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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of July 24, 2014

Title 9: Animals and Animal Products


PART 311—DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS


Contents
§311.1   Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts; general.
§311.2   Tuberculosis.
§311.3   Hog cholera.
§311.5   Swine erysipelas.
§311.6   Diamond-skin disease.
§311.7   Arthritis.
§311.8   Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.
§311.9   Actinomycosis and actinobacillosis.
§311.10   Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue, hemorrhagic septicemia, icterohematuria in sheep, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness, extensive fistula, and unhealed vaccine lesions.
§311.11   Neoplasms.
§311.12   Epithelioma of the eye.
§311.13   Pigmentary conditions; melanosis, xanthosis, ochronosis, etc.
§311.14   Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc.
§311.15   Brucellosis.
§311.16   Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.
§311.17   Necrobacillosis, pyemia, and septicemia.
§311.18   Caseous lymphadenitis.
§311.19   Icterus.
§311.20   Sexual odor of swine.
§311.21   Mange or scab.
§311.22   Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.
§311.23   Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.
§311.24   Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.
§311.25   Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms.
§311.26   Emaciation.
§311.27   Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.
§311.28   Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.
§311.29   Unborn and stillborn animals.
§311.30   Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive.
§311.31   Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”
§311.32   Vesicular diseases.
§311.33   Listeriosis.
§311.34   Anemia.
§311.35   Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.
§311.36   Coccidioidal granuloma.
§311.37   Odors, foreign and urine.
§311.38   Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.
§311.39   Biological residues.

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 601-695; 7 CFR 2.17, 2.55.

Source: 35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970, unless otherwise noted.

§311.1   Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts; general.

(a) The carcasses or parts of carcasses of all animals slaughtered at an official establishment and found at the time of slaughter or at any subsequent inspection to be affected with any of the diseases or conditions named in this part shall be disposed of according to the section pertaining to the disease or condition: Provided, That no product shall be passed for human food under any such section unless it is found to be otherwise not adulterated. Products passed for cooking or refrigeration under this part must be so handled at the official establishment where they are initially prepared unless they are moved to another official establishment for such handling or in the case of products passed for refrigeration are moved for such refrigeration to a freezing facility approved by the Administrator in specific cases: Provided, That when so moved the products are shipped in containers sealed in accordance with §318.10(c) of this subchapter or in a sealed means of conveyance as provided in §325.7 of this subchapter. Owning to the fact that it is impracticable to formulate rules covering every case and to designate at just what stage a disease process or a condition results in adulteration of a product, the decision as to the disposal of all carcasses, organs, or other parts not specifically covered in this part shall be left to the veterinary medical officer. The veterinary medical officer shall exercise his judgment regarding the disposition of all carcasses or parts of carcasses under this part in a manner which will insure that only wholesome, unadulterated product is passed for human food.

(b) In cases of doubt as to a condition, a disease, or the cause of a condition, or to confirm a diagnosis, representative specimens of the affected tissues, properly prepared and packaged, shall be sent for examination to one of the laboratories of the Biological Control Section of the Program.

§311.2   Tuberculosis.

The following principles shall apply to the disposition of carcasses of livestock based on the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines.

(a) Carcasses condemned. The entire carcass of swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines shall be condemned if any of the following conditions occur:

(1) When the lesions of tuberculosis are generalized (tuberculosis is considered to be generalized when the lesions are distributed in a manner made possible only by entry of the bacilli into the systemic circulation);

(2) When on ante mortem inspection the animal is observed to have a fever found to be associated with an active tuberculosis lesion on post mortem inspection;

(3) When there is an associated cachexia;

(4) When a tuberculosis lesion is found in any muscle or intermuscular tissue, or bone, or joint, or abdominal organ (excluding the gastrointestinal tract) or in any lymph node as a result of draining a muscle, bone, joint, or abdominal organ (excluding the gastrointestinal tract);

(5) When the lesions are extensive in tissues of either the thoracic or the abdominal cavity;

(6) When the lesions are multiple, acute, and actively progressive; or

(7) When the character or extent of the lesions otherwise is not indicative of a localized condition.

(b) Organs or other parts condemned. An organ or other part of a swine, cattle, sheep, goat, or equine carcass affected by localized tuberculosis shall be condemned when it contains lesions of tuberculosis or when the corresponding lymph node contains lesions of tuberculosis.

(c) Carcasses of cattle passed without restriction for human food. Carcasses of cattle may be passed without restriction for human food only when the carcass of an animal not identified as a reactor to a tuberculin test administered by an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, State, or accredited veterinarian1 is found free of tuberculosis lesions during postmortem inspection.

1Such testing is conducted in the tuberculosis eradication program of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

(d) Portions of carcasses and carcasses of cattle passed for cooking. (1) When a cattle carcass reveals a tuberculosis lesion or lesions not so severe or so numerous as the lesions described in paragraph (a) of this section, the unaffected portion of the carcass may be passed for cooking in accordance with part 315 of this chapter; if the character and extent of the lesions indicate a localized condition, and if the lesions are calcified or encapsulated, and provided the affected organ or other part is condemned.

(2) When the carcass of a cattle identified as a reactor to a tuberculin test administered by an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, State or accredited veterinarian is found free of lesions of tuberculosis, the carcass may be passed for cooking in accordance with part 315 of this chapter.

(e) Portions of carcasses and carcasses of swine passed without restriction for human food. Swine carcasses found free of tuberculosis lesions during post mortem inspection may be passed for human food without restriction. When tuberculosis lesions in any swine carcass are localized and confined to one primary seat of infection, such as the cervical lymph nodes, the mesenteric lymph nodes, or the mediastinal lymph nodes, the unaffected portion of the carcass may be passed for human food without restriction after the affected organ or other part is condemned.

(f) Portions of carcasses of swine passed for cooking. When the carcass of any swine reveals lesions more severe or more numerous than those described in paragraph (e) of this section, but not so severe or so numerous as the lesions described in paragraph (a) of this section, the unaffected portions of such carcass may be passed for cooking in accordance with part 315 of this chapter; if the character and extent of the lesions indicate a localized condition, and if the lesions are calcified or encapsulated, and provided the affected organ or other part is condemned.

(g) Carcasses of sheep, goats, and equines passed without restriction for human food. Carcasses of sheep, goats, and equines may be passed without restriction for human food only if found free of tuberculosis lesions during post mortem inspection.

(h) Portions of carcasses of sheep, goats, and equines passed for cooking. If a carcass of any sheep, goat, or equine reveals a tuberculosis lesion or lesions that are not so severe or so numerous as the lesions described in paragraph (a) of this section, the unaffected portion of the carcass may be passed for cooking in accordance with part 315 of this chapter; if the character and extent of the lesions indicate a localized condition, and if the lesions are calcified or encapsulated, and provided the affected organ or other part is condemned.

[37 FR 2661, Feb. 4, 1972; 38 FR 29214, Oct. 23, 1973]

§311.3   Hog cholera.

(a) The carcasses of all hogs affected with hog cholera shall be condemned.

(b) Inconclusive but suspicious symptoms of hog cholera observed during the ante-mortem inspection of a U.S. suspect shall be duly considered in connection with post-mortem findings and when the carcass of such a suspect shows lesions in the kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog cholera and the carcass shall be condemned.

(c) When lesions resembling those of hog cholera occur in kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further inspection of such carcasses shall be made for corroborative lesions. If on such further inspection, characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or in the lymph nodes or in both, then all lesions shall be regarded as those of hog cholera and the carcass shall be condemned. Immediate notification shall be given by the inspector to the official in the Veterinary Services unit of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service who has responsibility for control of swine diseases in the State where the swine are located.

[35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970, as amended at 40 FR 27225, June 27, 1975]

§311.5   Swine erysipelas.

Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change, shall be condemned.

§311.6   Diamond-skin disease.

Carcasses of hogs affected with diamond-skin disease when localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the affected parts, provided such carcasses are otherwise healthy.

§311.7   Arthritis.

(a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of all affected parts. Affected joints with corresponding lymph nodes shall be removed and condemned. In order to avoid contamination of the meat which is passed, a joint capsule shall not be opened until after the affected joint is removed.

(b) Carcasses affected with arthritis shall be condemned when there is evidence of systemic involvement.

§311.8   Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.

(a) Carcasses of cattle found on post-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca in advanced stages and characterized by an extensive or well-marked generalized edema shall be condemned.

(b) Carcasses of cattle, including their detached organs and other parts, found on post-mortem inspection to be affected with anasarca to a lesser extent than as described in paragraph (a) of this section may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the affected tissues, provided the lesion is localized.

§311.9   Actinomycosis and actinobacillosis.

(a) The definition of generalization as outlined for tuberculosis in §311.2(a) shall apply for actinomycosis and actinobacillosis, and carcasses of livestock with generalized lesions of either such disease shall be condemned.

(b) Carcasses of livestock in a well-nourished condition showing uncomplicated localized lesions of actinomycosis or actinobacillosis may be passed for human food after the infected organs or other infected parts have been removed and condemned, except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(c) Heads affected with actinomycosis or actinobacillosis, including the tongue, shall be condemned, except that when the disease of the jaw is slight, strictly localized, and without suppuration, fistulous tracts, or lymph node involvement, the tongue, if free from disease, may be passed, or, when the disease is slight and confined to the lymph nodes, the head including the tongue, may be passed for human food after the affected nodes have been removed and condemned.

(d) When the disease is slight and confined to the tongue, with or without involvement of the corresponding lymph nodes, the head may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the tongue and corresponding lymph nodes.

§311.10   Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue, hemorrhagic septicemia, icterohematuria in sheep, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis, malignant epizootic catarrh, strangles, purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute inflammatory lameness, extensive fistula, and unhealed vaccine lesions.

(a) Carcasses of livestock affected with or showing lesions of any of the following named diseases or conditions shall be condemned:

(1) Anthrax.

(2) Blackleg.

(3) Unhealed vaccine lesions (vaccinia).

(4) Strangles.

(5) Purpura hemorrhagica.

(6) Azoturia.

(7) Infectious equine encephalomye-litis.

(8) Toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning).

(9) Infectious anemia (swamp fever).

(10) Dourine.

(11) Acute influenza.

(12) Generalized osteoporosis.

(13) Glanders (farcy).

(14) Acute inflammatory lameness.

(15) Extensive fistula.

(b) Carcasses of livestock affected with or showing lesions of any of the following named diseases or conditions shall be condemned, except when recovery has occurred to the extent that only localized lesions persist, in which case the carcass may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the affected organs or other parts:

(1) Anaplasmosis.

(2) Bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle.

(3) Babesiosis (piroplasmosis).

(4) Bluetongue.

(5) Hemorrhagic septicemia.

(6) Icterohematuria in sheep.

(7) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.

(8) Leptospirosis.

(9) Malignant epizootic catarrh.

[35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970, as amended at 36 FR 12004, June 24, 1971]

§311.11   Neoplasms.

(a) An individual organ or other part of a carcass affected with a neoplasm shall be condemned. If there is evidence of metastasis or that the general condition of the animal has been adversely affected by the size, position, or nature of the neoplasm, the entire carcass shall be condemned.

(b) Carcasses affected with malignant lymphoma shall be condemned.

§311.12   Epithelioma of the eye.

(a) Carcasses of animals affected with epithelioma of the eye, or the orbital region shall be condemned in their entirety if one of the following three conditions exists:

(1) The affection has involved the osseous structures of the head with extensive infection, suppuration, and necrosis;

(2) There is metastasis from the eye, or the orbital region, to any lymph node including the parotid lymph node, internal organs, muscles, skeleton, or other structures, regardless of the extent of the primary tumor; or

(3) The affection, regardless of extent, is associated with cachexia or evidence of absorption or secondary changes.

(b) Carcasses of animals affected with epithelioma of the eye, or the orbital region, to a lesser extent than as described in paragraph (a) of this section may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the head, including the tongue, provided the carcass is otherwise normal.

§311.13   Pigmentary conditions; melanosis, xanthosis, ochronosis, etc.

(a) Except as provided in §311.19, carcasses of livestock showing generalized pigmentary deposits shall be condemned.

(b) The affected parts of carcasses showing localized pigmentary deposits of such character as to be unwholesome or otherwise adulterated shall be removed and condemned.

§311.14   Abrasions, bruises, abscesses, pus, etc.

All slight, well-limited abrasions on the tongue and inner surface of the lips and mouth, when without lymph node involvement, shall be carefully excised, leaving only sound, normal tissue, which may be passed for human food. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is badly bruised or which is affected by an abscess, or a suppurating sore shall be condemned; and when the lesions are of such character or extent as to affect the whole carcass, the whole carcass shall be condemned. Portions of carcasses which are contaminated by pus or other diseased material shall be condemned.

§311.15   Brucellosis.

Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts are removed and condemned.

§311.16   Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

(a) All carcasses of animals so infected that consumption of the products thereof may give rise to food poisoning shall be condemned. This includes all carcasses showing signs of:

(1) Acute inflammation of the lungs, pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, or meninges.

(2) Septicemia or pyemia, whether puerperal, traumatic, or without any evident cause.

(3) Gangrenous or severe hemorrhagic enteritis or gastritis.

(4) Acute diffuse metritis or mammitis.

(5) Phlebitis of the umbilical veins.

(6) Septic or purulent traumatic pericarditis.

(7) Any acute inflammation, abscess, or suppurating sore, if associated with acute nephritis, fatty and degenerated liver, swollen soft spleen, marked pulmonary hyperemia, general swelling of lymph nodes, diffuse redness of the skin, cachexia, icteric discoloration of the carcass or similar condition, either singly or in combination.

(8) Salmonellosis.

(b) Implements contaminated by contact with carcasses affected with any of the disease conditions mentioned in this section shall be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized as prescribed in part 308 of this subchapter. The equipment used in the dressing of such carcasses, such as viscera trucks or inspection tables, shall be sanitized with hot water having a minimum temperature of 180 °F. Carcasses or parts of carcasses contaminated by contact with such diseased carcasses shall be condemned unless all contaminated tissues are removed within 2 hours.

§311.17   Necrobacillosis, pyemia, and septicemia.

From the standpoint of meat inspection, necrobacillosis may be regarded as a local infection at the beginning, and carcasses in which the lesions are localized may be passed for human food if in a good state of nutrition, after those portions affected with necrotic lesions are removed and condemned. However, when emaciation, cloudy swelling of the parenchymatous tissue of organs or enlargement of the lymph nodes is associated with the infection, it is evident that the disease has progressed beyond the condition of localization to a state of toxemia, and the entire carcass shall therefore be condemned as both unwholesome and noxious. Pyemia or septicemia may intervene as a complication of the local necrosis, and when present the carcass shall be condemned in accordance with §311.16.

§311.18   Caseous lymphadenitis.

(a) A thin carcass showing well-marked lesions in the viscera and the skeletal lymph nodes, or a thin carcass showing extensive lesions in any part shall be condemned.

(b) A thin carcass showing well-marked lesions in the viscera with only slight lesions elsewhere or showing well-marked lesions in the skeletal lymph nodes with only slight lesions elsewhere may be passed for cooking.

(c) A thin carcass showing only slight lesions in the skeletal lymph nodes and in the viscera may be passed for human food without restriction.

(d) A well-nourished carcass showing well-marked lesions in the viscera and with only slight lesions elsewhere or showing well-marked lesions confined to the skeletal lymph nodes with only slight lesions elsewhere may be passed for human food without restriction.

(e) A well-nourished carcass showing well-marked lesions in the viscera and the skeletal lymph nodes may be passed for cooking; but where the lesions in a well-nourished carcass are both numerous and extensive, it shall be condemned.

(f) All affected organs and nodes of carcasses passed for human food without restriction or passed for cooking shall be removed and condemned.

(g) As used in this section, the term “thin” does not apply to a carcass which is anemic or emaciated; and the term “lesions” refers to lesions of caseous lymphadenitis.

§311.19   Icterus.

Carcasses showing any degree of icterus shall be condemned. Yellow fat conditions caused by nutritional factors or characteristic of certain breeds of livestock and yellow fat sometimes seen in sheep shall not be confused with icterus. Such carcasses should be passed for human food, if otherwise normal.

§311.20   Sexual odor of swine.

(a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned.

(b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed for use in comminuted cooked meat food product or for rendering. Otherwise it shall be condemned.

§311.21   Mange or scab.

Carcasses of livestock affected with mange or scab in advanced stages, showing cachexia or extensive inflammation of the flesh, shall be condemned. When the disease is slight, the carcass may be passed after removal of the affected portion.

§311.22   Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans, demodex folliculorum, or erythema may be passed for human food after detaching and condemning the affected skin, if the carcass is otherwise not adulterated.

§311.23   Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, carcasses of cattle affected with lesions of cysticercus bovis shall be disposed of as follows:

(1) Carcasses of cattle displaying lesions of cysticercus bovis shall be condemned if the infestation is extensive or if the musculature is edematous or discolored. Carcasses shall be considered extensively infested if in addition to finding lesions in at least two of the usual inspection sites, namely the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing operations, they are found in at least two of the sites exposed by (i) an incision made into each round exposing the musculature in cross section, and (ii) a transverse incision into each forelimb commencing 2 or 3 inches above the point of the olecranon and extending to the humerus.

(2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not so extensive as indicated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, as determined by a careful examination, including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing operations, may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the lesions with surrounding tissues: Provided, That the carcasses, appropriately identified by retained tags, are held in cold storage under positive control of a USDA Food Inspector at a temperature not higher than 15 °F. continuously for a period of not less than 10 days, or in the case of boned meat derived from such carcasses, the meat, when in boxes, tierces, or other containers, appropriately identified by retained tags, is held under positive control of a Program Inspector at a temperature of not higher than 15 °F. continuously for a period of not less than 20 days. As an alternative to retention in cold storage as provided in this subparagraph, such carcasses and meat may be heated throughout to a temperature of at least 140 °F. under positive control of a Program Inspector.

(b) Edible viscera and offal shall be disposed of in the same manner as the rest of the carcass from which they were derived unless any lesion of cysticercus bovis is found in these byproducts, in which case they shall be condemned.

[36 FR 4591, Mar. 10, 1971]

§311.24   Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may be passed for cooking, unless the infestation is excessive, in which case the carcass shall be condemned.

§311.25   Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms.

(a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible organs, and other parts of carcasses showing evidence of infestation with parasites not transmissible to man, the following general rules shall govern except as otherwise provided in this section: If the lesions are localized in such manner and are of such character that the parasites and the lesions caused by them can be completely removed, the nonaffected portion of the carcass, organ, or other part of the carcass may be passed for human food after the removal and condemnation of the affected portions. If an organ or other part of a carcass shows numerous lesions caused by parasites, or if the character of the infestation is such that complete extirpation of the parasitic infestation or invasion renders the part in any way unfit for human food, the affected part shall be condemned. If parasites are found to be distributed in a carcass in such a manner or to be of such character that their removal and the removal of the lesions caused by them is impracticable, no part of the carcass shall be passed for human food. If the infestation is excessive, the carcass shall be condemned. If the infestation is moderate, the carcass may be passed for cooking, but in case such carcass is not cooked as required by part 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned.

(b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may be passed for human food after the removal and condemnation of the affected portions: Provided, however, That if, upon the final inspection of sheep carcasses retained on account of measles, the total number of cysts found embedded in muscular tissue, or in immediate relation with muscular tissue, excluding the heart, exceeds five, the entire carcass shall be condemned, or such carcass shall be heated throughout to a temperature of at least 140 °F. After removal and condemnation of all affected portions.

(c) Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps multiceps) may be passed for human food after condemnation of the affected organ (brain or spinal cord).

(d) Organs or other parts of carcasses infested with hydatid cysts (echinococus) shall be condemned.

(e) Livers infested with flukes or fringed tapeworms shall be condemned.

§311.26   Emaciation.

Carcasses of livestock too emaciated to produce wholesome meat, and carcasses which show a serous infiltration of muscle tissues, or a serous or mucoid degeneration of the fatty tissue, shall be condemned. A gelatinous change of the fat of the heart and kidneys of well-nourished carcasses and mere leanness shall not be classed as emaciation.

[35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970; 36 FR 11903, June 23, 1971]

§311.27   Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

When it is necessary for humane reasons to slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained, the carcass and all parts of all livestock except for cattle shall be kept for inspection, with the head and all viscera except the stomach, bladder, and intestines held by the natural attachments. If all parts are not so kept for inspection, the carcass shall be condemned. If, on inspection of a carcass slaughtered in the absence of an inspector, any lesion or other evidence is found indicating that the animal was sick or diseased, or affected with any other condition requiring condemnation of the animal on ante-mortem inspection, or if there is lacking evidence of the condition which rendered emergency slaughter necessary, the carcass shall be condemned. The parts and carcasses of cattle slaughtered in the absence of an inspector shall not be used for human food.

[35 FR 15569, Oct. 3, 1970, as amended at 69 FR 1874, Jan. 12, 2004]

§311.28   Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance of being water-soaked, is loose, flabby, tears easily, and can be perforated with the fingers; or (b) its color is grayish-red; or (c) good muscular development as a whole is lacking, especially noticeable on the upper shank of the leg, where small amounts of serous infiltrates or small edematous patches are sometimes present between the muscles; or (d) the tissue which later develops as the fat capsule of the kidneys is edematous, dirty yellow, or grayish-red, tough, and intermixed with islands of fat.

§311.29   Unborn and stillborn animals.

All unborn and stillborn animals shall be condemned and no hide or skin thereof shall be removed from the carcass within a room in which edible products are handled.

§311.30   Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive.

All livestock which have been suffocated in any way and hogs which have entered the scalding vat alive shall be condemned.

§311.31   Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”

(a) Livers affected with carotenosis shall be condemned.

(b) Cattle livers and calf livers showing the conditions sometimes designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted” shall be disposed of as follows:

(1) When any or all of the conditions are slight in the organ, the whole organ shall be passed for human food without restriction.

(2) When any or all of the conditions are more severe than slight and involve less than one-half of the organ, while in the remainder of the organ the conditions are slight or nonexistent, the remainder shall be passed for human food without restriction and the other portion shall be condemned.

(3) When any or all of the conditions are more severe than slight and involve one-half or more of the organ, the whole organ shall be condemned.

(4) The divisions of an organ into two parts as contemplated in this paragraph for disposition, shall be accomplished by one cut through the organ. This, of course, does not prohibit incisions which are necessary for inspection.

(c) “Telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted” livers and parts of livers which are condemned for human food may be shipped from an official establishment for purposes other than human food in accordance with §314.10 of this subchapter.

§311.32   Vesicular diseases.

(a) Any carcass affected with vesicular disease shall be condemned if the condition is acute and if the extent of the condition is such that it affects the entire carcass or there is evidence of absorption or secondary change.

(b) Any carcass affected with vesicular disease to a lesser extent than as described in paragraph (a) of this section may be passed for human food after removal and condemnation of the affected parts, if the carcass is otherwise healthy.

§311.33   Listeriosis.

Carcasses of livestock identified as U.S. Suspects because of a history of listeriosis shall be passed for human food after condemnation of the head if the carcass is otherwise normal.

§311.34   Anemia.

Carcasses of livestock too anemic to produce wholesome meat shall be condemned.

§311.35   Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

(a) If muscular lesions are found to be distributed in such a manner or to be of such character that removal is impractical, the carcass shall be condemned.

(b) If muscular lesions are found to be distributed in such a manner or to be of such character that removal is practical, the following rules shall govern the disposal of the carcasses, edible organs, and other parts of carcasses showing such muscular lesions. If the lesions are localized in such a manner and are of such a character that the affected tissues can be removed, the nonaffected parts of the carcass may be passed for human food after the removal and condemnation of the affected portion. If a part of the carcass shows numerous lesions, or if the character of the lesion is such that complete extirpation is difficult and uncertainly accomplished, or if the lesion renders the part in any way unfit for human food, the part shall be condemned.

(c) If the lesions are slight or of such character as to be insignificant from a standpoint of wholesomeness, the carcass or parts may be passed for use in the manufacture of comminuted cooked product, after removal and condemnation of the visibly affected portions.

§311.36   Coccidioidal granuloma.

(a) Carcasses which are affected with generalized coccidioidal granuloma or which show systemic changes because of such disease shall be condemned.

(b) Carcasses affected with localized lesions of this disease may be passed for human food after the affected parts are removed and condemned.

§311.37   Odors, foreign and urine.

(a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned.

(b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned.

(c) Carcasses, organs, or parts affected by odor to a lesser degree than as described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and in which the odor can be removed by trimming or chilling may be passed for human food, after removal of affected parts or dissipation of the condition.

§311.38   Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been administered radioactive material shall be condemned unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in effect pursuant to section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

§311.39   Biological residues.

Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues.



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