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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of August 28, 2014

Title 8Chapter ISubchapter B → Part 287


Title 8: Aliens and Nationality


PART 287—FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES


Contents
§287.1   Definitions.
§287.2   Disposition of criminal cases.
§287.3   Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.
§287.4   Subpoena.
§287.5   Exercise of power by immigration officers.
§287.6   Proof of official records.
§287.7   Detainer provisions under section 287(d)(3) of the Act.
§287.8   Standards for enforcement activities.
§287.9   Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.
§287.10   Expedited internal review process.
§287.11   Pre-enrolled Access Lane.
§287.12   Scope.

Authority: 8 U.S.C. 1103, 1182, 1225, 1226, 1251, 1252, 1357; Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107-296 (6 U.S.C. 1, et seq.); 8 CFR part 2.

§287.1   Definitions.

(a)(1) External boundary. The term external boundary, as used in section 287(a)(3) of the Act, means the land boundaries and the territorial sea of the United States extending 12 nautical miles from the baselines of the United States determined in accordance with international law.

(2) Reasonable distance. The term reasonable distance, as used in section 287(a) (3) of the Act, means within 100 air miles from any external boundary of the United States or any shorter distance which may be fixed by the chief patrol agent for CBP, or the special agent in charge for ICE, or, so far as the power to board and search aircraft is concerned any distance fixed pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Reasonable distance; fixing by chief patrol agents and special agents in charge. In fixing distances not exceeding 100 air miles pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, chief patrol agents and special agents in charge shall take into consideration topography, confluence of arteries of transportation leading from external boundaries, density of population, possible inconvenience to the traveling public, types of conveyances used, and reliable information as to movements of persons effecting illegal entry into the United States: Provided, That whenever in the opinion of a chief patrol agent or special agent in charge a distance in his or her sector or district of more than 100 air miles from any external boundary of the United States would because of unusual circumstances be reasonable, such chief patrol agent or special agent in charge shall forward a complete report with respect to the matter to the Commissioner of CBP, or the Assistant Secretary for ICE, as appropriate, who may, if he determines that such action is justified, declare such distance to be reasonable.

(c) Patrolling the border. The phrase patrolling the border to prevent the illegal entry of aliens into the United States as used in section 287 of the Immigration and Nationality Act means conducting such activities as are customary, or reasonable and necessary, to prevent the illegal entry of aliens into the United States.

(d) Arrested by federal, state, or local law enforcement official. The term arrested, as used in section 287(d) of the Act (as amended by section 1701 (Subtitle M) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-509), means that an alien has been—

(1) Physically taken into custody for a criminal violation of the controlled substance laws; and

(2) Subsequently booked, charged or otherwise officially processed; or

(3) Provided an initial appearance before a judicial officer where the alien has been informed of the charges and the right to counsel.

(e) Law enforcement or other official. The phrase law enforcement official (or other official), as used in section 287(d) of the Act, means an officer or employee of an agency engaged in the administration of criminal justice pursuant to statute or executive order, including (1) courts; (2) a government agency or component which performs the administration of criminal justice as defined in 28 CFR part 20 including performance of any of the following activities: detection, apprehension, detention, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders.

(f) Controlled substance. The term controlled substance, as used in section 287(d)(3) of the Act, shall mean the same as that referenced in the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq., and shall include any substance contained in Schedules I through V of 21 CFR 1308.1 et seq. For the purposes of this chapter, the term controlled substance includes controlled substance analogues as defined in 21 U.S.C. 802(23) and 813.

(g) Basic immigration law enforcement training. The phrase basic immigration law enforcement training, as used in §§287.5 and 287.8, means the successful completion of one of the following courses of training provided at the Immigration Officer Academy or Border Patrol Academy: Immigration Officer Basic Training Course after 1971; Border Patrol Basic Training Course after 1950; Immigration Detention Enforcement Officer Basic Training Course after 1977; and Immigration Customs Enforcement Special Agent Training, after 2002; or training substantially equivalent thereto as determined by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE with respect to personnel in their respective bureaus. The phrase basic immigration law enforcement training also means the successful completion of the Other than Permanent Full-Time (OTP) Immigration Inspector Basic Training Course after 1991 in the case of individuals who are OTP immigration inspectors. Conversion by OTP immigration to any other status requires training applicable to that position.

(h) References to specific titles of officers mean all individuals holding such positions and any individual acting in such position.

(i) Nothing in this part limits the authority of any DHS officers to act pursuant to any authorities that they may otherwise possess.

[22 FR 9808, Dec. 6, 1957, as amended at 29 FR 13244, Sept. 24, 1964; 53 FR 9283, Mar. 22, 1988; 57 FR 47258, Oct. 15, 1992; 59 FR 42415, Aug. 17, 1994; 68 FR 35276, June 13, 2003]

§287.2   Disposition of criminal cases.

Whenever a special agent in charge, port director, or chief patrol agent has reason to believe that there has been a violation punishable under any criminal provision of the immigration and nationality laws administered or enforced by the Department, he or she shall immediately initiate an investigation to determine all the pertinent facts and circumstances and shall take such further action as he or she deems necessary. In no case shall this investigation prejudice the right of an arrested person to be taken without unnecessary delay before a United States magistrate judge, a United States district judge, or, if necessary, a judicial officer empowered in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 3041 to commit persons charged with offenses against the laws of the United States.

[59 FR 42415, Aug. 17, 1994, as amended at 68 FR 35276, June 13, 2003]

§287.3   Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

(a) Examination. An alien arrested without a warrant of arrest under the authority contained in section 287(a)(2) of the Act will be examined by an officer other than the arresting officer. If no other qualified officer is readily available and the taking of the alien before another officer would entail unnecessary delay, the arresting officer, if the conduct of such examination is a part of the duties assigned to him or her, may examine the alien.

(b) Determination of proceedings. If the examining officer is satisfied that there is prima facie evidence that the arrested alien was entering, attempting to enter, or is present in the United States in violation of the immigration laws, the examining officer will refer the case to an immigration judge for further inquiry in accordance with 8 CFR parts 235, 239, or 240, order the alien removed as provided for in section 235(b)(1) of the Act and §235.3(b) of this chapter, or take whatever other action may be appropriate or required under the laws or regulations applicable to the particular case.

(c) Notifications and information. Except in the case of an alien subject to the expedited removal provisions of section 235(b)(1)(A) of the Act, an alien arrested without warrant and placed in formal proceedings under section 238 or 240 of the Act will be advised of the reasons for his or her arrest and the right to be represented at no expense to the Government. The examining officer will provide the alien with a list of the available free legal services provided by organizations and attorneys qualified under 8 CFR part 1003 and organizations recognized under §292.2 of this chapter or 8 CFR 1292.2 that are located in the district where the hearing will be held. The examining officer shall note on Form I-862 that such a list was provided to the alien. The officer will also advise the alien that any statement made may be used against him or her in a subsequent proceeding.

(d) Custody procedures. Unless voluntary departure has been granted pursuant to subpart C of 8 CFR part 240, a determination will be made within 48 hours of the arrest, except in the event of an emergency or other extraordinary circumstance in which case a determination will be made within an additional reasonable period of time, whether the alien will be continued in custody or released on bond or recognizance and whether a notice to appear and warrant of arrest as prescribed in 8 CFR parts 236 and 239 will be issued.

[62 FR 10390, Mar. 6, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 48335, Sept. 20, 2001; 68 FR 35276, June 13, 2003]

§287.4   Subpoena.

(a) Who may issue—(1) Criminal or civil investigations. All District Directors; Deputy District Directors; Chief Patrol Agents; Deputy Chief Patrol Agents; Assistant Chief Patrol Agents; Officers in Charge; Patrol Agents in Charge; Assistant Patrol Agents in Charge; Field Operations Supervisors; Special Operations Supervisors; Supervisory Border Patrol Agents; Assistant District Directors, Investigations; Supervisory Criminal Investigators, Anti-Smuggling; Regional Directors; Service Center Directors; Assistant District Directors, Examinations; Director, Detention and Removal; Special Agents in Charge; all Special Agents in supervisory positions; Field Office Directors; Deputy Field Office Directors; and any other immigration officer who has been expressly delegated such authority as provided by 8 CFR 2.1 may issue a subpoena requiring the production of records and evidence for use in criminal or civil investigations.

(2) Proceedings other than naturalization proceedings—(i) Prior to commencement of proceedings. All District Directors; Deputy District Directors; Chief Patrol Agents; Deputy Chief Patrol Agents; Officers in Charge; Director, Detention and Removal; Special Agents in Charge; Deputy Special Agents in Charge; Resident Agents in Charge; District Field Officers; Field Office Directors; Deputy Field Office Directors; and Port Directors may issue a subpoena requiring the attendance of witnesses or the production of documentary evidence, or both, for use in any proceeding under this chapter I, other than under 8 CFR part 335, or any application made ancillary to the proceeding.

(ii) Subsequent to commencement of any immigration court proceeding. Procedures for the issuance of a subpoena after the commencement of proceedings, in cases other than those arising under part 335 of this chapter, are set forth at 8 CFR 1003.35(b) and 1287.4.

(b) Form of subpoena. All subpoenas shall be issued on Form I-138.

(1) Criminal or civil investigations. The subpoena shall command the person or entity to which it is addressed to attend and to give testimony at a time or place specified. A subpoena shall also command the person or entity to which it is addressed to produce the books, papers, or documents specified in the subpoena. A subpoena may direct the taking of a deposition before an immigration officer of the Department.

(2) Proceedings other than naturalization proceedings. Every subpoena issued under the provisions of this section shall state the title of the proceeding and shall command the person to whom it is directed to attend and to give testimony at a time and place specified. A subpoena shall also command the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, or documents specified in the subpoena. A subpoena may direct the taking of a deposition before an immigration officer of the Department.

(c) Service. A subpoena issued under this section may be served by any person, over 18 years of age not a party to the case, designated to make such service by the District Director; Deputy District Director; Chief Patrol Agent; Deputy Chief Patrol Agent; Assistant Chief Patrol Agent; Patrol Agent in Charge; Officer in Charge; Assistant District Director, Investigations; Supervisory Criminal Investigator, Anti-Smuggling; Regional Director; Special Agent in Charge; Deputy Special Agent in Charge; Resident Agent in Charge; District Field Officer; Field Office Director; Deputy Field Office Director; Supervisory Deportation Officer; Supervisory Detention and Deportation Officer; and Port Director having administrative jurisdiction over the office in which the subpoena is issued. The Director, Detention and Removal, shall also have the authority to make such designation. Service of the subpoena shall be made by delivering a copy thereof to the person named therein and by tendering to him/her the fee for one day's attendance and the mileage allowed by law by the United States District Court for the district in which the testimony is to be taken. When the subpoena is issued on behalf of the Department, fee and mileage need not be tendered at the time of service. A record of such service shall be made and attached to the original copy of the subpoena.

(d) Invoking aid of court. If a witness neglects or refuses to appear and testify as directed by the subpoena served upon him or her in accordance with the provisions of this section, the officer or immigration judge issuing the subpoena shall request the United States Attorney for the district in which the subpoena was issued to report such neglect or refusal to the United States District Court and to request such court to issue an order requiring the witness to appear and testify and to produce the books, papers, or documents designated in the subpoena.

[50 FR 30134, July 24, 1985; 50 FR 47205, Nov. 15, 1985, as amended at 60 FR 56937, Nov. 13, 1995; 62 FR 10390, Mar. 6, 1997; 67 FR 39260, June 7, 2002; 68 FR 35276, June 13, 2003]

§287.5   Exercise of power by immigration officers.

(a) Power and authority to interrogate and administer oaths. Any immigration officer is hereby authorized and designated to exercise anywhere in or outside the United States the power conferred by:

(1) Section 287(a)(1) of the Act to interrogate, without warrant, any alien or person believed to be an alien concerning his or her right to be, or to remain, in the United States, and

(2) Section 287(b) of the Act to administer oaths and to take and consider evidence concerning the privilege of any person to enter, reenter, pass through, or reside in the United States; or concerning any matter which is material or relevant to the enforcement of the Act and the administration of the immigration and naturalization functions of the Department.

(b) Power and authority to patrol the border. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power to patrol the border conferred by section 287(a)(3) of the Act:

(1) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(2) Special agents;

(3) Immigration inspectors (seaport operations only);

(4) Adjudications officers and deportation officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections (seaport operations only);

(5) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(6) Immigration officers who need the authority to patrol the border under section 287(a)(3) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP, or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(c) Power and authority to arrest—(1) Arrests of aliens under section 287(a)(2) of the Act for immigration violations. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the arrest power conferred by section 287(a)(2) of the Act and in accordance with 8 CFR 287.8(c):

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Immigration inspectors;

(v) Adjudications officers;

(vi) Immigration enforcement agents;

(vii) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(viii) Immigration officers who need the authority to arrest aliens under section 287(a)(2) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP, the Assistant Secretary for ICE, or the Director of the USCIS.

(2) Arrests of persons under section 287(a)(4) of the Act for felonies regulating the admission or removal of aliens. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the arrest power conferred by section 287(a)(4) of the Act and in accordance with 8 CFR 287.8(c):

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Immigration inspectors;

(v) Adjudications officers;

(vi) Immigration enforcement agents;

(vii) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(viii) Immigration officers who need the authority to arrest persons under section 287(a)(4) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP, the Assistant Secretary for ICE, or the Director of the USCIS.

(3) Arrests of persons under section 287(a)(5)(A) of the Act for any offense against the United States. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the arrest power conferred by section 287(a)(5)(A) of the Act and in accordance with 8 CFR 287.8(c):

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Immigration inspectors (permanent full-time immigration inspectors only);

(v) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(vi) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(vii) Immigration officers who need the authority to arrest persons under section 287(a)(5)(A) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP, or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(4) Arrests of persons under section 287(a)(5)(B) of the Act for any felony. (i) Section 287(a)(5)(B) of the Act authorizes designated immigration officers, as listed in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, to arrest persons, without warrant, for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if:

(A) The immigration officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony;

(B) The immigration officer is performing duties relating to the enforcement of the immigration laws at the time of the arrest;

(C) There is a likelihood of the person escaping before a warrant can be obtained for his or her arrest; and

(D) The immigration officer has been certified as successfully completing a training program that covers such arrests and the standards with respect to the immigration enforcement activities of the Department as defined in 8 CFR 287.8.

(ii) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the arrest power conferred by section 287(a)(5)(B) of the Act and in accordance with 8 CFR 287.8(c):

(A) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(B) Special agents;

(C) Deportation officers;

(D) Immigration inspectors (permanent full-time immigration inspectors only);

(E) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(F) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(G) Immigration officers who need the authority to arrest persons under section 287(a)(5)(B) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(iii) Notwithstanding the authorization and designation set forth in paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section, no immigration officer is authorized to make an arrest for any felony under the authority of section 287(a)(5)(B) of the Act until such time as he or she has been certified by the Director of Training as successfully completing a training course encompassing such arrests and the standards for enforcement activities as defined in 8 CFR 287.8. Such certification shall be valid for the duration of the immigration officer's continuous employment, unless it is suspended or revoked by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE, or their respective designees, for just cause.

(5) Arrests of persons under section 274(a) of the Act who bring in, transport, or harbor certain aliens, or induce them to enter.

(i) Section 274(a) of the Act authorizes designated immigration officers, as listed in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, to arrest persons who bring in, transport, or harbor aliens, or induce them to enter the United States in violation of law. When making an arrest, the designated immigration officer shall adhere to the provisions of the enforcement standard governing the conduct of arrests in 8 CFR 287.8(c).

(ii) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are authorized and designated to exercise the arrest power conferred by section 274(a) of the Act:

(A) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(B) Special agents;

(C) Deportation officers;

(D) Immigration inspectors;

(E) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(F) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(G) Immigration officers who need the authority to arrest persons under section 274(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(6) Custody and transportation of previously arrested persons. In addition to the authority to arrest pursuant to a warrant of arrest in paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section, detention enforcement officers and immigration enforcement agents who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to take and maintain custody of and transport any person who has been arrested by an immigration officer pursuant to paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this section.

(d) Power and authority to conduct searches. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power to conduct searches conferred by section 287(c) of the Act:

(1) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(2) Special agents;

(3) Deportation officers;

(4) Immigration inspectors;

(5) Adjudications officers;

(6) Immigration enforcement agents;

(7) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(8) Immigration officers who need the authority to conduct searches under section 287(c) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP, the Assistant Secretary for ICE, or the Director of the BCIS.

(e) Power and authority to execute warrants—(1) Search warrants. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to execute a search warrant:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Immigration enforcement agents;

(v) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph, and

(vi) Immigration officers who need the authority to execute search warrants under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(2) Issuance of arrest warrants for immigration violations. A warrant of arrest may be issued by any of the following immigration officials who have been authorized or delegated such authority:

(i) District directors (except foreign);

(ii) Deputy district directors (except foreign);

(iii) Assistant district directors for investigations;

(iv) Deputy assistant district directors for investigations;

(v) Assistant district directors for deportation;

(vi) Deputy assistant district directors for deportation;

(vii) Assistant district directors for examinations;

(viii) Deputy assistant district directors for examinations;

(ix) Officers in charge (except foreign);

(x) Assistant officers in charge (except foreign);

(xi) Chief patrol agents;

(xii) Deputy chief patrol agents;

(xiii) Assistant chief patrol agents;

(xiv) Patrol agents in charge;

(xv) Assistant patrol agents in charge;

(xvi) Field operations supervisors;

(xvii) Special operations supervisors;

(xviii) Supervisory border patrol agents;

(xix) The Assistant Commissioner, Investigations;

(xx) Institutional Hearing Program directors;

(xxi) Area port directors;

(xxii) Port directors;

(xxiii) Deputy port directors;

(xxiv) Assistant Area port directors;

(xxv) Supervisory deportation officers;

(xxvi) Supervisory detention and deportation officers;

(xxvii) Group Supervisors;

(xxviii) Director, Office of Detention and Removal Operations;

(xxix) Special Agents in Charge;

(xxx) Deputy Special Agents in Charge;

(xxxi) Associate Special Agents in Charge;

(xxxii) Assistant Special Agents in Charge;

(xxxiii) Resident Agents in Charge;

(xxxiv) Field Office Directors;

(xxxv) Deputy Field Office Directors;

(xxxvi) District Field Officers;

(xxxvii) Supervisory district adjudications officers;

(xxxviii) Supervisory asylum officers;

(xxxix) Supervisory special agents;

(xl) Director of investigations;

(xli) Directors or officers in charge of detention facilities;

(xlii) Directors of field operations;

(xliii) Deputy or assistant directors of field operations;

(xliv) Unit Chief, Law Enforcement Support Center;

(xlv) Section Chief, Law Enforcement Support Center;

(xlvi) Director, Field Operations;

(xlvii) Deputy Director, Field Operations;

(xlviii) Assistant Director, Field Operations;

(xlix) Immigration Enforcement Agents; or

(l) Other officers or employees of the Department or the United States who are delegated the authority as provided in 8 CFR 2.1 to issue warrants of arrest.

(3) Service of warrant of arrests for immigration violations. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power pursuant to section 287(a) of the Act to execute warrants of arrest for administrative immigration violations issued under section 236 of the Act or to execute warrants of criminal arrest issued under the authority of the United States:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Detention enforcement officers or immigration enforcement agents (warrants of arrest for administrative immigration violations only);

(v) Immigration inspectors;

(vi) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(vii) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(viii) Immigration officers who need the authority to execute arrest warrants for immigration violations under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(4) Service of warrant of arrests for non-immigration violations. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power to execute warrants of criminal arrest for non-immigration violations issued under the authority of the United States:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Special agents;

(iii) Deportation officers;

(iv) Immigration enforcement agents;

(v) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(vi) Immigration officers who need the authority to execute warrants of arrest for non-immigration violations under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(f) Power and authority to carry firearms. The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to carry firearms provided that they are individually qualified by training and experience to handle and safely operate the firearms they are permitted to carry, maintain proficiency in the use of such firearms, and adhere to the provisions of the enforcement standard governing the use of force in 8 CFR 287.8(a):

(1) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(2) Special agents;

(3) Deportation officers;

(4) Detention enforcement officers or immigration enforcement agents;

(5) Immigration inspectors;

(6) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(7) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(8) Immigration officers who need the authority to carry firearms under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

[68 FR 35277, June 13, 2003, as amended at 70 FR 67089, Nov. 4, 2005; 76 FR 53797, Aug. 29, 2011]

§287.6   Proof of official records.

(a) Domestic. In any proceeding under this chapter, an official record or entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, shall be evidenced by an official publication thereof, or by a copy attested by the official having legal custody of the record or by an authorized deputy.

(b) Foreign: Countries not Signatories to Convention. (1) In any proceeding under this chapter, an official record or entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, shall be evidenced by an official publication thereof, or by a copy attested by an officer so authorized. This attested copy in turn may but need not be certified by any authorized foreign officer both as to the genuineness of the signature of the attesting officer and as to his/her official position. The signature and official position of this certifying foreign officer may then likewise be certified by any other foreign officer so authorized, thereby creating a chain of certificates.

(2) The attested copy, with the additional foreign certificates if any, must be certified by an officer in the Foreign Service of the United States, stationed in the foreign country where the record is kept. This officer must certify the genuineness of the signature and the official position either of (i) the attesting officer; or (ii) any foreign officer whose certification of genuineness of signature and official position relates directly to the attestation or is in a chain of certificates of genuineness of signature and official position relating to the attestation.

(c) Foreign: Countries Signatory to Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legislation for Foreign Public Document. (1) In any proceeding under this chapter, a public document or entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, may be evidenced by an official publication, or by a copy properly certified under the Convention. To be properly certified, the copy must be accompanied by a certificate in the form dictated by the Convention. This certificate must be signed by a foreign officer so authorized by the signatory country, and it must certify (i) the authenticity of the signature of the person signing the document; (ii) the capacity in which that person acted, and (iii) where appropriate, the identity of the seal or stamp which the document bears.

(2) No certification is needed from an officer in the Foreign Service of public documents.

(3) In accordance with the Convention, the following are deemed to be public documents:

(i) Documents emanating from an authority or an official connected with the courts of tribunals of the state, including those emanating from a public prosecutor, a clerk of a court or a process server;

(ii) Administrative documents;

(iii) Notarial acts; and

(iv) Official certificates which are placed on documents signed by persons in their private capacity, such as official certificates recording the registration of a document or the fact that it was in existence on a certain date, and official and notarial authentication of signatures.

(4) In accordance with the Convention, the following are deemed not to be public documents, and thus are subject to the more stringent requirements of §287.6(b) above:

(i) Documents executed by diplomatic or consular agents; and

(ii) Administrative documents dealing directly with commercial or customs operations.

(d) Canada. In any proceedings under this chapter, an official record or entry therein, issued by a Canadian governmental entity within the geographical boundaries of Canada, when admissible for any purpose, shall be evidenced by a certified copy of the original record attested by the official having legal custody of the record or by an authorized deputy.

[50 FR 37834, Sept. 18, 1985, as amended at 54 FR 39337, Sept. 26, 1989; 54 FR 48851, Nov. 28, 1989]

§287.7   Detainer provisions under section 287(d)(3) of the Act.

(a) Detainers in general. Detainers are issued pursuant to sections 236 and 287 of the Act and this chapter 1. Any authorized immigration officer may at any time issue a Form I-247, Immigration Detainer-Notice of Action, to any other Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency. A detainer serves to advise another law enforcement agency that the Department seeks custody of an alien presently in the custody of that agency, for the purpose of arresting and removing the alien. The detainer is a request that such agency advise the Department, prior to release of the alien, in order for the Department to arrange to assume custody, in situations when gaining immediate physical custody is either impracticable or impossible.

(b) Authority to issue detainers. The following officers are authorized to issue detainers:

(1) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(2) Special agents;

(3) Deportation officers;

(4) Immigration inspectors;

(5) Adjudications officers;

(6) Immigration enforcement agents;

(7) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(8) Immigration officers who need the authority to issue detainers under section 287(d)(3) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP, the Assistant Secretary for ICE, or the Director of the USCIS.

(c) Availability of records. In order for the Department to accurately determine the propriety of issuing a detainer, serving a notice to appear, or taking custody of an alien in accordance with this section, the criminal justice agency requesting such action or informing the Department of a conviction or act that renders an alien inadmissible or removable under any provision of law shall provide the Department with all documentary records and information available from the agency that reasonably relates to the alien's status in the United States, or that may have an impact on conditions of release.

(d) Temporary detention at Department request. Upon a determination by the Department to issue a detainer for an alien not otherwise detained by a criminal justice agency, such agency shall maintain custody of the alien for a period not to exceed 48 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays in order to permit assumption of custody by the Department.

(e) Financial responsibility for detention. No detainer issued as a result of a determination made under this chapter I shall incur any fiscal obligation on the part of the Department, until actual assumption of custody by the Department, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.

[68 FR 35279, June 13, 2003, as amended at 76 FR 53797, Aug. 29, 2011]

§287.8   Standards for enforcement activities.

The following standards for enforcement activities contained in this section must be adhered to by every immigration officer involved in enforcement activities. Any violation of this section shall be reported to the Office of the Inspector General or such other entity as may be provided for in 8 CFR 287.10.

(a) Use of force—(1) Non-deadly force. (i) Non-deadly force is any use of force other than that which is considered deadly force as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) Non-deadly force may be used only when a designated immigration officer, as listed in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section, has reasonable grounds to believe that such force is necessary.

(iii) A designated immigration officer shall always use the minimum non-deadly force necessary to accomplish the officer's mission and shall escalate to a higher level of non-deadly force only when such higher level of force is warranted by the actions, apparent intentions, and apparent capabilities of the suspect, prisoner, or assailant.

(iv) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to use non-deadly force should circumstances warrant it:

(A) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(B) Special agents;

(C) Deportation officers;

(D) Detention enforcement officers or immigration enforcement agents;

(E) Immigration inspectors;

(F) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(G) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(H) Immigration officers who need the authority to use non-deadly force under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(2) Deadly force. (i) Deadly force is any use of force that is likely to cause death or serious physical injury.

(ii) Deadly force may be used only when a designated immigration officer, as listed in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, has reasonable grounds to believe that such force is necessary to protect the designated immigration officer or other persons from the imminent danger of death or serious physical injury.

(iii) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to exercise the power conferred by section 287(a) of the Act to use deadly force should circumstances warrant it:

(A) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(B) Special agents;

(C) Deportation officers;

(D) Detention enforcement officers or immigration enforcement agents;

(E) Immigration inspectors;

(F) Adjudications officers when in the uniform of an immigration inspector and performing inspections or supervising other immigration inspectors performing inspections;

(G) Supervisory and managerial personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed above; and

(H) Immigration officers who need the authority to use deadly force under section 287(a) of the Act in order to effectively accomplish their individual missions and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(b) Interrogation and detention not amounting to arrest. (1) Interrogation is questioning designed to elicit specific information. An immigration officer, like any other person, has the right to ask questions of anyone as long as the immigration officer does not restrain the freedom of an individual, not under arrest, to walk away.

(2) If the immigration officer has a reasonable suspicion, based on specific articulable facts, that the person being questioned is, or is attempting to be, engaged in an offense against the United States or is an alien illegally in the United States, the immigration officer may briefly detain the person for questioning.

(3) Information obtained from this questioning may provide the basis for a subsequent arrest, which must be effected only by a designated immigration officer, as listed in 8 CFR 287.5(c). The conduct of arrests is specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Conduct of arrests—(1) Authority. Only designated immigration officers are authorized to make an arrest. The list of designated immigration officers varies depending on the type of arrest as listed in 8 CFR 287.5(c)(1) through (c)(5).

(2) General procedures. (i) An arrest shall be made only when the designated immigration officer has reason to believe that the person to be arrested has committed an offense against the United States or is an alien illegally in the United States.

(ii) A warrant of arrest shall be obtained except when the designated immigration officer has reason to believe that the person is likely to escape before a warrant can be obtained.

(iii) At the time of the arrest, the designated immigration officer shall, as soon as it is practical and safe to do so:

(A) Identify himself or herself as an immigration officer who is authorized to execute an arrest; and

(B) State that the person is under arrest and the reason for the arrest.

(iv) With respect to an alien arrested and administratively charged with being in the United States in violation of law, the arresting officer shall adhere to the procedures set forth in 8 CFR 287.3 if the arrest is made without a warrant.

(v) With respect to a person arrested and charged with a criminal violation of the laws of the United States, the arresting officer shall advise the person of the appropriate rights as required by law at the time of the arrest, or as soon thereafter as practicable. It is the duty of the immigration officer to assure that the warnings are given in a language the subject understands, and that the subject acknowledges that the warnings are understood. The fact that a person has been advised of his or her rights shall be documented on appropriate Department forms and made a part of the arrest record.

(vi) Every person arrested and charged with a criminal violation of the laws of the United States shall be brought without unnecessary delay before a United States magistrate judge, a United States district judge or, if necessary, a judicial officer empowered in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 3041 to commit persons charged with such crimes. Accordingly, the immigration officer shall contact an Assistant United States Attorney to arrange for an initial appearance.

(vii) The use of threats, coercion, or physical abuse by the designated immigration officer to induce a suspect to waive his or her rights or to make a statement is prohibited.

(d) Transportation—(1) Vehicle transportation. All persons will be transported in a manner that ensures the safety of the persons being transported. When persons arrested or detained are being transported by vehicle, each person will be searched as thoroughly as circumstances permit before being placed in the vehicle. The person being transported shall not be handcuffed to the frame or any part of the moving vehicle or an object in the moving vehicle. The person being transported shall not be left unattended during transport unless the immigration officer needs to perform a law enforcement function.

(2) Airline transportation. Escorting officers must abide by all Federal Aviation Administration, Transportation Security Administration, and airline carrier rules and regulations pertaining to weapons and the transportation of prisoners.

(e) Vehicular pursuit. (1) A vehicular pursuit is an active attempt by a designated immigration officer, as listed in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, in a designated pursuit vehicle to apprehend fleeing suspects who are attempting to avoid apprehension. A designated pursuit vehicle is defined as a vehicle equipped with emergency lights and siren, placed in or on the vehicle, that emit audible and visual signals in order to warn others that emergency law enforcement activities are in progress.

(2) The following immigration officers who have successfully completed basic immigration law enforcement training are hereby authorized and designated to initiate a vehicular pursuit:

(i) Border patrol agents, including aircraft pilots;

(ii) Supervisory personnel who are responsible for supervising the activities of those officers listed in this paragraph; and

(iii) Immigration officers who need the authority to initiate a vehicular pursuit in order to effectively accomplish their individual mission and who are designated, individually or as a class, by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE.

(f) Site inspections. (1) Site inspections are Border and Transportation Security Directorate enforcement activities undertaken to locate and identify aliens illegally in the United States, or aliens engaged in unauthorized employment, at locations where there is a reasonable suspicion, based on articulable facts, that such aliens are present.

(2) An immigration officer may not enter into the non-public areas of a business, a residence including the curtilage of such residence, or a farm or other outdoor agricultural operation, except as provided in section 287(a)(3) of the Act, for the purpose of questioning the occupants or employees concerning their right to be or remain in the United States unless the officer has either a warrant or the consent of the owner or other person in control of the site to be inspected. When consent to enter is given, the immigration officer must note on the officer's report that consent was given and, if possible, by whom consent was given. If the immigration officer is denied access to conduct a site inspection, a warrant may be obtained.

(3) Adequate records must be maintained noting the results of every site inspection, including those where no illegal aliens are located.

(4) Nothing in this section prohibits an immigration officer from entering into any area of a business or other activity to which the general public has access or onto open fields that are not farms or other outdoor agricultural operations without a warrant, consent, or any particularized suspicion in order to question any person whom the officer believes to be an alien concerning his or her right to be or remain in the United States.

(g) Guidelines. The criminal law enforcement authorities authorized under this part will be exercised in a manner consistent with all applicable guidelines and policies of the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security.

[68 FR 35280, June 13, 2003]

§287.9   Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

(a) A search warrant should be obtained prior to conducting a search in a criminal investigation unless a specific exception to the warrant requirement is authorized by statute or recognized by the courts. Such exceptions may include, for example, the consent of the person to be searched, exigent circumstances, searches incident to a lawful arrest, and border searches. The Commissioner of CBP and the Assistant Secretary of ICE shall promulgate guidelines governing officers' conduct relating to search and seizure.

(b) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR 287.8(a)(2). An immigration officer may carry only firearms (whether Department issued or personally owned) that have been approved pursuant to guidelines promulgated by the Commissioner of CBP or the Assistant Secretary for ICE. These officials shall promulgate guidelines with respect to:

(1) Investigative procedures to be followed after a shooting incident involving an officer;

(2) Loss or theft of an approved firearm;

(3) Maintenance of records with respect to the issuance of firearms and ammunition; and

(4) Procedures for the proper care, storage, and maintenance of firearms, ammunition, and related equipment.

[59 FR 42420, Aug. 17, 1994, as amended at 68 FR 35280, June 13, 2003]

§287.10   Expedited internal review process.

(a) Violations of standards for enforcement activities. Alleged violations of the standards for enforcement activities established in accordance with the provisions of §287.8 shall be investigated expeditiously consistent with the policies and procedures of the Department of Homeland Security and pursuant to any guidelines issued by the Secretary.

(b) Complaints. Any persons wishing to lodge a complaint pertaining to violations of enforcement standards contained in §287.8 may contact the Department of Homeland Security, Office of the Inspector General, 245 Murray Drive—Building 410, Washington, DC, 20548, or telephone 1-800-323-8603. With respect to employees of the former INS, persons may contact the Office of Internal Audit, Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 425 I Street NW., Washington, DC, 20536.

(c) Expedited processing of complaints. When an allegation or complaint of violation of §287.8 is lodged against an employee or officer of the Department, the allegation or complaint shall be referred promptly for investigation in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Department. At the conclusion of an investigation of an allegation or complaint of violation of §287.8, the investigative report shall be referred promptly for appropriate action in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Department.

(d) Unsubstantiated complaints. When an investigative report does not support the allegation, the employee or officer against whom the allegation was made shall be informed in writing that the matter has been closed as soon as practicable. No reference to the allegation shall be filed in the official's or employee's official personnel file.

(e) Jurisdiction of Department of Justice organizations. Nothing in this section alters or limits, is intended to alter or limit, or shall be construed to alter or limit, the jurisdiction or authority conferred upon the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Attorneys, the Criminal Division or the Civil Rights Division, or any other component of the Department of Justice that may have jurisdiction regarding criminal violations of law.

[68 FR 35281, June 13, 2003]

§287.11   Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

(a) Pre-enrolled Access Lane (PAL). A PAL is a designated traffic lane located at a Service checkpoint, which, when in operation, may be used exclusively by enrolled participants and their passengers in vehicles authorized by the Service to pass through the checkpoint.

(b) General requirements for Pre-enrolled Access Lane Program. (1) Participation in the Pre-enrolled Access Lane program is wholly voluntary and failure to apply or denial of an application does not prevent any person from passing through the checkpoint in the regular traffic lanes.

(2) Only United States citizens and members of the classes of aliens which the Commissioner of the Service or her delegates determine to be eligible may enroll in the PAL program. To participate in the PAL program, an applicant must have a permanent or temporary residence in the United States, and must agree to furnish all information requested on the application.

(3) The applicant must agree to all terms and conditions required for use of a Pre-enrolled Access Lane. Immigration, criminal justice information, and law enforcement records and databases will be checked to assist in determining the applicant's eligibility. The Service may require applicants to submit fingerprints, and the Service may provide those fingerprints to Federal, State, and local government agencies for the purpose of determining eligibility to participate in the PAL program.

(4) Any vehicle used in a Pre-enrolled Access Lane must have current approval from the Service for use in the PAL program.

(5) Enrolled participants may be issued an identification document showing authorization to participate in the PAL program, and, if such a document is issued, participants must have it in their possession whenever using the PAL. In addition, alien participants must be in possession of a valid form constituting evidence of alien registration pursuant to §264.1(b) of this chapter at all times while using the PAL.

(6) The Service will install any and all equipment, decals, devices, technology, or methodology it deems necessary on registered vehicles to ensure that only authorized persons and vehicles use the PAL.

(7) All devices, decals, or other equipment, methodology, or technology used to identify persons or vehicles using a Pre-enrolled Access Lane remain the property of the United States Government at all times and must be surrendered upon request of the Service. Enrolled participants must abide by the terms set forth by the Service for use of any device, decal, or other equipment, methodology, or technology. If a vehicle is sold or otherwise disposed of, it is the responsibility of the enrolled participant to remove or obliterate any identifying decal or other authorization for participation in the PAL program before or at the time of sale or disposal unless otherwise notified by the Service. If the Service installs an electronic transmitter or similar device on the vehicle, the enrolled participant must have that device removed by the Service at the PAL enrollment center prior to sale or disposal of an authorized vehicle.

(8) Enrolled participants in the PAL program may carry passengers who are not enrolled in the program in their authorized vehicles in the PAL as long as all passengers are United States citizens, lawful permanent residents of the United States, or rightful holders of valid nonimmigrant United States visas.

(c) Application. (1) Application for Pre-enrolled Access Lane participation shall be made on Form I-866, Application—Checkpoint Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

(2) Each person wishing to enroll in the Pre-enrolled Access Lane program must submit a separate application.

(3) Applications must be supported by documents establishing identity, United States citizenship or lawful immigration status in the United States, a valid driver's license, and vehicle registration for all vehicles being registered. The Service may require additional documentation where appropriate to substantiate information provided on the application, as well as written permission from the vehicle owner to use any vehicle not owned by the applicant in the PAL.

(4) Each person filing an application may be required to present himself or herself for an interview at a time and place designated by the Service prior to approval of the application.

(5) The Service may inspect any vehicle that a PAL applicant desires to register for use in the PAL to ensure that it does not present evidence of having been used or prepared to be used to smuggle aliens or controlled substances, and the Service must approve all vehicles prior to use in the PAL. The Service may prohibit the use of certain types of vehicles in the PAL for reasons of safety and law enforcement.

(6) An application may be denied by the Chief Patrol Agent having jurisdiction over the PAL enrollment center where the application is filed. Written notice of the decision on the application shall be given to the applicant or mailed by ordinary mail to the applicant's last known address. There is no appeal from a denial, but denial is without prejudice to reapplying for this program. Re-applications following denial or revocation of the privilege to participate in the PAL program will not be considered by the Service until 90 days after the date of denial or revocation.

(7) Registration in the PAL program is limited to individuals who the Service has determined present a low risk of using the PAL for unlawful purposes. Criteria that will be considered in the decision to approve or deny the application include the following: lawful presence in the United States, criminal history and/or evidence of criminality, employment, residency, prior immigration history, possession of a valid driver's license, vehicle type, registration, and inspection.

(8) Applications approved by the Service will entitle the authorized person and the authorized vehicle to use the PAL for 2 years from the date of approval of the application or until authorization is revoked, whichever occurs first.

(d) Acknowledgments and agreements. By signing and submitting the Form I-866 each applicant acknowledges and agrees to all of the conditions for participation in the PAL program and the statements on the Form I-866.

(e) Violation of conditions of a Pre-enrolled Access Lane and Revocation. An enrolled participant who violates any condition of the PAL program, or any applicable law or regulation, or who is otherwise determined by an immigration officer to be ineligible to participate in the PAL program, may have his or her authorization and the authorization of his or her vehicle(s) revoked by the Chief Patrol Agent with jurisdiction over the PAL enrollment center where the application is filed and may be subject to other applicable sanctions, such as criminal and/or civil penalties, removal, and/or possible seizure of goods and/or vehicles. If an authorized vehicle is sold, stolen, or otherwise disposed of, authorization to use that vehicle in the PAL is automatically revoked. Within 24 hours of when an authorized vehicle is stolen, or within 7 days of when such vehicle is sold, or otherwise disposed of or the license plates are changed, enrolled participants must give, in person or by facsimile transmission, written notice of such occurrence to the PAL enrollment center at which their application was filed. Failure to do so will result in the automatic revocation of the authorization to use the PAL of the person who registered such vehicle in the PAL program. Unless revocation is automatic, the Service will give notice of revocation to the enrolled PAL participant or mail it by ordinary mail to his or her last known address. However, written notification is not necessary prior to revocation of the privilege to participate in the PAL program. There is no appeal from the revocation of an authorization to participate in the PAL program.

(f) No benefits or rights conferred. This section does not, is not intended to, shall not be construed to, and may not be relied upon to confer any immigration benefit or status to any alien or create any rights, substantive or procedural, enforceable in law or equity by any party in any matter.

[62 FR 19025, Apr. 18, 1997]

§287.12   Scope.

With regard to this part, these regulations provide internal guidance on specific areas of law enforcement authority. These regulations do not, are not intended to, and shall not be construed to exclude, supplant, or limit otherwise lawful activities of the Department or the Secretary. These regulations do not, are not intended to, shall not be construed to, and may not be relied upon to create any rights, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by any party in any matter, civil or criminal. The Secretary shall have exclusive authority to enforce these regulations through such administrative and other means as he may deem appropriate.

[68 FR 35282, June 13, 2003]



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