definition of electronic records in §11.3(b)(6) of this chapter are exempt from the requirements of part 11 of this chapter. Records that satisfy the requirements of this subpart but that are also required under other applicable statutory provisions or regulations remain subject to part 11 of this chapter.

(d) Adulteration. Failure of a manufacturer or processor to operate in compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b) or (c) of this section renders a cosmetic adulterated under section 601(c) of the act.

(e) Process for designating countries. A country seeking designation must send a written request to the Director, Office of the Center Director, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, at the address designated in 21 CFR 5.1100. The request shall include information about a country's bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) case history, risk factors, measures to prevent the introduction and transmission of BSE, and any other information relevant to determining whether specified risk materials, the small intestine of cattle except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, material from nonambulatory disabled cattle, or MS (Beef) from cattle from the country should be considered prohibited cattle materials. FDA shall respond in writing to any such request and may impose conditions in granting any such request. A country designation granted by FDA under this paragraph will be subject to future review by FDA, and may be revoked if FDA determines that it is no longer appropriate.

[70 FR 53068, Sept. 7, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 59668, Oct. 11, 2006; 73 FR 20794, Apr. 17, 2008]

§700.35   Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

(a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way represents or suggests that it is intended to prevent, cure, treat, or mitigate disease or to affect a structure or function of the body comes within the definition of a drug in section 201(g)(1) of the act. Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering the harmful, burning rays of the sun, thereby altering the normal physiological response to solar radiation. These ingredients also help to prevent diseases such as sunburn and may reduce the chance of premature skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful effects due to the sun when used in conjunction with limiting sun exposure and wearing protective clothing. When consumers see the term “sunscreen” or similar sun protection terminology in the labeling of a product, they expect the product to protect them in some way from the harmful effects of the sun, irrespective of other labeling statements. Consequently, the use of the term “sunscreen” or similar sun protection terminology in a product's labeling generally causes the product to be subject to regulation as a drug. However, sunscreen ingredients may also be used in some products for nontherapeutic, nonphysiologic uses (e.g., as a color additive or to protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains a sunscreen ingredient and uses the term “sunscreen” or similar sun protection terminology anywhere in its labeling, the term must be qualified by describing the cosmetic benefit provided by the sunscreen ingredient.

(b) The qualifying information required under paragraph (a) of this section shall appear prominently and conspicuously at least once in the labeling in conjunction with the term “sunscreen” or other similar sun protection terminology used in the labeling. For example: “Contains a sunscreen—to protect product color.”

[64 FR 27693, May 21, 1999]



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