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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 22, 2014

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter C → Part 98


Title 40: Protection of Environment


PART 98—MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING


Contents

Subpart A—General Provision

§98.1   Purpose and scope.
§98.2   Who must report?
§98.3   What are the general monitoring, reporting, recordkeeping and verification requirements of this part?
§98.4   Authorization and responsibilities of the designated representative.
§98.5   How is the report submitted?
§98.6   Definitions.
§98.7   What standardized methods are incorporated by reference into this part?
§98.8   What are the compliance and enforcement provisions of this part?
§98.9   Addresses.
Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials
Table A-2 to Subpart A of Part 98—Units of Measure Conversions
Table A-3 to Subpart A of Part 98—Source Category List for §98.2(a)(1)
Table A-4 to Subpart A of Part 98—Source Category List for §98.2(a)(2)
Table A-5 to Subpart A of Part 98—Supplier Category List for §98.2(a)(4)
Table A-6 to Subpart A of Part 98—Data Elements That Are Inputs to Emission Equations and for Which the Reporting Deadline Is March 31, 2013
Table A-7 to Subpart A of Part 98—Data Elements That Are Inputs to Emission Equations and for Which the Reporting Deadline Is March 31, 2015

Subpart B [Reserved]

Subpart C—General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources

§98.30   Definition of the source category.
§98.31   Reporting threshold.
§98.32   GHGs to report.
§98.33   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.34   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.35   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.36   Data reporting requirements.
§98.37   Records that must be retained.
§98.38   Definitions.
Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel
Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

Subpart D—Electricity Generation

§98.40   Definition of the source category.
§98.41   Reporting threshold.
§98.42   GHGs to report.
§98.43   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.44   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.45   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.46   Data reporting requirements.
§98.47   Records that must be retained.
§98.48   Definitions.

Subpart E—Adipic Acid Production

§98.50   Definition of source category.
§98.51   Reporting threshold.
§98.52   GHGs to report.
§98.53   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.54   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.55   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.56   Data reporting requirements.
§98.57   Records that must be retained.
§98.58   Definitions.

Subpart F—Aluminum Production

§98.60   Definition of the source category.
§98.61   Reporting threshold.
§98.62   GHGs to report.
§98.63   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.64   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.65   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.66   Data reporting requirements.
§98.67   Records that must be retained.
§98.68   Definitions.
Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production
Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98—Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

Subpart G—Ammonia Manufacturing

§98.70   Definition of source category.
§98.71   Reporting threshold.
§98.72   GHGs to report.
§98.73   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.74   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.75   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.76   Data reporting requirements.
§98.77   Records that must be retained.
§98.78   Definitions.

Subpart H—Cement Production

§98.80   Definition of the source category.
§98.81   Reporting threshold.
§98.82   GHGs to report.
§98.83   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.84   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.85   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.86   Data reporting requirements.
§98.87   Records that must be retained.
§98.88   Definitions.

Subpart I—Electronics Manufacturing

§98.90   Definition of the source category.
§98.91   Reporting threshold.
§98.92   GHGs to report.
§98.93   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.94   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.95   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.96   Data reporting requirements.
§98.97   Records that must be retained.
§98.98   Definitions.
Table I-1 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors for Threshold Applicability Determination
Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98—Examples of Fluorinated GHGs Used by the Electronics Industry
Table I-3 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 150 mm and 200 mm Wafer Sizes
Table I-4 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 300 mm and 450 mm Wafer Size
Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing
Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing
Table I-7 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing
Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98— Default Emission Factors (1-UN2O,j) for N2O Utilization (UN2O,j)
Table I-9 to Subpart I of Part 98—Methods and Procedures for Conducting Emissions Test for Stack Systems
Table I-10 to Subpart I of Part 98—Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack Systems
Table I-11 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (150 mm and 200 mm Wafers)
Table I-12 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (300 mm and 450 mm Wafers)
Table I-13 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method
Table I-14 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method
Table I-15 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method
Table I-16 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Destruction or Removal Efficiency (DRE) Factors for Electronics Manufacturing
Table I-17 to Subpart I of Part 98—Expected and Possible By-Products for Electronics Manufacturinglg
Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 98—Alternative Procedures for Measuring Point-of-Use Abatement Device Destruction or Removal Efficiency

Subpart J [Reserved]

Subpart K—Ferroalloy Production

§98.110   Definition of the source category.
§98.111   Reporting threshold.
§98.112   GHGs to report.
§98.113   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.114   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.115   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.116   Data reporting requirements.
§98.117   Records that must be retained.
§98.118   Definitions.
Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

Subpart L—Fluorinated Gas Production

§98.120   Definition of the source category.
§98.121   Reporting threshold.
§98.122   GHGs to report.
§98.123   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.124   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.125   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.126   Data reporting requirements.
§98.127   Records that must be retained.
§98.128   Definitions.

Subpart M [Reserved]

Subpart N—Glass Production

§98.140   Definition of the source category.
§98.141   Reporting threshold.
§98.142   GHGs to report.
§98.143   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.144   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.145   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.146   Data reporting requirements.
§98.147   Records that must be retained.
§98.148   Definitions.
Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

Subpart O—HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction

§98.150   Definition of the source category.
§98.151   Reporting threshold.
§98.152   GHGs to report.
§98.153   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.154   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.155   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.156   Data reporting requirements.
§98.157   Records that must be retained.
§98.158   Definitions.
Table O-1 to Subpart O of Part 98—Emission Factors for Equipment Leaks

Subpart P—Hydrogen Production

§98.160   Definition of the source category.
§98.161   Reporting threshold.
§98.162   GHGs to report.
§98.163   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.164   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.165   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.166   Data reporting requirements.
§98.167   Records that must be retained.
§98.168   Definitions.

Subpart Q—Iron and Steel Production

§98.170   Definition of the source category.
§98.171   Reporting threshold.
§98.172   GHGs to report.
§98.173   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.174   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.175   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.176   Data reporting requirements.
§98.177   Records that must be retained.
§98.178   Definitions.

Subpart R—Lead Production

§98.180   Definition of the source category.
§98.181   Reporting threshold.
§98.182   GHGs to report.
§98.183   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.184   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.185   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.186   Data reporting procedures.
§98.187   Records that must be retained.
§98.188   Definitions.

Subpart S—Lime Manufacturing

§98.190   Definition of the source category.
§98.191   Reporting threshold.
§98.192   GHGs to report.
§98.193   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.194   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.195   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.196   Data reporting requirements.
§98.197   Records that must be retained.
§98.198   Definitions.
Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

Subpart T—Magnesium Production

§98.200   Definition of source category.
§98.201   Reporting threshold.
§98.202   GHGs to report.
§98.203   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.204   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.205   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.206   Data reporting requirements.
§98.207   Records that must be retained.
§98.208   Definitions.

Subpart U—Miscellaneous Uses of Carbonate

§98.210   Definition of the source category.
§98.211   Reporting threshold.
§98.212   GHGs to report.
§98.213   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.214   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.215   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.216   Data reporting requirements.
§98.217   Records that must be retained.
§98.218   Definitions.
Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

Subpart V—Nitric Acid Production

§98.220   Definition of source category.
§98.221   Reporting threshold.
§98.222   GHGs to report.
§98.223   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.224   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.225   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.226   Data reporting requirements.
§98.227   Records that must be retained.
§98.228   Definitions.

Subpart W—Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

§98.230   Definition of the source category.
§98.231   Reporting threshold.
§98.232   GHGs to report.
§98.233   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.234   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.235   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.236   Data reporting requirements.
§98.237   Records that must be retained.
§98.238   Definitions.
Table W-1A of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production
Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment
Table W-1C to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment
Table W-1D of Subpart W of Part 98—Designation Of Eastern And Western U.S.
Table W-2 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing
Table W-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression
Table W-4 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage
Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage
Table W-6 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment
Table W-7 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

Subpart X—Petrochemical Production

§98.240   Definition of the source category.
§98.241   Reporting threshold.
§98.242   GHGs to report.
§98.243   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.244   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.245   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.246   Data reporting requirements.
§98.247   Records that must be retained.
§98.248   Definitions.

Subpart Y—Petroleum Refineries

§98.250   Definition of source category.
§98.251   Reporting threshold.
§98.252   GHGs to report.
§98.253   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.254   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.255   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.256   Data reporting requirements.
§98.257   Records that must be retained.
§98.258   Definitions.

Subpart Z—Phosphoric Acid Production

§98.260   Definition of the source category.
§98.261   Reporting threshold.
§98.262   GHGs to report.
§98.263   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.264   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.265   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.266   Data reporting requirements.
§98.267   Records that must be retained.
§98.268   Definitions.
Table Z-1 to Subpart Z of Part 98—Default Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock by Origin

Subpart AA—Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

§98.270   Definition of source category.
§98.271   Reporting threshold.
§98.272   GHGs to report.
§98.273   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.274   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.275   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.276   Data reporting requirements.
§98.277   Records that must be retained.
§98.278   Definitions.
Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O
Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O

Subpart BB—Silicon Carbide Production

§98.280   Definition of the source category.
§98.281   Reporting threshold.
§98.282   GHGs to report.
§98.283   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.284   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.285   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.286   Data reporting requirements.
§98.287   Records that must be retained.
§98.288   Definitions.

Subpart CC—Soda Ash Manufacturing

§98.290   Definition of the source category.
§98.291   Reporting threshold.
§98.292   GHGs to report.
§98.293   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.294   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.295   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.296   Data reporting requirements.
§98.297   Records that must be retained.
§98.298   Definitions.

Subpart DD—Electrical Transmission and Distribution Equipment Use

§98.300   Definition of the source category.
§98.301   Reporting threshold.
§98.302   GHGs to report.
§98.303   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.304   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.305   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.306   Data reporting requirements.
§98.307   Records that must be retained.
§98.308   Definitions.

Subpart EE—Titanium Dioxide Production

§98.310   Definition of the source category.
§98.311   Reporting threshold.
§98.312   GHGs to report.
§98.313   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.314   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.315   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.316   Data reporting requirements.
§98.317   Records that must be retained.
§98.318   Definitions.

Subpart FF—Underground Coal Mines

§98.320   Definition of the source category.
§98.321   Reporting threshold.
§98.322   GHGs to report.
§98.323   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.324   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.325   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.326   Data reporting requirements.
§98.327   Records that must be retained.
§98.328   Definitions.

Subpart GG—Zinc Production

§98.330   Definition of the source category.
§98.331   Reporting threshold.
§98.332   GHGs to report.
§98.333   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.334   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.335   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.336   Data reporting requirements.
§98.337   Records that must be retained.
§98.338   Definitions.

Subpart HH—Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

§98.340   Definition of the source category.
§98.341   Reporting threshold.
§98.342   GHGs to report.
§98.343   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.344   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.345   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.346   Data reporting requirements.
§98.347   Records that must be retained.
§98.348   Definitions.
Table HH-1 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Emissions Factors, Oxidation Factors and Methods
Table HH-2 to Subpart HH of Part 98—U.S. Per Capita Waste Disposal Rates
Table HH-3 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Landfill Gas Collection Efficiencies
Table HH-4 to Subpart HH of Part 98—Landfill Methane Oxidation Fractions

Subpart II—Industrial Wastewater Treatment

§98.350   Definition of source category.
§98.351   Reporting threshold.
§98.352   GHGs to report.
§98.353   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.354   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.355   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.356   Data reporting requirements.
§98.357   Records that must be retained.
§98.358   Definitions.
Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98—Emission Factors
Table II-2 to Subpart II—Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

Subpart JJ—Manure Management

§98.360   Definition of the source category.
§98.361   Reporting threshold.
§98.362   GHGs to report.
§98.363   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.364   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.365   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.366   Data reporting requirements.
§98.367   Records that must be retained.
§98.368   Definitions.
Table JJ-1 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Animal Population Threshold Level Below Which Facilities Are Not Required To Report Emissions Under Subpart JJ
Table JJ-2 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Waste Characteristics Data
Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle
Table JJ-4 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Volatile Solids and Nitrogen Removal through Solids Separation
Table JJ-6 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Digesters
Table JJ-7 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors (kg N2O-N/kg Kjdl N)

Subpart KK [Reserved]

Subpart LL—Suppliers of Coal-based Liquid Fuels

§98.380   Definition of the source category.
§98.381   Reporting threshold.
§98.382   GHGs to report.
§98.383   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.384   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.385   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.386   Data reporting requirements.
§98.387   Records that must be retained.
§98.388   Definitions.

Subpart MM—Suppliers of Petroleum Products

§98.390   Definition of the source category.
§98.391   Reporting threshold.
§98.392   GHGs To report.
§98.393   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.394   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.395   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.396   Data reporting requirements.
§98.397   Records that must be retained.
§98.398   Definitions.
Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids
Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

Subpart NN—Suppliers of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids

§98.400   Definition of the source category.
§98.401   Reporting threshold.
§98.402   GHGs to report.
§98.403   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.404   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.405   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.406   Data reporting requirements.
§98.407   Records that must be retained.
§98.408   Definitions.
Table NN-1 to Subpart NN of Part 98—Default Factors for Calculation Methodology 1 of This Subpart
Table NN-2 to Subpart NN of Part 98—Default Values for Calculation Methodology 2 of This Subpart

Subpart OO—Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases

§98.410   Definition of the source category.
§98.411   Reporting threshold.
§98.412   GHGs to report.
§98.413   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.414   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.415   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.416   Data reporting requirements.
§98.417   Records that must be retained.
§98.418   Definitions.

Subpart PP—Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide

§98.420   Definition of the source category.
§98.421   Reporting threshold.
§98.422   GHGs to report.
§98.423   Calculating CO2 supply.
§98.424   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.425   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.426   Data reporting requirements.
§98.427   Records that must be retained.
§98.428   Definitions.

Subpart QQ—Importers and Exporters of Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases Contained in Pre-Charged Equipment or Closed-Cell Foams

§98.430   Definition of the source category.
§98.431   Reporting threshold.
§98.432   GHGs to report.
§98.433   Calculating GHG contained in pre-charged equipment or closed-cell foams.
§98.434   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.435   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.436   Data reporting requirements.
§98.437   Records that must be retained.
§98.438   Definitions.

Subpart RR—Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

§98.440   Definition of the source category.
§98.441   Reporting threshold.
§98.442   GHGs to report.
§98.443   Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration.
§98.444   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.445   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.446   Data reporting requirements.
§98.447   Records that must be retained.
§98.448   Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.
§98.449   Definitions.

Subpart SS—Electrical Equipment Manufacture or Refurbishment

§98.450   Definition of the source category.
§98.451   Reporting threshold.
§98.452   GHGs to report.
§98.453   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.454   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.455   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.456   Data reporting requirements.
§98.457   Records that must be retained.
§98.458   Definitions.

Subpart TT—Industrial Waste Landfills

§98.460   Definition of the source category.
§98.461   Reporting threshold.
§98.462   GHGs to report.
§98.463   Calculating GHG emissions.
§98.464   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.465   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.466   Data reporting requirements.
§98.467   Records that must be retained.
§98.468   Definitions.
Table TT-1 to Subpart TT of Part 98—Default DOC and Decay Rate Values for Industrial Waste Landfills

Subpart UU—Injection of Carbon Dioxide

§98.470   Definition of the source category.
§98.471   Reporting threshold.
§98.472   GHGs to report.
§98.473   Calculating CO2 received.
§98.474   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.
§98.475   Procedures for estimating missing data.
§98.476   Data reporting requirements.
§98.477   Records that must be retained.
§98.478   Definitions.

Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401, et seq.

Source: 74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General Provision

§98.1   Purpose and scope.

(a) This part establishes mandatory greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting requirements for owners and operators of certain facilities that directly emit GHG as well as for certain suppliers. For suppliers, the GHGs reported are the quantity that would be emitted from combustion or use of the products supplied.

(b) Owners and operators of facilities and suppliers that are subject to this part must follow the requirements of this subpart and all applicable subparts of this part. If a conflict exists between a provision in subpart A and any other applicable subpart, the requirements of the applicable subpart shall take precedence.

(c) For facilities required to report under onshore petroleum and natural gas production under subpart W of this part, the terms Owner and Operator used in subpart A have the same definition as Onshore petroleum and natural gas production owner or operator, as defined in §98.238 of this part.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 39758, July 12, 2010; 76 FR 73898, Nov. 29, 2011; 76 FR 80573, Dec. 23, 2011]

§98.2   Who must report?

(a) The GHG reporting requirements and related monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements of this part apply to the owners and operators of any facility that is located in the United States or under or attached to the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in 43 U.S.C. 1331) and that meets the requirements of either paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section; and any supplier that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(4) of this section:

(1) A facility that contains any source category that is listed in Table A-3 of this subpart in any calendar year starting in 2010. For these facilities, the annual GHG report must cover stationary fuel combustion sources (subpart C of this part), miscellaneous use of carbonates (subpart U of this part), and all applicable source categories listed in Table A-3 and Table A-4 of this subpart.

(2) A facility that contains any source category that is listed in Table A-4 of this subpart and that emits 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more per year in combined emissions from stationary fuel combustion units, miscellaneous uses of carbonate, and all applicable source categories that are listed in Table A-3 and Table A-4 of this subpart. For these facilities, the annual GHG report must cover stationary fuel combustion sources (subpart C of this part), miscellaneous use of carbonates (subpart U of this part), and all applicable source categories listed in Table A-3 and Table A-4 of this subpart.

(3) A facility that in any calendar year starting in 2010 meets all three of the conditions listed in this paragraph (a)(3). For these facilities, the annual GHG report must cover emissions from stationary fuel combustion sources only.

(i) The facility does not meet the requirements of either paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) The aggregate maximum rated heat input capacity of the stationary fuel combustion units at the facility is 30 mmBtu/hr or greater.

(iii) The facility emits 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more per year in combined emissions from all stationary fuel combustion sources.

(4) A supplier that is listed in Table A-5 of this subpart. For these suppliers, the annual GHG report must cover all applicable products for which calculation methodologies are provided in the subparts listed in Table A-5 of this subpart.

(5) Research and development activities are not considered to be part of any source category defined in this part.

(b) To calculate GHG emissions for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year emission threshold in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the owner or operator shall calculate annual CO2e emissions, as described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section.

(1) Calculate the annual emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O,and each fluorinated GHG in metric tons from all applicable source categories listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The GHG emissions shall be calculated using the calculation methodologies specified in each applicable subpart and available company records. Include emissions from only those gases listed in Table A-1 of this subpart.

(2) For each general stationary fuel combustion unit, calculate the annual CO2 emissions in metric tons using any of the four calculation methodologies specified in §98.33(a). Calculate the annual CH4 and N2O emissions from the stationary fuel combustion sources in metric tons using the appropriate equation in §98.33(c). Exclude carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of biomass, but include emissions of CH4 and N2O from biomass combustion.

(3) For miscellaneous uses of carbonate, calculate the annual CO2 emissions in metric tons using the procedures specified in subpart U of this part.

(4) Sum the emissions estimates from paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), and (b)(3) of this section for each GHG and calculate metric tons of CO2e using Equation A-1 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.000.gif

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Where:

CO2e = Carbon dioxide equivalent, metric tons/year.

GHGi = Mass emissions of each greenhouse gas listed in Table A-1 of this subpart, metric tons/year.

GWPi = Global warming potential for each greenhouse gas from Table A-1 of this subpart.

n = The number of greenhouse gases emitted.

(5) For purpose of determining if an emission threshold has been exceeded, include in the emissions calculation any CO2 that is captured for transfer off site.

(c) To calculate GHG emissions for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e/year emission threshold for stationary fuel combustion under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each stationary fuel combustion unit by following the methods specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Then, convert the emissions of each GHG to metric tons CO2e per year using Equation A-1 of this section, and sum the emissions for all units at the facility.

(d) To calculate GHG quantities for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2 per year threshold for importers and exporters of coal-to-liquid products under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, calculate the mass in metric tons per year of CO2 that would result from the complete combustion or oxidation of the quantity of coal-to-liquid products that are imported during the reporting year and, that are exported during the reporting year. Compare the imported quantities and the exported quantities separately to the 25,000 metric ton CO2 per year threshold. Calculate the quantities using the methodology specified in subpart LL of this part.

(e) To calculate GHG quantities for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year threshold for importers and exporters of petroleum products under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, calculate the mass in metric tons per year of CO2 that would result from the complete combustion or oxidation of the combined volume of petroleum products and natural gas liquids that are imported during the reporting year and that are exported during the reporting year. Compare the imported quantities and the exported quantities separately to the 25,000 metric ton CO2 per year threshold. Calculate the quantities using the methodology specified in subpart MM of this part.

(f) To calculate GHG quantities for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year threshold under paragraph (a)(4) of this section for importers and exporters of industrial greenhouse gases and for importers and exporters of CO2, the owner or operator shall calculate the mass in metric tons per year of CO2e imports and exports as described in paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(3) of this section. Compare the imported quantities and the exported quantities separately to the 25,000 metric ton CO2 per year threshold.

(1) Calculate the mass in metric tons per year of CO2, N2O, and each fluorinated GHG that is imported and the mass in metric tons per year of CO2, N2O, and each fluorinated GHG that is exported during the year. Include only those gases listed in Table A-1 of this subpart.

(2) Convert the mass of each imported and each GHG exported from paragraph (f)(1) of this section to metric tons of CO2e using Equation A-1 of this section.

(3) Sum the total annual metric tons of CO2e in paragraph (f)(2) of this section for all imported GHGs. Sum the total annual metric tons of CO2e in paragraph (f)(2) of this section for all exported GHGs.

(g) If a capacity or generation reporting threshold in paragraph (a)(1) of this section applies, the owner or operator shall review the appropriate records and perform any necessary calculations to determine whether the threshold has been exceeded.

(h) An owner or operator of a facility or supplier that does not meet the applicability requirements of paragraph (a) of this section is not subject to this rule. Such owner or operator would become subject to the rule and reporting requirements, if a facility or supplier exceeds the applicability requirements of paragraph (a) of this section at a later time pursuant to §98.3(b)(3). Thus, the owner or operator should reevaluate the applicability to this part (including the revising of any relevant emissions calculations or other calculations) whenever there is any change that could cause a facility or supplier to meet the applicability requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. Such changes include but are not limited to process modifications, increases in operating hours, increases in production, changes in fuel or raw material use, addition of equipment, and facility expansion.

(i) Except as provided in this paragraph, once a facility or supplier is subject to the requirements of this part, the owner or operator must continue for each year thereafter to comply with all requirements of this part, including the requirement to submit annual GHG reports, even if the facility or supplier does not meet the applicability requirements in paragraph (a) of this section in a future year.

(1) If reported emissions are less than 25,000 metric tons CO2e per year for five consecutive years, then the owner or operator may discontinue complying with this part provided that the owner or operator submits a notification to the Administrator that announces the cessation of reporting and explains the reasons for the reduction in emissions. The notification shall be submitted no later than March 31 of the year immediately following the fifth consecutive year of emissions less than 25,000 tons CO2e per year. The owner or operator must maintain the corresponding records required under §98.3(g) for each of the five consecutive years and retain such records for three years following the year that reporting was discontinued. The owner or operator must resume reporting if annual emissions in any future calendar year increase to 25,000 metric tons CO2e per year or more.

(2) If reported emissions are less than 15,000 metric tons CO2e per year for three consecutive years, then the owner or operator may discontinue complying with this part provided that the owner or operator submits a notification to the Administrator that announces the cessation of reporting and explains the reasons for the reduction in emissions. The notification shall be submitted no later than March 31 of the year immediately following the third consecutive year of emissions less than 15,000 tons CO2e per year. The owner or operator must maintain the corresponding records required under §98.3(g) for each of the three consecutive years and retain such records for three years following the year that reporting was discontinued. The owner or operator must resume reporting if annual emissions in any future calendar year increase to 25,000 metric tons CO2e per year or more.

(3) If the operations of a facility or supplier are changed such that all applicable GHG-emitting processes and operations listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section cease to operate, then the owner or operator is exempt from reporting in the years following the year in which cessation of such operations occurs, provided that the owner or operator submits a notification to the Administrator that announces the cessation of reporting and certifies to the closure of all GHG-emitting processes and operations no later than March 31 of the year following such changes. This paragraph (i)(3) does not apply to seasonal or other temporary cessation of operations. This paragraph (i)(3) does not apply to facilities with municipal solid waste landfills or industrial waste landfills, or to underground coal mines. The owner or operator must resume reporting for any future calendar year during which any of the GHG-emitting processes or operations resume operation.

(j) Table A-2 of this subpart provides a conversion table for some of the common units of measure used in part 98.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 39758, July 12, 2010; 75 FR 57685, Sept. 22, 2010; 76 FR 73899, Nov. 29, 2011; 75 FR 74487, Nov. 30, 2010]

§98.3   What are the general monitoring, reporting, recordkeeping and verification requirements of this part?

The owner or operator of a facility or supplier that is subject to the requirements of this part must submit GHG reports to the Administrator, as specified in this section.

(a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, follow the procedures for emission calculation, monitoring, quality assurance, missing data, recordkeeping, and reporting that are specified in each relevant subpart of this part.

(b) Schedule. The annual GHG report for reporting year 2010 must be submitted no later than September 30, 2011. The annual report for reporting years 2011 and beyond must be submitted no later than March 31 of each calendar year for GHG emissions in the previous calendar year, except as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(1) For reporting year 2011, facilities with one or more of the subparts listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(xi) of this section and suppliers listed in paragraph (b)(1)(xii) of this section are required to submit their annual GHG report no later than September 28, 2012. Facilities and suppliers that are submitting their second annual GHG report in 2012 and that are reporting on one or more subparts listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(xii) of this section must notify EPA by March 31, 2012 that they are not required to submit their annual GHG report until September 28, 2012.

(i) Electronics Manufacturing (subpart I).

(ii) Fluorinated Gas Production (subpart L).

(iii) Magnesium Production (subpart T).

(iv) Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems (subpart W).

(v) Use of Electric Transmission and Distribution Equipment (subpart DD).

(vi) Underground Coal Mines (subpart FF).

(vii) Industrial Wastewater Treatment (subpart II).

(viii) Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide (subpart RR).

(ix) Manufacture of Electric Transmission and Distribution (subpart SS).

(x) Industrial Waste Landfills (subpart TT).

(xi) Injection of Carbon Dioxide (subpart UU).

(xii) Imports and Exports of Equipment Pre-charged with Fluorinated GHGs or Containing Fluorinated GHGs in Closed-cell Foams (subpart QQ).

(2) For a new facility or supplier that begins operation on or after January 1, 2010 and becomes subject to the rule in the year that it becomes operational, report emissions beginning with the first operating month and ending on December 31 of that year. Each subsequent annual report must cover emissions for the calendar year, beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31.

(3) For any facility or supplier that becomes subject to this rule because of a physical or operational change that is made after January 1, 2010, report emissions for the first calendar year in which the change occurs, beginning with the first month of the change and ending on December 31 of that year. For a facility or supplier that becomes subject to this rule solely because of an increase in hours of operation or level of production, the first month of the change is the month in which the increased hours of operation or level of production, if maintained for the remainder of the year, would cause the facility or supplier to exceed the applicable threshold. Each subsequent annual report must cover emissions for the calendar year, beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31.

(4) Unless otherwise stated, if the final day of any time period falls on a weekend or a federal holiday, the time period shall be extended to the next business day.

(c) Content of the annual report. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each annual GHG report shall contain the following information:

(1) Facility name or supplier name (as appropriate), and physical street address of the facility or supplier, including the city, State, and zip code. If the facility does not have a physical street address, then the facility must provide the latitude and longitude representing the geographic centroid or center point of facility operations in decimal degree format. This must be provided in a comma-delimited “latitude, longitude” coordinate pair reported in decimal degrees to at least four digits to the right of the decimal point.

(2) Year and months covered by the report.

(3) Date of submittal.

(4) For facilities, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c)(12) of this section, report annual emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, each fluorinated GHG (as defined in §98.6), and each fluorinated heat transfer fluid (as defined in §98.98) as follows.

(i) Annual emissions (excluding biogenic CO2) aggregated for all GHG from all applicable source categories, expressed in metric tons of CO2e calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart. For electronics manufacturing (as defined in §98.90), starting in reporting year 2012 the CO2e calculation must include each fluorinated heat transfer fluid (as defined in §98.98) whether or not it is also a fluorinated GHG.

(ii) Annual emissions of biogenic CO2 aggregated for all applicable source categories, expressed in metric tons.

(iii) Annual emissions from each applicable source category, expressed in metric tons of each applicable GHG listed in paragraphs (c)(4)(iii)(A) through (c)(4)(iii)(E) of this section.

(A) Biogenic CO2.

(B) CO2 (excluding biogenic CO2).

(C) CH4.

(D) N2O.

(E) Each fluorinated GHG (as defined in §98.6), including those not listed in Table A-1 of this subpart.

(F) For electronics manufacturing (as defined in §98.90), each fluorinated heat transfer fluid (as defined in §98.98) that is not also a fluorinated GHG as specified under (c)(4)(iii)(E) of this section. This requirement applies beginning in reporting year 2012.

(iv) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(vii) of this section, emissions and other data for individual units, processes, activities, and operations as specified in the “Data reporting requirements” section of each applicable subpart of this part.

(v) Indicate (yes or no) whether reported emissions include emissions from a cogeneration unit located at the facility.

(vi) When applying paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section to fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids, calculate and report CO2e for only those fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids listed in Table A-1 of this subpart.

(vii) The owner or operator of a facility is not required to report the data elements specified in Table A-6 to this subpart for calendar years 2010 through 2011 until March 31, 2013. The owner or operator of a facility is not required to report the data elements specified in Table A-7 to this subpart for calendar years 2010 through 2013 until March 31, 2015.

(viii) Applicable source categories means stationary fuel combustion sources (subpart C of this part), miscellaneous use of carbonates (subpart U of this part), and all of the source categories listed in Table A-3 and Table A-4 of this subpart present at the facility.

(5) For suppliers, report annual quantities of CO2, CH4, N2O, and each fluorinated GHG (as defined in §98.6) that would be emitted from combustion or use of the products supplied, imported, and exported during the year. Calculate and report quantities at the following levels:

(i) Total quantity of GHG aggregated for all GHG from all applicable supply categories in Table A-5 of this subpart and expressed in metric tons of CO2e calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart. For fluorinated GHGs, calculate and report CO2e for only those fluorinated GHGs listed in Table A-1 of this subpart.

(ii) Quantity of each GHG from each applicable supply category in Table A-5 to this subpart, expressed in metric tons of each GHG. For fluorinated GHG, report quantities of all fluorinated GHG, including those not listed in Table A-1 to this subpart.

(iii) Any other data specified in the “Data reporting requirements” section of each applicable subpart of this part.

(6) A written explanation, as required under §98.3(e), if you change emission calculation methodologies during the reporting period.

(7) A brief description of each “best available monitoring method” used, the parameter measured using the method, and the time period during which the “best available monitoring method” was used, if applicable.

(8) Each data element for which a missing data procedure was used according to the procedures of an applicable subpart and the total number of hours in the year that a missing data procedure was used for each data element.

(9) A signed and dated certification statement provided by the designated representative of the owner or operator, according to the requirements of §98.4(e)(1).

(10) NAICS code(s) that apply to the facility or supplier.

(i) Primary NAICS code. Report the NAICS code that most accurately describes the facility or supplier's primary product/activity/service. The primary product/activity/service is the principal source of revenue for the facility or supplier. A facility or supplier that has two distinct products/activities/services providing comparable revenue may report a second primary NAICS code.

(ii) Additional NAICS code(s). Report all additional NAICS codes that describe all product(s)/activity(s)/service(s) at the facility or supplier that are not related to the principal source of revenue.

(11) Legal name(s) and physical address(es) of the highest-level United States parent company(s) of the owners (or operators) of the facility or supplier and the percentage of ownership interest for each listed parent company as of December 31 of the year for which data are being reported according to the following instructions:

(i) If the facility or supplier is entirely owned by a single United States company that is not owned by another company, provide that company's legal name and physical address as the United States parent company and report 100 percent ownership.

(ii) If the facility or supplier is entirely owned by a single United States company that is, itself, owned by another company (e.g., it is a division or subsidiary of a higher-level company), provide the legal name and physical address of the highest-level company in the ownership hierarchy as the United States parent company and report 100 percent ownership.

(iii) If the facility or supplier is owned by more than one United States company (e.g., company A owns 40 percent, company B owns 35 percent, and company C owns 25 percent), provide the legal names and physical addresses of all the highest-level companies with an ownership interest as the United States parent companies, and report the percent ownership of each company.

(iv) If the facility or supplier is owned by a joint venture or a cooperative, the joint venture or cooperative is its own United States parent company. Provide the legal name and physical address of the joint venture or cooperative as the United States parent company, and report 100 percent ownership by the joint venture or cooperative.

(v) If the facility or supplier is entirely owned by a foreign company, provide the legal name and physical address of the foreign company's highest-level company based in the United States as the United States parent company, and report 100 percent ownership.

(vi) If the facility or supplier is partially owned by a foreign company and partially owned by one or more U.S. companies, provide the legal name and physical address of the foreign company's highest-level company based in the United States, along with the legal names and physical addresses of the other U.S. parent companies, and report the percent ownership of each of these companies.

(vii) If the facility or supplier is a federally owned facility, report “U.S. Government” and do not report physical address or percent ownership.

(viii) The facility or supplier must refer to the reporting instructions of the electronic GHG reporting tool regarding standardized conventions for the naming of a parent company.

(12) For the 2010 reporting year only, facilities that have “part 75 units” (i.e. units that are subject to subpart D of this part or units that use the methods in part 75 of this chapter to quantify CO2 mass emissions in accordance with §98.33(a)(5)) must report annual GHG emissions either in full accordance with paragraphs (c)(4)(i) through (c)(4)(iii) of this section or in full accordance with paragraphs (c)(12)(i) through (c)(12)(iii) of this section. If the latter reporting option is chosen, you must report:

(i) Annual emissions aggregated for all GHG from all applicable source categories, expressed in metric tons of CO2e calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart. You must include biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units in these annual emissions, but exclude biogenic CO2 emissions from any non-part 75 units and other source categories.

(ii) Annual emissions of biogenic CO2, expressed in metric tons (excluding biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units), aggregated for all applicable source categories.

(iii) Annual emissions from each applicable source category, expressed in metric tons of each applicable GHG listed in paragraphs (c)(12)(iii)(A) through (c)(12)(iii)(E) of this section.

(A) Biogenic CO2 (excluding biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units).

(B) CO2. You must include biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units in these totals and exclude biogenic CO2 emissions from other non-part 75 units and other source categories.

(C) CH4.

(D) N2O.

(E) Each fluorinated GHG (including those not listed in Table A-1 of this subpart).

(13) An indication of whether the facility includes one or more plant sites that have been assigned a “plant code” (as defined under §98.6) by either the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration or by the EPA's Clean Air Markets Division.

(d) Special provisions for reporting year 2010. (1) Best available monitoring methods. During January 1, 2010 through March 31, 2010, owners or operators may use best available monitoring methods for any parameter (e.g., fuel use, daily carbon content of feedstock by process line) that cannot reasonably be measured according to the monitoring and QA/QC requirements of a relevant subpart. The owner or operator must use the calculation methodologies and equations in the “Calculating GHG Emissions” sections of each relevant subpart, but may use the best available monitoring method for any parameter for which it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by January 1, 2010. Starting no later than April 1, 2010, the owner or operator must discontinue using best available methods and begin following all applicable monitoring and QA/QC requirements of this part, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section. Best available monitoring methods means any of the following methods specified in this paragraph:

(i) Monitoring methods currently used by the facility that do not meet the specifications of an relevant subpart.

(ii) Supplier data.

(iii) Engineering calculations.

(iv) Other company records.

(2) Requests for extension of the use of best available monitoring methods. The owner or operator may submit a request to the Administrator to use one or more best available monitoring methods beyond March 31, 2010.

(i) Timing of request. The extension request must be submitted to EPA no later than 30 days after the effective date of the GHG reporting rule.

(ii) Content of request. Requests must contain the following information:

(A) A list of specific item of monitoring instrumentation for which the request is being made and the locations where each piece of monitoring instrumentation will be installed.

(B) Identification of the specific rule requirements (by rule subpart, section, and paragraph numbers) for which the instrumentation is needed.

(C) A description of the reasons why the needed equipment could not be obtained and installed before April 1, 2010.

(D) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be purchased and delivered by April 1, 2010, include supporting documentation such as the date the monitoring equipment was ordered, investigation of alternative suppliers and the dates by which alternative vendors promised delivery, backorder notices or unexpected delays, descriptions of actions taken to expedite delivery, and the current expected date of delivery.

(E) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be installed without a process unit shutdown, include supporting documentation demonstrating that it is not practicable to isolate the equipment and install the monitoring instrument without a full process unit shutdown. Include the date of the most recent process unit shutdown, the frequency of shutdowns for this process unit, and the date of the next planned shutdown during which the monitoring equipment can be installed. If there has been a shutdown or if there is a planned process unit shutdown between promulgation of this part and April 1, 2010, include a justification of why the equipment could not be obtained and installed during that shutdown.

(F) A description of the specific actions the facility will take to obtain and install the equipment as soon as reasonably feasible and the expected date by which the equipment will be installed and operating.

(iii) Approval criteria. To obtain approval, the owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by April 1, 2010. The use of best available methods will not be approved beyond December 31, 2010.

(3) Abbreviated emissions report for facilities containing only general stationary fuel combustion sources. In lieu of the report required by paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of an existing facility that is in operation on January 1, 2010 and that meets the conditions of §98.2(a)(3) may submit an abbreviated GHG report for the facility for GHGs emitted in 2010. The abbreviated report must be submitted by September 30, 2011. An owner or operator that submits an abbreviated report must submit a full GHG report according to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section beginning in calendar year 2012. The abbreviated facility report must include the following information:

(i) Facility name and physical street address including the city, state and zip code.

(ii) The year and months covered by the report.

(iii) Date of submittal.

(iv) Total facility GHG emissions aggregated for all stationary fuel combustion units calculated according to any method specified in §98.33(a) and expressed in metric tons of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO2e.

(v) Any facility operating data or process information used for the GHG emission calculations.

(vi) A signed and dated certification statement provided by the designated representative of the owner or operator, according to the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(e) Emission calculations. In preparing the GHG report, you must use the calculation methodologies specified in the relevant subparts, except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For each source category, you must use the same calculation methodology throughout a reporting period unless you provide a written explanation of why a change in methodology was required.

(f) Verification. To verify the completeness and accuracy of reported GHG emissions, the Administrator may review the certification statements described in paragraphs (c)(9) and (d)(3)(vi) of this section and any other credible evidence, in conjunction with a comprehensive review of the GHG reports and periodic audits of selected reporting facilities. Nothing in this section prohibits the Administrator from using additional information to verify the completeness and accuracy of the reports.

(g) Recordkeeping. An owner or operator that is required to report GHGs under this part must keep records as specified in this paragraph. Retain all required records for at least 3 years. Retain all required records for at least 3 years from the date of submission of the annual GHG report for the reporting year in which the record was generated. Upon request by the Administrator, the records required under this section must be made available to EPA. Records may be retained off site if the records are readily available for expeditious inspection and review. For records that are electronically generated or maintained, the equipment or software necessary to read the records shall be made available, or, if requested by EPA, electronic records shall be converted to paper documents. You must retain the following records, in addition to those records prescribed in each applicable subpart of this part:

(1) A list of all units, operations, processes, and activities for which GHG emission were calculated.

(2) The data used to calculate the GHG emissions for each unit, operation, process, and activity, categorized by fuel or material type. These data include but are not limited to the following information in this paragraph (g)(2):

(i) The GHG emissions calculations and methods used.

(ii) Analytical results for the development of site-specific emissions factors.

(iii) The results of all required analyses for high heat value, carbon content, and other required fuel or feedstock parameters.

(iv) Any facility operating data or process information used for the GHG emission calculations.

(3) The annual GHG reports.

(4) Missing data computations. For each missing data event, also retain a record of the cause of the event and the corrective actions taken to restore malfunctioning monitoring equipment.

(5) A written GHG Monitoring Plan.

(i) At a minimum, the GHG Monitoring Plan shall include the elements listed in this paragraph (g)(5)(i).

(A) Identification of positions of responsibility (i.e., job titles) for collection of the emissions data.

(B) Explanation of the processes and methods used to collect the necessary data for the GHG calculations.

(C) Description of the procedures and methods that are used for quality assurance, maintenance, and repair of all continuous monitoring systems, flow meters, and other instrumentation used to provide data for the GHGs reported under this part.

(ii) The GHG Monitoring Plan may rely on references to existing corporate documents (e.g., standard operating procedures, quality assurance programs under appendix F to 40 CFR part 60 or appendix B to 40 CFR part 75, and other documents) provided that the elements required by paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section are easily recognizable.

(iii) The owner or operator shall revise the GHG Monitoring Plan as needed to reflect changes in production processes, monitoring instrumentation, and quality assurance procedures; or to improve procedures for the maintenance and repair of monitoring systems to reduce the frequency of monitoring equipment downtime.

(iv) Upon request by the Administrator, the owner or operator shall make all information that is collected in conformance with the GHG Monitoring Plan available for review during an audit. Electronic storage of the information in the plan is permissible, provided that the information can be made available in hard copy upon request during an audit.

(6) The results of all required certification and quality assurance tests of continuous monitoring systems, fuel flow meters, and other instrumentation used to provide data for the GHGs reported under this part.

(7) Maintenance records for all continuous monitoring systems, flow meters, and other instrumentation used to provide data for the GHGs reported under this part.

(h) Annual GHG report revisions. (1) The owner or operator shall submit a revised annual GHG report within 45 days of discovering that an annual GHG report that the owner or operator previously submitted contains one or more substantive errors. The revised report must correct all substantive errors.

(2) The Administrator may notify the owner or operator in writing that an annual GHG report previously submitted by the owner or operator contains one or more substantive errors. Such notification will identify each such substantive error. The owner or operator shall, within 45 days of receipt of the notification, either resubmit the report that, for each identified substantive error, corrects the identified substantive error (in accordance with the applicable requirements of this part) or provide information demonstrating that the previously submitted report does not contain the identified substantive error or that the identified error is not a substantive error.

(3) A substantive error is an error that impacts the quantity of GHG emissions reported or otherwise prevents the reported data from being validated or verified.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) of this section, upon request by the owner or operator, the Administrator may provide reasonable extensions of the 45-day period for submission of the revised report or information under paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) of this section. If the Administrator receives a request for extension of the 45-day period, by email to an address prescribed by the Administrator prior to the expiration of the 45-day period, the extension request is deemed to be automatically granted for 30 days. The Administrator may grant an additional extension beyond the automatic 30-day extension if the owner or operator submits a request for an additional extension and the request is received by the Administrator at least 5 business days prior to the expiration of the automatic 30-day extension, provided the request demonstrates that it is not practicable to submit a revised report or information under paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) within 75 days. The Administrator will approve the extension request if the request demonstrates to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not practicable to collect and process the data needed to resolve potential reporting errors identified pursuant to paragraphs (h)(1) or (2) of this section within 75 days.

(5) The owner or operator shall retain documentation for 3 years to support any revision made to an annual GHG report.

(i) Calibration accuracy requirements. The owner or operator of a facility or supplier that is subject to the requirements of this part must meet the applicable flow meter calibration and accuracy requirements of this paragraph (i). The accuracy specifications in this paragraph (i) do not apply where either the use of company records (as defined in §98.6) or the use of “best available information” is specified in an applicable subpart of this part to quantify fuel usage and/or other parameters. Further, the provisions of this paragraph (i) do not apply to stationary fuel combustion units that use the methodologies in part 75 of this chapter to calculate CO2 mass emissions.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (i)(4) through (i)(6) of this section, flow meters that measure liquid and gaseous fuel feed rates, process stream flow rates, or feedstock flow rates and provide data for the GHG emissions calculations shall be calibrated prior to April 1, 2010 using the procedures specified in this paragraph (i) when such calibration is specified in a relevant subpart of this part. Each of these flow meters shall meet the applicable accuracy specification in paragraph (i)(2) or (i)(3) of this section. All other measurement devices (e.g., weighing devices) that are required by a relevant subpart of this part, and that are used to provide data for the GHG emissions calculations, shall also be calibrated prior to April 1, 2010; however, the accuracy specifications in paragraphs (i)(2) and (i)(3) of this section do not apply to these devices. Rather, each of these measurement devices shall be calibrated to meet the accuracy requirement specified for the device in the applicable subpart of this part, or, in the absence of such accuracy requirement, the device must be calibrated to an accuracy within the appropriate error range for the specific measurement technology, based on an applicable operating standard, including but not limited to manufacturer's specifications and industry standards. The procedures and methods used to quality-assure the data from each measurement device shall be documented in the written monitoring plan, pursuant to paragraph (g)(5)(i)(C) of this section.

(i) All flow meters and other measurement devices that are subject to the provisions of this paragraph (i) must be calibrated according to one of the following: You may use the manufacturer's recommended procedures; an appropriate industry consensus standard method; or a method specified in a relevant subpart of this part. The calibration method(s) used shall be documented in the monitoring plan required under paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii) For facilities and suppliers that become subject to this part after April 1, 2010, all flow meters and other measurement devices (if any) that are required by the relevant subpart(s) of this part to provide data for the GHG emissions calculations shall be installed no later than the date on which data collection is required to begin using the measurement device, and the initial calibration(s) required by this paragraph (i) (if any) shall be performed no later than that date.

(iii) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (i)(4) through (i)(6) of this section, subsequent recalibrations of the flow meters and other measurement devices subject to the requirements of this paragraph (i) shall be performed at one of the following frequencies:

(A) You may use the frequency specified in each applicable subpart of this part.

(B) You may use the frequency recommended by the manufacturer or by an industry consensus standard practice, if no recalibration frequency is specified in an applicable subpart.

(2) Perform all flow meter calibration at measurement points that are representative of the normal operating range of the meter. Except for the orifice, nozzle, and venturi flow meters described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section, calculate the calibration error at each measurement point using Equation A-2 of this section. The terms “R” and “A” in Equation A-2 must be expressed in consistent units of measure (e.g., gallons/minute, ft3/min). The calibration error at each measurement point shall not exceed 5.0 percent of the reference value.

eCFR graphic er17de10.000.gif

View or download PDF

where:

CE = Calibration error (%).

R = Reference value.

A = Flow meter response to the reference value.

(3) For orifice, nozzle, and venturi flow meters, the initial quality assurance consists of in-situ calibration of the differential pressure (delta-P), total pressure, and temperature transmitters.

(i) Calibrate each transmitter at a zero point and at least one upscale point. Fixed reference points, such as the freezing point of water, may be used for temperature transmitter calibrations. Calculate the calibration error of each transmitter at each measurement point, using Equation A-3 of this subpart. The terms “R,” “A,” and “FS” in Equation A-3 of this subpart must be in consistent units of measure (e.g., milliamperes, inches of water, psi, degrees). For each transmitter, the CE value at each measurement point shall not exceed 2.0 percent of full-scale. Alternatively, the results are acceptable if the sum of the calculated CE values for the three transmitters at each calibration level (i.e., at the zero level and at each upscale level) does not exceed 6.0 percent.

eCFR graphic er17de10.001.gif

View or download PDF

where:

CE = Calibration error (%).

R = Reference value.

A = Transmitter response to the reference value.

FS = Full-scale value of the transmitter.

(ii) In cases where there are only two transmitters (i.e., differential pressure and either temperature or total pressure) in the immediate vicinity of the flow meter's primary element (e.g., the orifice plate), or when there is only a differential pressure transmitter in close proximity to the primary element, calibration of these existing transmitters to a CE of 2.0 percent or less at each measurement point is still required, in accordance with paragraph (i)(3)(i) of this section; alternatively, when two transmitters are calibrated, the results are acceptable if the sum of the CE values for the two transmitters at each calibration level does not exceed 4.0 percent. However, note that installation and calibration of an additional transmitter (or transmitters) at the flow monitor location to measure temperature or total pressure or both is not required in these cases. Instead, you may use assumed values for temperature and/or total pressure, based on measurements of these parameters at a remote location (or locations), provided that the following conditions are met:

(A) You must demonstrate that measurements at the remote location(s) can, when appropriate correction factors are applied, reliably and accurately represent the actual temperature or total pressure at the flow meter under all expected ambient conditions.

(B) You must make all temperature and/or total pressure measurements in the demonstration described in paragraph (i)(3)(ii)(A) of this section with calibrated gauges, sensors, transmitters, or other appropriate measurement devices. At a minimum, calibrate each of these devices to an accuracy within the appropriate error range for the specific measurement technology, according to one of the following. You may calibrate using a manufacturer's specification or an industry consensus standard.

(C) You must document the methods used for the demonstration described in paragraph (i)(3)(ii)(A) of this section in the written GHG Monitoring Plan under paragraph (g)(5)(i)(C) of this section. You must also include the data from the demonstration, the mathematical correlation(s) between the remote readings and actual flow meter conditions derived from the data, and any supporting engineering calculations in the GHG Monitoring Plan. You must maintain all of this information in a format suitable for auditing and inspection.

(D) You must use the mathematical correlation(s) derived from the demonstration described in paragraph (i)(3)(ii)(A) of this section to convert the remote temperature or the total pressure readings, or both, to the actual temperature or total pressure at the flow meter, or both, on a daily basis. You shall then use the actual temperature and total pressure values to correct the measured flow rates to standard conditions.

(E) You shall periodically check the correlation(s) between the remote and actual readings (at least once a year), and make any necessary adjustments to the mathematical relationship(s).

(4) Fuel billing meters are exempted from the calibration requirements of this section and from the GHG Monitoring Plan and recordkeeping provisions of paragraphs (g)(5)(i)(C), (g)(6), and (g)(7) of this section, provided that the fuel supplier and any unit combusting the fuel do not have any common owners and are not owned by subsidiaries or affiliates of the same company. Meters used exclusively to measure the flow rates of fuels that are used for unit startup are also exempted from the calibration requirements of this section.

(5) For a flow meter that has been previously calibrated in accordance with paragraph (i)(1) of this section, an additional calibration is not required by the date specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section if, as of that date, the previous calibration is still active (i.e., the device is not yet due for recalibration because the time interval between successive calibrations has not elapsed). In this case, the deadline for the successive calibrations of the flow meter shall be set according to one of the following. You may use either the manufacturer's recommended calibration schedule or you may use the industry consensus calibration schedule.

(6) For units and processes that operate continuously with infrequent outages, it may not be possible to meet the April 1, 2010 deadline for the initial calibration of a flow meter or other measurement device without disrupting normal process operation. In such cases, the owner or operator may postpone the initial calibration until the next scheduled maintenance outage. The best available information from company records may be used in the interim. The subsequent required recalibrations of the flow meters may be similarly postponed. Such postponements shall be documented in the monitoring plan that is required under paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(7) If the results of an initial calibration or a recalibration fail to meet the required accuracy specification, data from the flow meter shall be considered invalid, beginning with the hour of the failed calibration and continuing until a successful calibration is completed. You shall follow the missing data provisions provided in the relevant missing data sections during the period of data invalidation.

(j) Measurement device installation—(1) General. If an owner or operator required to report under subpart P, subpart X or subpart Y of this part has process equipment or units that operate continuously and it is not possible to install a required flow meter or other measurement device by April 1, 2010, (or by any later date in 2010 approved by the Administrator as part of an extension of best available monitoring methods per paragraph (d) of this section) without process equipment or unit shutdown, or through a hot tap, the owner or operator may request an extension from the Administrator to delay installing the measurement device until the next scheduled process equipment or unit shutdown. If approval for such an extension is granted by the Administrator, the owner or operator must use best available monitoring methods during the extension period.

(2) Requests for extension of the use of best available monitoring methods for measurement device installation. The owner or operator must first provide the Administrator an initial notification of the intent to submit an extension request for use of best available monitoring methods beyond December 31, 2010 (or an earlier date approved by EPA) in cases where measurement device installation would require a process equipment or unit shutdown, or could only be done through a hot tap. The owner or operator must follow-up this initial notification with the complete extension request containing the information specified in paragraph (j)(4) of this section.

(3) Timing of request. (i) The initial notice of intent must be submitted no later than January 1, 2011, or by the end of the approved use of best available monitoring methods extension in 2010, whichever is earlier. The completed extension request must be submitted to the Administrator no later than February 15, 2011.

(ii) Any subsequent extensions to the original request must be submitted to the Administrator within 4 weeks of the owner or operator identifying the need to extend the request, but in any event no later than 4 weeks before the date for the planned process equipment or unit shutdown that was provided in the original or most recently approved request.

(4) Content of the request. Requests must contain the following information:

(i) Specific measurement device for which the request is being made and the location where each measurement device will be installed.

(ii) Identification of the specific rule requirements (by rule subpart, section, and paragraph numbers) requiring the measurement device.

(iii) A description of the reasons why the needed equipment could not be installed before April 1, 2010, or by the expiration date for the use of best available monitoring methods, in cases where an extension has been granted under §98.3(d).

(iv) Supporting documentation showing that it is not practicable to isolate the process equipment or unit and install the measurement device without a full shutdown or a hot tap, and that there was no opportunity during 2010 to install the device. Include the date of the three most recent shutdowns for each relevant process equipment or unit, the frequency of shutdowns for each relevant process equipment or unit, and the date of the next planned process equipment or unit shutdown.

(v) Include a description of the proposed best available monitoring method for estimating GHG emissions during the time prior to installation of the meter.

(5) Approval criteria. The owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to install the measurement device before April 1, 2010 (or by the expiration date for the use of best available monitoring methods, in cases where an extension has been granted under paragraph (d) of this section) without a process equipment or unit shutdown, or through a hot tap, and that the proposed method for estimating GHG emissions during the time before which the measurement device will be installed is appropriate. The Administrator will not initially approve the use of the proposed best available monitoring method past December 31, 2013.

(6) Measurement device installation deadline. Any owner or operator that submits both a timely initial notice of intent and a timely completed extension request under paragraph (j)(3) of this section to extend use of best available monitoring methods for measurement device installation must install all such devices by July 1, 2011 unless the extension request under this paragraph (j) is approved by the Administrator before July 1, 2011.

(7) One time extension past December 31, 2013. If an owner or operator determines that a scheduled process equipment or unit shutdown will not occur by December 31, 2013, the owner or operator may re-apply to use best available monitoring methods for one additional time period, not to extend beyond December 31, 2015. To extend use of best available monitoring methods past December 31, 2013, the owner or operator must submit a new extension request by June 1, 2013 that contains the information required in paragraph (j)(4) of this section. The owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it continues to not be reasonably feasible to install the measurement device before December 31, 2013 without a process equipment or unit shutdown, or that installation of the measurement device could only be done through a hot tap, and that the proposed method for estimating GHG emissions during the time before which the measurement device will be installed is appropriate. An owner or operator that submits a request under this paragraph to extend use of best available monitoring methods for measurement device installation must install all such devices by December 31, 2013, unless the extension request under this paragraph is approved by the Administrator.

(k) Revised global warming potentials and special provisions for reporting year 2013. This paragraph (k) applies to owners or operators of facilities or suppliers that first become subject to any subpart of part 98 solely due to an amendment to Table A-1 of this subpart.

(1) A facility or supplier that was not subject to any subpart of part 98 for reporting year 2012, but first becomes subject to any subpart of part 98 due to a change in the GWP for one or more compounds in Table A-1 of this subpart, Global Warming Potentials, is not required to submit an annual GHG report for reporting year 2013.

(2) A facility or supplier that is subject to a subpart of part 98 for reporting year 2012, but first becomes subject to any subpart of part 98 due to a change in the GWP for one or more compounds in Table A-1 of this subpart, is not required to include those subparts for which the facility is subject only due to the change in the GWP in the annual GHG report submitted for reporting year 2013.

(3) Starting on January 1, 2014, facilities or suppliers identified in paragraphs (k)(1) or (2) of this section must start monitoring and collecting GHG data in compliance with the applicable subparts of part 98 for which the facility is subject due to the change in the GWP for the annual greenhouse gas report for reporting year 2014, which is due by March 31, 2015.

(l) Special provision for best available monitoring methods in 2014. This paragraph (l) applies to owners or operators of facilities or suppliers that first become subject to any subpart of part 98 due to an amendment to Table A-1 of this subpart, Global Warming Potentials.

(1) Best available monitoring methods. From January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2014, owners or operators subject to this paragraph (l) may use best available monitoring methods for any parameter (e.g., fuel use, feedstock rates) that cannot reasonably be measured according to the monitoring and QA/QC requirements of a relevant subpart. The owner or operator must use the calculation methodologies and equations in the “Calculating GHG Emissions” sections of each relevant subpart, but may use the best available monitoring method for any parameter for which it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by January 1, 2014. Starting no later than April 1, 2014, the owner or operator must discontinue using best available methods and begin following all applicable monitoring and QA/QC requirements of this part, except as provided in paragraph (l)(2) of this section. Best available monitoring methods means any of the following methods:

(i) Monitoring methods currently used by the facility that do not meet the specifications of a relevant subpart.

(ii) Supplier data.

(iii) Engineering calculations.

(iv) Other company records.

(2) Requests for extension of the use of best available monitoring methods. The owner or operator may submit a request to the Administrator to use one or more best available monitoring methods beyond March 31, 2014.

(i) Timing of request. The extension request must be submitted to EPA no later than January 31, 2014.

(ii) Content of request. Requests must contain the following information:

(A) A list of specific items of monitoring instrumentation for which the request is being made and the locations where each piece of monitoring instrumentation will be installed.

(B) Identification of the specific rule requirements (by rule subpart, section, and paragraph numbers) for which the instrumentation is needed.

(C) A description of the reasons that the needed equipment could not be obtained and installed before April 1, 2014.

(D) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be purchased and delivered by April 1, 2014, supporting documentation such as the date the monitoring equipment was ordered, investigation of alternative suppliers and the dates by which alternative vendors promised delivery, backorder notices or unexpected delays, descriptions of actions taken to expedite delivery, and the current expected date of delivery.

(E) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be installed without a process unit shutdown, include supporting documentation demonstrating that it is not practicable to isolate the equipment and install the monitoring instrument without a full process unit shutdown. Include the date of the most recent process unit shutdown, the frequency of shutdowns for this process unit, and the date of the next planned shutdown during which the monitoring equipment can be installed. If there has been a shutdown or if there is a planned process unit shutdown between November 29, 2013 and April 1, 2014, include a justification of why the equipment could not be obtained and installed during that shutdown.

(F) A description of the specific actions the facility will take to obtain and install the equipment as soon as reasonably feasible and the expected date by which the equipment will be installed and operating.

(iii) Approval criteria. To obtain approval, the owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by April 1, 2014. The use of best available methods under this paragraph (l) will not be approved beyond December 31, 2014.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 39758, July 12, 2010; 75 FR 57685, Sept. 22, 2010; 75 FR 74816, Dec. 1, 2010; 75 FR 79134, Dec. 17, 2010; 75 FR 81344, Dec. 27, 2010; 76 FR 14818, Mar. 18, 2011; 76 FR 53065, Aug. 25, 2011; 76 FR 73899, Nov. 29, 2011; 77 FR 51488, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 71946, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.4   Authorization and responsibilities of the designated representative.

(a) General. Except as provided under paragraph (f) of this section, each facility, and each supplier, that is subject to this part, shall have one and only one designated representative, who shall be responsible for certifying, signing, and submitting GHG emissions reports and any other submissions for such facility and supplier respectively to the Administrator under this part. If the facility is required under any other part of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations to submit to the Administrator any other emission report that is subject to any requirement in 40 CFR part 75, the same individual shall be the designated representative responsible for certifying, signing, and submitting the GHG emissions reports and all such other emissions reports under this part.

(b) Authorization of a designated representative. The designated representative of the facility or supplier shall be an individual selected by an agreement binding on the owners and operators of such facility or supplier and shall act in accordance with the certification statement in paragraph (i)(4)(iv) of this section.

(c) Responsibility of the designated representative. Upon receipt by the Administrator of a complete certificate of representation under this section for a facility or supplier, the designated representative identified in such certificate of representation shall represent and, by his or her representations, actions, inactions, or submissions, legally bind each owner and operator of such facility or supplier in all matters pertaining to this part, notwithstanding any agreement between the designated representative and such owners and operators. The owners and operators shall be bound by any decision or order issued to the designated representative by the Administrator or a court.

(d) Timing. No GHG emissions report or other submissions under this part for a facility or supplier will be accepted until the Administrator has received a complete certificate of representation under this section for a designated representative of the facility or supplier. Such certificate of representation shall be submitted at least 60 days before the deadline for submission of the facility's or supplier's initial emission report under this part.

(e) Certification of the GHG emissions report. Each GHG emission report and any other submission under this part for a facility or supplier shall be certified, signed, and submitted by the designated representative or any alternate designated representative of the facility or supplier in accordance with this section and §3.10 of this chapter.

(1) Each such submission shall include the following certification statement signed by the designated representative or any alternate designated representative: “I am authorized to make this submission on behalf of the owners and operators of the facility or supplier, as applicable, for which the submission is made. I certify under penalty of law that I have personally examined, and am familiar with, the statements and information submitted in this document and all its attachments. Based on my inquiry of those individuals with primary responsibility for obtaining the information, I certify that the statements and information are to the best of my knowledge and belief true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false statements and information or omitting required statements and information, including the possibility of fine or imprisonment.”

(2) The Administrator will accept a GHG emission report or other submission for a facility or supplier under this part only if the submission is certified, signed, and submitted in accordance with this section.

(f) Alternate designated representative. A certificate of representation under this section for a facility or supplier may designate one alternate designated representative, who shall be an individual selected by an agreement binding on the owners and operators, and may act on behalf of the designated representative, of such facility or supplier. The agreement by which the alternate designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for authorizing the alternate designated representative to act in lieu of the designated representative.

(1) Upon receipt by the Administrator of a complete certificate of representation under this section for a facility or supplier identifying an alternate designated representative.

(i) The alternate designated representative may act on behalf of the designated representative for such facility or supplier.

(ii) Any representation, action, inaction, or submission by the alternate designated representative shall be deemed to be a representation, action, inaction, or submission by the designated representative.

(2) Except in this section, whenever the term “designated representative” is used in this part, the term shall be construed to include the designated representative or any alternate designated representative.

(g) Changing a designated representative or alternate designated representative. The designated representative or alternate designated representative identified in a complete certificate of representation under this section for a facility or supplier received by the Administrator may be changed at any time upon receipt by the Administrator of another later signed, complete certificate of representation under this section for the facility or supplier. Notwithstanding any such change, all representations, actions, inactions, and submissions by the previous designated representative or the previous alternate designated representative of the facility or supplier before the time and date when the Administrator receives such later signed certificate of representation shall be binding on the new designated representative and the owners and operators of the facility or supplier.

(h) Changes in owners and operators. In the event an owner or operator of the facility or supplier is not included in the list of owners and operators in the certificate of representation under this section for the facility or supplier, such owner or operator shall be deemed to be subject to and bound by the certificate of representation, the representations, actions, inactions, and submissions of the designated representative and any alternate designated representative of the facility or supplier, as if the owner or operator were included in such list. Within 90 days after any change in the owners and operators of the facility or supplier (including the addition of a new owner or operator), the designated representative or any alternate designated representative shall submit a certificate of representation that is complete under this section except that such list shall be amended to reflect the change. If the designated representative or alternate designated representative determines at any time that an owner or operator of the facility or supplier is not included in such list and such exclusion is not the result of a change in the owners and operators, the designated representative or any alternate designated representative shall submit, within 90 days of making such determination, a certificate of representation that is complete under this section except that such list shall be amended to include such owner or operator.

(i) Certificate of representation. A certificate of representation shall be complete if it includes the following elements in a format prescribed by the Administrator in accordance with this section:

(1) Identification of the facility or supplier for which the certificate of representation is submitted.

(2) The name, organization name (company affiliation-employer), address, e-mail address (if any), telephone number, and facsimile transmission number (if any) of the designated representative and any alternate designated representative.

(3) A list of the owners and operators of the facility or supplier identified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section, provided that, if the list includes the operators of the facility or supplier and the owners with control of the facility or supplier, the failure to include any other owners shall not make the certificate of representation incomplete.

(4) The following certification statements by the designated representative and any alternate designated representative:

(i) “I certify that I was selected as the designated representative or alternate designated representative, as applicable, by an agreement binding on the owners and operators of the facility or supplier, as applicable.”

(ii) “I certify that I have all the necessary authority to carry out my duties and responsibilities under 40 CFR part 98 on behalf of the owners and operators of the facility or supplier, as applicable, and that each such owner and operator shall be fully bound by my representations, actions, inactions, or submissions.”

(iii) “I certify that the owners and operators of the facility or supplier, as applicable, shall be bound by any order issued to me by the Administrator or a court regarding the facility or supplier.”

(iv) “If there are multiple owners and operators of the facility or supplier, as applicable, I certify that I have given a written notice of my selection as the ‘designated representative’ or ‘alternate designated representative’, as applicable, and of the agreement by which I was selected to each owner and operator of the facility or supplier.”

(5) The signature of the designated representative and any alternate designated representative and the dates signed.

(j) Documents of agreement. Unless otherwise required by the Administrator, documents of agreement referred to in the certificate of representation shall not be submitted to the Administrator. The Administrator shall not be under any obligation to review or evaluate the sufficiency of such documents, if submitted.

(k) Binding nature of the certificate of representation. Once a complete certificate of representation under this section for a facility or supplier has been received, the Administrator will rely on the certificate of representation unless and until a later signed, complete certificate of representation under this section for the facility or supplier is received by the Administrator.

(l) Objections concerning a designated representative. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, no objection or other communication submitted to the Administrator concerning the authorization, or any representation, action, inaction, or submission, of the designated representative or alternate designated representative shall affect any representation, action, inaction, or submission of the designated representative or alternate designated representative, or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under this part.

(2) The Administrator will not adjudicate any private legal dispute concerning the authorization or any representation, action, inaction, or submission of any designated representative or alternate designated representative.

(m) Delegation by designated representative and alternate designated representative. (1) A designated representative or an alternate designated representative may delegate his or her own authority, to one or more individuals, to submit an electronic submission to the Administrator provided for or required under this part, except for a submission under this paragraph.

(2) In order to delegate his or her own authority, to one or more individuals, to submit an electronic submission to the Administrator in accordance with paragraph (m)(1) of this section, the designated representative or alternate designated representative must submit electronically to the Administrator a notice of delegation, in a format prescribed by the Administrator, that includes the following elements:

(i) The name, organization name (company affiliation-employer) address, e-mail address (if any), telephone number, and facsimile transmission number (if any) of such designated representative or alternate designated representative.

(ii) The name, address, e-mail address, telephone number, and facsimile transmission number (if any) of each such individual (referred to as an “agent”).

(iii) For each such individual, a list of the type or types of electronic submissions under paragraph (m)(1) of this section for which authority is delegated to him or her.

(iv) For each type of electronic submission listed in accordance with paragraph (m)(2)(iii) of this section, the facility or supplier for which the electronic submission may be made.

(v) The following certification statements by such designated representative or alternate designated representative:

(A) “I agree that any electronic submission to the Administrator that is by an agent identified in this notice of delegation and of a type listed, and for a facility or supplier designated, for such agent in this notice of delegation and that is made when I am a designated representative or alternate designated representative, as applicable, and before this notice of delegation is superseded by another notice of delegation under §98.4(m)(3) shall be deemed to be an electronic submission certified, signed, and submitted by me.”

(B) “Until this notice of delegation is superseded by a later signed notice of delegation under §98.4(m)(3), I agree to maintain an e-mail account and to notify the Administrator immediately of any change in my e-mail address unless all delegation of authority by me under §98.4(m) is terminated.”

(vi) The signature of such designated representative or alternate designated representative and the date signed.

(3) A notice of delegation submitted in accordance with paragraph (m)(2) of this section shall be effective, with regard to the designated representative or alternate designated representative identified in such notice, upon receipt of such notice by the Administrator and until receipt by the Administrator of another such notice that was signed later by such designated representative or alternate designated representative, as applicable. The later signed notice of delegation may replace any previously identified agent, add a new agent, or eliminate entirely any delegation of authority.

(4) Any electronic submission covered by the certification in paragraph (m)(2)(v)(A) of this section and made in accordance with a notice of delegation effective under paragraph (m)(3) of this section shall be deemed to be an electronic submission certified, signed, and submitted by the designated representative or alternate designated representative submitting such notice of delegation.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79137, Dec. 17, 2010; 76 FR 73900, Nov. 29, 2011]

§98.5   How is the report submitted?

Each GHG report and certificate of representation for a facility or supplier must be submitted electronically in accordance with the requirements of §98.4 and in a format specified by the Administrator.

§98.6   Definitions.

All terms used in this part shall have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and in this section.

Absorbent circulation pump means a pump commonly powered by natural gas pressure that circulates the absorbent liquid between the absorbent regenerator and natural gas contactor.

Accuracy of a measurement at a specified level (e.g., one percent of full scale or one percent of the value measured) means that the mean of repeat measurements made by a device or technique are within 95 percent of the range bounded by the true value plus or minus the specified level.

Acid Rain Program means the program established under title IV of the Clean Air Act, and implemented under parts 72 through 78 of this chapter for the reduction of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or the Administrator's authorized representative.

AGA means the American Gas Association

Agricultural by-products means those parts of arable crops that are not used for the primary purpose of producing food. Agricultural by-products include, but are not limited to, oat, corn and wheat straws, bagasse, peanut shells, rice and coconut husks, soybean hulls, palm kernel cake, cottonseed and sunflower seed cake, and pomace.

Air injected flare means a flare in which air is blown into the base of a flare stack to induce complete combustion of gas.

Alkali bypass means a duct between the feed end of the kiln and the preheater tower through which a portion of the kiln exit gas stream is withdrawn and quickly cooled by air or water to avoid excessive buildup of alkali, chloride and/or sulfur on the raw feed. This may also be referred to as the “kiln exhaust gas bypass.”

Anaerobic digester means the system where wastes are collected and anaerobically digested in large containment vessels or covered lagoons. Anaerobic digesters stabilize waste by the microbial reduction of complex organic compounds to CO2 and CH4, which is captured and may be flared or used as fuel. Anaerobic digestion systems, include but are not limited to covered lagoon, complete mix, plug flow, and fixed film digesters.

Anaerobic lagoon, with respect to subpart JJ of this part, means a type of liquid storage system component that is designed and operated to stabilize wastes using anaerobic microbial processes. Anaerobic lagoons may be designed for combined stabilization and storage with varying lengths of retention time (up to a year or greater), depending on the climate region, volatile solids loading rate, and other operational factors.

Anode effect is a process upset condition of an aluminum electrolysis cell caused by too little alumina dissolved in the electrolyte. The anode effect begins when the voltage rises rapidly and exceeds a threshold voltage, typically 8 volts.

Anode Effect Minutes per Cell Day (24 hours) are the total minutes during which an electrolysis cell voltage is above the threshold voltage, typically 8 volts.

ANSI means the American National Standards Institute.

API means the American Petroleum Institute.

ASABE means the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

ASME means the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

ASTM means the American Society of Testing and Materials.

Asphalt means a dark brown-to-black cement-like material obtained by petroleum processing and containing bitumens as the predominant component. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts.

Aviation Gasoline means a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, with or without additives, suitably blended to be used in aviation reciprocating engines. Specifications can be found in ASTM Specification D910-07a, Standard Specification for Aviation Gasolines (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

B0 means the maximum CH4 producing capacity of a waste stream, kg CH4/kg COD.

Basic oxygen furnace means any refractory-lined vessel in which high-purity oxygen is blown under pressure through a bath of molten iron, scrap metal, and fluxes to produce steel.

bbl means barrel.

Biodiesel means a mono-akyl ester derived from biomass and conforming to ASTM D6751-08, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels.

Biogenic CO2 means carbon dioxide emissions generated as the result of biomass combustion from combustion units for which emission calculations are required by an applicable part 98 subpart.

Biomass means non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material originating from plants, animals or micro-organisms, including products, by-products, residues and waste from agriculture, forestry and related industries as well as the non-fossilized and biodegradable organic fractions of industrial and municipal wastes, including gases and liquids recovered from the decomposition of non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material.

Blast furnace means a furnace that is located at an integrated iron and steel plant and is used for the production of molten iron from iron ore pellets and other iron bearing materials.

Blendstocks are petroleum products used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These include RBOB (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) and CBOB (conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending), but exclude oxygenates, butane, and pentanes plus.

Blendstocks—Others are products used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline that are not defined elsewhere. Excludes Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB), Diesel Treated as Blendstock (DTAB), conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB), oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus.

Blowdown mean the act of emptying or depressuring a vessel. This may also refer to the discarded material such as blowdown water from a boiler or cooling tower.

Blowdown vent stack emissions mean natural gas and/or CO2 released due to maintenance and/or blowdown operations including compressor blowdown and emergency shut-down (ESD) system testing.

British Thermal Unit or Btu means the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at about 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit.

Bulk, with respect to industrial GHG suppliers and CO2 suppliers, means the transfer of a product inside containers, including but not limited to tanks, cylinders, drums, and pressure vessels.

Bulk natural gas liquid or NGL refers to mixtures of hydrocarbons that have been separated from natural gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods. Generally, such liquids consist of ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes plus. Bulk NGL is sold to fractionators or to refineries and petrochemical plants where the fractionation takes place.

Butane, or n-Butane, is a paraffinic straight-chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H10.

Butylene, or n-Butylene, is an olefinic straight-chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H8.

By-product coke oven battery means a group of ovens connected by common walls, where coal undergoes destructive distillation under positive pressure to produce coke and coke oven gas from which by-products are recovered.

Calcination means the process of thermally treating minerals to decompose carbonates from ore.

Calculation methodology means a methodology prescribed under the section “Calculating GHG Emissions” in any subpart of part 98.

Calibrated bag means a flexible, non-elastic, anti-static bag of a calibrated volume that can be affixed to an emitting source such that the emissions inflate the bag to its calibrated volume.

Carbon dioxide equivalent or CO2e means the number of metric tons of CO2 emissions with the same global warming potential as one metric ton of another greenhouse gas, and is calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart.

Carbon dioxide production well means any hole drilled in the earth for the primary purpose of extracting carbon dioxide from a geologic formation or group of formations which contain deposits of carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide production well facility means one or more carbon dioxide production wells that are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, which are under the control of the same entity. Carbon dioxide production wells located on different oil and gas leases, mineral fee tracts, lease tracts, subsurface or surface unit areas, surface fee tracts, surface lease tracts, or separate surface sites, whether or not connected by a road, waterway, power line, or pipeline, shall be considered part of the same CO2 production well facility if they otherwise meet the definition.

Carbon dioxide stream means carbon dioxide that has been captured from an emission source (e.g. a power plant or other industrial facility) or extracted from a carbon dioxide production well plus incidental associated substances either derived from the source materials and the capture process or extracted with the carbon dioxide.

Carbon share means the percent of total mass that carbon represents in any product.

Carbonate means compounds containing the radical CO3−2. Upon calcination, the carbonate radical decomposes to evolve carbon dioxide (CO2). Common carbonates consumed in the mineral industry include calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcite; magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) or magnesite; and calcium-magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2) or dolomite.

Carbonate-based mineral means any of the following minerals used in the manufacture of glass: Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), barium carbonate (BaCO3), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), and strontium carbonate (SrCO3).

Carbonate-based mineral mass fraction means the following: For limestone, the mass fraction of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the limestone; for dolomite, the mass fraction of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2) in the dolomite; for soda ash, the mass fraction of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in the soda ash; for barium carbonate, the mass fraction of barium carbonate (BaCO3) in the barium carbonate; for potassium carbonate, the mass fraction of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) in the potassium carbonate; for lithium carbonate, the mass fraction of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3); and for strontium carbonate, the mass fraction of strontium carbonate (SrCO3).

Carbonate-based raw material means any of the following materials used in the manufacture of glass: Limestone, dolomite, soda ash, barium carbonate, potassium carbonate, lithium carbonate, and strontium carbonate.

Catalytic cracking unit means a refinery process unit in which petroleum derivatives are continuously charged and hydrocarbon molecules in the presence of a catalyst are fractured into smaller molecules, or react with a contact material suspended in a fluidized bed to improve feedstock quality for additional processing and the catalyst or contact material is continuously regenerated by burning off coke and other deposits. Catalytic cracking units include both fluidized bed systems, which are referred to as fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU), and moving bed systems, which are also referred to as thermal catalytic cracking units. The unit includes the riser, reactor, regenerator, air blowers, spent catalyst or contact material stripper, catalyst or contact material recovery equipment, and regenerator equipment for controlling air pollutant emissions and for heat recovery.

CBOB-Summer (conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Conventional-Summer.

CBOB-Winter (conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Conventional-Winter.

Cement kiln dust means non-calcined to fully calcined dust produced in the kiln or pyroprocessing line. Cement kiln dust is a fine-grained, solid, highly alkaline material removed from the cement kiln exhaust gas by scrubbers (filtration baghouses and/or electrostatic precipitators).

Centrifugal compressor means any equipment that increases the pressure of a process natural gas or CO2 by centrifugal action, employing rotating movement of the driven shaft.

Centrifugal compressor dry seal emissions mean natural gas or CO2 released from a dry seal vent pipe and/or the seal face around the rotating shaft where it exits one or both ends of the compressor case.

Centrifugal compressor dry seals mean a series of rings around the compressor shaft where it exits the compressor case that operates mechanically under the opposing forces to prevent natural gas or CO2 from escaping to the atmosphere.

Centrifugal compressor wet seal degassing vent emissions means emissions that occur when the high-pressure oil barriers for centrifugal compressors are depressurized to release absorbed natural gas or CO2. High-pressure oil is used as a barrier against escaping gas in centrifugal compressor shafts. Very little gas escapes through the oil barrier, but under high pressure, considerably more gas is absorbed by the oil. The seal oil is purged of the absorbed gas (using heaters, flash tanks, and degassing techniques) and recirculated. The separated gas is commonly vented to the atmosphere.

Certified standards means calibration gases certified by the manufacturer of the calibration gases to be accurate to within 2 percent of the value on the label or calibration gases.

CH4 means methane.

Chemical recovery combustion unit means a combustion device, such as a recovery furnace or fluidized-bed reactor where spent pulping liquor from sulfite or semi-chemical pulping processes is burned to recover pulping chemicals.

Chemical recovery furnace means an enclosed combustion device where concentrated spent liquor produced by the kraft or soda pulping process is burned to recover pulping chemicals and produce steam. Includes any recovery furnace that burns spent pulping liquor produced from both the kraft and soda pulping processes.

Chloride process means a production process where titanium dioxide is produced using calcined petroleum coke and chlorine as raw materials.

City gate means a location at which natural gas ownership or control passes from one party to another, neither of which is the ultimate consumer. In this rule, in keeping with common practice, the term refers to a point or measuring station at which a local gas distribution utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system. Meters at the city gate station measure the flow of natural gas into the local distribution company system and typically are used to measure local distribution company system sendout to customers.

CO2 means carbon dioxide.

Coal means all solid fuels classified as anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, or lignite by the American Society for Testing and Materials Designation ASTM D388-05 Standard Classification of Coals by Rank (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

COD means the chemical oxygen demand as determined using methods specified pursuant to 40 CFR part 136.

Cogeneration unit means a unit that produces electrical energy and useful thermal energy for industrial, commercial, or heating or cooling purposes, through the sequential or simultaneous use of the original fuel energy.

Coke burn-off means the coke removed from the surface of a catalyst by combustion during catalyst regeneration. Coke burn-off also means the coke combusted in fluid coking unit burner.

Cokemaking means the production of coke from coal in either a by-product coke oven battery or a non-recovery coke oven battery.

Commercial applications means executing a commercial transaction subject to a contract. A commercial application includes transferring custody of a product from one facility to another if it otherwise meets the definition.

Company records means, in reference to the amount of fuel consumed by a stationary combustion unit (or by a group of such units), a complete record of the methods used, the measurements made, and the calculations performed to quantify fuel usage. Company records may include, but are not limited to, direct measurements of fuel consumption by gravimetric or volumetric means, tank drop measurements, and calculated values of fuel usage obtained by measuring auxiliary parameters such as steam generation or unit operating hours. Fuel billing records obtained from the fuel supplier qualify as company records.

Connector means to flanged, screwed, or other joined fittings used to connect pipe line segments, tubing, pipe components (such as elbows, reducers, “T's” or valves) or a pipe line and a piece of equipment or an instrument to a pipe, tube or piece of equipment. A common connector is a flange. Joined fittings welded completely around the circumference of the interface are not considered connectors for the purpose of this part.

Container glass means glass made of soda-lime recipe, clear or colored, which is pressed and/or blown into bottles, jars, ampoules, and other products listed in North American Industry Classification System 327213 (NAICS 327213).

Continuous bleed means a continuous flow of pneumatic supply natural gas to the process control device (e.g. level control, temperature control, pressure control) where the supply gas pressure is modulated by the process condition, and then flows to the valve controller where the signal is compared with the process set-point to adjust gas pressure in the valve actuator.

Continuous emission monitoring system or CEMS means the total equipment required to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by means of readings recorded at least once every 15 minutes, a permanent record of gas concentrations, pollutant emission rates, or gas volumetric flow rates from stationary sources.

Continuous glass melting furnace means a glass melting furnace that operates continuously except during periods of maintenance, malfunction, control device installation, reconstruction, or rebuilding.

Conventional-Summer refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which do not meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40, but which meet summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Note: This category excludes conventional gasoline for oxygenate blending (CBOB) as well as other blendstock.

Conventional-Winter refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which do not meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40 or the summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Note: This category excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB) as well as other blendstock.

Crude oil means a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. (1) Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include any of the following:

(i) Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric conditions (temperature and pressure) after being recovered from oil well (casing-head) gas in lease separators and are subsequently commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also included.

(ii) Small amounts of non-hydrocarbons, such as sulfur and various metals.

(iii) Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.

(iv) Petroleum products that are received or produced at a refinery and subsequently injected into a crude supply or reservoir by the same refinery owner or operator.

(2) Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content.

Daily spread means a manure management system component in which manure is routinely removed from a confinement facility and is applied to cropland or pasture within 24 hours of excretion.

Day means any consistently designated 24 hour period during which an emission unit is operated.

Decarburization vessel means any vessel used to further refine molten steel with the primary intent of reducing the carbon content of the steel, including but not limited to vessels used for argon-oxygen decarburization and vacuum oxygen decarburization.

Deep bedding systems for cattle swine means a manure management system in which, as manure accumulates, bedding is continually added to absorb moisture over a production cycle and possibly for as long as 6 to 12 months. This manure management system also is known as a bedded pack manure management system and may be combined with a dry lot or pasture.

Degasification system means the entirety of the equipment that is used to drain gas from underground coal mines. This includes all degasification wells and gob gas vent holes at the underground coal mine. Degasification systems include gob and premine surface drainage wells, gob and premine in-mine drainage wells, and in-mine gob and premine cross-measure borehole wells.

Degradable organic carbon (DOC) means the fraction of the total mass of a waste material that can be biologically degraded.

Dehydrator means a device in which a liquid absorbent (including desiccant, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, or triethylene glycol) directly contacts a natural gas stream to absorb water vapor.

Dehydrator vent emissions means natural gas and CO2 released from a natural gas dehydrator system absorbent (typically glycol) reboiler or regenerator to the atmosphere or a flare, including stripping natural gas and motive natural gas used in absorbent circulation pumps.

Delayed coking unit means one or more refinery process units in which high molecular weight petroleum derivatives are thermally cracked and petroleum coke is produced in a series of closed, batch system reactors. A delayed coking unit consists of the coke drums and ancillary equipment associated with a single fractionator.

De-methanizer means the natural gas processing unit that separates methane rich residue gas from the heavier hydrocarbons (e.g., ethane, propane, butane, pentane-plus) in feed natural gas stream.

Density means the mass contained in a given unit volume (mass/volume).

Desiccant means a material used in solid-bed dehydrators to remove water from raw natural gas by adsorption or absorption. Desiccants include activated alumina, pelletized calcium chloride, lithium chloride and granular silica gel material. Wet natural gas is passed through a bed of the granular or pelletized solid adsorbent or absorbent in these dehydrators. As the wet gas contacts the surface of the particles of desiccant material, water is adsorbed on the surface or absorbed and dissolves the surface of these desiccant particles. Passing through the entire desiccant bed, almost all of the water is adsorbed onto or absorbed into the desiccant material, leaving the dry gas to exit the contactor.

Destruction means:

(1) With respect to landfills and manure management, the combustion of methane in any on-site or off-site combustion technology. Destroyed methane includes, but is not limited to, methane combusted by flaring, methane destroyed by thermal oxidation, methane combusted for use in on-site energy or heat production technologies, methane that is conveyed through pipelines (including natural gas pipelines) for off-site combustion, and methane that is collected for any other on-site or off-site use as a fuel.

(2) With respect to fluorinated GHGs, the expiration of a fluorinated GHG to the destruction efficiency actually achieved. Such destruction does not result in a commercially useful end product.

Destruction device, for the purposes of subparts II and TT of this part, means a flare, thermal oxidizer, boiler, turbine, internal combustion engine, or any other combustion unit used to destroy or oxidize methane contained in landfill gas or wastewater biogas.

Destruction efficiency means the efficiency with which a destruction device reduces the mass of a greenhouse gas fed into the device. Destruction efficiency, or flaring destruction efficiency, refers to the fraction of the gas that leaves the flare partially or fully oxidized. The destruction efficiency is expressed in Equation A-2 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.001.gif

View or download PDF

where:

DE = Destruction Efficiency

tGHGiIN = The mass of GHG i fed into the destruction device

tGHGiOUT = The mass of GHG i exhausted from the destruction device

Diesel—Other is any distillate fuel oil not defined elsewhere, including Diesel Treated as Blendstock (DTAB).

DIPE (diisopropyl ether, (CH3)2CHOCH(CH3)2) is an ether as described in “Oxygenates.”

Direct liquefaction means the conversion of coal directly into liquids, rather than passing through an intermediate gaseous state.

Direct reduction furnace means a high temperature furnace typically fired with natural gas to produce solid iron from iron ore or iron ore pellets and coke, coal, or other carbonaceous materials.

Distillate fuel oil means a classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations and from crackers and hydrotreating process units. The generic term distillate fuel oil includes kerosene, kerosene-type jet fuel, diesel fuels (Diesel Fuels No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4), and fuel oils (Fuel Oils No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4).

Distillate Fuel No. 1 has a maximum distillation temperature of 550 °F at the 90 percent recovery point and a minimum flash point of 100 °F and includes fuels commonly known as Diesel Fuel No. 1 and Fuel Oil No. 1, but excludes kerosene. This fuel is further subdivided into categories of sulfur content: High Sulfur (greater than 500 ppm), Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 500 ppm and greater than 15 ppm), and Ultra Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 15 ppm).

Distillate Fuel No. 2 has a minimum and maximum distillation temperature of 540 °F and 640 °F at the 90 percent recovery point, respectively, and includes fuels commonly known as Diesel Fuel No. 2 and Fuel Oil No. 2. This fuel is further subdivided into categories of sulfur content: High Sulfur (greater than 500 ppm), Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 500 ppm and greater than 15 ppm), and Ultra Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 15 ppm).

Distillate Fuel No. 4 is a distillate fuel oil made by blending distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil, with a minimum flash point of 131 °F.

DOCf means the fraction of DOC that actually decomposes under the (presumably anaerobic) conditions within the landfill.

Dry lot means a manure management system component consisting of a paved or unpaved open confinement area without any significant vegetative cover where accumulating manure may be removed periodically.

Electric arc furnace (EAF) means a furnace that produces molten alloy metal and heats the charge materials with electric arcs from carbon electrodes.

Electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of carbon, alloy, or specialty steels using an EAF. This definition excludes EAFs at steel foundries and EAFs used to produce nonferrous metals.

Electrothermic furnace means a furnace that heats the charged materials with electric arcs from carbon electrodes.

Emergency generator means a stationary combustion device, such as a reciprocating internal combustion engine or turbine that serves solely as a secondary source of mechanical or electrical power whenever the primary energy supply is disrupted or discontinued during power outages or natural disasters that are beyond the control of the owner or operator of a facility. An emergency generator operates only during emergency situations, for training of personnel under simulated emergency conditions, as part of emergency demand response procedures, or for standard performance testing procedures as required by law or by the generator manufacturer. A generator that serves as a back-up power source under conditions of load shedding, peak shaving, power interruptions pursuant to an interruptible power service agreement, or scheduled facility maintenance shall not be considered an emergency generator.

Emergency equipment means any auxiliary fossil fuel-powered equipment, such as a fire pump, that is used only in emergency situations.

ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether, (CH3)3COC2H) is an ether as described in “Oxygenates.”

Ethane is a paraffinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H6.

Ethanol is an anhydrous alcohol with molecular formula C2H5OH.

Ethylene is an olefinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H4.

Ex refinery gate means the point at which a petroleum product leaves the refinery.

Experimental furnace means a glass melting furnace with the sole purpose of operating to evaluate glass melting processes, technologies, or glass products. An experimental furnace does not produce glass that is sold (except for further research and development purposes) or that is used as a raw material for non-experimental furnaces.

Export means to transport a product from inside the United States to persons outside the United States, excluding any such transport on behalf of the United States military including foreign military sales under the Arms Export Control Act.

Exporter means any person, company or organization of record that transfers for sale or for other benefit, domestic products from the United States to another country or to an affiliate in another country, excluding any such transfers on behalf of the United States military or military purposes including foreign military sales under the Arms Export Control Act. An exporter is not the entity merely transporting the domestic products, rather an exporter is the entity deriving the principal benefit from the transaction.

Facility means any physical property, plant, building, structure, source, or stationary equipment located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties in actual physical contact or separated solely by a public roadway or other public right-of-way and under common ownership or common control, that emits or may emit any greenhouse gas. Operators of military installations may classify such installations as more than a single facility based on distinct and independent functional groupings within contiguous military properties.

Feed means the prepared and mixed materials, which include but are not limited to materials such as limestone, clay, shale, sand, iron ore, mill scale, cement kiln dust and flyash, that are fed to the kiln. Feed does not include the fuels used in the kiln to produce heat to form the clinker product.

Feedstock means raw material inputs to a process that are transformed by reaction, oxidation, or other chemical or physical methods into products and by-products. Supplemental fuel burned to provide heat or thermal energy is not a feedstock.

Fischer-Tropsch process means a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms.

Flare means a combustion device, whether at ground level or elevated, that uses an open flame to burn combustible gases with combustion air provided by uncontrolled ambient air around the flame.

Flat glass means glass made of soda-lime recipe and produced into continuous flat sheets and other products listed in NAICS 327211.

Flowmeter means a device that measures the mass or volumetric rate of flow of a gas, liquid, or solid moving through an open or closed conduit (e.g. flowmeters include, but are not limited to, rotameters, turbine meters, coriolis meters, orifice meters, ultra-sonic flowmeters, and vortex flowmeters).

Fluid coking unit means one or more refinery process units in which high molecular weight petroleum derivatives are thermally cracked and petroleum coke is continuously produced in a fluidized bed system. The fluid coking unit includes equipment for controlling air pollutant emissions and for heat recovery on the fluid coking burner exhaust vent. There are two basic types of fluid coking units: A traditional fluid coking unit in which only a small portion of the coke produced in the unit is burned to fuel the unit and the fluid coking burner exhaust vent is directed to the atmosphere (after processing in a CO boiler or other air pollutant control equipment) and a flexicoking unit in which an auxiliary burner is used to partially combust a significant portion of the produced petroleum coke to generate a low value fuel gas that is used as fuel in other combustion sources at the refinery.

Fluorinated greenhouse gas means sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and any fluorocarbon except for controlled substances as defined at 40 CFR part 82, subpart A and substances with vapor pressures of less than 1 mm of Hg absolute at 25 degrees C. With these exceptions, “fluorinated GHG” includes but is not limited to any hydrofluorocarbon, any perfluorocarbon, any fully fluorinated linear, branched or cyclic alkane, ether, tertiary amine or aminoether, any perfluoropolyether, and any hydrofluoropolyether.

Fossil fuel means natural gas, petroleum, coal, or any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material, for purpose of creating useful heat.

Fractionators means plants that produce fractionated natural gas liquids (NGLs) extracted from produced natural gas and separate the NGLs individual component products: ethane, propane, butanes and pentane-plus (C5+). Plants that only process natural gas but do not fractionate NGLs further into component products are not considered fractionators. Some fractionators do not process production gas, but instead fractionate bulk NGLs received from natural gas processors. Some fractionators both process natural gas and fractionate bulk NGLs received from other plants.

Fuel means solid, liquid or gaseous combustible material.

Fuel gas means gas generated at a petroleum refinery or petrochemical plant and that is combusted separately or in any combination with any type of gas.

Fuel gas system means a system of compressors, piping, knock-out pots, mix drums, and, if necessary, units used to remove sulfur contaminants from the fuel gas (e.g., amine scrubbers) that collects fuel gas from one or more sources for treatment, as necessary, and transport to a stationary combustion unit. A fuel gas system may have an overpressure vent to a flare but the primary purpose for a fuel gas system is to provide fuel to the various combustion units at the refinery or petrochemical plant.

Furnace slag means a by-product formed in metal melting furnaces when slagging agents, reducing agents, and/or fluxes (e.g., coke ash, limestone, silicates) are added to remove impurities from the molten metal.

Gas collection system or landfill gas collection system means a system of pipes used to collect landfill gas from different locations in the landfill by means of a fan or similar mechanical draft equipment to a single location for treatment (thermal destruction) or use. Landfill gas collection systems may also include knock-out or separator drums and/or a compressor. A single landfill may have multiple gas collection systems. Landfill gas collection systems do not include “passive” systems, whereby landfill gas flows naturally to the surface of the landfill where an opening or pipe (vent) is installed to allow for natural gas flow.

Gas conditions mean the actual temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas sample.

Gas-fired unit means a stationary combustion unit that derives more than 50 percent of its annual heat input from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and the remainder of its annual heat input from the combustion of fuel oil or other liquid fuels.

Gas monitor means an instrument that continuously measures the concentration of a particular gaseous species in the effluent of a stationary source.

Gas to oil ratio (GOR) means the ratio of the volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure that is produced from a volume of oil when depressurized to standard temperature and pressure.

Gaseous fuel means a material that is in the gaseous state at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure conditions and that is combusted to produce heat and/or energy.

Gasification means the conversion of a solid or liquid raw material into a gas.

Gasoline—Other is any gasoline that is not defined elsewhere, including GTAB (gasoline treated as blendstock).

Glass melting furnace means a unit comprising a refractory-lined vessel in which raw materials are charged and melted at high temperature to produce molten glass.

Glass produced means the weight of glass exiting a glass melting furnace.

Global warming potential or GWP means the ratio of the time-integrated radiative forcing from the instantaneous release of one kilogram of a trace substance relative to that of one kilogram- of a reference gas, i.e., CO2.

GPA means the Gas Processors Association.

Greenhouse gas or GHG means carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and other fluorinated greenhouse gases as defined in this section.

GTBA (gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol, (CH3)3COH), or t-butanol, is an alcohol as described in “Oxygenates.”

Heavy Gas Oils are petroleum distillates with an approximate boiling range from 651 °F to 1,000 °F.

Heel means the amount of gas that remains in a shipping container after it is discharged or off-loaded (that is no more than ten percent of the volume of the container).

High-bleed pneumatic devices are automated, continuous bleed flow control devices powered by pressurized natural gas and used for maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature. Part of the gas power stream that is regulated by the process condition flows to a valve actuator controller where it vents continuously (bleeds) to the atmosphere at a rate in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour.

High heat value or HHV means the high or gross heat content of the fuel with the heat of vaporization included. The water is assumed to be in a liquid state.

Hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs means a class of GHGs consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon.

Import means, to land on, bring into, or introduce into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United States, with the following exemptions:

(1) Off-loading used or excess fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide of U.S. origin from a ship during servicing.

(2) Bringing fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide into the U.S. from Mexico where the fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide had been admitted into Mexico in bond and were of U.S. origin.

(3) Bringing fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide into the U.S. when transported in a consignment of personal or household effects or in a similar non-commercial situation normally exempted from U.S. Customs attention.

(4) Bringing fluorinated GHGs or nitrous into U.S. jurisdiction exclusively for U. S. military purposes.

Importer means any person, company, or organization of record that for any reason brings a product into the United States from a foreign country, excluding introduction into U.S. jurisdiction exclusively for United States military purposes. An importer is the person, company, or organization primarily liable for the payment of any duties on the merchandise or an authorized agent acting on their behalf. The term includes, as appropriate:

(1) The consignee.

(2) The importer of record.

(3) The actual owner.

(4) The transferee, if the right to draw merchandise in a bonded warehouse has been transferred.

Indurating furnace means a furnace where unfired taconite pellets, called green balls, are hardened at high temperatures to produce fired pellets for use in a blast furnace. Types of indurating furnaces include straight gate and grate kiln furnaces.

Industrial greenhouse gases means nitrous oxide or any fluorinated greenhouse gas.

In-line kiln/raw mill means a system in a portland cement production process where a dry kiln system is integrated with the raw mill so that all or a portion of the kiln exhaust gases are used to perform the drying operation of the raw mill, with no auxiliary heat source used. In this system the kiln is capable of operating without the raw mill operating, but the raw mill cannot operate without the kiln gases, and consequently, the raw mill does not generate a separate exhaust gas stream.

Intermittent bleed pneumatic devices mean automated flow control devices powered by pressurized natural gas and used for automatically maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature. These are snap-acting or throttling devices that discharge all or a portion of the full volume of the actuator intermittently when control action is necessary, but does not bleed continuously.

Isobutane is a paraffinic branch chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H10.

Isobutylene is an olefinic branch chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H8.

Kerosene is a light petroleum distillate with a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10-percent recovery point, a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F, a minimum flash point of 100 °F, and a maximum freezing point of −22 °F. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, distinguished by maximum sulfur content (0.04 and 0.30 percent of total mass, respectively), as well as all other grades of kerosene called range or stove oil. Excluded is kerosene-type jet fuel (see definition herein).

Kerosene-type jet fuel means a kerosene-based product used in commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft. The product has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10 percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F. Included are Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5, and JP-8.

Kiln means an oven, furnace, or heated enclosure used for thermally processing a mineral or mineral-based substance.

Landfill means an area of land or an excavation in which wastes are placed for permanent disposal and that is not a land application unit, surface impoundment, injection well, or waste pile as those terms are defined under 40 CFR 257.2.

Landfill gas means gas produced as a result of anaerobic decomposition of waste materials in the landfill. Landfill gas generally contains 40 to 60 percent methane on a dry basis, typically less than 1 percent non-methane organic chemicals, and the remainder being carbon dioxide.

Liberated means released from coal and surrounding rock strata during the mining process. This includes both methane emitted from the ventilation system and methane drained from degasification systems.

Lime is the generic term for a variety of chemical compounds that are produced by the calcination of limestone or dolomite. These products include but are not limited to calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, and dolomitic hydrate.

Liquid/Slurry means a manure management component in which manure is stored as excreted or with some minimal addition of water to facilitate handling and is stored in either tanks or earthen ponds, usually for periods less than one year.

Low-bleed pneumatic devices mean automated flow control devices powered by pressurized natural gas and used for maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature. Part of the gas power stream that is regulated by the process condition flows to a valve actuator controller where it vents continuously (bleeds) to the atmosphere at a rate equal to or less than six standard cubic feet per hour.

Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils, from spindle oil to cylinder oil to those used in greases. Petroleum lubricants may be produced from distillates or residues.

Makeup chemicals means carbonate chemicals (e.g., sodium and calcium carbonates) that are added to the chemical recovery areas of chemical pulp mills to replace chemicals lost in the process.

Manure composting means the biological oxidation of a solid waste including manure usually with bedding or another organic carbon source typically at thermophilic temperatures produced by microbial heat production. There are four types of composting employed for manure management: Static, in vessel, intensive windrow and passive windrow. Static composting typically occurs in an enclosed channel, with forced aeration and continuous mixing. In vessel composting occurs in piles with forced aeration but no mixing. Intensive windrow composting occurs in windrows with regular turning for mixing and aeration. Passive windrow composting occurs in windrows with infrequent turning for mixing and aeration.

Maximum rated heat input capacity means the hourly heat input to a unit (in mmBtu/hr), when it combusts the maximum amount of fuel per hour that it is capable of combusting on a steady state basis, as of the initial installation of the unit, as specified by the manufacturer.

Maximum rated input capacity means the maximum charging rate of a municipal waste combustor unit expressed in tons per day of municipal solid waste combusted, calculated according to the procedures under 40 CFR 60.58b(j).

Mcf means thousand cubic feet.

Methane conversion factor means the extent to which the CH4 producing capacity (Bo) is realized in each type of treatment and discharge pathway and system. Thus, it is an indication of the degree to which the system is anaerobic.

Methane correction factor means an adjustment factor applied to the methane generation rate to account for portions of the landfill that remain aerobic. The methane correction factor can be considered the fraction of the total landfill waste volume that is ultimately disposed of in an anaerobic state. Managed landfills that have soil or other cover materials have a methane correction factor of 1.

Methanol (CH3OH) is an alcohol as described in “Oxygenates.”

Midgrade gasoline has an octane rating greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. This definition applies to the midgrade categories of Conventional-Summer, Conventional-Winter, Reformulated-Summer, and Reformulated-Winter. For midgrade categories of RBOB-Summer, RBOB-Winter, CBOB-Summer, and CBOB-Winter, this definition refers to the expected octane rating of the finished gasoline after oxygenate has been added to the RBOB or CBOB.

Miscellaneous products include all refined petroleum products not defined elsewhere. It includes, but is not limited to, naphtha-type jet fuel (Jet B and JP-4), petrolatum lube refining by-products (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils, ram-jet fuel, petroleum rocket fuels, synthetic natural gas feedstocks, waste feedstocks, and specialty oils. It excludes organic waste sludges, tank bottoms, spent catalysts, and sulfuric acid.

MMBtu means million British thermal units.

Motor gasoline (finished) means a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, with or without additives, suitably blended to be used in spark ignition engines. Motor gasoline includes conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, and all types of oxygenated gasoline. Gasoline also has seasonal variations in an effort to control ozone levels. This is achieved by lowering the Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) of gasoline during the summer driving season. Depending on the region of the country the RVP is lowered to below 9.0 psi or 7.8 psi. The RVP may be further lowered by state regulations.

Mscf means thousand standard cubic feet.

MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether, (CH3)3COCH3) is an ether as described in “Oxygenates.”

Municipal solid waste landfill or MSW landfill means an entire disposal facility in a contiguous geographical space where household waste is placed in or on land. An MSW landfill may also receive other types of RCRA Subtitle D wastes (40 CFR 257.2) such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste, and industrial solid waste. Portions of an MSW landfill may be separated by access roads, public roadways, or other public right-of-ways. An MSW landfill may be publicly or privately owned.

Municipal solid waste or MSW means solid phase household, commercial/retail, and/or institutional waste. Household waste includes material discarded by single and multiple residential dwellings, hotels, motels, and other similar permanent or temporary housing establishments or facilities. Commercial/retail waste includes material discarded by stores, offices, restaurants, warehouses, non-manufacturing activities at industrial facilities, and other similar establishments or facilities. Institutional waste includes material discarded by schools, nonmedical waste discarded by hospitals, material discarded by non-manufacturing activities at prisons and government facilities, and material discarded by other similar establishments or facilities. Household, commercial/retail, and institutional wastes include yard waste, refuse-derived fuel, and motor vehicle maintenance materials. Insofar as there is separate collection, processing and disposal of industrial source waste streams consisting of used oil, wood pallets, construction, renovation, and demolition wastes (which includes, but is not limited to, railroad ties and telephone poles), paper, clean wood, plastics, industrial process or manufacturing wastes, medical waste, motor vehicle parts or vehicle fluff, or used tires that do not contain hazardous waste identified or listed under 42 U.S.C. §6921, such wastes are not municipal solid waste. However, such wastes qualify as municipal solid waste where they are collected with other municipal solid waste or are otherwise combined with other municipal solid waste for processing and/or disposal.

Municipal wastewater treatment plant means a series of treatment processes used to remove contaminants and pollutants from domestic, business, and industrial wastewater collected in city sewers and transported to a centralized wastewater treatment system such as a publicly owned treatment works (POTW).

N2O means nitrous oxide.

Naphthas (<401 °F) is a generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122 °F and 400 °F. The naphtha fraction of crude oil is the raw material for gasoline and is composed largely of paraffinic hydrocarbons.

Natural gas means a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface, of which the principal constituent is methane. Natural gas may be field quality or pipeline quality.

Natural gas driven pneumatic pump means a pump that uses pressurized natural gas to move a piston or diaphragm, which pumps liquids on the opposite side of the piston or diaphragm.

Natural gas liquids (NGLs) means those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated from the gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods. Generally, such liquids consist of ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes plus. Bulk NGLs refers to mixtures of NGLs that are sold or delivered as undifferentiated product from natural gas processing plants.

Natural gasoline means a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons) extracted from natural gas. It includes isopentane.

NIST means the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Nitric acid production line means a series of reactors and absorbers used to produce nitric acid.

Nitrogen excreted is the nitrogen that is excreted by livestock in manure and urine.

Non-crude feedstocks means any petroleum product or natural gas liquid that enters the refinery to be further refined or otherwise used on site.

Non-recovery coke oven battery means a group of ovens connected by common walls and operated as a unit, where coal undergoes destructive distillation under negative pressure to produce coke, and which is designed for the combustion of the coke oven gas from which by-products are not recovered.

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code(s) means the six-digit code(s) that represents the product(s)/activity(s)/service(s) at a facility or supplier as listed in the Federal Register and defined in “North American Industrial Classification System Manual 2007,” available from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Alexandria, VA 22312, phone (703) 605-6000 or (800) 553-6847. http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/.

Oil-fired unit means a stationary combustion unit that derives more than 50 percent of its annual heat input from the combustion of fuel oil, and the remainder of its annual heat input from the combustion of natural gas or other gaseous fuels.

Open-ended valve or lines (OELs) means any valve, except pressure relief valves, having one side of the valve seat in contact with process fluid and one side open to atmosphere, either directly or through open piping.

Operating hours means the duration of time in which a process or process unit is utilized; this excludes shutdown, maintenance, and standby.

Operational change means, for purposes of §98.3(b), a change in the type of feedstock or fuel used, a change in operating hours, or a change in process production rate.

Operator means any person who operates or supervises a facility or supplier.

Other oils (>401 °F) are oils with a boiling range equal to or greater than 401 °F that are generally intended for use as a petrochemical feedstock and are not defined elsewhere.

Outer Continental Shelf means all submerged lands lying seaward and outside of the area of lands beneath navigable waters as defined in 43 U.S.C. 1331, and of which the subsoil and seabed appertain to the United States and are subject to its jurisdiction and control.

Owner means any person who has legal or equitable title to, has a leasehold interest in, or control of a facility or supplier, except a person whose legal or equitable title to or leasehold interest in the facility or supplier arises solely because the person is a limited partner in a partnership that has legal or equitable title to, has a leasehold interest in, or control of the facility or supplier shall not be considered an “owner” of the facility or supplier.

Oxygenates means substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the oxygen content of the gasoline. Common oxygenates are ethanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and methanol.

Pasture/Range/Paddock means the manure from pasture and range grazing animals is allowed to lie as deposited, and is not managed.

Pentanes plus, or C5+, is a mixture of hydrocarbons that is a liquid at ambient temperature and pressure, and consists mostly of pentanes (five carbon chain) and higher carbon number hydrocarbons. Pentanes plus includes, but is not limited to, normal pentane, isopentane, hexanes-plus (natural gasoline), and plant condensate.

Perfluorocarbons or PFCs means a class of greenhouse gases consisting on the molecular level of carbon and fluorine.

Petrochemical means methanol, acrylonitrile, ethylene, ethylene oxide, ethylene dichloride, and any form of carbon black.

Petrochemical feedstocks means feedstocks derived from petroleum for the manufacture of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics. This category is usually divided into naphthas less than 401 °F and other oils greater than 401 °F.

Petroleum means oil removed from the earth and the oil derived from tar sands and shale.

Petroleum coke means a black solid residue, obtained mainly by cracking and carbonizing of petroleum derived feedstocks, vacuum bottoms, tar and pitches in processes such as delayed coking or fluid coking. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95 percent), has low ash content, and may be used as a feedstock in coke ovens. This product is also known as marketable coke or catalyst coke.

Petroleum product means all refined and semi-refined products that are produced at a refinery by processing crude oil and other petroleum-based feedstocks, including petroleum products derived from co-processing biomass and petroleum feedstock together, but not including plastics or plastic products. Petroleum products may be combusted for energy use, or they may be used either for non-energy processes or as non-energy products. The definition of petroleum product for importers and exporters excludes waxes.

Physical address, with respect to a United States parent company as defined in this section, means the street address, city, state and zip code of that company's physical location.

Pit storage below animal confinement (deep pits) means the collection and storage of manure typically below a slatted floor in an enclosed animal confinement facility. This usually occurs with little or no added water for periods less than one year.

Plant code means either of the following:

(1) The Plant ID code assigned by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. The Energy Information Administration Plant ID code is also referred to as the “ORIS code”, “ORISPL code”, “Facility ID”, or “Facility code”, among other names.

(2) If a Plant ID code has not been assigned by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, then plant code means a code beginning with “88” assigned by the EPA's Clean Air Markets Division for electronic reporting.

Portable means designed and capable of being carried or moved from one location to another. Indications of portability include but are not limited to wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform. Equipment is not portable if any one of the following conditions exists:

(1) The equipment is attached to a foundation.

(2) The equipment or a replacement resides at the same location for more than 12 consecutive months.

(3) The equipment is located at a seasonal facility and operates during the full annual operating period of the seasonal facility, remains at the facility for at least two years, and operates at that facility for at least three months each year.

(4) The equipment is moved from one location to another in an attempt to circumvent the portable residence time requirements of this definition.

Poultry manure with litter means a manure management system component that is similar to cattle and swine deep bedding except usually not combined with a dry lot or pasture. The system is typically used for poultry breeder flocks and for the production of meat type chickens (broiler) and other fowl.

Poultry manure without litter means a manure management system component that may manage manure in a liquid form, similar to open pits in enclosed animal confinement facilities. These systems may alternatively be designed and operated to dry manure as it accumulates. The latter is known as a high-rise manure management system and is a form of passive windrow manure composting when designed and operated properly.

Precision of a measurement at a specified level (e.g., one percent of full scale or one percent of the value measured) means that 95 percent of repeat measurements made by a device or technique are within the range bounded by the mean of the measurements plus or minus the specified level.

Premium grade gasoline is gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. This definition applies to the premium grade categories of Conventional-Summer, Conventional-Winter, Reformulated-Summer, and Reformulated-Winter. For premium grade categories of RBOB-Summer, RBOB-Winter, CBOB-Summer, and CBOB-Winter, this definition refers to the expected octane rating of the finished gasoline after oxygenate has been added to the RBOB or CBOB.

Pressed and blown glass means glass which is pressed, blown, or both, into products such as light bulbs, glass fiber, technical glass, and other products listed in NAICS 327212.

Pressure relief device or pressure relief valve or pressure safety valve means a safety device used to prevent operating pressures from exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the process equipment. A common pressure relief device is but not limited to a spring-loaded pressure relief valve. Devices that are actuated either by a pressure of less than or equal to 2.5 psig or by a vacuum are not pressure relief devices.

Primary fuel means the fuel that provides the greatest percentage of the annual heat input to a stationary fuel combustion unit.

Process emissions means the emissions from industrial processes (e.g., cement production, ammonia production) involving chemical or physical transformations other than fuel combustion. For example, the calcination of carbonates in a kiln during cement production or the oxidation of methane in an ammonia process results in the release of process CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Emissions from fuel combustion to provide process heat are not part of process emissions, whether the combustion is internal or external to the process equipment.

Process unit means the equipment assembled and connected by pipes and ducts to process raw materials and to manufacture either a final product or an intermediate used in the onsite production of other products. The process unit also includes the purification of recovered byproducts.

Process vent means means a gas stream that: Is discharged through a conveyance to the atmosphere either directly or after passing through a control device; originates from a unit operation, including but not limited to reactors (including reformers, crackers, and furnaces, and separation equipment for products and recovered byproducts); and contains or has the potential to contain GHG that is generated in the process. Process vent does not include safety device discharges, equipment leaks, gas streams routed to a fuel gas system or to a flare, discharges from storage tanks.

Propane is a paraffinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C3H8.

Propylene is an olefinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C3H6.

Pulp mill lime kiln means the combustion units (e.g., rotary lime kiln or fluidized bed calciner) used at a kraft or soda pulp mill to calcine lime mud, which consists primarily of calcium carbonate, into quicklime, which is calcium oxide.

Pushing means the process of removing the coke from the coke oven at the end of the coking cycle. Pushing begins when coke first begins to fall from the oven into the quench car and ends when the quench car enters the quench tower.

Raw mill means a ball and tube mill, vertical roller mill or other size reduction equipment, that is not part of an in-line kiln/raw mill, used to grind feed to the appropriate size. Moisture may be added or removed from the feed during the grinding operation. If the raw mill is used to remove moisture from feed materials, it is also, by definition, a raw material dryer. The raw mill also includes the air separator associated with the raw mill.

RBOB-Summer (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Reformulated-Summer.

RBOB-Winter (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Reformulated-Winter.

Reciprocating compressor means a piece of equipment that increases the pressure of a process natural gas or CO2 by positive displacement, employing linear movement of a shaft driving a piston in a cylinder.

Reciprocating compressor rod packing means a series of flexible rings in machined metal cups that fit around the reciprocating compressor piston rod to create a seal limiting the amount of compressed natural gas or CO2 that escapes to the atmosphere.

Re-condenser means heat exchangers that cool compressed boil-off gas to a temperature that will condense natural gas to a liquid.

Reformulated-Summer refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40 and 40 CFR 80.41, and summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Reformulated gasoline excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

Reformulated-Winter refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40 and 40 CFR 80.41, but which do not meet summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Note: This category includes Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG). Reformulated gasoline excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

Regular grade gasoline is gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 85 and less than 88. This definition applies to the regular grade categories of Conventional-Summer, Conventional-Winter, Reformulated-Summer, and Reformulated-Winter. For regular grade categories of RBOB-Summer, RBOB-Winter, CBOB-Summer, and CBOB-Winter, this definition refers to the expected octane rating of the finished gasoline after oxygenate has been added to the RBOB or CBOB.

Rendered animal fat, or tallow, means fats extracted from animals which are generally used as a feedstock in making biodiesel.

Research and development means those activities conducted in process units or at laboratory bench-scale settings whose purpose is to conduct research and development for new processes, technologies, or products and whose purpose is not for the manufacture of products for commercial sale, except in a de minimis manner.

Residual Fuel Oil No. 5 (Navy Special) is a classification for the heavier fuel oil generally used in steam powered vessels in government service and inshore power plants. It has a minimum flash point of 131 °F.

Residual Fuel Oil No. 6 (a.k.a. Bunker C) is a classification for the heavier fuel oil generally used for the production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering and various industrial purposes. It has a minimum flash point of 140 °F.

Residuum is residue from crude oil after distilling off all but the heaviest components, with a boiling range greater than 1,000 °F.

Road oil is any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust palliative and surface treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades, from 0, the most liquid, to 5, the most viscous.

Rotary lime kiln means a unit with an inclined rotating drum that is used to produce a lime product from limestone by calcination.

Safety device means a closure device such as a pressure relief valve, frangible disc, fusible plug, or any other type of device which functions exclusively to prevent physical damage or permanent deformation to a unit or its air emission control equipment by venting gases or vapors directly to the atmosphere during unsafe conditions resulting from an unplanned, accidental, or emergency event. A safety device is not used for routine venting of gases or vapors from the vapor headspace underneath a cover such as during filling of the unit or to adjust the pressure in response to normal daily diurnal ambient temperature fluctuations. A safety device is designed to remain in a closed position during normal operations and open only when the internal pressure, or another relevant parameter, exceeds the device threshold setting applicable to the air emission control equipment as determined by the owner or operator based on manufacturer recommendations, applicable regulations, fire protection and prevention codes and practices, or other requirements for the safe handling of flammable, combustible, explosive, reactive, or hazardous materials.

Sales oil means produced crude oil or condensate measured at the production lease automatic custody transfer (LACT) meter or custody transfer tank gauge.

Semi-refined petroleum product means all oils requiring further processing. Included in this category are unfinished oils which are produced by the partial refining of crude oil and include the following: Naphthas and lighter oils; kerosene and light gas oils; heavy gas oils; and residuum, and all products that require further processing or the addition of blendstocks.

Sendout means, in the context of a local distribution company, the total deliveries of natural gas to customers over a specified time interval (typically hour, day, month, or year). Sendout is the sum of gas received through the city gate, gas withdrawn from on-system storage or peak shaving plants, and gas produced and delivered into the distribution system; and is net of any natural gas injected into on-system storage. It comprises gas sales, exchange, deliveries, gas used by company, and unaccounted for gas. Sendout is measured at the city gate station, and other on-system receipt points from storage, peak shaving, and production.

Sensor means a device that measures a physical quantity/quality or the change in a physical quantity/quality, such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, pH, or liquid level.

SF6 means sulfur hexafluoride.

Shutdown means the cessation of operation of an emission source for any purpose.

Silicon carbide means an artificial abrasive produced from silica sand or quartz and petroleum coke.

Sinter process means a process that produces a fused aggregate of fine iron-bearing materials suited for use in a blast furnace. The sinter machine is composed of a continuous traveling grate that conveys a bed of ore fines and other finely divided iron-bearing material and fuel (typically coke breeze), a burner at the feed end of the grate for ignition, and a series of downdraft windboxes along the length of the strand to support downdraft combustion and heat sufficient to produce a fused sinter product.

Site means any combination of one or more graded pad sites, gravel pad sites, foundations, platforms, or the immediate physical location upon which equipment is physically located.

Smelting furnace means a furnace in which lead-bearing materials, carbon-containing reducing agents, and fluxes are melted together to form a molten mass of material containing lead and slag.

Solid by-products means plant matter such as vegetable waste, animal materials/wastes, and other solid biomass, except for wood, wood waste, and sulphite lyes (black liquor).

Solid storage is the storage of manure, typically for a period of several months, in unconfined piles or stacks. Manure is able to be stacked due to the presence of a sufficient amount of bedding material or loss of moisture by evaporation.

Sour gas means any gas that contains significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide. Sour gas may include untreated fuel gas, amine stripper off-gas, or sour water stripper gas.

Sour natural gas means natural gas that contains significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) that exceed the concentrations specified for commercially saleable natural gas delivered from transmission and distribution pipelines.

Special naphthas means all finished products with the naphtha boiling range (290 ° to 470 °F) that are generally used as paint thinners, cleaners or solvents. These products are refined to a specified flash point. Special naphthas include all commercial hexane and cleaning solvents conforming to ASTM Specification D1836-07, Standard Specification for Commercial Hexanes, and D235-02 (Reapproved 2007), Standard Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent), respectively. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor gasoline or aviation gasoline, or that are to be used as petrochemical and synthetic natural gas (SNG) feedstocks are excluded.

Spent liquor solids means the dry weight of the solids in the spent pulping liquor that enters the chemical recovery furnace or chemical recovery combustion unit.

Spent pulping liquor means the residual liquid collected from on-site pulping operations at chemical pulp facilities that is subsequently fired in chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda pulp facilities or chemical recovery combustion units at sulfite or semi-chemical pulp facilities.

Standard conditions or standard temperature and pressure (STP), for the purposes of this part, means either 60 or 68 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute.

Steam reforming means a catalytic process that involves a reaction between natural gas or other light hydrocarbons and steam. The result is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water.

Still gas means any form or mixture of gases produced in refineries by distillation, cracking, reforming, and other processes. The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, and propylene.

Storage tank means a vessel (excluding sumps) that is designed to contain an accumulation of crude oil, condensate, intermediate hydrocarbon liquids, or produced water and that is constructed entirely of non-earthen materials (e.g., wood, concrete, steel, plastic) that provide structural support.

Sulfur recovery plant means all process units which recover sulfur or produce sulfuric acid from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) from a common source of sour gas at a petroleum refinery. The sulfur recovery plant also includes sulfur pits used to store the recovered sulfur product, but it does not include secondary sulfur storage vessels or loading facilities downstream of the sulfur pits. For example, a Claus sulfur recovery plant includes: Reactor furnace and waste heat boiler, catalytic reactors, sulfur pits, and, if present, oxidation or reduction control systems, or incinerator, thermal oxidizer, or similar combustion device. Multiple sulfur recovery units are a single sulfur recovery plant only when the units share the same source of sour gas. Sulfur recovery units that receive source gas from completely segregated sour gas treatment systems are separate sulfur recovery plants.

Supplemental fuel means a fuel burned within a petrochemical process that is not produced within the process itself.

Supplier means a producer, importer, or exporter in any supply category included in Table A-5 to this subpart, as defined by the corresponding subpart of this part.

Sweet gas is natural gas with low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) that does not require (or has already had) acid gas treatment to meet pipeline corrosion-prevention specifications for transmission and distribution.

Taconite iron ore processing means an industrial process that separates and concentrates iron ore from taconite, a low grade iron ore, and heats the taconite in an indurating furnace to produce taconite pellets that are used as the primary feed material for the production of iron in blast furnaces at integrated iron and steel plants.

TAME means tertiary amyl methyl ether, (CH3)2(C2H5)COCH3).

Trace concentrations means concentrations of less than 0.1 percent by mass of the process stream.

Transform means to use and entirely consume (except for trace concentrations) nitrous oxide or fluorinated GHGs in the manufacturing of other chemicals for commercial purposes. Transformation does not include burning of nitrous oxide.

Transshipment means the continuous shipment of nitrous oxide or a fluorinated GHG from a foreign state of origin through the United States or its territories to a second foreign state of final destination, as long as the shipment does not enter into United States jurisdiction. A transshipment, as it moves through the United States or its territories, cannot be re-packaged, sorted or otherwise changed in condition.

Trona means the raw material (mineral) used to manufacture soda ash; hydrated sodium bicarbonate carbonate (e.g., Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O).

Ultimate analysis means the determination of the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine and (by difference) oxygen in the gaseous products and ash after the complete combustion of a sample of an organic material.

Unfinished oils are all oils requiring further processing, except those requiring only mechanical blending.

United States means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory or possession of the United States, as well as the territorial sea as defined by Presidential Proclamation No. 5928.

United States parent company(s) means the highest-level United States company(s) with an ownership interest in the facility or supplier as of December 31 of the year for which data are being reported.

Unstabilized crude oil means, for the purposes of this part, crude oil that is pumped from the well to a pipeline or pressurized storage vessel for transport to the refinery without intermediate storage in a storage tank at atmospheric pressures. Unstabilized crude oil is characterized by having a true vapor pressure of 5 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) or greater.

Used oil means a petroleum-derived or synthetically-derived oil whose physical properties have changed as a result of handling or use, such that the oil cannot be used for its original purpose. Used oil consists primarily of automotive oils (e.g., used motor oil, transmission oil, hydraulic fluids, brake fluid, etc.) and industrial oils (e.g., industrial engine oils, metalworking oils, process oils, industrial grease, etc).

Valve means any device for halting or regulating the flow of a liquid or gas through a passage, pipeline, inlet, outlet, or orifice; including, but not limited to, gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly and needle valves.

Vapor recovery system means any equipment located at the source of potential gas emissions to the atmosphere or to a flare, that is composed of piping, connections, and, if necessary, flow-inducing devices, and that is used for routing the gas back into the process as a product and/or fuel.

Vaporization unit means a process unit that performs controlled heat input to vaporize LNG to supply transmission and distribution pipelines or consumers with natural gas.

Vegetable oil means oils extracted from vegetation that are generally used as a feedstock in making biodiesel.

Ventilation hole or shaft means a vent hole or shaft employed at an underground coal mine to serve as the outlet or conduit to move air from the ventilation system out of the mine.

Ventilation system means a system that is used to control the concentration of methane and other gases within mine working areas through mine ventilation, rather than a mine degasification system. A ventilation system consists of fans that move air through the mine workings to dilute methane concentrations.

Volatile solids are the organic material in livestock manure and consist of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions.

Waelz kiln means an inclined rotary kiln in which zinc-containing materials are charged together with a carbon reducing agent (e.g., petroleum coke, metallurgical coke, or anthracite coal).

Waxes means a solid or semi-solid material at 77 °F consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or derived from petroleum fractions, or through a Fischer-Tropsch type process, in which the straight chained paraffin series predominates. This includes all marketable wax, whether crude or refined, with a congealing point between 80 (or 85) and 240 °F and a maximum oil content of 50 weight percent.

Well completions means the process that allows for the flow of petroleum or natural gas from newly drilled wells to expel drilling and reservoir fluids and test the reservoir flow characteristics, steps which may vent produced gas to the atmosphere via an open pit or tank. Well completion also involves connecting the well bore to the reservoir, which may include treating the formation or installing tubing, packer(s), or lifting equipment, steps that do not significantly vent natural gas to the atmosphere. This process may also include high-rate flowback of injected gas, water, oil, and proppant used to fracture or re-fracture and prop open new fractures in existing lower permeability gas reservoirs, steps that may vent large quantities of produced gas to the atmosphere.

Well workover means the process(es) of performing one or more of a variety of remedial operations on producing petroleum and natural gas wells to try to increase production. This process also includes high-rate flowback of injected gas, water, oil, and proppant used to re-fracture and prop-open new fractures in existing low permeability gas reservoirs, steps that may vent large quantities of produced gas to the atmosphere.

Wellhead means the piping, casing, tubing and connected valves protruding above the earth's surface for an oil and/or natural gas well. The wellhead ends where the flow line connects to a wellhead valve. Wellhead equipment includes all equipment, permanent and portable, located on the improved land area (i.e. well pad) surrounding one or multiple wellheads.

Wet natural gas means natural gas in which water vapor exceeds the concentration specified for commercially saleable natural gas delivered from transmission and distribution pipelines. This input stream to a natural gas dehydrator is referred to as “wet gas.”

Wood residuals means materials recovered from three principal sources: Municipal solid waste (MSW); construction and demolition debris; and primary timber processing. Wood residuals recovered from MSW include wooden furniture, cabinets, pallets and containers, scrap lumber (from sources other than construction and demolition activities), and urban tree and landscape residues. Wood residuals from construction and demolition debris originate from the construction, repair, remodeling and demolition of houses and non-residential structures. Wood residuals from primary timber processing include bark, sawmill slabs and edgings, sawdust, and peeler log cores. Other sources of wood residuals include, but are not limited to, railroad ties, telephone and utility poles, pier and dock timbers, wastewater process sludge from paper mills, trim, sander dust, and sawdust from wood products manufacturing (including resinated wood product residuals), and logging residues.

Wool fiberglass means fibrous glass of random texture, including fiberglass insulation, and other products listed in NAICS 327993.

Working capacity, for the purposes of subpart TT of this part, means the maximum volume or mass of waste that is actually placed in the landfill from an individual or representative type of container (such as a tank, truck, or roll-off bin) used to convey wastes to the landfill, taking into account that the container may not be able to be 100 percent filled and/or 100 percent emptied for each load.

You means an owner or operator subject to Part 98.

Zinc smelters means a facility engaged in the production of zinc metal, zinc oxide, or zinc alloy products from zinc sulfide ore concentrates, zinc calcine, or zinc-bearing scrap and recycled materials through the use of pyrometallurgical techniques involving the reduction and volatization of zinc-bearing feed materials charged to a furnace.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 39759, July 12, 2010; 75 FR 57686, Sept. 22, 2010; 75 FR 66457, Oct. 28, 2010; 75 FR 74487, Nov. 30, 2010; 75 FR 74816, Dec. 1, 2010; 75 FR 79137, Dec. 17, 2010; 76 FR 73900, Nov. 29, 2011; 76 FR 80573, Dec. 23, 2011; 78 FR 71948, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.7   What standardized methods are incorporated by reference into this part?

The materials listed in this section are incorporated by reference in the corresponding sections noted. These incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of approval, and a notice of any change in the materials will be published in the Federal Register. The materials are available for purchase at the corresponding address in this section. The materials are available for inspection at the EPA Docket Center, Public Reading Room, EPA West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC, phone (202) 566-1744 and at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(a)-(b) [Reserved]

(c) The following material is available for purchase from the ASM International, 9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073, (440) 338-5151, http://www.asminternational.org.

(1) ASM CS-104 UNS No. G10460—Alloy Digest April 1985 (Carbon Steel of Medium Carbon Content), incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.174(b).

(2) [Reserved]

(d) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, (800) 843-2763, http://www.asme.org.

(1) ASME MFC-3M-2004 Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi, incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.124(m)(1), §98.324(e), §98.354(d), §98.354(h), §98.344(c) and §98.364(e).

(2) ASME MFC-4M-1986 (Reaffirmed 1997) Measurement of Gas Flow by Turbine Meters, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(2), §98.324(e), §98.344(c), §98.354(h), and §98.364(e).

(3) ASME MFC-5M-1985 (Reaffirmed 1994) Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits Using Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(3) and §98.354(d).

(4) ASME MFC-6M-1998 Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Vortex Flowmeters, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(4), §98.324(e), §98.344(c), §98.354(h), and §98.364(e).

(5) ASME MFC-7M-1987 (Reaffirmed 1992) Measurement of Gas Flow by Means of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(5), §98.324(e), §98.344(c), §98.354(h), and §98.364(e).

(6) ASME MFC-9M-1988 (Reaffirmed 2001) Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits by Weighing Method, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(6).

(7) ASME MFC-11M-2006 Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Coriolis Mass Flowmeters, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(7), §98.324(e), §98.344(c), and §98.354(h).

(8) ASME MFC-14M-2003 Measurement of Fluid Flow Using Small Bore Precision Orifice Meters, IBR approved for §98.124(m)(8), §98.324(e), §98.344(c), §98.354(h), and §98.364(e).

(9) ASME MFC-16-2007 Measurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits with Electromagnetic Flow Meters, IBR approved for §98.354(d).

(10) ASME MFC-18M-2001 Measurement of Fluid Flow Using Variable Area Meters, IBR approved for §98.324(e), §98.344(c), §98.354(h), and §98.364(e).

(e) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box CB700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-B2959, (800) 262-1373, http://www.astm.org.

(1) ASTM C25-06 Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime, and Hydrated Lime, incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.114(b), §98.174(b), §98.184(b), §98.194(c), and §98.334(b).

(2) ASTM C114-09 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement, IBR approved for §98.84(a), §98.84(b), and §98.84(c).

(3) ASTM D235-02 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent), IBR approved for §98.6.

(4) ASTM D240-02 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter, IBR approved for §98.254(e).

(5) ASTM D388-05 Standard Classification of Coals by Rank, IBR approved for §98.6.

(6) ASTM D910-07a Standard Specification for Aviation Gasolines, IBR approved for §98.6.

(7) [Reserved]

(8) ASTM D1826-94 (Reapproved 2003) Standard Test Method for Calorific (Heating) Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Continuous Recording Calorimeter, IBR approved for §98.254(e).

(9) ASTM D1836-07 Standard Specification for Commercial Hexanes, IBR approved for §98.6.

(10) ASTM D1945-03 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §98.74(c), §98.164(b), §98.244(b), §98.254(d), §98.324(d), §98.354(g), and §98.344(b).

(11) ASTM D1946-90 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §98.74(c), §98.164(b), §98.254(d), §98.324(d), §98.344(b), §98.354(g), and §98.364(c).

(12) ASTM D2013-07 Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Analysis, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(13) ASTM D2234/D2234M-07 Standard Practice for Collection of a Gross Sample of Coal, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(14) ASTM D2502-04 Standard Test Method for Estimation of Mean Relative Molecular Mass of Petroleum Oils From Viscosity Measurements, IBR approved for §98.74(c).

(15) ASTM D2503-92 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Method for Relative Molecular Mass (Molecular Weight) of Hydrocarbons by Thermoelectric Measurement of Vapor Pressure, IBR approved for §98.74(c) and §98.254(d)(6).

(16) ASTM D2505-88 (Reapproved 2004)e1 Standard Test Method for Ethylene, Other Hydrocarbons, and Carbon Dioxide in High-Purity Ethylene by Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §98.244(b).

(17) ASTM D2597-94 (Reapproved 2004) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(18) ASTM D3176-89 (Reapproved 2002) Standard Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke, IBR approved for §98.74(c), §98.164(b), §98.244(b), §98.254(i), §98.284(c), §98.284(d), §98.314(c), §98.314(d), and §98.314(f).

(19) ASTM D3238-95 (Reapproved 2005) Standard Test Method for Calculation of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils by the n-d-M Method, IBR approved for §98.74(c) and §98.164(b).

(20) ASTM D3588-98 (Reapproved 2003) Standard Practice for Calculating Heat Value, Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels, IBR approved for §98.254(e).

(21) ASTM D3682-01 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes, IBR approved for §98.144(b).

(22) ASTM D4057-06 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(23) ASTM D4177-95 (Reapproved 2005) Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(24) ASTM D4809-06 Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method), IBR approved for §98.254(e).

(25) ASTM D4891-89 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Test Method for Heating Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Stoichiometric Combustion, IBR approved for §98.254(e) and §98.324(d).

(26) ASTM D5291-02 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants, IBR approved for §98.74(c), §98.164(b), §98.244(b), and §98.254(i).

(27) ASTM D5373-08 Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal, IBR approved for §98.74(c), §98.114(b), §98.164(b), §98.174(b), §98.184(b), §98.244(b), §98.254(i), §98.274(b), §98.284(c), §98.284(d), §98.314(c), §98.314(d), §98.314(f), and §98.334(b).

(28) [Reserved]

(29) ASTM D6060-96 (Reapproved 2001) Standard Practice for Sampling of Process Vents With a Portable Gas Chromatograph, IBR approved for §98.244(b).

(30) ASTM D6348-03 Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous Compounds by Extractive Direct Interface Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, IBR approved for §98.54(b), Table I-9 to subpart I of this part, §98.224(b), and §98.414(n).

(31) ASTM D6609-08 Standard Guide for Part-Stream Sampling of Coal, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(32) ASTM D6751-08 Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels, IBR approved for §98.6.

(33) ASTM D6866-08 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Biobased Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis, IBR approved for §98.34(d), §98.34(e), and §98.36(e).

(34) ASTM D6883-04 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Stationary Coal from Railroad Cars, Barges, Trucks, or Stockpiles, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(35) ASTM D7430-08ae1 Standard Practice for Mechanical Sampling of Coal, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(36) ASTM D7459-08 Standard Practice for Collection of Integrated Samples for the Speciation of Biomass (Biogenic) and Fossil-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emitted from Stationary Emissions Sources, IBR approved for §98.34(d), §98.34(e), and §98.36(e).

(37) ASTM E359-00 (Reapproved 2005)e1 Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate), IBR approved for §98.294(a) and §98.294(b).

(38) ASTM E1019-08 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Steel, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys by Various Combustion and Fusion Techniques, IBR approved for §98.174(b).

(39) [Reserved]

(40) ASTM E1915-07a Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Metal Bearing Ores and Related Materials by Combustion Infrared-Absorption Spectrometry, IBR approved for §98.174(b).

(41) ASTM E1941-04 Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon in Refractory and Reactive Metals and Their Alloys, IBR approved for §98.114(b), §98.184(b), §98.334(b).

(42) ASTM UOP539-97 Refinery Gas Analysis by Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §98.164(b), §98.244(b), §98.254(d), §98.324(d), §98.344(b), and §98.354(g).

(43) ASTM D1941-91 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Method for Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water with the Parshall Flume, approved June 15, 2007, IBR approved for §98.354(d).

(44) ASTM D5614-94 (Reapproved 2008) Standard Test Method for Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water with Broad-Crested Weirs, approved October 1, 2008, IBR approved for §98.354(d).

(45) ASTM D6349-09 Standard Test Method for Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Coal, Coke, and Solid Residues from Combustion of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma—Atomic Emission Spectrometry, IBR approved for §98.144(b).

(46) ASTM D2879-97 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature of Liquids by Isoteniscope (ASTM D2879), approved May 1, 2007, IBR approved for §98.128.

(47) ASTM D7359-08 Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine, Chlorine and Sulfur in Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures by Oxidative Pyrohydrolytic Combustion followed by Ion Chromatography Detection (Combustion Ion Chromatography-CIC) (ASTM D7359), approved October 15, 2008, IBR approved for §98.124(e)(2).

(48) ASTM D2593-93 (Reapproved 2009) Standard Test Method for Butadiene Purity and Hydrocarbon Impurities by Gas Chromatography, approved July 1, 2009, IBR approved for §98.244(b)(4)(xi).

(49) ASTM D7633-10 Standard Test Method for Carbon Black—Carbon Content, approved May 15, 2010, IBR approved for §98.244(b)(4)(xii).

(f) The following material is available for purchase from the Gas Processors Association (GPA), 6526 East 60th Street, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74143, (918) 493-3872, http://www.gasprocessors.com.

(1) [Reserved]

(2) GPA 2261-00 Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §98.164(b), §98.254(d), §98.344(b), and §98.354(g).

(g) The following material is available for purchase from the International Standards Organization (ISO), 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, Case postale 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, +41 22 749 01 11, http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm.

(1) ISO 3170: Petroleum liquids—Manual sampling—Third Edition 2004-02-01, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(2) ISO 3171: Petroleum Liquids—Automatic pipeline sampling—Second Edition 1988-12-01, IBR approved for §98.164(b).

(3) [Reserved]

(4) ISO/TR 15349-1: 1998, Unalloyed steel—Determination of low carbon content. Part 1: Infrared absorption method after combustion in an electric resistance furnace (by peak separation) (1998-10-15)—First Edition, IBR approved for §98.174(b).

(5) ISO/TR 15349-3: 1998, Unalloyed steel—Determination of low carbon content. Part 3: Infrared absorption method after combustion in an electric resistance furnace (with preheating) (1998-10-15)—First Edition, IBR approved for §98.174(b).

(h) The following material is available for purchase from the National Lime Association (NLA), 200 North Glebe Road, Suite 800, Arlington, Virginia 22203, (703) 243-5463, http://www.lime.org.

(1) CO2 Emissions Calculation Protocol for the Lime Industry—English Units Version, February 5, 2008 Revision—National Lime Association, incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.194(c) and §98.194(e).

(2) [Reserved]

(i) The following material is available for purchase from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1070, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-1070, (800) 877-8339, http://www.nist.gov/index.html.

(1) Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements For Weighing and Measuring Devices, NIST Handbook 44 (2009), incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.244(b), §98.254(h), and §98.344(a).

(2) [Reserved]

(j) The following material is available for purchase from the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI), 15 Technology Parkway South, Norcross, GA 30092, (800) 332-8686, http://www.tappi.org.

(1) T650 om-05 Solids Content of Black Liquor, TAPPI, incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.276(c) and §98.277(d).

(2) T684 om-06 Gross Heating Value of Black Liquor, TAPPI, incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §98.274(b).

(k) The following material is available for purchase from Standard Methods, at http://www.standardmethods.org, (877) 574-1233; or, through a joint publication agreement from the American Public Health Association (APHA), P.O. Box 933019, Atlanta, GA 31193-3019, (888) 320-APHA (2742), http://www.apha.org/publications/pubscontact/.

(1) Method 2540G Total, Fixed, and Volatile Solids in Solid and Semisolid Samples, IBR approved for §98.464(b).

(2) [Reserved]

(l) The following material is available from the U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, 1100 Wilson Boulevard, 21st Floor, Arlington, VA 22209-3939, (202) 693-9400, http://www.msha.gov.

(1) General Coal Mine Inspection Procedures and Inspection Tracking System, Handbook Number: PH-08-V-1, January 1, 2008, IBR approved for §98.324(b).

(2) [Reserved]

(m) The following material is available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 272-0167, http://www.epa.gov.

(1) NPDES Compliance Inspection Manual, Chapter 5, Sampling, EPA 305-X-04-001, July 2004, http://www.epa.gov/compliance/monitoring/programs/cwa/npdes.html, IBR approved for §98.354(c).

(2) U.S. EPA NPDES Permit Writers' Manual, Section 7.1.3, Sample Collection Methods, EPA 833-B-96-003, December 1996, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/owm0243.pdf, IBR approved for §98.354(c).

(3) Protocol for Measuring Destruction or Removal Efficiency (DRE) of Fluorinated Greenhouse Gas Abatement Equipment in Electronics Manufacturing, Version 1, EPA-430-R-10-003, March 2010 (EPA 430-R-10-003), http://www.epa.gov/semiconductor-pfc/documents/dre_protocol.pdf, IBR approved for §98.94(f)(4)(i), §98.94(g)(3), §98.97(d)(4), §98.98, Appendix A to subpart I of this part, §98.124(e)(2), and §98.414(n)(1).

(4) Emissions Inventory Improvement Program, Volume II: Chapter 16, Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from Chemical Manufacturing Facilities, August 2007, Final, http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/eiip/techreport/volume02/index.html, IBR approved for §98.123(c)(1)(i)(A).

(5) Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates, EPA-453/R-95-017, November 1995 (EPA-453/R-95-017), http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/efdocs/equiplks.pdf, IBR approved for §98.123(d)(1)(i), §98.123(d)(1)(ii), §98.123(d)(1)(iii), and §98.124(f)(2).

(6) Tracer Gas Protocol for the Determination of Volumetric Flow Rate Through the Ring Pipe of the Xact Multi-Metals Monitoring System, also known as Other Test Method 24 (Tracer Gas Protocol), Eli Lilly and Company Tippecanoe Laboratories, September 2006, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/prelim/otm24.pdf, IBR approved for §98.124(e)(1)(ii).

(7) Approved Alternative Method 012: An Alternate Procedure for Stack Gas Volumetric Flow Rate Determination (Tracer Gas) (ALT-012), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Emission Measurement Center, May 23, 1994, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt/alt-012.pdf, IBR approved for §98.124(e)(1)(ii).

(8) Protocol for Measurement of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Emissions from Primary Aluminum Production (2008), http://www.epa.gov/highgwp/aluminum-pfc/documents/measureprotocol.pdf, IBR approved for §98.64(a).

(9) AP 42, Section 5.2, Transportation and Marketing of Petroleum Liquids, July 2008, (AP 42, Section 5.2); http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch05/final/c05s02.pdf; in Chapter 5, Petroleum Industry, of AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, 5th Edition, Volume I, IBR approved for §98.253(n).

(10) Method 9060A, Total Organic Carbon, Revision 1, November 2004 (Method 9060A), http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/9060a.pdf; in EPA Publication No. SW-846, “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” Third Edition, IBR approved for §98.244(b)(4)(viii).

(11) Method 8031, Acrylonitrile By Gas Chromatography, Revision 0, September 1994 (Method 8031), http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/8031.pdf; in EPA Publication No. SW-846, “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” Third Edition, IBR approved for §98.244(b)(4)(viii).

(12) Method 8021B, Aromatic and Halogenated Volatiles By Gas Chromatography Using Photoionization and/or Electrolytic Conductivity Detectors, Revision 2, December 1996 (Method 8021B). http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/8021b.pdf; in EPA Publication No. SW-846, “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” Third Edition, IBR approved for §98.244(b)(4)(viii).

(13) Method 8015C, Nonhalogenated Organics By Gas Chromatography, Revision 3, February 2007 (Method 8015C). http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/testmethods/sw846/pdfs/8015c.pdf; in EPA Publication No. SW-846, “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” Third Edition, IBR approved for §98.244(b)(4)(viii).

(14) AP 42, Section 7.1, Organic Liquid Storage Tanks, November 2006 (AP 42, Section 7.1), http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch07/final/c07s01.pdf; in Chapter 7, Liquid Storage Tanks, of AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, 5th Edition, Volume I, IBR approved for §98.253(m)(1) and §98.256(o)(2)(i).

(n)-(o) [Reserved]

(p) The following material is available for purchase from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1444 South Boulder Avenue, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74119, (918) 584-2555, http://www.aapg.org.

(1) Geologic Note: AAPG-CSD Geologic Provinces Code Map: AAPG Bulletin, Prepared by Richard F. Meyer, Laure G. Wallace, and Fred J. Wagner, Jr., Volume 75, Number 10 (October 1991), pages 1644-1651, IBR approved for §98.238.

(2) Alaska Geological Province Boundary Map, Compiled by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Statistics of Drilling in cooperation with the USGS, 1978, IBR approved for §98.238.

(q) The following material is available from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-8800, http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/field_code_master_list/current/pdf/fcml_all.pdf.

(1) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2008, DOE/EIA0370(08), January 2009, IBR approved for §98.238.

(2) [Reserved]

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 39759, July 12, 2010; 75 FR 66458, Oct. 28, 2010; 75 FR 74488, Nov. 30, 2010; 75 FR 74816, Dec. 1, 2010; 75 FR 79138, Dec. 17, 2010; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013; 78 FR 71948, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.8   What are the compliance and enforcement provisions of this part?

Any violation of any requirement of this part shall be a violation of the Clean Air Act, including section 114 (42 U.S.C. 7414). A violation includes but is not limited to failure to report GHG emissions, failure to collect data needed to calculate GHG emissions, failure to continuously monitor and test as required, failure to retain records needed to verify the amount of GHG emissions, and failure to calculate GHG emissions following the methodologies specified in this part. Each day of a violation constitutes a separate violation.

§98.9   Addresses.

All requests, notifications, and communications to the Administrator pursuant to this part must be submitted electronically and in a format as specified by the Administrator. For example, any requests, notifications and communications that can be submitted through the electronic GHG reporting tool, must be submitted through that tool. If not specified, requests, notifications or communications shall be submitted to the following address:

(a) For U.S. mail. Director, Climate Change Division, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Mail Code: 6207J, Washington, DC 20460.

(b) For package deliveries. Director, Climate Change Division, 1310 L St, NW., Washington, DC 20005.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 76 FR 73900, Nov. 29, 2011]

Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials

Global Warming Potentials

[100-Year Time Horizon]

NameCAS No.Chemical formulaGlobal warming potential
(100 yr.)
Carbon dioxide124-38-9CO21
Methane74-82-8CH4a25
Nitrous oxide10024-97-2N2Oa298
HFC-2375-46-7CHF3a14,800
HFC-3275-10-5CH2F2a675
HFC-41593-53-3CH3Fa92
HFC-125354-33-6C2HF5a3,500
HFC-134359-35-3C2H2F4a1,100
HFC-134a811-97-2CH2FCF3a1,430
HFC-143430-66-0C2H3F3a353
HFC-143a420-46-2C2H3F3a4,470
HFC-152624-72-6CH2FCH2F53
HFC-152a75-37-6CH3CHF2a124
HFC-161353-36-6CH3CH2F12
HFC-227ea431-89-0C3HF7a3,220
HFC-236cb677-56-5CH2FCF2CF31,340
HFC-236ea431-63-0CHF2CHFCF31,370
HFC-236fa690-39-1C3H2F6a9,810
HFC-245ca679-86-7C3H3F5a693
HFC-245fa460-73-1CHF2CH2CF31,030
HFC-365mfc406-58-6CH3CF2CH2CF3794
HFC-43-10mee138495-42-8CF3CFHCFHCF2CF3a1,640
Sulfur hexafluoride2551-62-4SF6a22,800
Trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride373-80-8SF5CF317,700
Nitrogen trifluoride7783-54-2NF317,200
PFC-14 (Perfluoromethane)75-73-0CF4a7,390
PFC-116 (Perfluoroethane)76-16-4C2F6a12,200
PFC-218 (Perfluoropropane)76-19-7C3F8a8,830
Perfluorocyclopropane931-91-9C-C3F617,340
PFC-3-1-10 (Perfluorobutane)355-25-9C4F10a8,860
PFC-318 (Perfluorocyclobutane)115-25-3C-C4F8a10,300
PFC-4-1-12 (Perfluoropentane)678-26-2C5F12a9,160
PFC-5-1-14 (Perfluorohexane, FC-72)355-42-0C6F14a9,300
PFC-9-1-18306-94-5C10F187,500
HCFE-235da2 (Isoflurane)26675-46-7CHF2OCHClCF3350
HFE-43-10pccc (H-Galden 1040x, HG-11)E1730133CHF2OCF2OC2F4OCHF21,870
HFE-1253822-68-2CHF2OCF314,900
HFE-134 (HG-00)1691-17-4CHF2OCHF26,320
HFE-143a421-14-7CH3OCF3756
HFE-227ea2356-62-9CF3CHFOCF31,540
HFE-236ca12 (HG-10)78522-47-1CHF2OCF2OCHF22,800
HFE-236ea2 (Desflurane)57041-67-5CHF2OCHFCF3989
HFE-236fa20193-67-3CF3CH2OCF3487
HFE-245cb222410-44-2CH3OCF2CF3708
HFE-245fa184011-15-4CHF2CH2OCF3286
HFE-245fa21885-48-9CHF2OCH2CF3659
HFE-254cb2425-88-7CH3OCF2CHF2359
HFE-263fb2460-43-5CF3CH2OCH311
HFE-329mcc2134769-21-4CF3CF2OCF2CHF2919
HFE-338mcf2156053-88-2CF3CF2OCH2CF3552
HFE-338pcc13 (HG-01)188690-78-0CHF2OCF2CF2OCHF21,500
HFE-347mcc3 (HFE-7000)375-03-1CH3OCF2CF2CF3575
HFE-347mcf2171182-95-9CF3CF2OCH2CHF2374
HFE-347pcf2406-78-0CHF2CF2OCH2CF3580
HFE-356mec3382-34-3CH3OCF2CHFCF3101
HFE-356pcc3160620-20-2CH3OCF2CF2CHF2110
HFE-356pcf250807-77-7CHF2CH2OCF2CHF2265
HFE-356pcf335042-99-0CHF2OCH2CF2CHF2502
HFE-365mcf3378-16-5CF3CF2CH2OCH311
HFE-374pc2512-51-6CH3CH2OCF2CHF2557
HFE-449s1 (HFE-7100)163702-07-6C4F9OCH3297
Chemical blend163702-08-7(CF3)2CFCF2OCH3
HFE-569sf2 (HFE-7200)163702-05-4C4F9OC2H559
Chemical blend163702-06-5(CF3)2CFCF2OC2H5
Sevoflurane (HFE-347mmz1)28523-86-6CH2FOCH(CF3)2345
HFE-356mm113171-18-1(CF3)2CHOCH327
HFE-338mmz126103-08-2CHF2OCH(CF3)2380
(Octafluorotetramethy-lene) hydroxymethyl groupNAX-(CF2)4CH(OH)-X73
HFE-347mmy122052-84-2CH3OCF(CF3)2343
Bis(trifluoromethyl)-methanol920-66-1(CF3)2CHOH195
2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol422-05-9CF3CF2CH2OH42
PFPMIE (HT-70)NACF3OCF(CF3)CF2OCF2OCF310,300

aThe GWP for this compound is different than the GWP in the version of Table A-1 to subpart A of part 98 published on October 30, 2009.

[78 FR 71948, Nov. 29, 2013]

Table A-2 to Subpart A of Part 98—Units of Measure Conversions

To convert fromToMultiply by
Kilograms (kg)Pounds (lbs)2.20462
Pounds (lbs)Kilograms (kg)0.45359
Pounds (lbs)Metric tons4.53592 × 10−4
Short tonsPounds (lbs)2,000
Short tonsMetric tons0.90718
Metric tonsShort tons1.10231
Metric tonsKilograms (kg)1,000
Cubic meters (m3)Cubic feet (ft3)35.31467
Cubic feet (ft3)Cubic meters (m3)0.028317
Gallons (liquid, US)Liters (l)3.78541
Liters (l)Gallons (liquid, US)0.26417
Barrels of Liquid Fuel (bbl)Cubic meters (m3)0.15891
Cubic meters (m3)Barrels of Liquid Fuel (bbl)6.289
Barrels of Liquid Fuel (bbl)Gallons (liquid, US)42
Gallons (liquid, US)Barrels of Liquid Fuel (bbl)0.023810
Gallons (liquid, US)Cubic meters (m3)0.0037854
Liters (l)Cubic meters (m3)0.001
Feet (ft)Meters (m)0.3048
Meters (m)Feet (ft)3.28084
Miles (mi)Kilometers (km)1.60934
Kilometers (km)Miles (mi)0.62137
Square feet (ft2)Acres2.29568 × 10−5
Square meters (m2)Acres2.47105 × 10−4
Square miles (mi2)Square kilometers (km2)2.58999
Degrees Celsius (°C)Degrees Fahrenheit (°F)°C = (5/9) × (°F −32)
Degrees Fahrenheit (°F)Degrees Celsius (°C)°F = (9/5) × °C + 32
Degrees Celsius (°C)Kelvin (K)K = °C + 273.15
Kelvin (K)Degrees Rankine (°R)1.8
JoulesBtu9.47817 × 10−4
BtuMMBtu1 × 10−6
Pascals (Pa)Inches of Mercury (in Hg)2.95334 × 10−4
Inches of Mercury (inHg)Pounds per square inch (psi)0.49110
Pounds per square inch (psi)Inches of Mercury (in Hg)2.03625

Table A-3 to Subpart A of Part 98—Source Category List for §98.2(a)(1)

Source Category List for §98.2(a)(1)

Source Categoriesa Applicable in 2010 and Future Years
Electricity generation units that report CO2 mass emissions year round through 40 CFR part 75 (subpart D).
Adipic acid production (subpart E).
Aluminum production (subpart F).
Ammonia manufacturing (subpart G).
Cement production (subpart H).
HCFC-22 production (subpart O).
HFC-23 destruction processes that are not collocated with a HCFC-22 production facility and that destroy more than 2.14 metric tons of HFC-23 per year (subpart O).
Lime manufacturing (subpart S).
Nitric acid production (subpart V).
Petrochemical production (subpart X).
Petroleum refineries (subpart Y).
Phosphoric acid production (subpart Z).
Silicon carbide production (subpart BB).
Soda ash production (subpart CC).
Titanium dioxide production (subpart EE).
Municipal solid waste landfills that generate CH4 in amounts equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more per year, as determined according to subpart HH of this part.
Manure management systems with combined CH4 and N2O emissions in amounts equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more per year, as determined according to subpart JJ of this part.
Additional Source Categoriesa Applicable in 2011 and Future Years
Electrical transmission and distribution equipment use at facilities where the total nameplate capacity of SF6 and PFC containing equipment exceeds 17,820 pounds, as determined under §98.301 (subpart DD).
Underground coal mines liberating 36,500,000 actual cubic feet of CH4 or more per year (subpart FF).
Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (subpart RR).
Electrical transmission and distribution equipment manufacture or refurbishment (subpart SS).
Injection of carbon dioxide (subpart UU).

aSource categories are defined in each applicable subpart.

[75 FR 39760, July 12, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 74817, 75078, Dec. 1, 2010; 76 FR 73900, Nov. 29, 2011]

Table A-4 to Subpart A of Part 98—Source Category List for §98.2(a)(2)

Table A-4 to Subpart A—Source Category List for §98.2(a)(2)

Source Categoriesa Applicable in 2010 and Future Years
Ferroalloy production (subpart K).
Glass production (subpart N).
Hydrogen production (subpart P).
Iron and steel production (subpart Q).
Lead production (subpart R).
Pulp and paper manufacturing (subpart AA).
Zinc production (subpart GG).
Additional Source Categoriesa Applicable in 2011 and Future Years
Electronics manufacturing (subpart I)
Fluorinated gas production (subpart L)
Magnesium production (subpart T).
Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems (subpart W)
Industrial wastewater treatment (subpart II).
Industrial waste landfills (subpart TT).

aSource categories are defined in each applicable subpart.

[75 FR 39760, July 12, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 74488, Nov. 30, 2010; 75 FR 74817, Dec. 1, 2010]

Table A-5 to Subpart A of Part 98—Supplier Category List for §98.2(a)(4)

Table A-5 to Subpart A—Supplier Category List for §98.2(a)(4)

Supplier Categoriesa Applicable in 2010 and Future Years
Coal-to-liquids suppliers (subpart LL):
(A) All producers of coal-to-liquid products.
(B) Importers of an annual quantity of coal-to-liquid products that is equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
(C) Exporters of an annual quantity of coal-to-liquid products that is equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
Petroleum product suppliers (subpart MM):
(A) All petroleum refineries that distill crude oil.
(B) Importers of an annual quantity of petroleum products and natural gas liquids that is equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
(C) Exporters of an annual quantity of petroleum products and natural gas liquids that is equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
Natural gas and natural gas liquids suppliers (subpart NN):
(A) All fractionators.
(B) Local natural gas distribution companies that deliver 460,000 thousand standard cubic feet or more of natural gas per year.
Industrial greenhouse gas suppliers (subpart OO):
(A) All producers of industrial greenhouse gases.
(B) Importers of industrial greenhouse gases with annual bulk imports of N2O, fluorinated GHG, and CO2 that in combination are equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
(C) Exporters of industrial greenhouse gases with annual bulk exports of N2O, fluorinated GHG, and CO2 that in combination are equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
Carbon dioxide suppliers (subpart PP):
(A) All producers of CO2.
(B) Importers of CO2 with annual bulk imports of N2O, fluorinated GHG, and CO2 that in combination are equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
(C) Exporters of CO2 with annual bulk exports of N2O, fluorinated GHG, and CO2 that in combination are equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
Additional Supplier Categories Applicablea in 2011 and Future Years
Importers and exporters of fluorinated greenhouse gases contained in pre-charged equipment or closed-cell foams (subpart QQ):
(A) Importers of an annual quantity of fluorinated greenhouse gases contained in pre-charged equipment or closed-cell foams that is equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.
(B) Exporters of an annual quantity of fluorinated greenhouse gases contained in pre-charged equipment or closed-cell foams that is equivalent to 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more.

aSuppliers are defined in each applicable subpart.

[75 FR 39760, July 12, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 74817, Dec. 1, 2010; 75 FR 79140, Dec. 17, 2010; 76 FR 73901, Nov. 29, 2011]

Table A-6 to Subpart A of Part 98—Data Elements That Are Inputs to Emission Equations and for Which the Reporting Deadline Is March 31, 2013

Subpart Rule citation
(40 CFR part 98)
Specific data elements for which reporting date is March 31, 2013 (“All” means all data elements in the cited paragraph are not required to be reported until March 31, 2013)
C98.36(d)(1)(iv)All.
C98.36(d)(2)(ii)(G)All.
C98.36(d)(2)(iii)(G)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(iv)(G)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(viii)(A)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(viii)(B)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(viii)(C)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(x)(A)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(xi)All.
DD98.306(a)(2)All.
DD98.306(a)(3)All.
DD98.306(d)All.
DD98.306(e)All.
DD98.306(f)All.
DD98.306(g)All.
DD98.306(h)All.
DD98.306(i)All.
DD98.306(j)All.
DD98.306(k)All.
DD98.306(l)All.
FF98.326(a)All.
FF98.326(b)All.
FF98.326(c)All.
FF98.326(f)Only quarterly volumetric flow rate.
FF98.326(g)Only quarterly CH4 concentration.
FF98.326(h)Only weekly volumetric flow used to calculate CH4 liberated from degasification systems.
FF98.326(j)All.
FF98.326(k)All.
FF98.326(o)All.
FF98.326(p)Only assumed destruction efficiency for the primary destruction device and assumed destruction efficiency for the backup destruction device.
HH98.346(a)Only year in which landfill first accepted waste, last year the landfill accepted waste (if used as an input in Equation HH-3), capacity of the landfill (if used as an input in Equation HH-3), and waste disposal quantity for each year of landfilling.
HH98.346(b)Only quantity of waste determined using the methods in §98.343(a)(3)(i), quantity of waste determined using the methods in §98.343(a)(3)(ii), population served by the landfill for each year, and the value of landfill capacity (LFC) used in the calculation.
HH98.346(c)All.
HH98.346(d)(1)Only degradable organic carbon (DOC) value, and fraction of DOC dissimilated (DOCF) values.
HH98.346(d)(2)All.
HH98.346(e)Only fraction of CH4 in landfill gas and methane correction factor (MCF) values.
HH98.346(f)Only surface area associated with each cover type.
HH98.346(g)All.
HH98.346(i)(5)Only annual operating hours for the destruction devices located at the landfill facility, and the destruction efficiency for the destruction devices associated with that measurement location.
HH98.346(i)(6)All.
HH98.346(i)(7)Only surface area specified in Table HH-3, estimated gas collection system efficiency, and annual operating hours of the gas collection system for each measurement locations.
HH98.346(i)(9)Only CH4 generation value.
II98.356(b)(1)All.
II98.356(b)(2)All.
II98.356(b)(3)All.
II98.356(b)(4)All.
II98.356(b)(5)All.
II98.356(d)(1)All.
II98.356(d)(7)All.
II98.356(d)(8)Only annual operating hours for the primary destruction device, annual operating hours for the backup destruction device, destruction efficiency of the primary destruction device, and destruction efficiency of the backup destruction device.
SS98.456(a)All.
SS98.456(b)All.
SS98.456(c)All.
SS98.456(d)All.
SS98.456(e)All.
SS98.456(f)All.
SS98.456(g)All.
SS98.456(h)All.
SS98.456(i)All.
SS98.456(j)All.
SS98.456(m)All.
SS98.456(n)All.
SS98.456(o)All.
SS98.456(q)All.
SS98.456(r)All.
SS98.456(s)All.
SS98.456(t)Only for any missing data the substitute parameters used to estimate emissions in their absence.
TT98.466(a)(2)All.
TT98.466(a)(3)Only last year the landfill accepted waste (for closed landfills using Equation TT-4).
TT98.466(a)(4)Only capacity of the landfill in metric tons (for closed landfills using Equation TT-4).
TT98.466(b)(3)Only fraction of CH4 in landfill gas.
TT98.466(b)(4)Only the methane correction factor (MCF) value used in the calculations.
TT98.466(c)(4)(i)All.
TT98.466(c)(4)(ii)All.
TT98.466(c)(4)(iii)All.
TT98.466(d)(2)All.
TT98.466(d)(3)Only degradable organic carbon (DOCx) value for each waste stream used in calculations.
TT98.466(e)(2)Only surface area (in square meters) at the start of the reporting year for the landfill sections that contain waste and that are associated with the selected cover type (for facilities using a landfill gas collection system).
TT98.466(f)All.

[76 FR 53065, Aug. 25, 2011, as amended at 77 FR 48088, Aug. 13, 2012; 78 FR 71949, Nov. 29, 2013]

Table A-7 to Subpart A of Part 98—Data Elements That Are Inputs to Emission Equations and for Which the Reporting Deadline Is March 31, 2015

Subpart Rule citation
(40 CFR part 98)
Specific data elements for which reporting date is March 31, 2015 (“All” means all data elements in the cited paragraph are not required to be reported until March 31, 2015)
A98.3(d)(3)(v)All.
C98.36(b)(9)(iii)Only estimate of the heat input.
C98.36(c)(2)(ix)Only estimate of the heat input from each type of fuel listed in Table C-2.
C98.36(e)(2)(i)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(ii)(A)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(ii)(C)Only HHV value for each calendar month in which HHV determination is required.
C98.36(e)(2)(ii)(D)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(iv)(A)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(iv)(C)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(iv)(F)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(ix)(D)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(ix)(E)All.
C98.36(e)(2)(ix)(F)All.
E98.56(b)All.
E98.56(c)All.
E98.56(g)All.
E98.56(h)All.
E98.56(j)(1)All.
E98.56(j)(3)All.
E98.56(j)(4)All.
E98.56(j)(5)All.
E98.56(j)(6)All.
E98.56(l)All.
F98.66(a)All.
F98.66(c)(2)All.
F98.66(c)(3)Only smelter-specific slope coefficients and overvoltage emission factors.
F98.66(e)(1)Only annual anode consumption (No CEMS).
F98.66(f)(1)Only annual paste consumption (No CEMS).
F98.66(g)All.
G98.76(b)(2)All.
G98.76(b)(7)All.
G98.76(b)(8)All.
G98.76(b)(9)All.
G98.76(b)(10)All.
G98.76(b)(11)All.
H98.86(b)(2)All.
H98.86(b)(5)All.
H98.86(b)(6)All.
H98.86(b)(8)All.
H98.86(b)(10)All.
H98.86(b)(11)All.
H98.86(b)(12)All.
H98.86(b)(13)All.
H98.86(b)(15)Only monthly kiln-specific clinker factors (if used) for each kiln.
I98.96(f)(1)All.
K98.116(b)Only annual production by product from each EAF (No CEMS).
K98.116(e)(4)All.
K98.116(e)(5)All.
L98.126(b)(1)Only data used in calculating the absolute errors and data used in calculating the relative errors.
L98.126(b)(2)All.
L98.126(b)(6)Only mass of each fluorine-containing reactant fed into the process.
L98.126(b)(7)Only mass of each fluorine-containing product produced by the process.
L98.126(b)(8)(i)Only mass of each fluorine-containing product that is removed from the process and fed into the destruction device.
L98.126(b)(8)(ii)Only mass of each fluorine-containing by-product that is removed from the process and fed into the destruction device.
L98.126(b)(8)(iii)Only mass of each fluorine-containing reactant that is removed from the process and fed into the destruction device.
L98.126(b)(8)(iv)Only mass of each fluorine-containing by-product that is removed from the process and recaptured.
L98.126(b)(8)(v)All.
L98.126(b)(9)(i)All.
L98.126(b)(9)(ii)All.
L98.126(b)(9)(iii)All.
L98.126(b)(10)All.
L98.126(b)(11)All.
L98.126(b)(12)All.
L98.126(c)(1)Only quantity of the process activity used to estimate emissions.
L98.126(c)(2)All.
L98.126(d)Only estimate of missing data.
L98.126(f)(1)All.
L98.126(g)(1)All.
L98.126(h)(2)All.
N98.146(b)(2)Only annual quantity of carbonate based-raw material charged to each continuous glass melting furnace.
N98.146(b)(4)All.
N98.146(b)(6)All.
O98.156(a)(2)All.
O98.156(a)(7)All.
O98.156(a)(8)All.
O98.156(a)(9)All.
O98.156(a)(10)All.
O98.156(b)(1)All.
O98.156(b)(2)All.
O98.156(d)(1)All.
O98.156(d)(2)All.
O98.156(d)(3)All.
O98.156(d)(4)All.
O98.156(d)(5)All.
O98.156(e)(1)All.
P98.166(b)(2)All.
P98.166(b)(5)All.
P98.166(b)(6)All.
Q98.176(b)Only annual quantity taconite pellets, coke, iron, and raw steel (No CEMS).
Q98.176(e)(1)All.
Q98.176(e)(3)All.
Q98.176(e)(4)All.
Q98.176(f)(1)All.
Q98.176(f)(2)All.
Q98.176(f)(3)All.
Q98.176(f)(4)All.
Q98.176(g)All.
R98.186(b)(6)All.
R98.186(b)(7)All.
S98.196(b)(2)All.
S98.196(b)(3)All.
S98.196(b)(5)All.
S98.196(b)(6)All.
S98.196(b)(8)All.
S98.196(b)(10)All.
S98.196(b)(11)All.
S98.196(b)(12)All.
U98.216(b)All.
U98.216(e)(1)All.
U98.216(e)(2)All.
U98.216(f)(1)All.
U98.216(f)(2)All.
V98.226(c)All.
V98.226(d)All.
V98.226(i)All.
V98.226(j)All.
V98.226(m)(1)All.
V98.226(m)(3)All.
V98.226(m)(4)All.
V98.226(m)(5)All.
V98.226(m)(6)All.
V98.226(p)All.
W98.236(c)(1)(i)All.
W98.236(c)(1)(ii)All.
W98.236(c)(1)(iii)All.
W98.236(c)(2)(i)All.
W98.236(c)(3)(i)All.
W98.236(c)(3)(ii)Only Calculation Methodology 2.
W98.236(c)(3)(iii)All.
W98.236(c)(3)(iv)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(C)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(D)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(E)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(F)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(G)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(i)(H)All.
W98.236(c)(4)(ii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(5)(i)(D)All.
W98.236(c)(5)(ii)(C)All.
W98.236(c)(6)(i)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(6)(i)(D)All.
W98.236(c)(6)(i)(E)All.
W98.236(c)(6)(i)(F)All.
W98.236(c)(6)(i)(G)Only the amount of natural gas required.
W98.236(c)(6)(i)(H)Only the amount of natural gas required.
W98.236(c)(6)(ii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(6)(ii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(7)(i)(A)Only for Equation W-14A.
W98.236(c)(8)(i)(F)All.
W98.236(c)(8)(i)(K)All.
W98.236(c)(8)(ii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(8)(ii)(H)All.
W98.236(c)(8)(iii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(8)(iii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(8)(iii)(G)All.
W98.236(c)(12)(ii)All.
W98.236(c)(12)(v)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(i)(E)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(i)(F)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(ii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(ii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(iii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(iii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(13)(v)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(14)(i)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(14)(ii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(14)(ii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(14)(iii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(14)(iii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(14)(v)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(15)(ii)(A)All.
W98.236(c)(15)(ii)(B)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(viii)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(ix)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(x)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(xi)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(xii)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(xiii)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(xiv)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(xv)All.
W98.236(c)(16)(xvi)All.
W98.236(c)(17)(ii)All.
W98.236(c)(17)(iii)All.
W98.236(c)(17)(iv)All.
W98.236(c)(18)(i)All.
W98.236(c)(18)(ii)All.
W98.236(c)(19)(iv)All.
W98.236(c)(19)(vii)All.
X98.246(a)(4)Only monthly volume values, monthly mass values, monthly carbon content values, molecular weights for gaseous feedstocks, molecular weights for gaseous products, and indication of whether the alternative method in §98.243(c)(4) was used.
X98.246(b)(5)(iii)All.
X98.246(b)(5)(iv)All.
Y98.256(e)(6)Only molar volume conversion factor for each flare.
Y98.256(e)(7)Only molar volume conversion factor for each flare.
Y98.256(e)(7)(ii)All.
Y98.256(e)(9)Only annual volume of flare gas combusted, annual average higher heating value of the flare gas, volume of gas flared, average molecular weight, carbon content of the flare, and molar volume conversion factor if using Eq. Y-3.
Y98.256(e)(10)Only fraction of carbon in the flare gas contributed by methane.
Y98.256(f)(7)Only molar volume conversion factor.
Y98.256(f)(10)Only coke burn-off factor, annual throughput of unit, and average carbon content of coke.
Y98.256(f)(11)Only units of measure for the unit-specific CH4 emission factor, activity data for calculating emissions, and unit-specific emission factor for CH4.
Y98.256(f)(12)Only unit-specific emission factor for N2O, units of measure for the unit-specific N2O emission factor, and activity data for calculating emissions.
Y98.256(f)(13)Only average carbon content of coke.
Y98.256(h)(4)All.
Y98.256(h)(5)Only value of the correction, annual volume of recycled tail gas (if used to calculate recycling correction factor), and annual average mole fraction of carbon in the tail gas (if used to calculate recycling correction factor).
Y98.256(i)(5)Only annual mass of green coke fed, carbon content of green coke fed, annual mass of marketable coke produced, carbon content of marketable coke produced, and annual mass of coke dust removed from the process.
Y98.256(i)(7)Only the unit-specific CH4 emission factor, units of measure for unit-specific CH4 emission factor, and activity data for calculating emissions.
Y98.256(i)(8)Only units of measure for the unit-specific factor, activity data used for calculating emissions, and site-specific emissions factor.
Y98.256(j)(2)All.
Y98.256(j)(5)Only CO2 emission factor.
Y98.256(j)(6)Only CH4 emission factor.
Y98.256(j)(7)Only carbon emission factor.
Y98.256(j)(8)Only CO2 emission factor and carbon emission factor.
Y98.256(j)(9)Only CH4 emission factor.
Y98.256(k)(3)Only dimensions of coke drum or vessel, typical gauge pressure of the coking drum, typical void fraction of coke drum or vessel, annual number of coke-cutting cycles of coke drum or vessel, and molar volume conversion factor for each coke drum or vessel.
Y98.256(k)(4)Only height and diameter of the coke drums, cumulative number of vessel openings for all delayed coking drums, typical venting pressure, void fraction, mole fraction of methane in coking gas.
Y98.256(l)(5)Only molar volume conversion factor.
Y98.256(m)(3)Only total quantity of crude oil plus the quantity of intermediate products received from off-site, CH4 emission factor used, and molar volume conversion factor.
Y98.256(n)(3)All (if used in Equation Y-21 to calculate emissions from equipment leaks).
Y98.256(o)(2)(ii)All.
Y98.256(o)(4)(ii)All.
Y98.256(o)(4)(iii)All.
Y98.256(o)(4)(iv)All.
Y98.256(o)(4)(v)All.
Y98.256(o)(4)(vi)Only tank-specific methane composition data and gas generation rate data.
Y98.256(p)(2)Only quantity of materials loaded that have an equilibrium vapor-phase concentration of CH4 of 0.5 volume percent or greater.
Z98.266(f)(5)All.
Z98.266(f)(6)All.
AA98.276(b)All.
AA98.276(c)Only annual mass of the spent liquor solids combusted.
AA98.276(d)All.
AA98.276(e)All.
AA98.276(f)All.
AA98.276(g)All.
AA98.276(h)All.
AA98.276(i)All.
BB98.286(b)(1)All.
BB98.286(b)(4)All.
BB98.286(b)(6)All.
CC98.296(b)(5)Only monthly consumption of trona or liquid alkaline feedstock (for facilities using Equation CC-1).
CC98.296(b)(6)Only monthly production of soda ash for each manufacturing line(for facilities using Equation CC-2).
CC98.296(b)(7)All.
CC98.296(b)(10)(i)All.
CC98.296(b)(10)(ii)All.
CC98.296(b)(10)(iii)All.
CC98.296(b)(10)(iv)All.
CC98.296(b)(10)(v)All.
CC98.296(b)(10)(vi)All.
EE98.316(b)(6)All.
EE98.316(b)(9)All.
GG98.336(b)(6)All.
GG98.336(b)(7)All.
GG98.336(b)(10)All.
II98.356(d)(2)All (if conducting weekly sampling).
II98.356(d)(3)All (if conducting weekly sampling).
II98.356(d)(4)Only weekly average temperature (if conducting weekly sampling).
II98.356(d)(5)Only weekly average moisture content (if conducting weekly sampling).
II98.356(d)(6)Only weekly average pressure (if conducting weekly sampling).
TT98.466(c)(3)(i)All.
TT98.466(c)(3)(ii)Only waste disposal quantity and production quantity.
TT98.466(c)(3)(iii)All.

[76 FR 53065, Aug. 25, 2011, as amended at 77 FR 48088, Aug. 13, 2012; 77 FR 51489, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013; 78 FR 71950, Nov. 29, 2013]

Subpart B [Reserved]

Subpart C—General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources

§98.30   Definition of the source category.

(a) Stationary fuel combustion sources are devices that combust solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel, generally for the purposes of producing electricity, generating steam, or providing useful heat or energy for industrial, commercial, or institutional use, or reducing the volume of waste by removing combustible matter. Stationary fuel combustion sources include, but are not limited to, boilers, simple and combined-cycle combustion turbines, engines, incinerators, and process heaters.

(b) This source category does not include:

(1) Portable equipment, as defined in §98.6.

(2) Emergency generators and emergency equipment, as defined in §98.6.

(3) Irrigation pumps at agricultural operations.

(4) Flares, unless otherwise required by provisions of another subpart of this part to use methodologies in this subpart.

(5) Electricity generating units that are subject to subpart D of this part.

(c) For a unit that combusts hazardous waste (as defined in §261.3 of this chapter), reporting of GHG emissions is not required unless either of the following conditions apply:

(1) Continuous emission monitors (CEMS) are used to quantify CO2 mass emissions.

(2) Any fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart is also combusted in the unit. In this case, report GHG emissions from combustion of all fuels listed in Table C-1 of this subpart.

(d) You are not required to report GHG emissions from pilot lights. A pilot light is a small auxiliary flame that ignites the burner of a combustion device when the control valve opens.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79140, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.31   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains one or more stationary fuel combustion sources and the facility meets the applicability requirements of either §§98.2(a)(1), 98.2(a)(2), or 98.2(a)(3).

§98.32   GHGs to report.

You must report CO2, CH4, and N2O mass emissions from each stationary fuel combustion unit, except as otherwise indicated in this subpart.

[75 FR 79140, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.33   Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate CO2 emissions according to paragraph (a) of this section, and calculate CH4 and N2O emissions according to paragraph (c) of this section.

(a) CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. Calculate CO2 mass emissions by using one of the four calculation methodologies in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section, subject to the applicable conditions, requirements, and restrictions set forth in paragraph (b) of this section. Alternatively, for units that meet the conditions of paragraph (a)(5) of this section, you may use CO2 mass emissions calculation methods from part 75 of this chapter, as described in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. For units that combust both biomass and fossil fuels, you must calculate and report CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass separately using the methods in paragraph (e) of this section, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a)(5)(iv) and (e) of this section and in §98.36(d).

(1) Tier 1 Calculation Methodology. Calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions for each type of fuel by using Equation C-1, C-1a, or C-1b of this section (as applicable).

(i) Use Equation C-1 except when natural gas billing records are used to quantify fuel usage and gas consumption is expressed in units of therms or million Btu. In that case, use Equation C-1a or C-1b, as applicable.

eCFR graphic er17de10.015.gif

View or download PDF

where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions for the specific fuel type (metric tons).

Fuel = Mass or volume of fuel combusted per year, from company records as defined in §98.6 (express mass in short tons for solid fuel, volume in standard cubic feet for gaseous fuel, and volume in gallons for liquid fuel).

HHV = Default high heat value of the fuel, from Table C-1 of this subpart (mmBtu per mass or mmBtu per volume, as applicable).

EF = Fuel-specific default CO2 emission factor, from Table C-1 of this subpart (kg CO2/mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(ii) If natural gas consumption is obtained from billing records and fuel usage is expressed in therms, use Equation C-1a.

eCFR graphic er17de10.016.gif

View or download PDF

where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from natural gas combustion (metric tons).

Gas = Annual natural gas usage, from billing records (therms).

EF = Fuel-specific default CO2 emission factor for natural gas, from Table C-1 of this subpart (kg CO2/mmBtu).

0.1 = Conversion factor from therms to mmBtu

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(iii) If natural gas consumption is obtained from billing records and fuel usage is expressed in mmBtu, use Equation C-1b.

eCFR graphic er17de10.017.gif

View or download PDF

where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from natural gas combustion (metric tons).

Gas = Annual natural gas usage, from billing records (mmBtu).

EF = Fuel-specific default CO2 emission factor for natural gas, from Table C-1 of this subpart (kg CO2/mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(2) Tier 2 Calculation Methodology. Calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions for each type of fuel by using either Equation C2a or C2c of this section, as appropriate.

(i) Equation C-2a of this section applies to any type of fuel listed in Table C-1 of the subpart, except for municipal solid waste (MSW). For MSW combustion, use Equation C-2c of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.005.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions for a specific fuel type (metric tons).

Fuel = Mass or volume of the fuel combusted during the year, from company records as defined in §98.6 (express mass in short tons for solid fuel, volume in standard cubic feet for gaseous fuel, and volume in gallons for liquid fuel).

HHV = Annual average high heat value of the fuel (mmBtu per mass or volume). The average HHV shall be calculated according to the requirements of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.

EF = Fuel-specific default CO2 emission factor, from Table C-1 of this subpart (kg CO2/mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(ii) The minimum required sampling frequency for determining the annual average HHV (e.g., monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or by lot) is specified in §98.34. The method for computing the annual average HHV is a function of unit size and how frequently you perform or receive from the fuel supplier the results of fuel sampling for HHV. The method is specified in paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A) or (a)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, as applicable.

(A) If the results of fuel sampling are received monthly or more frequently, then for each unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than or equal to 100 mmBtu/hr (or for a group of units that includes at least one unit of that size), the annual average HHV shall be calculated using Equation C-2b of this section. If multiple HHV determinations are made in any month, average the values for the month arithmetically.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.006.gif

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Where:

(HHV)annual = Weighted annual average high heat value of the fuel (mmBtu per mass or volume).

(HHV)I = Measured high heat value of the fuel, for month “i” (which may be the arithmetic average of multiple determinations), or, if applicable, an appropriate substitute data value (mmBtu per mass or volume).

(Fuel)I = Mass or volume of the fuel combusted during month “i,” from company records (express mass in short tons for solid fuel, volume in standard cubic feet for gaseous fuel, and volume in gallons for liquid fuel).

n = Number of months in the year that the fuel is burned in the unit.

(B) If the results of fuel sampling are received less frequently than monthly, or, for a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity less than 100 mmBtu/hr (or a group of such units) regardless of the HHV sampling frequency, the annual average HHV shall either be computed according to paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A) of this section or as the arithmetic average HHV for all values for the year (including valid samples and substitute data values under §98.35).

(iii) For units that combust municipal solid waste (MSW) and that produce steam, use Equation C-2c of this section. Equation C-2c of this section may also be used for any other solid fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart provided that steam is generated by the unit.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.007.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from MSW or solid fuel combustion (metric tons).

Steam = Total mass of steam generated by MSW or solid fuel combustion during the reporting year (lb steam).

B = Ratio of the boiler's maximum rated heat input capacity to its design rated steam output capacity (mmBtu/lb steam).

EF = Fuel-specific default CO2 emission factor, from Table C-1 of this subpart (kg CO2/mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(3) Tier 3 Calculation Methodology. Calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions for each fuel by using either Equation C3, C4, or C5 of this section, as appropriate.

(i) For a solid fuel, use Equation C-3 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.008.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of the specific solid fuel (metric tons).

Fuel = Annual mass of the solid fuel combusted, from company records as defined in §98.6 (short tons).

CC = Annual average carbon content of the solid fuel (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction, e.g., 95% = 0.95). The annual average carbon content shall be determined using the same procedures as specified for HHV in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

0.91 = Conversion factor from short tons to metric tons.

(ii) For a liquid fuel, use Equation C-4 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.009.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of the specific liquid fuel (metric tons).

Fuel = Annual volume of the liquid fuel combusted (gallons). The volume of fuel combusted must be measured directly, using fuel flow meters calibrated according to §98.3(i). Fuel billing meters may be used for this purpose. Tank drop measurements may also be used.

CC = Annual average carbon content of the liquid fuel (kg C per gallon of fuel). The annual average carbon content shall be determined using the same procedures as specified for HHV in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

(iii) For a gaseous fuel, use Equation C-5 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.010.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from combustion of the specific gaseous fuel (metric tons).

Fuel = Annual volume of the gaseous fuel combusted (scf). The volume of fuel combusted must be measured directly, using fuel flow meters calibrated according to §98.3(i). Fuel billing meters may be used for this purpose.

CC = Annual average carbon content of the gaseous fuel (kg C per kg of fuel). The annual average carbon content shall be determined using the same procedures as specified for HHV in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.

MW = Annual average molecular weight of the gaseous fuel (kg/kg-mole). The annual average molecular weight shall be determined using the same procedures as specified for HHV in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.

MVC = Molar volume conversion factor at standard conditions, as defined in §98.6. Use 849.5 scf per kg mole if you select 68 °F as standard temperature and 836.6 scf per kg mole if you select 60 °F as standard temperature.

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

(iv) Fuel flow meters that measure mass flow rates may be used for liquid or gaseous fuels, provided that the fuel density is used to convert the readings to volumetric flow rates. The density shall be measured at the same frequency as the carbon content. You must measure the density using one of the following appropriate methods. You may use a method published by a consensus-based standards organization, if such a method exists, or you may use industry standard practice. Consensus-based standards organizations include, but are not limited to, the following: ASTM International (100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box CB700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-B2959, (800) 262-1373, http://www.astm.org), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI, 1819 L Street, NW., 6th floor, Washington, DC 20036, (202) 293-8020, http://www.ansi.org), the American Gas Association (AGA), 400 North Capitol Street, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20001, (202) 824-7000, http://www.aga.org), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, (800) 843-2763, http://www.asme.org), the American Petroleum Institute (API, 1220 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005-4070, (202) 682-8000, http://www.api.org), and the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB, 801 Travis Street, Suite 1675, Houston, TX 77002, (713) 356-0060, http://www.api.org). The method(s) used shall be documented in the GHG Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5).

(v) The following default density values may be used for fuel oil, in lieu of using the methods in paragraph (a)(3)(iv) of this section: 6.8 lb/gal for No. 1 oil; 7.2 lb/gal for No. 2 oil; 8.1 lb/gal for No. 6 oil.

(4) Tier 4 Calculation Methodology. Calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions from all fuels combusted in a unit, by using quality-assured data from continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS).

(i) This methodology requires a CO2 concentration monitor and a stack gas volumetric flow rate monitor, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(4)(iv) of this section. Hourly measurements of CO2 concentration and stack gas flow rate are converted to CO2 mass emission rates in metric tons per hour.

(ii) When the CO2 concentration is measured on a wet basis, Equation C-6 of this section is used to calculate the hourly CO2 emission rates:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.011.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = CO2 mass emission rate (metric tons/hr).

CCO2 = Hourly average CO2 concentration (% CO2).

Q = Hourly average stack gas volumetric flow rate (scfh).

5.18 × 10−7 = Conversion factor (metric tons/scf/% CO2).

(iii) If the CO2 concentration is measured on a dry basis, a correction for the stack gas moisture content is required. You shall either continuously monitor the stack gas moisture content using a method described in §75.11(b)(2) of this chapter or use an appropriate default moisture percentage. For coal, wood, and natural gas combustion, you may use the default moisture values specified in §75.11(b)(1) of this chapter. Alternatively, for any type of fuel, you may determine an appropriate site-specific default moisture value (or values), using measurements made with EPA Method 4—Determination Of Moisture Content In Stack Gases, in appendix A-3 to part 60 of this chapter. Moisture data from the relative accuracy test audit (RATA) of a CEMS may be used for this purpose. If this option is selected, the site-specific moisture default value(s) must represent the fuel(s) or fuel blends that are combusted in the unit during normal, stable operation, and must account for any distinct difference(s) in the stack gas moisture content associated with different process operating conditions. For each site-specific default moisture percentage, at least nine Method 4 runs are required, except where the option to use moisture data from a RATA is selected, and the applicable regulation allows a single moisture determination to represent two or more RATA runs. In that case, you may base the site-specific moisture percentage on the number of moisture runs allowed by the RATA regulation. Calculate each site-specific default moisture value by taking the arithmetic average of the Method 4 runs. Each site-specific moisture default value shall be updated whenever the owner or operator believes the current value is non-representative, due to changes in unit or process operation, but in any event no less frequently than annually. Use the updated moisture value in the subsequent CO2 emissions calculations. For each unit operating hour, a moisture correction must be applied to Equation C-6 of this section as follows:

eCFR graphic er17de10.002.gif

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where:

CO2* = Hourly CO2 mass emission rate, corrected for moisture (metric tons/hr).

CO2 = Hourly CO2 mass emission rate from Equation C-6 of this section, uncorrected (metric tons/hr).

%H2O = Hourly moisture percentage in the stack gas (measured or default value, as appropriate).

(iv) An oxygen (O2) concentration monitor may be used in lieu of a CO2 concentration monitor to determine the hourly CO2 concentrations, in accordance with Equation F-14a or F-14b (as applicable) in appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, if the effluent gas stream monitored by the CEMS consists solely of combustion products (i.e., no process CO2 emissions or CO2 emissions from sorbent are mixed with the combustion products) and if only fuels that are listed in Table 1 in section 3.3.5 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter are combusted in the unit. If the O2 monitoring option is selected, the F-factors used in Equations F-14a and F-14b shall be determined according to section 3.3.5 or section 3.3.6 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, as applicable. If Equation F-14b is used, the hourly moisture percentage in the stack gas shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section.

(v) Each hourly CO2 mass emission rate from Equation C-6 or C-7 of this section is multiplied by the operating time to convert it from metric tons per hour to metric tons. The operating time is the fraction of the hour during which fuel is combusted (e.g., the unit operating time is 1.0 if the unit operates for the whole hour and is 0.5 if the unit operates for 30 minutes in the hour). For common stack configurations, the operating time is the fraction of the hour during which effluent gases flow through the common stack.

(vi) The hourly CO2 mass emissions are then summed over each calendar quarter and the quarterly totals are summed to determine the annual CO2 mass emissions.

(vii) If both biomass and fossil fuel are combusted during the year, determine and report the biogenic CO2 mass emissions separately, as described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(viii) If a portion of the flue gases generated by a unit subject to Tier 4 (e.g., a slip stream) is continuously diverted from the main flue gas exhaust system for the purpose of heat recovery or some other similar process, and then exhausts through a stack that is not equipped with the continuous emission monitors to measure CO2 mass emissions, CO2 emissions shall be determined as follows:

(A) At least once a year, use EPA Methods 2 and 3A, and (if necessary) Method 4 in appendices A-2 and A-3 to part 60 of this chapter to perform emissions testing at a set point that best represents normal, stable process operating conditions. A minimum of three one-hour Method 3A tests are required, to determine the CO2 concentration. A Method 2 test shall be performed during each Method 3A run, to determine the stack gas volumetric flow rate. If moisture correction is necessary, a Method 4 run shall also be performed during each Method 3A run. Important parametric information related to the stack gas flow rate (e.g., damper positions, fan settings, etc.) shall also be recorded during the test.

(B) Calculate a CO2 mass emission rate (in metric tons/hr) from the stack test data, using a version of Equation C-6 in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section, modified as follows. In the Equation C-6 nomenclature, replace the words “Hourly average” in the definitions of “CCO2” and “Q” with the words “3-run average”. Substitute the arithmetic average values of CO2 concentration and stack gas flow rate from the emission testing into modified Equation C-6. If CO2 is measured on a dry basis, a moisture correction of the calculated CO2 mass emission rate is required. Use Equation C-7 in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section to make this correction; replace the word “Hourly” with the words “3-run average” in the equation nomenclature.

(C) The results of each annual stack test shall be used in the GHG emissions calculations for the year of the test.

(D) If, for the majority of the operating hours during the year, the diverted stream is withdrawn at a steady rate at or near the tested set point (as evidenced by fan and damper settings and/or other parameters), you may use the calculated CO2 mass emission rate from paragraph (a)(4)(viii)(B) of this section to estimate the CO2 mass emissions for all operating hours in which flue gas is diverted from the main exhaust system. Otherwise, you must account for the variation in the flow rate of the diverted stream, as described in paragraph (c)(4)(viii)(E) of this section.

(E) If the flow rate of the diverted stream varies significantly throughout the year, except as provided below, repeat the stack test and emission rate calculation procedures described in paragraphs (c)(4)(viii)(A) and (c)(4)(viii)(B) of this section at a minimum of two more set points across the range of typical operating conditions to develop a correlation between CO2 mass emission rate and the parametric data. If additional testing is not feasible, use the following approach to develop the necessary correlation. Assume that the average CO2 concentration obtained in the annual stack test is the same at all operating set points. Then, beginning with the measured flow rate from the stack test and the associated parametric data, perform an engineering analysis to estimate the stack gas flow rate at two or more additional set points. Calculate the CO2 mass emission rate at each set point.

(F) Calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions for the diverted stream as follows. For a steady-state process, multiply the number of hours in which flue gas was diverted from the main exhaust system by the CO2 mass emission rate from the stack test. Otherwise, using the best available information and engineering judgment, apply the most representative CO2 mass emission rate from the correlation in paragraph (c)(4)(viii)(E) of this section to determine the CO2 mass emissions for each hour in which flue gas was diverted, and sum the results. To simplify the calculations, you may count partial operating hours as full hours.

(G) Finally, add the CO2 mass emissions from paragraph(c)(4)(viii)(F) of this section to the annual CO2 mass emissions measured by the CEMS at the main stack. Report this sum as the total annual CO2 mass emissions for the unit.

(H) The exact method and procedures used to estimate the CO2 mass emissions for the diverted portion of the flue gas exhaust stream shall be documented in the Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5).

(5) Alternative methods for certain units subject to Part 75 of this chapter. Certain units that are not subject to subpart D of this part and that report data to EPA according to part 75 of this chapter may qualify to use the alternative methods in this paragraph (a)(5), in lieu of using any of the four calculation methodology tiers.

(i) For a unit that combusts only natural gas and/or fuel oil, is not subject to subpart D of this part, monitors and reports heat input data year-round according to appendix D to part 75 of this chapter, but is not required by the applicable part 75 program to report CO2 mass emissions data, calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions for the purposes of this part as follows:

(A) Use the hourly heat input data from appendix D to part 75 of this chapter, together with Equation G-4 in appendix G to part 75 of this chapter to determine the hourly CO2 mass emission rates, in units of tons/hr;

(B) Use Equations F-12 and F-13 in appendix F to part 75 of this chapter to calculate the quarterly and cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions, respectively, in units of short tons; and

(C) Divide the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions value by 1.1 to convert it to metric tons.

(ii) For a unit that combusts only natural gas and/or fuel oil, is not subject to subpart D of this part, monitors and reports heat input data year-round according to §75.19 of this chapter but is not required by the applicable part 75 program to report CO2 mass emissions data, calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions for the purposes of this part as follows:

(A) Calculate the hourly CO2 mass emissions, in units of short tons, using Equation LM-11 in §75.19(c)(4)(iii) of this chapter.

(B) Sum the hourly CO2 mass emissions values over the entire reporting year to obtain the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions, in units of short tons.

(C) Divide the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions value by 1.1 to convert it to metric tons.

(iii) For a unit that is not subject to subpart D of this part, uses flow rate and CO2 (or O2) CEMS to report heat input data year-round according to part 75 of this chapter, but is not required by the applicable part 75 program to report CO2 mass emissions data, calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions as follows:

(A) Use Equation F-11 or F-2 (as applicable) in appendix F to part 75 of this chapter to calculate the hourly CO2 mass emission rates from the CEMS data. If an O2 monitor is used, convert the hourly average O2 readings to CO2 using Equation F-14a or F-14b in appendix F to part 75 of this chapter (as applicable), before applying Equation F-11 or F-2.

(B) Use Equations F-12 and F-13 in appendix F to part 75 of this chapter to calculate the quarterly and cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions, respectively, in units of short tons.

(C) Divide the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions value by 1.1 to convert it to metric tons.

(iv) For units that qualify to use the alternative CO2 emissions calculation methods in paragraphs (a)(5)(i) through (a)(5)(iii) of this section, if both biomass and fossil fuel are combusted during the year, separate calculation and reporting of the biogenic CO2 mass emissions (as described in paragraph (e) of this section) is optional, only for the 2010 reporting year, as provided in §98.3(c)(12).

(b) Use of the four tiers. Use of the four tiers of CO2 emissions calculation methodologies described in paragraph (a) of this section is subject to the following conditions, requirements, and restrictions:

(1) The Tier 1 Calculation Methodology:

(i) May be used for any fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart that is combusted in a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu/hr or less.

(ii) May be used for MSW in a unit of any size that does not produce steam, if the use of Tier 4 is not required.

(iii) May be used for solid, gaseous, or liquid biomass fuels in a unit of any size provided that the fuel is listed in Table C-1 of this subpart.

(iv) May not be used if you routinely perform fuel sampling and analysis for the fuel high heat value (HHV) or routinely receive the results of HHV sampling and analysis from the fuel supplier at the minimum frequency specified in §98.34(a), or at a greater frequency. In such cases, Tier 2 shall be used. This restriction does not apply to paragraphs (b)(1)(ii), (b)(1)(v), (b)(1)(vi), and (b)(1)(vii) of this section.

(v) May be used for natural gas combustion in a unit of any size, in cases where the annual natural gas consumption is obtained from fuel billing records in units of therms or mmBtu.

(vi) May be used for MSW combustion in a small, batch incinerator that burns no more than 1,000 tons per year of MSW.

(vii) May be used for the combustion of MSW and/or tires in a unit, provided that no more than 10 percent of the unit's annual heat input is derived from those fuels, combined. Notwithstanding this requirement, if a unit combusts both MSW and tires and the reporter elects not to separately calculate and report biogenic CO2 emissions from the combustion of tires, Tier 1 may be used for the MSW combustion, provided that no more than 10 percent of the unit's annual heat input is derived from MSW.

(viii) May be used for the combustion of a fuel listed in Table C-1 if the fuel is combusted in a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr (or, pursuant to §98.36(c)(3), in a group of units served by a common supply pipe, having at least one unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr), provided that both of the following conditions apply:

(A) The use of Tier 4 is not required.

(B) The fuel provides less than 10 percent of the annual heat input to the unit, or if §98.36(c)(3) applies, to the group of units served by a common supply pipe.

(2) The Tier 2 Calculation Methodology:

(i) May be used for the combustion of any type of fuel in a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu/hr or less provided that the fuel is listed in Table C-1 of this subpart.

(ii) May be used in a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr for the combustion of natural gas and/or distillate fuel oil.

(iii) May be used for MSW in a unit of any size that produces steam, if the use of Tier 4 is not required.

(3) The Tier 3 Calculation Methodology:

(i) May be used for a unit of any size that combusts any type of fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart (except for MSW), unless the use of Tier 4 is required.

(ii) Shall be used for a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr that combusts any type of fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart (except MSW), unless either of the following conditions apply:

(A) The use of Tier 1 or 2 is permitted, as described in paragraphs (b)(1)(iii), (b)(1)(v), (b)(1)(viii), and (b)(2)(ii) of this section.

(B) The use of Tier 4 is required.

(iii) Shall be used for a fuel not listed in Table C-1 of this subpart if the fuel is combusted in a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr (or, pursuant to §98.36(c)(3), in a group of units served by a common supply pipe, having at least one unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr), provided that both of the following conditions apply:

(A) The use of Tier 4 is not required.

(B) The fuel provides 10% or more of the annual heat input to the unit or, if §98.36(c)(3) applies, to the group of units served by a common supply pipe.

(iv) Shall be used when specified in another applicable subpart of this part, regardless of unit size.

(4) The Tier 4 Calculation Methodology:

(i) May be used for a unit of any size, combusting any type of fuel. Tier 4 may also be used for any group of stationary fuel combustion units, process units, or manufacturing units that share a common stack or duct.

(ii) Shall be used if the unit meets all six of the conditions specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(A) through (b)(4)(ii)(F) of this section:

(A) The unit has a maximum rated heat input capacity greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, or if the unit combusts municipal solid waste and has a maximum rated input capacity greater than 600 tons per day of MSW.

(B) The unit combusts solid fossil fuel or MSW as the primary fuel.

(C) The unit has operated for more than 1,000 hours in any calendar year since 2005.

(D) The unit has installed CEMS that are required either by an applicable Federal or State regulation or the unit's operating permit.

(E) The installed CEMS include a gas monitor of any kind or a stack gas volumetric flow rate monitor, or both and the monitors have been certified, either in accordance with the requirements of part 75 of this chapter, part 60 of this chapter, or an applicable State continuous monitoring program.

(F) The installed gas or stack gas volumetric flow rate monitors are required, either by an applicable Federal or State regulation or by the unit's operating permit, to undergo periodic quality assurance testing in accordance with either appendix B to part 75 of this chapter, appendix F to part 60 of this chapter, or an applicable State continuous monitoring program.

(iii) Shall be used for a unit with a maximum rated heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu/hr or less and for a unit that combusts municipal solid waste with a maximum rated input capacity of 600 tons of MSW per day or less, if the unit meets all of the following three conditions:

(A) The unit has both a stack gas volumetric flow rate monitor and a CO2 concentration monitor.

(B) The unit meets the conditions specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(B) through (b)(4)(ii)(D) of this section.

(C) The CO2 and stack gas volumetric flow rate monitors meet the conditions specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(E) and (b)(4)(ii)(F) of this section.

(iv) May apply to common stack or duct configurations where:

(A) The combined effluent gas streams from two or more stationary fuel combustion units are vented through a monitored common stack or duct. In this case, Tier 4 shall be used if all of the conditions in paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(A)(1) of this section or if the conditions in paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(A)(2) of this section are met.

(1) At least one of the units meets the requirements of paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(A) through (b)(4)(ii)(C) of this section, and the CEMS installed at the common stack (or duct) meet the requirements of paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(D) through (b)(4)(ii)(F) of this section.

(2) At least one of the units and the monitors installed at the common stack or duct meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section.

(B) The combined effluent gas streams from a process or manufacturing unit and a stationary fuel combustion unit are vented through a monitored common stack or duct. In this case, Tier 4 shall be used if the combustion unit and the monitors installed at the common stack or duct meet the applicability criteria specified in paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(A)(1), or (b)(4)(iv)(A)(2) of this section.

(C) The combined effluent gas streams from two or more manufacturing or process units are vented through a common stack or duct. In this case, if any of the units is required by an applicable subpart of this part to use Tier 4, the CO2 mass emissions may be monitored at each individual unit, or the combined CO2 mass emissions may be monitored at the common stack or duct. However, if it is not feasible to monitor the individual units, the combined CO2 mass emissions shall be monitored at the common stack or duct.

(5) The Tier 4 Calculation Methodology shall be used:

(i) Starting on January 1, 2010, for a unit that is required to report CO2 mass emissions beginning on that date, if all of the monitors needed to measure CO2 mass emissions have been installed and certified by that date.

(ii) No later than January 1, 2011, for a unit that is required to report CO2 mass emissions beginning on January 1, 2010, if all of the monitors needed to measure CO2 mass emissions have not been installed and certified by January 1, 2010. In this case, you may use Tier 2 or Tier 3 to report GHG emissions for 2010. However, if the required CEMS are certified some time in 2010, you need not wait until January 1, 2011 to begin using Tier 4. Rather, you may switch from Tier 2 or Tier 3 to Tier 4 as soon as CEMS certification testing is successfully completed. If this reporting option is chosen, you must document the change in CO2 calculation methodology in the Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5) and in the GHG emissions report under §98.3(c). Data recorded by the CEMS during a certification test period in 2010 may be used for reporting under this part, provided that the following two conditions are met:

(A) The certification tests are passed in sequence, with no test failures.

(B) No unscheduled maintenance or repair of the CEMS is performed during the certification test period.

(iii) No later than 180 days following the date on which a change is made that triggers Tier 4 applicability under paragraph (b)(4)(ii) or (b)(4)(iii) of this section (e.g., a change in the primary fuel, manner of unit operation, or installed continuous monitoring equipment).

(6) You may elect to use any applicable higher tier for one or more of the fuels combusted in a unit. For example, if a 100 mmBtu/hr unit combusts natural gas and distillate fuel oil, you may elect to use Tier 1 for natural gas and Tier 3 for the fuel oil, even though Tier 1 could have been used for both fuels. However, for units that use either the Tier 4 or the alternative calculation methodology specified in paragraph (a)(5)(iii) of this section, CO2 emissions from the combustion of all fuels shall be based solely on CEMS measurements.

(c) Calculation of CH4 and N2O emissions from stationary combustion sources. You must calculate annual CH4 and N2O mass emissions only for units that are required to report CO2 emissions using the calculation methodologies of this subpart and for only those fuels that are listed in Table C-2 of this subpart.

(1) Use Equation C-8 of this section to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions for any fuels for which you use the Tier 1 or Tier 3 calculation methodologies for CO2, except when natural gas usage in units of therms or mmBtu is obtained from gas billing records. In that case, use Equation C-8a in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section or Equation C-8b in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section (as applicable). For Equation C-8, use the same values for fuel consumption that you use for the Tier 1 or Tier 3 calculation.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.013.gif

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Where:

CH4 or N2O = Annual CH4 or N2O emissions from the combustion of a particular type of fuel (metric tons).

Fuel = Mass or volume of the fuel combusted, either from company records or directly measured by a fuel flow meter, as applicable (mass or volume per year).

HHV = Default high heat value of the fuel from Table C-1 of this subpart; alternatively, for Tier 3, if actual HHV data are available for the reporting year, you may average these data using the procedures specified in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, and use the average value in Equation C-8 (mmBtu per mass or volume).

EF = Fuel-specific default emission factor for CH4 or N2O, from Table C-2 of this subpart (kg CH4 or N2O per mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(i) Use Equation C-8a to calculate CH4 and N2O emissions when natural gas usage is obtained from gas billing records in units of therms.

eCFR graphic er17de10.018.gif

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where:

CH4 or N2O = Annual CH4 or N2O emissions from the combustion of natural gas (metric tons).

Fuel = Annual natural gas usage, from gas billing records (therms).

EF = Fuel-specific default emission factor for CH4 or N2O, from Table C-2 of this subpart (kg CH4 or N2O per mmBtu).

0.1 = Conversion factor from therms to mmBtu

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(ii) Use Equation C-8b to calculate CH4 and N2O emissions when natural gas usage is obtained from gas billing records in units of mmBtu.

CH4 or N2O = 1 × 10−3 * Fuel * EF (Eq. C-8b)

where:

CH4 or N2O = Annual CH4 or N2O emissions from the combustion of natural gas (metric tons).

Fuel = Annual natural gas usage, from gas billing records (mmBtu).

EF = Fuel-specific default emission factor for CH4 or N2O, from Table C-2 of this subpart (kg CH4 or N2O per mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(2) Use Equation C-9a of this section to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions for any fuels for which you use the Tier 2 Equation C-2a of this section to estimate CO2 emissions. Use the same values for fuel consumption and HHV that you use for the Tier 2 calculation.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.014.gif

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Where:

CH4 or N2O = Annual CH4 or N2O emissions from the combustion of a particular type of fuel (metric tons).

Fuel = Mass or volume of the fuel combusted during the reporting year.

HHV = High heat value of the fuel, averaged for all valid measurements for the reporting year (mmBtu per mass or volume).

EF = Fuel-specific default emission factor for CH4 or N2O, from Table C-2 of this subpart (kg CH4 or N2O per mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(3) Use Equation C-9b of this section to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions for any fuels for which you use Equation C-2c of this section to calculate the CO2 emissions. Use the same values for steam generation and the ratio “B” that you use for Equation C-2c.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.015.gif

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Where:

CH4 or N2O = Annual CH4 or N2O emissions from the combustion of a solid fuel (metric tons).

Steam = Total mass of steam generated by solid fuel combustion during the reporting year (lb steam).

B = Ratio of the boiler's maximum rated heat input capacity to its design rated steam output (mmBtu/lb steam).

EF = Fuel-specific emission factor for CH4 or N2O, from Table C-2 of this subpart (kg CH4 or N2O per mmBtu).

1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(4) Use Equation C-10 of this section for: units subject to subpart D of this part; units that qualify for and elect to use the alternative CO2 mass emissions calculation methodologies described in paragraph (a)(5) of this section; and units that use the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.016.gif

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Where:

CH4 or N2O = Annual CH4 or N2O emissions from the combustion of a particular type of fuel (metric tons).

(HI)A = Cumulative annual heat input from combustion of the fuel (mmBtu).

EF = Fuel-specific emission factor for CH4 or N2O, from Table C-2 of this section (kg CH4 or N2O per mmBtu).

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

(i) If only one type of fuel listed in Table C-2 of this subpart is combusted during the reporting year, substitute the cumulative annual heat input from combustion of the fuel into Equation C-10 of this section to calculate the annual CH4 or N2O emissions. For units in the Acid Rain Program and units that report heat input data to EPA year-round according to part 75 of this chapter, obtain the cumulative annual heat input directly from the electronic data reports required under §75.64 of this chapter. For Tier 4 units, use the best available information, as described in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(C) of this section, to estimate the cumulative annual heat input (HI)A.

(ii) If more than one type of fuel listed in Table C-2 of this subpart is combusted during the reporting year, use Equation C-10 of this section separately for each type of fuel, except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(B) of this section. Determine the appropriate values of (HI)A as follows:

(A) For units in the Acid Rain Program and other units that report heat input data to EPA year-round according to part 75 of this chapter, obtain (HI)A for each type of fuel from the electronic data reports required under §75.64 of this chapter, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (c)(4)(ii)(B) and (c)(4)(ii)(D) of this section.

(B) For a unit that uses CEMS to monitor hourly heat input according to part 75 of this chapter, the value of (HI)A obtained from the electronic data reports under §75.64 of this chapter may be attributed exclusively to the fuel with the highest F-factor, when the reporting option in 3.3.6.5 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter is selected and implemented.

(C) For Tier 4 units, use the best available information (e.g., fuel feed rate measurements, fuel heating values, engineering analysis) to estimate the value of (HI)A for each type of fuel. Instrumentation used to make these estimates is not subject to the calibration requirements of §98.3(i) or to the QA requirements of §98.34.

(D) Units in the Acid Rain Program and other units that report heat input data to EPA year-round according to part 75 of this chapter may use the best available information described in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(C) of this section, to estimate (HI)A for each fuel type, whenever fuel-specific heat input values cannot be directly obtained from the electronic data reports under §75.64 of this chapter.

(5) When multiple fuels are combusted during the reporting year, sum the fuel-specific results from Equations C-8, C-8a, C-8b, C-9a, C-9b, or C-10 of this section (as applicable) to obtain the total annual CH4 and N2O emissions, in metric tons.

(6) Calculate the annual CH4 and N2O mass emissions from the combustion of blended fuels as follows:

(i) If the mass or volume of each component fuel in the blend is measured before the fuels are mixed and combusted, calculate and report CH4 and N2O emissions separately for each component fuel, using the applicable procedures in this paragraph (c).

(ii) If the mass or volume of each component fuel in the blend is not measured before the fuels are mixed and combusted, a reasonable estimate of the percentage composition of the blend, based on best available information, is required. Perform the following calculations for each component fuel “i” that is listed in Table C-2:

(A) Multiply (% Fuel)i, the estimated mass or volume percentage (decimal fraction) of component fuel “i”, by the total annual mass or volume of the blended fuel combusted during the reporting year, to obtain an estimate of the annual consumption of component “i”;

(B) Multiply the result from paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) of this section by the HHV of the fuel (default value or, if available, the measured annual average value), to obtain an estimate of the annual heat input from component “i”;

(C) Calculate the annual CH4 and N2O emissions from component “i”, using Equation C-8, C-8a, C-8b, C-9a, or C-10 of this section, as applicable;

(D) Sum the annual CH4 emissions across all component fuels to obtain the annual CH4 emissions for the blend. Similarly sum the annual N2O emissions across all component fuels to obtain the annual N2O emissions for the blend. Report these annual emissions totals.

(d) Calculation of CO2 from sorbent. (1) When a unit is a fluidized bed boiler, is equipped with a wet flue gas desulfurization system, or uses other acid gas emission controls with sorbent injection to remove acid gases, if the chemical reaction between the acid gas and the sorbent produces CO2 emissions, use Equation C-11 of this section to calculate the CO2 emissions from the sorbent, except when those CO2 emissions are monitored by CEMS. When a sorbent other than CaCO3 is used, determine site-specific values of R and MWS.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.017.gif

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Where:

CO2 = CO2 emitted from sorbent for the reporting year (metric tons).

S = Limestone or other sorbent used in the reporting year, from company records (short tons).

R = The number of moles of CO2 released upon capture of one mole of the acid gas species being removed (R = 1.00 when the sorbent is CaCO3 and the targeted acid gas species is SO2).

MWCO2 = Molecular weight of carbon dioxide (44).

MWS = Molecular weight of sorbent (100 if calcium carbonate).

0.91 = Conversion factor from short tons to metric tons.

(2) The total annual CO2 mass emissions reported for the unit shall include the CO2 emissions from the combustion process and the CO2 emissions from the sorbent.

(e) Biogenic CO2 emissions from combustion of biomass with other fuels. Use the applicable procedures of this paragraph (e) to estimate biogenic CO2 emissions from units that combust a combination of biomass and fossil fuels (i.e., either co-fired or blended fuels). Separate reporting of biogenic CO2 emissions from the combined combustion of biomass and fossil fuels is required for those biomass fuels listed in Table C-1 of this section and for municipal solid waste. In addition, when a biomass fuel that is not listed in Table C-1 is combusted in a unit that has a maximum rated heat input greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, if the biomass fuel accounts for 10% or more of the annual heat input to the unit, and if the unit does not use CEMS to quantify its annual CO2 mass emissions, then, pursuant to §98.33(b)(3)(iii), Tier 3 must be used to determine the carbon content of the biomass fuel and to calculate the biogenic CO2 emissions from combustion of the fuel. Notwithstanding these requirements, in accordance with §98.3(c)(12), separate reporting of biogenic CO2 emissions is optional for the 2010 reporting year for units subject to subpart D of this part and for units that use the CO2 mass emissions calculation methodologies in part 75 of this chapter, pursuant to paragraph (a)(5) of this section. However, if the owner or operator opts to report biogenic CO2 emissions separately for these units, the appropriate method(s) in this paragraph (e) shall be used. Separate reporting of biogenic CO2 emissions from the combustion of tires is also optional, but may be reported by following the provisions of paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(1) You may use Equation C-1 of this subpart to calculate the annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of the biomass fuels listed in Table C-1 of this subpart (except MSW and tires), in a unit of any size, including units equipped with a CO2 CEMS, except when the use of Tier 2 is required as specified in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section. Determine the quantity of biomass combusted using one of the following procedures in this paragraph (e)(1), as appropriate, and document the selected procedures in the Monitoring Plan under §98.3(g):

(i) Company records.

(ii) The procedures in paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(iii) The best available information for premixed fuels that contain biomass and fossil fuels (e.g., liquid fuel mixtures containing biodiesel).

(2) You may use the procedures of this paragraph if the following three conditions are met: First, a CO2 CEMS (or a surrogate O2 monitor) and a stack gas flow rate monitor are used to determine the annual CO2 mass emissions (either according to part 75 of this chapter, the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology, or the alternative calculation methodology specified in paragraph (a)(5)(iii) of this section); second, neither MSW nor tires is combusted in the unit during the reporting year; and third, the CO2 emissions consist solely of combustion products (i.e., no process or sorbent emissions included).

(i) For each operating hour, use Equation C-12 of this section to determine the volume of CO2 emitted.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.018.gif

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Where:

VCO2h = Hourly volume of CO2 emitted (scf).

(%CO2)h = Hourly average CO2 concentration, measured by the CO2 concentration monitor, or, if applicable, calculated from the hourly average O2 concentration (%CO2).

Qh = Hourly average stack gas volumetric flow rate, measured by the stack gas volumetric flow rate monitor (scfh).

th = Source operating time (decimal fraction of the hour during which the source combusts fuel, i.e., 1.0 for a full operating hour, 0.5 for 30 minutes of operation, etc.).

100 = Conversion factor from percent to a decimal fraction.

(ii) Sum all of the hourly VCO2h values for the reporting year, to obtain Vtotal, the total annual volume of CO2 emitted.

(iii) Calculate the annual volume of CO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion using Equation C-13 of this section. If two or more types of fossil fuel are combusted during the year, perform a separate calculation with Equation C-13 of this section for each fuel and sum the results.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.019.gif

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Where:

Vff = Annual volume of CO2 emitted from combustion of a particular fossil fuel (scf).

Fuel = Total quantity of the fossil fuel combusted in the reporting year, from company records, as defined in §98.6 (lb for solid fuel, gallons for liquid fuel, and scf for gaseous fuel).

Fc = Fuel-specific carbon based F-factor, either a default value from Table 1 in section 3.3.5 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, or a site-specific value determined under section 3.3.6 of appendix F to part 75 (scf CO2/mmBtu).

HHV = High heat value of the fossil fuel, from fuel sampling and analysis (annual average value in Btu/lb for solid fuel, Btu/gal for liquid fuel and Btu/scf for gaseous fuel, sampled as specified (e.g., monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or by lot) in §98.34(a)(2)). The average HHV shall be calculated according to the requirements of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.

106 = Conversion factor, Btu per mmBtu.

(iv) Subtract Vff from Vtotal to obtain Vbio, the annual volume of CO2 from the combustion of biomass.

(v) Calculate the biogenic percentage of the annual CO2 emissions,expressed as a decimal fraction, using Equation C-14 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.020.gif

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(vi) Calculate the annual biogenic CO2 mass emissions, in metric tons, by multiplying the results obtained from Equation C-14 of this section by the annual CO2 mass emissions in metric tons, as determined:

(A) Under paragraph (a)(4)(vi) of this section, for units using the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology.

(B) Under paragraph (a)(5)(iii)(B) of this section, for units using the alternative calculation methodology specified in paragraph (a)(5)(iii).

(C) From the electronic data report required under §75.64 of this chapter, for units in the Acid Rain Program and other units using CEMS to monitor and report CO2 mass emissions according to part 75 of this chapter. However, before calculating the annual biogenic CO2 mass emissions, multiply the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions by 0.91 to convert from short tons to metric tons.

(3) You must use the procedures in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) through (e)(3)(iii) of this section to determine the annual biogenic CO2 emissions from the combustion of MSW, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section. These procedures also may be used for any unit that co-fires biomass and fossil fuels, including units equipped with a CO2 CEMS, and units for which optional separate reporting of biogenic CO2 emissions from the combustion of tires is selected.

(i) Use an applicable CO2 emissions calculation method in this section to quantify the total annual CO2 mass emissions from the unit.

(ii) Determine the relative proportions of biogenic and non-biogenic CO2 emissions in the flue gas on a quarterly basis using the method specified in §98.34(d) (for units that combust MSW as the primary fuel or as the only fuel with a biogenic component) or in §98.34(e) (for other units, including units that combust tires).

(iii) Determine the annual biogenic CO2 mass emissions from the unit by multiplying the total annual CO2 mass emissions by the annual average biogenic decimal fraction obtained from §98.34(d) or §98.34(e), as applicable.

(iv) If the combustion of MSW and/or tires provides no more than 10 percent of the annual heat input to a unit, or if a small, batch incinerator combusts no more than 1,000 tons per year of MSW, you may estimate the annual biogenic CO2 emissions as follows, in lieu of following the procedures in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) through (e)(3)(iii) of this section:

(A) Calculate the total annual CO2 emissions from combustion of MSW and/or tires in the unit, using the Tier 1 calculation methodology in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(B) Multiply the result from paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) of this section by the appropriate default factor to determine the annual biogenic CO2 emissions, in metric tons. For MSW, use a default factor of 0.60 and for tires, use a default factor of 0.20.

(4) If Equation C-1 or Equation C-2a of this section is selected to calculate the annual biogenic mass emissions for wood, wood waste, or other solid biomass-derived fuel, Equation C-15 of this section may be used to quantify biogenic fuel consumption, provided that all of the required input parameters are accurately quantified. Similar equations and calculation methodologies based on steam generation and boiler efficiency may be used, provided that they are documented in the GHG Monitoring Plan required by §98.3(g)(5).

eCFR graphic er30oc09.021.gif

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Where:

(Fuel)p = Quantity of biomass consumed during the measurement period “p” (tons/year or tons/month, as applicable).

H = Average enthalpy of the boiler steam for the measurement period (Btu/lb).

S = Total boiler steam production for the measurement period (lb/month or lb/year, as applicable).

(HI)nb = Heat input from co-fired fossil fuels and non-biomass-derived fuels for the measurement period, based on company records of fuel usage and default or measured HHV values (Btu/month or Btu/year, as applicable).

(HHV)bio = Default or measured high heat value of the biomass fuel (Btu/lb).

(Eff)bio = Percent efficiency of biomass-to-energy conversion, expressed as a decimal fraction.

2000 = Conversion factor (lb/ton).

(5) For units subject to subpart D of this part and for units that use the methods in part 75 of this chapter to quantify CO2 mass emissions in accordance with paragraph (a)(5) of this section, you may calculate biogenic CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels listed in Table C-1 of this subpart using Equation C-15a. This equation may not be used to calculate biogenic CO2 emissions from the combustion of tires or MSW; the methods described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section must be used for those fuels. Whenever (HI)A, the annual heat input from combustion of biomass fuel in Equation C-15a, cannot be determined solely from the information in the electronic emissions reports under §75.64 of this chapter (e.g., in cases where a unit uses CEMS in combination with multiple F-factors, a worst-case F-factor, or a prorated F-factor to report heat input rather than reporting heat input based on fuel type), use the best available information (as described in §§98.33(c)(4)(ii)(C) and (c)(4)(ii)(D)) to determine (HI)A.

CO2 = 0.001 * (HI)A * EF (Eq. C-15a)

where:

CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of a particular type of biomass fuel listed in Table C-1 (metric tons)

(HI)A = Annual heat input from the biomass fuel, obtained, where feasible, from the electronic emissions reports required under §75.64 of this chapter. Where this is not feasible use best available information, as described in §§98.33(c)(4)(ii)(C) and (c)(4)(ii)(D) (mmBtu)

EF = CO2 emission factor for the biomass fuel, from Table C-1 (kg CO2/mmBtu)

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79140, Dec. 17, 2010; 78 FR 71950, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.34   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

The CO2 mass emissions data for stationary fuel combustion sources shall be monitored as follows:

(a) For the Tier 2 Calculation Methodology:

(1) All fuel samples shall be taken at a location in the fuel handling system that provides a sample representative of the fuel combusted. The fuel sampling and analysis may be performed by either the owner or operator or the supplier of the fuel.

(2) The minimum required frequency of the HHV sampling and analysis for each type of fuel or fuel mixture (blend) is specified in this paragraph. When the specified frequency for a particular fuel or blend is based on a specified time period (e.g., week, month, quarter, or half-year), fuel sampling and analysis is required only for those time periods in which the fuel or blend is combusted. The owner or operator may perform fuel sampling and analysis more often than the minimum required frequency, in order to obtain a more representative annual average HHV.

(i) For natural gas, semiannual sampling and analysis is required (i.e., twice in a calendar year, with consecutive samples taken at least four months apart).

(ii) For coal and fuel oil, and for any other solid or liquid fuel that is delivered in lots, analysis of at least one representative sample from each fuel lot is required. For fuel oil, as an alternative to sampling each fuel lot, a sample may be taken upon each addition of oil to the unit's storage tank. Flow proportional sampling, continuous drip sampling, or daily manual oil sampling may also be used, in lieu of sampling each fuel lot. If the daily manual oil sampling option is selected, sampling from a particular tank is required only on days when oil from the tank is combusted by the unit (or units) served by the tank. If you elect to sample from the storage tank upon each addition of oil to the tank, you must take at least one sample from each tank that is currently in service and whenever oil is added to the tank, for as long as the tank remains in service. You need not take any samples from a storage tank while it is out of service. Rather, take a sample when the tank is brought into service and whenever oil is added to the tank, for as long as the tank remains in service. If multiple additions of oil are made to a particular in-service tank on a given day (e.g., from multiple deliveries), one sample taken after the final addition of oil is sufficient. For the purposes of this section, a fuel lot is defined as a shipment or delivery of a single type of fuel (e.g., ship load, barge load, group of trucks, group of railroad cars, oil delivery via pipeline from a tank farm, etc.). However, if multiple deliveries of a particular type of fuel are received from the same supply source in a given calendar month, the deliveries for that month may be considered, collectively, to comprise a fuel lot, requiring only one representative sample, subject to the following conditions:

(A) For coal, the “type” of fuel means the rank of the coal (i.e., anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, or lignite). For fuel oil, the “type” of fuel means the grade number or classification of the oil (e.g., No. 1 oil, No. 2 oil, kerosene, Jet A fuel, etc.).

(B) The owner or operator shall document in the monitoring plan under §98.3(g)(5) how the monthly sampling of each type of fuel is performed.

(iii) For liquid fuels other than fuel oil, and for gaseous fuels other than natural gas (including biogas), sampling and analysis is required at least once per calendar quarter. To the extent practicable, consecutive quarterly samples shall be taken at least 30 days apart.

(iv) For other solid fuels (except MSW), weekly sampling is required to obtain composite samples, which are then analyzed monthly.

(v) For fuel blends that are received already mixed, or that are mixed on-site without measuring the exact amount of each component, as described in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, determine the HHV of the blend as follows. For blends of solid fuels (except MSW), weekly sampling is required to obtain composite samples, which are analyzed monthly. For blends of liquid or gaseous fuels, sampling and analysis is required at least once per calendar quarter. More frequent sampling is recommended if the composition of the blend varies significantly during the year.

(3) Special considerations for blending of fuels. In situations where different types of fuel listed in Table C-1 of this subpart (for example, different ranks of coal or different grades of fuel oil) are in the same state of matter (i.e., solid, liquid, or gas), and are blended prior to combustion, use the following procedures to determine the appropriate CO2 emission factor and HHV for the blend.

(i) If the fuels to be blended are received separately, and if the quantity (mass or volume) of each fuel is measured before the fuels are mixed and combusted, then, for each component of the blend, calculate the CO2 mass emissions separately. Substitute into Equation C-2a of this subpart the total measured mass or volume of the component fuel (from company records), together with the appropriate default CO2 emission factor from Table C-1, and the annual average HHV, calculated according to §98.33(a)(2)(ii). In this case, the fact that the fuels are blended prior to combustion is of no consequence.

(ii) If the fuel is received as a blend (i.e., already mixed) or if the components are mixed on site without precisely measuring the mass or volume of each one individually, a reasonable estimate of the relative proportions of the components of the blend must be made, using the best available information (e.g., the approximate annual average mass or volume percentage of each fuel, based on the typical or expected range of values). Determine the appropriate CO2 emission factor and HHV for use in Equation C-2a of this subpart, as follows:

(A) Consider the blend to be the “fuel type,” measure its HHV at the frequency prescribed in paragraph (a)(2)(v) of this section, and determine the annual average HHV value for the blend according to §98.33(a)(2)(ii).

(B) Calculate a heat-weighted CO2 emission factor, (EF)B, for the blend, using Equation C-16 of this section. The heat-weighting in Equation C-16 is provided by the default HHVs (from Table C-1) and the estimated mass or volume percentages of the components of the blend.

(C) Substitute into Equation C-2a of this subpart, the annual average HHV for the blend (from paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(A) of this section) and the calculated value of (EF)B, along with the total mass or volume of the blend combusted during the reporting year, to determine the annual CO2 mass emissions from combustion of the blend.

eCFR graphic er17de10.003.gif

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where:

(EF)B = Heat-weighted CO2 emission factor for the blend (kg CO2/mmBtu)

(HHV)i = Default high heat value for fuel “i” in the blend, from Table C-1 (mmBtu per mass or volume)

(%Fuel)i = Estimated mass or volume percentage of fuel “i” (mass % or volume %, as applicable, expressed as a decimal fraction; e.g., 25% = 0.25)

(EF)i = Default CO2 emission factor for fuel “i” from Table C-1 (mmBtu per mass or volume)

(HHV)B = Annual average high heat value for the blend, calculated according to §98.33(a)(2)(ii) (mmBtu per mass or volume)

(iii) Note that for the case described in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, if measured HHV values for the individual fuels in the blend or for the blend itself are not routinely received at the minimum frequency prescribed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section (or at a greater frequency), and if the unit qualifies to use Tier 1, calculate (HHV)B*, the heat-weighted default HHV for the blend, using Equation C-17 of this section. Then, use Equation C-16 of this section, replacing the term (HHV)B with (HHV)B* in the denominator, to determine the heat-weighted CO2 emission factor for the blend. Finally, substitute into Equation C-1 of this subpart, the calculated values of (HHV)B* and (EF)B, along with the total mass or volume of the blend combusted during the reporting year, to determine the annual CO2 mass emissions from combustion of the blend.

eCFR graphic er17de10.004.gif

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where:

(HHV)B* = Heat-weighted default high heat value for the blend (mmBtu per mass or Volume)

(HHV)i = Default high heat value for fuel “i” in the blend, from Table C-1 (mmBtu per mass or volume)

(%Fuel)i = Estimated mass or volume percentage of fuel “i” in the blend (mass % or volume %, as applicable, expressed as a decimal fraction)

(iv) If the fuel blend described in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section consists of a mixture of fuel(s) listed in Table C-1 of this subpart and one or more fuels not listed in Table C-1, calculate CO2 and other GHG emissions only for the Table C-1 fuel(s), using the best available estimate of the mass or volume percentage(s) of the Table C-1 fuel(s) in the blend. In this case, Tier 1 shall be used, with the following modifications to Equations C-17 and C-1, to account for the fact that not all of the fuels in the blend are listed in Table C-1:

(A) In Equation C-17, apply the term (Fuel)i only to the Table C-1 fuels. For each Table C-1 fuel, (Fuel)i will be the estimated mass or volume percentage of the fuel in the blend, divided by the sum of the mass or volume percentages of the Table C-1 fuels. For example, suppose that a blend consists of two Table C-1 fuels (“A” and “B”) and one fuel type (“C”) not listed in the Table, and that the volume percentages of fuels A, B, and C in the blend, expressed as decimal fractions, are, respectively, 0.50, 0.30, and 0.20. The term (Fuel)i in Equation C-17 for fuel A will be 0.50/(0.50 + 0.30) = 0.625, and for fuel B, (Fuel)i will be 0.30/(0.50 + 0.30) = 0.375.

(B) In Equation C-1, the term “Fuel” will be equal to the total mass or volume of the blended fuel combusted during the year multiplied by the sum of the mass or volume percentages of the Table C-1 fuels in the blend. For the example in paragraph (a)(3)(iv)(A) of this section, “Fuel” = (Annual volume of the blend combusted)(0.80).

(4) If, for a particular type of fuel, HHV sampling and analysis is performed more often than the minimum frequency specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the results of all valid fuel analyses shall be used in the GHG emission calculations.

(5) If, for a particular type of fuel, valid HHV values are obtained at less than the minimum frequency specifed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, appropriate substitute data values shall be used in the emissions calculations, in accordance with missing data procedures of §98.35.

(6) You must use one of the following appropriate fuel sampling and analysis methods. The HHV may be calculated using chromatographic analysis together with standard heating values of the fuel constituents, provided that the gas chromatograph is operated, maintained, and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Alternatively, you may use a method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists, or you may use industry standard practice to determine the high heat values. Consensus-based standards organizations include, but are not limited to, the following: ASTM International (100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box CB700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-B2959, (800) 262-1373, http://www.astm.org), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI, 1819 L Street, NW., 6th floor, Washington, DC 20036, (202) 293-8020, http://www.ansi.org), the American Gas Association (AGA, 400 North Capitol Street, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20001, (202) 824-7000, http://www.aga.org), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, (800) 843-2763, http://www.asme.org), the American Petroleum Institute (API, 1220 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005-4070, (202) 682-8000, http://www.api.org), and the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB, 801 Travis Street, Suite 1675, Houston, TX 77002, (713) 356-0060, http://www.api.org). The method(s) used shall be documented in the Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5).

(b) For the Tier 3 Calculation Methodology:

(1) You must calibrate each oil and gas flow meter according to §98.3(i) and the provisions of this paragraph (b)(1).

(i) Perform calibrations using any of the test methods and procedures in this paragraph (b)(1)(i). The method(s) used shall be documented in the Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5).

(A) You may use the calibration procedures specified by the flow meter manufacturer.

(B) You may use an appropriate flow meter calibration method published by a consensus-based standards organization, if such a method exists. Consensus-based standards organizations include, but are not limited to, the following: ASTM International (100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box CB700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-B2959, (800) 262-1373, http://www.astm.org), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI, 1819 L Street, NW., 6th floor, Washington, DC 20036, (202) 293-8020, http://www.ansi.org), the American Gas Association (AGA, 400 North Capitol Street, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20001, (202) 824-7000, http://www.aga.org), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, (800) 843-2763, http://www.asme.org), the American Petroleum Institute (API, 1220 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005-4070, (202) 682-8000, http://www.api.org), and the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB, 801 Travis Street, Suite 1675, Houston, TX 77002, (713) 356-0060, http://www.api.org).

(C) You may use an industry-accepted practice.

(ii) In addition to the initial calibration required by §98.3(i), recalibrate each fuel flow meter (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section) according to one of the following. You may recalibrate annually, at the minimum frequency specified by the manufacturer, or at the interval specified by industry standard practice.

(iii) Fuel billing meters are exempted from the initial and ongoing calibration requirements of this paragraph and from the Monitoring Plan and recordkeeping requirements of §§98.3(g)(5)(i)(C), (g)(6), and (g)(7), provided that the fuel supplier and the unit combusting the fuel do not have any common owners and are not owned by subsidiaries or affiliates of the same company. Meters used exclusively to measure the flow rates of fuels that are only used for unit startup are also exempted from the initial and ongoing calibration requirements of this paragraph.

(iv) For the initial calibration of an orifice, nozzle, or venturi meter; in-situ calibration of the transmitters is sufficient. A primary element inspection (PEI) shall be performed at least once every three years.

(v) For the continuously-operating units and processes described in §98.3(i)(6), the required flow meter recalibrations and, if necessary, the PEIs may be postponed until the next scheduled maintenance outage.

(vi) If a mixture of liquid or gaseous fuels is transported by a common pipe, you may either separately meter each of the fuels prior to mixing, using flow meters calibrated according to §98.3(i), or consider the fuel mixture to be the “fuel type” and meter the mixed fuel, using a flow meter calibrated according to §98.3(i).

(2) Oil tank drop measurements (if used to determine liquid fuel use volume) shall be performed according to any an appropriate method published by a consensus-based standards organization (e.g., the American Petroleum Institute).

(3) The carbon content and, if applicable, molecular weight of the fuels shall be determined according to the procedures in this paragraph (b)(3).

(i) All fuel samples shall be taken at a location in the fuel handling system that provides a sample representative of the fuel combusted. The fuel sampling and analysis may be performed by either the owner or operator or by the supplier of the fuel.

(ii) For each type of fuel, the minimum required frequency for collecting and analyzing samples for carbon content and (if applicable) molecular weight is specified in this paragraph. When the sampling frequency is based on a specified time period (e.g., week, month, quarter, or half-year), fuel sampling and analysis is required for only those time periods in which the fuel is combusted.

(A) For natural gas, semiannual sampling and analysis is required (i.e., twice in a calendar year, with consecutive samples taken at least four months apart).

(B) For coal and fuel oil and for any other solid or liquid fuel that is delivered in lots, analysis of at least one representative sample from each fuel lot is required. For fuel oil, as an alternative to sampling each fuel lot, a sample may be taken upon each addition of oil to the storage tank. Flow proportional sampling, continuous drip sampling, or daily manual oil sampling may also be used, in lieu of sampling each fuel lot. If the daily manual oil sampling option is selected, sampling from a particular tank is required only on days when oil from the tank is combusted by the unit (or units) served by the tank. If you elect to sample from the storage tank upon each addition of oil to the tank, you must take at least one sample from each tank that is currently in service and whenever oil is added to the tank, for as long as the tank remains in service. You need not take any samples from a storage tank while it is out of service. Rather, take a sample when the tank is brought into service and whenever oil is added to the tank, for as long as the tank remains in service. If multiple additions of oil are made to a particular in service tank on a given day (e.g., from multiple deliveries), one sample taken after the final addition of oil is sufficient. For the purposes of this section, a fuel lot is defined as a shipment or delivery of a single type of fuel (e.g., ship load, barge load, group of trucks, group of railroad cars, oil delivery via pipeline from a tank farm, etc.). However, if multiple deliveries of a particular type of fuel are received from the same supply source in a given calendar month, the deliveries for that month may be considered, collectively, to comprise a fuel lot, requiring only one representative sample, subject to the following conditions:

(1) For coal, the “type” of fuel means the rank of the coal (i.e., anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, or lignite). For fuel oil, the “type” of fuel means the grade number or classification of the oil (e.g., No. 1 oil, No. 2 oil, kerosene, Jet A fuel, etc.).

(2) The owner or operator shall document in the monitoring plan under §98.3(g)(5) how the monthly sampling of each type of fuel is performed.

(C) For liquid fuels other than fuel oil and for biogas, sampling and analysis is required at least once per calendar quarter. To the extent practicable, consecutive quarterly samples shall be taken at least 30 days apart.

(D) For other solid fuels (except MSW), weekly sampling is required to obtain composite samples, which are then analyzed monthly.

(E) For gaseous fuels other than natural gas and biogas (e.g., process gas), daily sampling and analysis to determine the carbon content and molecular weight of the fuel is required if continuous, on-line equipment, such as a gas chromatograph, is in place to make these measurements. Otherwise, weekly sampling and analysis shall be performed.

(F) For mixtures (blends) of solid fuels, weekly sampling is required to obtain composite samples, which are analyzed monthly. For blends of liquid fuels, and for gas mixtures consisting only of natural gas and biogas, sampling and analysis is required at least once per calendar quarter. For gas mixtures that contain gases other than natural gas (including biogas), daily sampling and analysis to determine the carbon content and molecular weight of the fuel is required if continuous, on-line equipment is in place to make these measurements. Otherwise, weekly sampling and analysis shall be performed.

(iii) If, for a particular type of fuel, sampling and analysis for carbon content and molecular weight is performed more often than the minimum frequency specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the results of all valid fuel analyses shall be used in the GHG emission calculations.

(iv) If, for a particular type of fuel, sampling and analysis for carbon content and molecular weight is performed at less than the minimum frequency specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, appropriate substitute data values shall be used in the emissions calculations, in accordance with the missing data procedures of §98.35.

(v) To calculate the CO2 mass emissions from combustion of a blend of fuels in the same state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas), you may either:

(A) Apply Equation C-3, C-4 or C-5 of this subpart (as applicable) to each component of the blend, if the mass or volume, the carbon content, and (if applicable), the molecular weight of each component are accurately measured prior to blending; or

(B) Consider the blend to be the “fuel type.” Then, at the frequency specified in paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(F) of this section, measure the carbon content and, if applicable, the molecular weight of the blend and calculate the annual average value of each parameter in the manner described in §98.33(a)(2)(ii). Also measure the mass or volume of the blended fuel combusted during the reporting year. Substitute these measured values into Equation C-3, C-4, or C-5 of this subpart (as applicable).

(4) You must use one of the following appropriate fuel sampling and analysis methods. The results of chromatographic analysis of the fuel may be used, provided that the gas chromatograph is operated, maintained, and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Alternatively, you may use a method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists, or you may use industry standard practice to determine the carbon content and molecular weight (for gaseous fuel) of the fuel. Consensus-based standards organizations include, but are not limited to, the following: ASTM International (100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box CB700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-B2959, (800) 262-1373, http://www.astm.org), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI, 1819 L Street, NW., 6th floor, Washington, DC 20036, (202) 293-8020, http://www.ansi.org), the American Gas Association (AGA, 400 North Capitol Street, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20001, (202) 824-7000, http://www.aga.org), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, (800) 843-2763, http://www.asme.org), the American Petroleum Institute (API, 1220 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005-4070, (202) 682-8000, http://www.api.org), and the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB, 801 Travis Street, Suite 1675, Houston, TX 77002, (713) 356-0060, http://www.api.org). The method(s) used shall be documented in the Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5).

(c) For the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology, the CO2, flow rate, and (if applicable) moisture monitors must be certified prior to the applicable deadline specified in §98.33(b)(5).

(1) For initial certification, you may use any one of the following three procedures in this paragraph.

(i) §§75.20(c)(2), (c)(4), and (c)(5) through (c)(7) of this chapter and appendix A to part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) The calibration drift test and relative accuracy test audit (RATA) procedures of Performance Specification 3 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter (for the CO2 concentration monitor) and Performance Specification 6 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter (for the continuous emission rate monitoring system (CERMS)).

(iii) The provisions of an applicable State continuous monitoring program.

(2) If an O2 concentration monitor is used to determine CO2 concentrations, the applicable provisions of part 75 of this chapter, part 60 of this chapter, or an applicable State continuous monitoring program shall be followed for initial certification and on-going quality assurance, and all required RATAs of the monitor shall be done on a percent CO2 basis.

(3) For ongoing quality assurance, follow the applicable procedures in either appendix B to part 75 of this chapter, appendix F to part 60 of this chapter, or an applicable State continuous monitoring program. If appendix F to part 60 of this chapter is selected for on-going quality assurance, perform daily calibration drift assessments for both the CO2 monitor (or surrogate O2 monitor) and the flow rate monitor, conduct cylinder gas audits of the CO2 concentration monitor in three of the four quarters of each year (except for non-operating quarters), and perform annual RATAs of the CO2 concentration monitor and the CERMS.

(4) For the purposes of this part, the stack gas volumetric flow rate monitor RATAs required by appendix B to part 75 of this chapter and the annual RATAs of the CERMS required by appendix F to part 60 of this chapter need only be done at one operating level, representing normal load or normal process operating conditions, both for initial certification and for ongoing quality assurance.

(5) If, for any source operating hour, quality assured data are not obtained with a CO2 monitor (or surrogate O2 monitor), flow rate monitor, or (if applicable) moisture monitor, use appropriate substitute data values in accordance with the missing data provisions of §98.35.

(6) For certain applications where combined process emissions and combustion emissions are measured, the CO2 concentrations in the flue gas may be considerably higher than for combustion emissions alone. In such cases, the span of the CO2 monitor may, if necessary, be set higher than the specified levels in the applicable regulations. If the CO2 span value is set higher than 20 percent CO2, the cylinder gas audits of the CO2 monitor under appendix F to part 60 of this chapter may be performed at 40 to 60 percent and 80 to 100 percent of span, in lieu of the prescribed calibration levels of 5 to 8 percent CO2 and 10 to 14 percent CO2.

(7) Hourly average data from the CEMS shall be validated in a manner consistent with one of the following: §§60.13(h)(2)(i) through (h)(2)(vi) of this chapter; §75.10(d)(1) of this chapter; or the hourly data validation requirements of an applicable State CEM regulation.

(d) Except as otherwise provided in §98.33 (b)(1)(vi) and (b)(1)(vii), when municipal solid waste (MSW) is either the primary fuel combusted in a unit or the only fuel with a biogenic component combusted in the unit, determine the biogenic portion of the CO2 emissions using ASTM D6866-08 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Biobased Content of Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using Radiocarbon Analysis (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and ASTM D7459-08 Standard Practice for Collection of Integrated Samples for the Speciation of Biomass (Biogenic) and Fossil-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emitted from Stationary Emissions Sources (incorporated by reference, see §98.7). Perform the ASTM D7459-08 sampling and the ASTM D6866-08 analysis at least once in every calendar quarter in which MSW is combusted in the unit. Collect each gas sample during normal unit operating conditions for at least 24 total (not necessarily consecutive) hours, or longer if the facility deems it necessary to obtain a representative sample. Notwithstanding this requirement, if the types of fuels combusted and their relative proportions are consistent throughout the year, the minimum required sampling time may be reduced to 8 hours if at least two 8-hour samples and one 24-hour sample are collected under normal operating conditions, and arithmetic average of the biogenic fraction of the flue gas from the 8-hour samples (expressed as a decimal) is within ±5 percent of the biogenic fraction from the 24-hour test. There must be no overlapping of the 8-hour and 24-hour test periods. Document the results of the demonstration in the unit's monitoring plan. If the types of fuels and their relative proportions are not consistent throughout the year, an optional sampling approach that facilities may wish to consider to obtain a more representative sample is to collect an integrated sample by extracting a small amount of flue gas (e.g., 1 to 5 cc) in each unit operating hour during the quarter. Separate the total annual CO2 emissions into the biogenic and non-biogenic fractions using the average proportion of biogenic emissions of all samples analyzed during the reporting year. Express the results as a decimal fraction (e.g., 0.30, if 30 percent of the CO2 is biogenic). When MSW is the primary fuel for multiple units at the facility, and the units are fed from a common fuel source, testing at only one of the units is sufficient.

(e) For other units that combust combinations of biomass fuel(s) (or heterogeneous fuels that have a biomass component, e.g., tires) and fossil (or other non-biogenic) fuel(s), in any proportions, ASTM D6866-08 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and ASTM D7459-08 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) may be used to determine the biogenic portion of the CO2 emissions in every calendar quarter in which biomass and non-biogenic fuels are co-fired in the unit. Follow the procedures in paragraph (d) of this section. If the primary fuel for multiple units at the facility consists of tires, and the units are fed from a common fuel source, testing at only one of the units is sufficient.

(f) The records required under §98.3(g)(2)(i) shall include an explanation of how the following parameters are determined from company records (or, if applicable, from the best available information):

(1) Fuel consumption, when the Tier 1 and Tier 2 Calculation Methodologies are used, including cases where §98.36(c)(4) applies.

(2) Fuel consumption, when solid fuel is combusted and the Tier 3 Calculation Methodology is used.

(3) Fossil fuel consumption when §98.33(e)(2) applies to a unit that uses CEMS to quantify CO2 emissions and that combusts both fossil and biomass fuels.

(4) Sorbent usage, when §98.33(d) applies.

(5) Quantity of steam generated by a unit when §98.33(a)(2)(iii) applies.

(6) Biogenic fuel consumption and high heating value, as applicable, under §§98.33(e)(5) and (e)(6).

(7) Fuel usage for CH4 and N2O emissions calculations under §98.33(c)(4)(ii).

(8) Mass of biomass combusted, for premixed fuels that contain biomass and fossil fuels under §98.33(e)(1)(iii).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79146, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.35   Procedures for estimating missing data.

Whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a CEMS malfunctions during unit operation or if a required fuel sample is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations.

(a) For all units subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program, and all other stationary combustion units subject to the requirements of this part that monitor and report emissions and heat input data year-round in accordance with part 75 of this chapter, the missing data substitution procedures in part 75 of this chapter shall be followed for CO2 concentration, stack gas flow rate, fuel flow rate, high heating value, and fuel carbon content.

(b) For units that use the Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, and Tier 4 Calculation Methodologies, perform missing data substitution as follows for each parameter:

(1) For each missing value of the high heating value, carbon content, or molecular weight of the fuel, substitute the arithmetic average of the quality-assured values of that parameter immediately preceding and immediately following the missing data incident. If the “after” value has not been obtained by the time that the GHG emissions report is due, you may use the “before” value for missing data substitution or the best available estimate of the parameter, based on all available process data (e.g., electrical load, steam production, operating hours). If, for a particular parameter, no quality-assured data are available prior to the missing data incident, the substitute data value shall be the first quality-assured value obtained after the missing data period.

(2) For missing records of CO2 concentration, stack gas flow rate, percent moisture, fuel usage, and sorbent usage, the substitute data value shall be the best available estimate of the parameter, based on all available process data (e.g., electrical load, steam production, operating hours, etc.). You must document and retain records of the procedures used for all such estimates.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79150, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.36   Data reporting requirements.

(a) In addition to the facility-level information required under §98.3, the annual GHG emissions report shall contain the unit-level or process-level emissions data in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section (as applicable) and the emissions verification data in paragraph (e) of this section.

(b) Units that use the four tiers. You shall report the following information for stationary combustion units that use the Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, or Tier 4 methodology in §98.33(a) to calculate CO2 emissions, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section:

(1) The unit ID number.

(2) A code representing the type of unit.

(3) Maximum rated heat input capacity of the unit, in mmBtu/hr.

(4) Each type of fuel combusted in the unit during the report year.

(5) The methodology (i.e., tier) used to calculate the CO2 emissions for each type of fuel combusted (i.e., Tier 1, 2, 3, or 4).

(6) The methodology start date, for each fuel type.

(7) The methodology end date, for each fuel type.

(8) For a unit that uses Tiers 1, 2, or 3:

(i) The annual CO2 mass emissions (including biogenic CO2), and the annual CH4, and N2O mass emissions for each type of fuel combusted during the reporting year, expressed in metric tons of each gas and in metric tons of CO2e; and

(ii) Metric tons of biogenic CO2 emissions (if applicable).

(9) For a unit that uses Tier 4:

(i) If the total annual CO2 mass emissions measured by the CEMS consists entirely of non-biogenic CO2 (i.e., CO2 from fossil fuel combustion plus, if applicable, CO2 from sorbent and/or process CO2), report the total annual CO2 mass emissions, expressed in metric tons. You are not required to report the combustion CO2 emissions by fuel type.

(ii) Report the total annual CO2 mass emissions measured by the CEMS. If this total includes both biogenic and non-biogenic CO2, separately report the annual non-biogenic CO2 mass emissions and the annual CO2 mass emissions from biomass combustion, each expressed in metric tons. You are not required to report the combustion CO2 emissions by fuel type.

(iii) An estimate of the heat input from each type of fuel listed in Table C-2 of this subpart that was combusted in the unit during the report year, and the annual CH4 and N2O emissions for each of these fuels, expressed in metric tons of each gas and in metric tons of CO2e.

(10) Annual CO2 emissions from sorbent (if calculated using Equation C-11 of this subpart), expressed in metric tons.

(11) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(c) Reporting alternatives for units using the four Tiers. You may use any of the applicable reporting alternatives of this paragraph to simplify the unit-level reporting required under paragraph (b) of this section:

(1) Aggregation of units. If a facility contains two or more units (e.g., boilers or combustion turbines), each of which has a maximum rated heat input capacity of 250 mmBtu/hr or less, you may report the combined GHG emissions for the group of units in lieu of reporting GHG emissions from the individual units, provided that the use of Tier 4 is not required or elected for any of the units and the units use the same tier for any common fuels combusted. If this option is selected, the following information shall be reported instead of the information in paragraph (b) of this section:

(i) Group ID number, beginning with the prefix “GP”.

(ii)-(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) The highest maximum rated heat input capacity of any unit in the group (mmBtu/hr).

(v) Each type of fuel combusted in the group of units during the reporting year.

(vi) Annual CO2 mass emissions and annual CH4, and N2O mass emissions, aggregated for each type of fuel combusted in the group of units during the report year, expressed in metric tons of each gas and in metric tons of CO2e. If any of the units burn both fossil fuels and biomass, report also the annual CO2 emissions from combustion of all fossil fuels combined and annual CO2 emissions from combustion of all biomass fuels combined, expressed in metric tons.

(vii) The methodology (i.e., tier) used to calculate the CO2 mass emissions for each type of fuel combusted in the units (i.e., Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3).

(viii) The methodology start date, for each fuel type.

(ix) The methodology end date, for each fuel type.

(x) The calculated CO2 mass emissions (if any) from sorbent expressed in metric tons.

(xi) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(2) Monitored common stack or duct configurations. When the flue gases from two or more stationary fuel combustion units at a facility are combined together in a common stack or duct before exiting to the atmosphere and if CEMS are used to continuously monitor CO2 mass emissions at the common stack or duct according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology, you may report the combined emissions from the units sharing the common stack or duct, in lieu of separately reporting the GHG emissions from the individual units. This monitoring and reporting alternative may also be used when process off-gases or a mixture of combustion products and process gases are combined together in a common stack or duct before exiting to the atmosphere. Whenever the common stack or duct monitoring option is applied, the following information shall be reported instead of the information in paragraph (b) of this section:

(i) Common stack or duct identification number, beginning with the prefix “CS”.

(ii) Number of units sharing the common stack or duct. Report “1” when the flue gas flowing through the common stack or duct includes combustion products and/or process off-gases, and all of the effluent comes from a single unit (e.g., a furnace, kiln, petrochemical production unit, or smelter).

(iii) Combined maximum rated heat input capacity of the units sharing the common stack or duct (mmBtu/hr). This data element is required only when all of the units sharing the common stack are stationary fuel combustion units.

(iv) Each type of fuel combusted in the units during the year.

(v) The methodology (tier) used to calculate the CO2 mass emissions, i.e., Tier 4.

(vi) The methodology start date.

(vii) The methodology end date.

(viii) Total annual CO2 mass emissions measured by the CEMS, expressed in metric tons. If any of the units burn both fossil fuels and biomass, separately report the annual non-biogenic CO2 mass emissions (i.e., CO2 from fossil fuel combustion plus, if applicable, CO2 from sorbent and/or process CO2) and the annual CO2 mass emissions from biomass combustion, each expressed in metric tons.

(ix) An estimate of the heat input from each type of fuel listed in Table C-2 of this subpart that was combusted during the report year in the units sharing the common stack or duct during the report year, and, for each of these fuels, the annual CH4 and N2O mass emissions from the units sharing the common stack or duct, expressed in metric tons of each gas and in metric tons of CO2e.

(x) Reserved.

(xi) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(3) Common pipe configurations. When two or more stationary combustion units at a facility combust the same type of liquid or gaseous fuel and the fuel is fed to the individual units through a common supply line or pipe, you may report the combined emissions from the units served by the common supply line, in lieu of separately reporting the GHG emissions from the individual units, provided that the total amount of fuel combusted by the units is accurately measured at the common pipe or supply line using a fuel flow meter, or, for natural gas, the amount of fuel combusted may be obtained from gas billing records. For Tier 3 applications, the flow meter shall be calibrated in accordance with §98.34(b). If a portion of the fuel measured (or obtained from gas billing records) at the main supply line is diverted to either: A flare; or another stationary fuel combustion unit (or units), including units that use a CO2 mass emissions calculation method in part 75 of this chapter; or a chemical or industrial process (where it is used as a raw material but not combusted), and the remainder of the fuel is distributed to a group of combustion units for which you elect to use the common pipe reporting option, you may use company records to subtract out the diverted portion of the fuel from the fuel measured (or obtained from gas billing records) at the main supply line prior to performing the GHG emissions calculations for the group of units using the common pipe option. If the diverted portion of the fuel is combusted, the GHG emissions from the diverted portion shall be accounted for in accordance with the applicable provisions of this part. When the common pipe option is selected, the applicable tier shall be used based on the maximum rated heat input capacity of the largest unit served by the common pipe configuration, except where the applicable tier is based on criteria other than unit size. For example, if the maximum rated heat input capacity of the largest unit is greater than 250 mmBtu/hr, Tier 3 will apply, unless the fuel transported through the common pipe is natural gas or distillate oil, in which case Tier 2 may be used, in accordance with §98.33(b)(2)(ii). As a second example, in accordance with §98.33(b)(1)(v), Tier 1 may be used regardless of unit size when natural gas is transported through the common pipe, if the annual fuel consumption is obtained from gas billing records in units of therms or mmBtu. When the common pipe reporting option is selected, the following information shall be reported instead of the information in paragraph (b) of this section:

(i) Common pipe identification number, beginning with the prefix “CP”.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) The highest maximum rated heat input capacity of any unit served by the common pipe (mmBtu/hr).

(iv) The fuels combusted in the units during the reporting year.

(v) The methodology used to calculate the CO2 mass emissions (i.e., Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3).

(vi) If the any of the units burns both fossil fuels and biomass, the annual CO2 mass emissions from combustion of all fossil fuels and annual CO2 emissions from combustion of all biomass fuels from the units served by the common pipe, expressed in metric tons.

(vii) Annual CO2 mass emissions and annual CH4 and N2O emissions from each fuel type for the units served by the common pipe, expressed in metric tons of each gas and in metric tons of CO2e.

(viii) Methodology start date.

(ix) Methodology end date.

(x) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(4) The following alternative reporting option applies to facilities at which a common liquid or gaseous fuel supply is shared between one or more large combustion units, such as boilers or combustion turbines (including units subject to subpart D of this part and other units subject to part 75 of this chapter) and small combustion sources, including, but not limited to, space heaters, hot water heaters, and lab burners. In this case, you may simplify reporting by attributing all of the GHG emissions from combustion of the shared fuel to the large combustion unit(s), provided that:

(i) The total quantity of the fuel combusted during the report year in the units sharing the fuel supply is measured, either at the “gate” to the facility or at a point inside the facility, using a fuel flow meter, billing meter, or tank drop measurements (as applicable);

(ii) On an annual basis, at least 95 percent (by mass or volume) of the shared fuel is combusted in the large combustion unit(s), and the remainder is combusted in the small combustion sources. Company records may be used to determine the percentage distribution of the shared fuel to the large and small units; and

(iii) The use of this reporting option is documented in the Monitoring Plan required under §98.3(g)(5). Indicate in the Monitoring Plan which units share the common fuel supply and the method used to demonstrate that this alternative reporting option applies. For the small combustion sources, a description of the types of units and the approximate number of units is sufficient.

(d) Units subject to part 75 of this chapter. (1) For stationary combustion units that are subject to subpart D of this part, you shall report the following unit-level information:

(i) Unit or stack identification numbers. Use exact same unit, common stack, common pipe, or multiple stack identification numbers that represent the monitored locations (e.g., 1, 2, CS001, MS1A, CP001, etc.) that are reported under §75.64 of this chapter.

(ii) Annual CO2 emissions at each monitored location, expressed in both short tons and metric tons. Separate reporting of biogenic CO2 emissions under §98.3(c)(4)(ii) and §98.3(c)(4)(iii)(A) is optional only for the 2010 reporting year, as provided in §98.3(c)(12).

(iii) Annual CH4 and N2O emissions at each monitored location, for each fuel type listed in Table C-2 that was combusted during the year (except as otherwise provided in §98.33(c)(4)(ii)(B)), expressed in metric tons of CO2e.

(iv) The total heat input from each fuel listed in Table C-2 that was combusted during the year (except as otherwise provided in §98.33(c)(4)(ii)(B)), expressed in mmBtu.

(v) Identification of the Part 75 methodology used to determine the CO2 mass emissions.

(vi) Methodology start date.

(vii) Methodology end date.

(viii) Acid Rain Program indicator.

(ix) Annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of biomass, expressed in metric tons of CO2e, except where the reporting provisions of §§98.3(c)(12)(i) through (c)(12)(iii) are implemented for the 2010 reporting year.

(x) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(2) For units that use the alternative CO2 mass emissions calculation methods provided in §98.33(a)(5), you shall report the following unit-level information:

(i) Unit, stack, or pipe ID numbers. Use exact same unit, common stack, common pipe, or multiple stack identification numbers that represent the monitored locations (e.g., 1, 2, CS001, MS1A, CP001, etc.) that are reported under §75.64 of this chapter.

(ii) For units that use the alternative methods specified in §98.33(a)(5)(i) and (ii) to monitor and report heat input data year-round according to appendix D to part 75 of this chapter or §75.19 of this chapter:

(A) Each type of fuel combusted in the unit during the reporting year.

(B) The methodology used to calculate the CO2 mass emissions for each fuel type.

(C) Methodology start date.

(D) Methodology end date.

(E) A code or flag to indicate whether heat input is calculated according to appendix D to part 75 of this chapter or §75.19 of this chapter.

(F) Annual CO2 emissions at each monitored location, across all fuel types, expressed in metric tons of CO2e.

(G) Annual heat input from each type of fuel listed in Table C-2 of this subpart that was combusted during the reporting year, expressed in mmBtu.

(H) Annual CH4 and N2O emissions at each monitored location, from each fuel type listed in Table C-2 of this subpart that was combusted during the reporting year (except as otherwise provided in §98.33(c)(4)(ii)(D)), expressed in metric tons CO2e.

(I) Annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of biomass, expressed in metric tons CO2e, except where the reporting provisions of §§98.3(c)(12)(i) through (c)(12)(iii) are implemented for the 2010 reporting year.

(J) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(iii) For units with continuous monitoring systems that use the alternative method for units with continuous monitoring systems in §98.33(a)(5)(iii) to monitor heat input year-round according to part 75 of this chapter:

(A) Each type of fuel combusted during the reporting year.

(B) Methodology used to calculate the CO2 mass emissions.

(C) Methodology start date.

(D) Methodology end date.

(E) A code or flag to indicate that the heat input data is derived from CEMS measurements.

(F) The total annual CO2 emissions at each monitored location, expressed in metric tons of CO2e.

(G) Annual heat input from each type of fuel listed in Table C-2 of this subpart that was combusted during the reporting year, expressed in mmBtu.

(H) Annual CH4 and N2O emissions at each monitored location, from each fuel type listed in Table C-2 of this subpart that was combusted during the reporting year (except as otherwise provided in §98.33(c)(4)(ii)(B)), expressed in metric tons CO2e.

(I) Annual CO2 mass emissions from the combustion of biomass, expressed in metric tons CO2e, except where the reporting provisions of §§98.3(c)(12)(i) through (c)(12)(iii) are implemented for the 2010 reporting year.

(J) If applicable, the plant code (as defined in §98.6).

(e) Verification data. You must keep on file, in a format suitable for inspection and auditing, sufficient data to verify the reported GHG emissions. This data and information must, where indicated in this paragraph (e), be included in the annual GHG emissions report.

(1) The applicable verification data specified in this paragraph (e) are not required to be kept on file or reported for units that meet any one of the three following conditions:

(i) Are subject to the Acid Rain Program.

(ii) Use the alternative methods for units with continuous monitoring systems provided in §98.33(a)(5).

(iii) Are not in the Acid Rain Program, but are required to monitor and report CO2 mass emissions and heat input data year-round, in accordance with part 75 of this chapter.

(2) For stationary combustion sources using the Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, and Tier 4 Calculation Methodologies in §98.33(a) to quantify CO2 emissions, the following additional information shall be kept on file and included in the GHG emissions report, where indicated:

(i) For the Tier 1 Calculation Methodology, report the total quantity of each type of fuel combusted in the unit or group of aggregated units (as applicable) during the reporting year, in short tons for solid fuels, gallons for liquid fuels and standard cubic feet for gaseous fuels, or, if applicable, therms or mmBtu for natural gas.

(ii) For the Tier 2 Calculation Methodology, report:

(A) The total quantity of each type of fuel combusted in the unit or group of aggregated units (as applicable) during each month of the reporting year. Express the quantity of each fuel combusted during the measurement period in short tons for solid fuels, gallons for liquid fuels, and scf for gaseous fuels.

(B) The frequency of the HHV determinations (e.g., once a month, once per fuel lot).

(C) The high heat values used in the CO2 emissions calculations for each type of fuel combusted during the reporting year, in mmBtu per short ton for solid fuels, mmBtu per gallon for liquid fuels, and mmBtu per scf for gaseous fuels. Report a HHV value for each calendar month in which HHV determination is required. If multiple values are obtained in a given month, report the arithmetic average value for the month. Indicate whether each reported HHV is a measured value or a substitute data value.

(D) If Equation C-2c of this subpart is used to calculate CO2 mass emissions, report the total quantity (i.e., pounds) of steam produced from MSW or solid fuel combustion during each month of the reporting year, and the ratio of the maximum rate heat input capacity to the design rated steam output capacity of the unit, in mmBtu per lb of steam.

(iii) For the Tier 2 Calculation Methodology, keep records of the methods used to determine the HHV for each type of fuel combusted and the date on which each fuel sample was taken, except where fuel sampling data are received from the fuel supplier. In that case, keep records of the dates on which the results of the fuel analyses for HHV are received.

(iv) For the Tier 3 Calculation Methodology, report:

(A) The quantity of each type of fuel combusted in the unit or group of units (as applicable) during each month of the reporting year, in short tons for solid fuels, gallons for liquid fuels, and scf for gaseous fuels.

(B) The frequency of carbon content and, if applicable, molecular weight determinations for each type of fuel for the reporting year (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, semiannually, once per fuel lot).

(C) The carbon content and, if applicable, gas molecular weight values used in the emission calculations (including both valid and substitute data values). For each calendar month of the reporting year in which carbon content and, if applicable, molecular weight determination is required, report a value of each parameter. If multiple values of a parameter are obtained in a given month, report the arithmetic average value for the month. Express carbon content as a decimal fraction for solid fuels, kg C per gallon for liquid fuels, and kg C per kg of fuel for gaseous fuels. Express the gas molecular weights in units of kg per kg-mole.

(D) The total number of valid carbon content determinations and, if applicable, molecular weight determinations made during the reporting year, for each fuel type.

(E) The number of substitute data values used for carbon content and, if applicable, molecular weight used in the annual GHG emissions calculations.

(F) The annual average HHV, when measured HHV data, rather than a default HHV from Table C-1 of this subpart, are used to calculate CH4 and N2O emissions for a Tier 3 unit, in accordance with §98.33(c)(1).

(G) The value of the molar volume constant (MVC) used in Equation C-5 (if applicable).

(v) For the Tier 3 Calculation Methodology, keep records of the following:

(A) For liquid and gaseous fuel combustion, the dates and results of the initial calibrations and periodic recalibrations of the required fuel flow meters.

(B) For fuel oil combustion, the method from §98.34(b) used to make tank drop measurements (if applicable).

(C) The methods used to determine the carbon content and (if applicable) the molecular weight of each type of fuel combusted.

(D) The methods used to calibrate the fuel flow meters).

(E) The date on which each fuel sample was taken, except where fuel sampling data are received from the fuel supplier. In that case, keep records of the dates on which the results of the fuel analyses for carbon content and (if applicable) molecular weight are received.

(vi) For the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology, report:

(A) The total number of source operating hours in the reporting year.

(B) The cumulative CO2 mass emissions in each quarter of the reporting year, i.e., the sum of the hourly values calculated from Equation C-6 or C-7 of this subpart (as applicable), in metric tons.

(C) For CO2 concentration, stack gas flow rate, and (if applicable) stack gas moisture content, the percentage of source operating hours in which a substitute data value of each parameter was used in the emissions calculations.

(vii) For the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology, keep records of:

(A) Whether the CEMS certification and quality assurance procedures of part 75 of this chapter, part 60 of this chapter, or an applicable State continuous monitoring program were used.

(B) The dates and results of the initial certification tests of the CEMS.

(C) The dates and results of the major quality assurance tests performed on the CEMS during the reporting year, i.e., linearity checks, cylinder gas audits, and relative accuracy test audits (RATAs).

(viii) If CO2 emissions that are generated from acid gas scrubbing with sorbent injection are not captured using CEMS, report:

(A) The total amount of sorbent used during the report year, in short tons.

(B) The molecular weight of the sorbent.

(C) The ratio (“R”) in Equation C-11 of this subpart.

(ix) For units that combust both fossil fuel and biomass, when biogenic CO2 is determined according to §98.33(e)(2), you shall report the following additional information, as applicable:

(A) The annual volume of CO2 emitted from the combustion of all fuels,i.e., Vtotal, in scf.

(B) The annual volume of CO2 emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels, i.e., Vff, in scf. If more than one type of fossil fuel was combusted, report the combustion volume of CO2 for each fuel separately as well as the total.

(C) The annual volume of CO2 emitted from the combustion of biomass,i.e., Vbio, in scf.

(D) The carbon-based F-factor used in Equation C-13 of this subpart, for each type of fossil fuel combusted, in scf CO2 per mmBtu.

(E) The annual average HHV value used in Equation C-13 of this subpart, for each type of fossil fuel combusted, in Btu/lb, Btu/gal, or Btu/scf, as appropriate.

(F) The total quantity of each type of fossil fuel combusted during the reporting year, in lb, gallons, or scf, as appropriate.

(G) Annual biogenic CO2 mass emissions, in metric tons.

(x) When ASTM methods D7459-08 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and D6866-08 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) are used to determine the biogenic portion of the annual CO2 emissions from MSW combustion, as described in §98.34(d), report:

(A) The results of each quarterly sample analysis, expressed as a decimal fraction (e.g., if the biogenic fraction of the CO2 emissions from MSW combustion is 30 percent, report 0.30).

(B) The annual biogenic CO2 mass emissions from MSW combustion, in metric tons.

(xi) When ASTM methods D7459-08 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and D6866-08 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) are used in accordance with §98.34(e) to determine the biogenic portion of the annual CO2 emissions from a unit that co-fires biogenic fuels (or partly-biogenic fuels, including tires if you are electing to report biogenic CO2 emissions from tire combustion) and non-biogenic fuels, you shall report the results of each quarterly sample analysis, expressed as a decimal fraction (e.g., if the biogenic fraction of the CO2 emissions is 30 percent, report 0.30).

(3) Within 30 days of receipt of a written request from the Administrator, you shall submit explanations of the following:

(i) An explanation of how company records are used to quantify fuel consumption, if the Tier 1 or Tier 2 Calculation Methodology is used to calculate CO2 emissions.

(ii) An explanation of how company records are used to quantify fuel consumption, if solid fuel is combusted and the Tier 3 Calculation Methodology is used to calculate CO2 emissions.

(iii) An explanation of how sorbent usage is quantified.

(iv) An explanation of how company records are used to quantify fossil fuel consumption in units that uses CEMS to quantify CO2 emissions and combusts both fossil fuel and biomass.

(v) An explanation of how company records are used to measure steam production, when it is used to calculate CO2 mass emissions under §98.33(a)(2)(iii) or to quantify solid fuel usage under §98.33(c)(3).

(4) Within 30 days of receipt of a written request from the Administrator, you shall submit the verification data and information described in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii), (e)(2)(v), and (e)(2)(vii) of this section.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79151, Dec. 17, 2010; 78 FR 71950, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.37   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the requirements of §98.3(g), you must retain the applicable records specified in §§98.34(f) and (g), 98.35(b), and 98.36(e).

§98.38   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

Fuel typeDefault high heat valueDefault CO2
emission
factor
Coal and cokemmBtu/short tonkg CO2/mmBtu
Anthracite25.09103.69
Bituminous24.9393.28
Subbituminous17.2597.17
Lignite14.2197.72
Coal Coke24.80113.67
Mixed (Commercial sector)21.3994.27
Mixed (Industrial coking)26.2893.90
Mixed (Industrial sector)22.3594.67
Mixed (Electric Power sector)19.7395.52
Natural gasmmBtu/scfkg CO2/mmBtu
(Weighted U.S. Average)1.026 × 10353.06
Petroleum productsmmBtu/gallonkg CO2/mmBtu
Distillate Fuel Oil No. 10.13973.25
Distillate Fuel Oil No. 20.13873.96
Distillate Fuel Oil No. 40.14675.04
Residual Fuel Oil No. 50.14072.93
Residual Fuel Oil No. 60.15075.10
Used Oil0.13874.00
Kerosene0.13575.20
Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)10.09261.71
Propane10.09162.87
Propylene20.09167.77
Ethane10.06859.60
Ethanol0.08468.44
Ethylene20.05865.96
Isobutane10.09964.94
Isobutylene10.10368.86
Butane10.10364.77
Butylene10.10568.72
Naphtha (<401 deg F)0.12568.02
Natural Gasoline0.11066.88
Other Oil (>401 deg F)0.13976.22
Pentanes Plus0.11070.02
Petrochemical Feedstocks0.12571.02
Petroleum Coke0.143102.41
Special Naphtha0.12572.34
Unfinished Oils0.13974.54
Heavy Gas Oils0.14874.92
Lubricants0.14474.27
Motor Gasoline0.12570.22
Aviation Gasoline0.12069.25
Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel0.13572.22
Asphalt and Road Oil0.15875.36
Crude Oil0.13874.54
Other fuels—solidmmBtu/short tonkg CO2/mmBtu
Municipal Solid Waste9.95390.7
Tires28.0085.97
Plastics38.0075.00
Petroleum Coke30.00102.41
Other fuels—gaseousmmBtu/scfkg CO2/mmBtu
Blast Furnace Gas0.092 × 103274.32
Coke Oven Gas0.599 × 10346.85
Propane Gas2.516 × 10361.46
Fuel Gas41.388 × 10359.00
Biomass fuels—solidmmBtu/short tonkg CO2/mmBtu
Wood and Wood Residuals (dry basis)517.4893.80
Agricultural Byproducts8.25118.17
Peat8.00111.84
Solid Byproducts10.39105.51
Biomass fuels—gaseousmmBtu/scfkg CO2/mmBtu
Landfill Gas0.485 × 10352.07
Other Biomass Gases0.655 × 10352.07
Biomass Fuels—LiquidmmBtu/gallonkg CO2/mmBtu
Ethanol0.08468.44
Biodiesel (100%)0.12873.84
Rendered Animal Fat0.12571.06
Vegetable Oil0.12081.55

1The HHV for components of LPG determined at 60 °F and saturation pressure with the exception of ethylene.

2Ethylene HHV determined at 41 °F (5 °C) and saturation pressure.

3Use of this default HHV is allowed only for: (a) Units that combust MSW, do not generate steam, and are allowed to use Tier 1; (b) units that derive no more than 10 percent of their annual heat input from MSW and/or tires; and (c) small batch incinerators that combust no more than 1,000 tons of MSW per year.

4Reporters subject to subpart X of this part that are complying with §98.243(d) or subpart Y of this part may only use the default HHV and the default CO2 emission factor for fuel gas combustion under the conditions prescribed in §98.243(d)(2)(i) and (d)(2)(ii) and §98.252(a)(1) and (a)(2), respectively. Otherwise, reporters subject to subpart X or subpart Y shall use either Tier 3 (Equation C-5) or Tier 4.

5Use the following formula to calculate a wet basis HHV for use in Equation C-1: HHVw = ((100 − M)/100)*HHVd where HHVw = wet basis HHV, M = moisture content (percent) and HHVd = dry basis HHV from Table C-1.

[78 FR 71950, Nov. 29, 2013]

Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 98—Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

Fuel typeDefault CH4 emission factor (kg CH4/mmBtu)Default N2O emission factor (kg N2O/mmBtu)
Coal and Coke (All fuel types in Table C-1)1.1 × 10021.6 × 1003
Natural Gas1.0 × 10031.0 × 1004
Petroleum (All fuel types in Table C-1)3.0 × 10036.0 × 1004
Fuel Gas3.0 × 10036.0 × 1004
Municipal Solid Waste3.2 × 10024.2 × 1003
Tires3.2 × 10024.2 × 1003
Blast Furnace Gas2.2 × 10051.0 × 1004
Coke Oven Gas4.8 × 10041.0 × 1004
Biomass Fuels—Solid (All fuel types in Table C-1, except wood and wood residuals)3.2 × 10024.2 × 1003
Wood and wood residuals7.2 × 10033.6 × 1003
Biomass Fuels—Gaseous (All fuel types in Table C-1)3.2 × 10036.3 × 1004
Biomass Fuels—Liquid (All fuel types in Table C-1)1.1 × 10031.1 × 1004

Note: Those employing this table are assumed to fall under the IPCC definitions of the “Energy Industry” or “Manufacturing Industries and Construction”. In all fuels except for coal the values for these two categories are identical. For coal combustion, those who fall within the IPCC “Energy Industry” category may employ a value of 1g of CH4/mmBtu.

[78 FR 71952, Nov. 29, 2013]

Subpart D—Electricity Generation

§98.40   Definition of the source category.

(a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that are required to monitor and report to EPA CO2 mass emissions year-round according to 40 CFR part 75.

(b) This source category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in §98.6.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.41   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains one or more electricity generating units and the facility meets the requirements of §98.2(a)(1).

§98.42   GHGs to report.

(a) For each electricity generating unit that is subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program or is otherwise required to monitor and report to EPA CO2 emissions year-round according to 40 CFR part 75, you must report under this subpart the annual mass emissions of CO2, N2O, and CH4 by following the requirements of this subpart.

(b) For each electricity generating unit that is not subject to the Acid Rain Program or otherwise required to monitor and report to EPA CO2 emissions year-round according to 40 CFR part 75, you must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O by following the requirements of subpart C.

(c) For each stationary fuel combustion unit that does not generate electricity, you must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O by following the requirements of subpart C of this part.

§98.43   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, continue to monitor and report CO2 mass emissions as required under §75.13 or section 2.3 of appendix G to 40 CFR part 75, and §75.64. Calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions as follows:

(1) Convert the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions reported in the fourth quarter electronic data report required under §75.64 from units of short tons to metric tons. To convert tons to metric tons, divide by 1.1023.

(2) Calculate and report annual CH4 and N2O mass emissions under this subpart by following the applicable method specified in §98.33(c).

(b) Calculate and report biogenic CO2 emissions under this subpart by following the applicable methods specified in §98.33(e). The CO2 emissions (excluding biogenic CO2) for units subject to this subpart that are reported under §§98.3(c)(4)(i) and (c)(4)(iii)(B) shall be calculated by subtracting the biogenic CO2 mass emissions calculated according to §98.33(e) from the cumulative annual CO2 mass emissions from paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Separate calculation and reporting of biogenic CO2 emissions is optional only for the 2010 reporting year pursuant to §98.3(c)(12) and required every year thereafter.

[75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.44   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

Follow the applicable quality assurance procedures for CO2 emissions in appendices B, D, and G to 40 CFR part 75.

§98.45   Procedures for estimating missing data.

Follow the applicable missing data substitution procedures in 40 CFR part 75 for CO2 concentration, stack gas flow rate, fuel flow rate, high heating value, and fuel carbon content.

§98.46   Data reporting requirements.

The annual report shall comply with the data reporting requirements specified in §98.36(d)(1).

[75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.47   Records that must be retained.

You shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements of §§98.3(g) and 98.37. Records retained under §75.57(h) of this chapter for missing data events satisfy the recordkeeping requirements of §98.3(g)(4) for those same events.

[75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.48   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Subpart E—Adipic Acid Production

§98.50   Definition of source category.

The adipic acid production source category consists of all adipic acid production facilities that use oxidation to produce adipic acid.

§98.51   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an adipic acid production process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (2).

§98.52   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report N2O process emissions at the facility level.

(b) You must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from each stationary combustion unit following the requirements of subpart C.

§98.53   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) You must determine annual N2O emissions from adipic acid production according to paragraphs (a)(1) or (2) of this section.

(1) Use a site-specific emission factor and production data according to paragraphs (b) through (i) of this section.

(2) Request Administrator approval for an alternative method of determining N2O emissions according to paragraphs (a)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) You must submit the request within 45 days following promulgation of this subpart or within the first 30 days of each subsequent reporting year.

(ii) If the Administrator does not approve your requested alternative method within 150 days of the end of the reporting year, you must determine the N2O emissions for the current reporting period using the procedures specified in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section.

(b) You must conduct an annual performance test according to paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this section.

(1) You must conduct the test on the vent stream from the nitric acid oxidation step of the process, referred to as the test point, according to the methods specified in §98.54(b) through (f). If multiple adipic acid production units exhaust to a common abatement technology and/or emission point, you must sample each process in the ducts before the emissions are combined, sample each process when only one process is operating, or sample the combined emissions when multiple processes are operating and base the site-specific emission factor on the combined production rate of the multiple adipic acid production units.

(2) You must conduct the performance test under normal process operating conditions.

(3) You must measure the adipic acid production rate during the test and calculate the production rate for the test period in tons per hour.

(c) Using the results of the performance test in paragraph (b) of this section, you must calculate an emission factor for each adipic acid unit according to Equation E-1 of this section:

eCFR graphic er28oc10.018.gif

View or download PDF

where:

EFN2O,z = Average facility-specific N2O emission factor for each adipic acid production unit “z” (lb N2O/ton adipic acid produced).

CN2O = N2O concentration per test run during the performance test (ppm N2O).

1.14 × 10−7 = Conversion factor (lb/dscf-ppm N2O).

Q = Volumetric flow rate of effluent gas per test run during the performance test (dscf/hr).

P = Production rate per test run during the performance test (tons adipic acid produced/hr).

n = Number of test runs.

(d) If the adipic acid production unit exhausts to any N2O abatement technology “N”, you must determine the destruction efficiency according to paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(2), or (d)(3) of this section.

(1) Use the manufacturer's specified destruction efficiency.

(2) Estimate the destruction efficiency through process knowledge. Examples of information that could constitute process knowledge include calculations based on material balances, process stoichiometry, or previous test results provided the results are still relevant to the current vent stream conditions. You must document how process knowledge was used to determine the destruction efficiency.

(3) Calculate the destruction efficiency by conducting an additional performance test on the vent stream following the N2O abatement technology.

(e) If the adipic acid production unit exhausts to any N2O abatement technology “N”, you must determine the annual amount of adipic acid produced while N2O abatement technology “N” is operating according to §98.54(f). Then you must calculate the abatement factor for N2O abatement technology “N” according to Equation E-2 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no13.012.gif

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(f) You must determine the annual amount of adipic acid produced according to §98.54(f).

(g) You must calculate N2O emissions according to paragraph (g)(1), (2), (3), or (4) of this section for each adipic acid production unit.

(1) If one N2O abatement technology “N” is located after your test point, you must use the emissions factor (determined in Equation E-1 of this section), the destruction efficiency (determined in paragraph (d) of this section), the annual adipic acid production (determined in paragraph (f) of this section), and the abatement utilization factor (determined in paragraph (e) of this section), according to Equation E-3a of this section:

eCFR graphic er28oc10.020.gif

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where:

Ea,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to this Equation E-3a (metric tons).

EFN2Oz = N2O emissions factor for unit “z” (lb N2O/ton adipic acid produced).

Pz = Annual adipic acid produced from unit “z” (tons).

DF = Destruction efficiency of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of N2O removed from vent stream).

AF = Abatement utilization factor of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of time that the abatement technology is operating).

2205 = Conversion factor (lb/metric ton).

(2) If multiple N2O abatement technologies are located in series after your test point, you must use the emissions factor (determined in Equation E-1 of this section), the destruction efficiency (determined in paragraph (d) of this section), the annual adipic acid production (determined in paragraph (f) of this section), and the abatement utilization factor (determined in paragraph (e) of this section), according to Equation E-3b of this section:

eCFR graphic er28oc10.021.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Eb,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to this Equation E-3b (metric tons).

EFN2O,z = N2O emissions factor for unit “z” (lb N2O/ton adipic acid produced).

Pz = Annual adipic acid produced from unit “z” (tons).

DF1 = Destruction efficiency of N2O abatement technology 1 (decimal fraction of N2O removed from vent stream).

AF1 = Abatement utilization factor of N2O abatement technology 1 (decimal fraction of time that abatement technology 1 is operating).

DF2 = Destruction efficiency of N2O abatement technology 2 (decimal fraction of N2O removed from vent stream).

AF2 = Abatement utilization factor of N2O abatement technology 2 (decimal fraction of time that abatement technology 2 is operating).

DFN = Destruction efficiency of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of N2O removed from vent stream).

AFN = Abatement utilization factor of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of time that abatement technology N is operating).

2205 = Conversion factor (lb/metric ton).

N = Number of different N2O abatement technologies.

(3) If multiple N2O abatement technologies are located in parallel after your test point, you must use the emissions factor (determined in Equation E-1 of this section), the destruction efficiency (determined in paragraph (d) of this section), the annual adipic acid production (determined in paragraph (f) of this section), and the abatement utilization factor (determined in paragraph (e) of this section), according to Equation E-3c of this section:

eCFR graphic er28oc10.022.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ec,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to this Equation E-3c (metric tons).

EFN2O,z = N2O emissions factor for unit “z” (lb N2O/ton adipic acid produced).

Pz = Annual adipic acid produced from unit “z” (tons).

DFN = Destruction efficiency of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of N2O removed from vent stream).

AFN = Abatement utilization factor of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of time that the abatement technology is operating).

FCN = Fraction control factor of N2O abatement technology “N” (decimal fraction of total emissions from unit “z” that are sent to abatement technology “N”).

2205 = Conversion factor (lb/metric ton).

N = Number of different N2O abatement technologies with a fraction control factor.

(4) If no N2O abatement technologies are located after your test point, you must use the emissions factor (determined using Equation E-1 of this section) and the annual adipic acid production (determined in paragraph (f) of this section) according to Equation E-3d of this section for each adipic acid production unit.

eCFR graphic er28oc10.023.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ed,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production for unit “z” according to this Equation E-3d (metric tons).

EFN2O = N2O emissions factor for unit “z” (lb N2O/ton adipic acid produced).

PZ = Annual adipic acid produced from unit “z” (tons).

2205 = Conversion factor (lb/metric ton).

(h) You must determine the emissions for the facility by summing the unit level emissions according to Equation E-4 of this section.

eCFR graphic er28oc10.024.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Ea,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to Equation E-3a of this section (metric tons).

Eb,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to Equation E-3b of this section (metric tons).

Ec,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to Equation E-3c of this section (metric tons).

Ed,z = Annual N2O mass emissions from adipic acid production unit “z” according to Equation E-3d of this section (metric tons).

M = Total number of adipic acid production units.

(i) You must determine the amount of process N2O emissions that is sold or transferred off site (if applicable). You can determine the amount using existing process flow meters and N2O analyzers.

[75 FR 66458, Oct. 28, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 71952, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.54   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) You must conduct a new performance test and calculate a new emissions factor for each adipic acid production unit according to the frequency specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section.

(1) Conduct the performance test annually. The test must be conducted at a point during production that is representative of the average emissions rate from your process. You must document the methods used to determine the representative point.

(2) Conduct the performance test when your adipic acid production process is changed either by altering the ratio of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol or by installing abatement equipment.

(3) If you requested Administrator approval for an alternative method of determining N2O emissions under §98.53(a)(2), you must conduct the performance test if your request has not been approved by the Administrator within 150 days of the end of the reporting year in which it was submitted.

(b) You must measure the N2O concentration during the performance test using one of the methods in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this section.

(1) EPA Method 320, Measurement of Vapor Phase Organic and Inorganic Emissions by Extractive Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy in 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A;

(2) ASTM D6348-03 Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous Compounds by Extractive Direct Interface Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy (incorporated by reference, see §98.7); or

(3) An equivalent method, with Administrator approval.

(c) You must determine the adipic acid production rate during the performance test according to paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section.

(1) Direct measurement (such as using flow meters or weigh scales).

(2) Existing plant procedures used for accounting purposes.

(d) You must determine the volumetric flow rate during the performance test in conjunction with the applicable EPA methods in 40 CFR part 60, appendices A-1 through A-4. Conduct three emissions test runs of 1 hour each. All QA/QC procedures specified in the reference test methods and any associated performance specifications apply. For each test, the facility must prepare an emissions factor determination report that must include the items in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(3) of this section:

(1) Analysis of samples, determination of emissions, and raw data.

(2) All information and data used to derive the emissions factor.

(3) The production rate(s) during the performance test and how each production rate was determined.

(e) You must determine the monthly amount of adipic acid produced. You must also determine the monthly amount of adipic acid produced during which N2O abatement technology is operating. These monthly amounts are determined according to the methods in paragraphs (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section.

(f) You must determine the annual amount of adipic acid produced. You must also determine the annual amount of adipic acid produced during which N2O abatement technology is operating. These are determined by summing the respective monthly adipic acid production quantities determined in paragraph (e) of this section.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66460, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71953, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.55   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable, a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(a) For each missing value of monthly adipic acid production, the substitute data shall be the best available estimate based on all available process data or data used for accounting purposes (such as sales records).

(b) For missing values related to the performance test, including emission factors, production rate, and N2O concentration, you must conduct a new performance test according to the procedures in §98.54 (a) through (d).

§98.56   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (l) of this section at the facility level.

(a) Annual process N2O emissions from adipic acid production (metric tons).

(b) Annual adipic acid production (tons).

(c) Annual adipic acid production during which N2O abatement technology (located after the test point) is operating (tons).

(d) Annual process N2O emissions from adipic acid production facility that is sold or transferred off site (metric tons).

(e) Number of abatement technologies (if applicable).

(f) Types of abatement technologies used (if applicable).

(g) Abatement technology destruction efficiency for each abatement technology (percent destruction).

(h) Abatement utilization factor for each abatement technology (fraction of annual production that abatement technology is operating).

(i) Number of times in the reporting year that missing data procedures were followed to measure adipic acid production (months).

(j) If you conducted a performance test and calculated a site-specific emissions factor according to §98.53(a)(1), each annual report must also contain the information specified in paragraphs (j)(1) through (7) of this section for each adipic acid production unit.

(1) Emission factor (lb N2O/ton adipic acid).

(2) Test method used for performance test.

(3) Production rate per test run during performance test (tons/hr).

(4) N2O concentration per test run during performance test (ppm N2O).

(5) Volumetric flow rate per test run during performance test (dscf/hr).

(6) Number of test runs.

(7) Number of times in the reporting year that a performance test had to be repeated (number).

(k) If you requested Administrator approval for an alternative method of determining N2O emissions under §98.53(a)(2), each annual report must also contain the information specified in paragraphs (k)(1) through (4) of this section for each adipic acid production facility.

(1) Name of alternative method.

(2) Description of alternative method.

(3) Request date.

(4) Approval date.

(l) Fraction control factor for each abatement technology (percent of total emissions from the production unit that are sent to the abatement technology) if equation E-3c is used.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66460, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.57   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the records specified in paragraphs (a) through (h) of this section at the facility level:

(a) Annual adipic acid production capacity (tons).

(b) Records of significant changes to process.

(c) Number of facility and unit operating hours in calendar year.

(d) Documentation of how accounting procedures were used to estimate production rate.

(e) Documentation of how process knowledge was used to estimate abatement technology destruction efficiency.

(f) Performance test reports.

(g) Measurements, records and calculations used to determine reported parameters.

(h) Documentation of the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the measurements of all reported parameters, including but not limited to, calibration of weighing equipment, flow meters, and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices must also be recorded, and the technical basis for these estimates must be provided.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.58   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Subpart F—Aluminum Production

§98.60   Definition of the source category.

(a) A primary aluminum production facility manufactures primary aluminum using the Hall-Héroult manufacturing process. The primary aluminum manufacturing process comprises the following operations:

(1) Electrolysis in prebake and Søderberg cells.

(2) Anode baking for prebake cells.

(b) This source category does not include experimental cells or research and development process units.

§98.61   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an aluminum production process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2).

§98.62   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) Perfluoromethane (CF4), and perfluoroethane (C2F6) emissions from anode effects in all prebake and Søderberg electrolysis cells.

(b) CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis in all prebake and Søderberg electrolysis cells.

(c) CO2 emissions from on-site anode baking.

(d) You must report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the emissions of CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions from each stationary fuel combustion unit by following the requirements of subpart C.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.63   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) The annual value of each PFC compound (CF4, C2F6) shall be estimated from the sum of monthly values using Equation F-1 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.025.gif

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Where:

EPFC = Annual emissions of each PFC compound from aluminum production (metric tons PFC).

Em = Emissions of the individual PFC compound from aluminum production for the month “m” (metric tons PFC).

(b) Use Equation F-2 of this section to estimate CF4 emissions from anode effect duration or Equation F-3 of this section to estimate CF4 emissions from overvoltage, and use Equation F-4 of this section to estimate C2F6 emissions from anode effects from each prebake and Søderberg electrolysis cell.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.026.gif

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Where:

ECF4 = Monthly CF4 emissions from aluminum production (metric tons CF4).

SCF4 = The slope coefficient ((kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(AE-Mins/cell-day)).

AEM = The anode effect minutes per cell-day (AE-Mins/cell-day).

MP = Metal production (metric tons Al), where AEM and MP are calculated monthly.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.027.gif

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Where:

ECF4 = Monthly CF4 emissions from aluminum production (metric tons CF4).

EFCF4 = The overvoltage emission factor (kg CF4/metric ton Al).

MP = Metal production (metric tons Al), where MP is calculated monthly.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.028.gif

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Where:

EC2F6 = Monthly C2F6 emissions from aluminum production (metric tons C2F6).

ECF4 = CF4 emissions from aluminum production (kg CF4).

FC2F6/CF4 = The weight fraction of C2F6/CF4 (kg C2F6/kg CF4).

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons, where ECF4 is calculated monthly.

(c) You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis and anode baking of prebake cells using either the procedures in paragraph (d) of this section, the procedures in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, or the procedures in paragraph (g) of this section.

(d) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(e) Use the following procedures to calculate CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis:

(1) For Prebake cells: you must calculate CO2 emissions from anode consumption using Equation F-5 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.029.gif

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Where:

ECO2 = Annual CO2 emissions from prebaked anode consumption (metric tons CO2).

NAC = Net annual prebaked anode consumption per metric ton Al (metric tons C/metric tons Al).

MP = Annual metal production (metric tons Al).

Sa = Sulfur content in baked anode (percent weight).

Asha = Ash content in baked anode (percent weight).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(2) For Søderberg cells you must calculate CO2 emissions using Equation F-6 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.030.gif

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Where:

ECO2 = Annual CO2 emissions from paste consumption (metric ton CO2).

PC = Annual paste consumption (metric ton/metric ton Al).

MP = Annual metal production (metric ton Al).

CSM = Annual emissions of cyclohexane soluble matter (kg/metric ton Al).

BC = Binder content of paste (percent weight).

Sp = Sulfur content of pitch (percent weight).

Ashp = Ash content of pitch (percent weight).

Hp = Hydrogen content of pitch (percent weight).

Sc = Sulfur content in calcined coke (percent weight).

Ashc = Ash content in calcined coke (percent weight).

CD = Carbon in skimmed dust from Søderberg cells (metric ton C/metric ton Al).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(f) Use the following procedures to calculate CO2 emissions from anode baking of prebake cells:

(1) Use Equation F-7 of this section to calculate emissions from pitch volatiles combustion.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.031.gif

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Where:

ECO2PV = Annual CO2 emissions from pitch volatiles combustion (metric tons CO2).

GA = Initial weight of green anodes (metric tons).

Hw = Annual hydrogen content in green anodes (metric tons).

BA = Annual baked anode production (metric tons).

WT = Annual waste tar collected (metric tons).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(2) Use Equation F-8 of this section to calculate emissions from bake furnace packing material.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.032.gif

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Where:

ECO2PC = Annual CO2 emissions from bake furnace packing material (metric tons CO2).

PCC = Annual packing coke consumption (metric tons/metric ton baked anode).

BA = Annual baked anode production (metric tons).

Spc = Sulfur content in packing coke (percent weight).

Ashpc = Ash content in packing coke (percent weight).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

(g) If process CO2 emissions from anode consumption during electrolysis or anode baking of prebake cells are vented through the same stack as any combustion unit or process equipment that reports CO2 emissions using a CEMS that complies with the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources), then the calculation methodology in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section shall not be used to calculate those process emissions. The owner or operation shall report under this subpart the combined stack emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.64   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) Effective December 31, 2010 for smelters with no prior measurement or effective December 31, 2012, for facilities with historic measurements, the smelter-specific slope coefficients, overvoltage emission factors, and weight fractions used in Equations F-2, F-3, and F-4 of this subpart must be measured in accordance with the recommendations of the EPA/IAI Protocol for Measurement of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Emissions from Primary Aluminum Production (2008) (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), except the minimum frequency of measurement shall be every 10 years unless a change occurs in the control algorithm that affects the mix of types of anode effects or the nature of the anode effect termination routine.Facilities which operate at less than 0.2 anode effect minutes per cell day or operate with less than 1.4mV anode effect overvoltage can use either smelter-specific slope coefficients or the technology specific default values in Table F-1 of this subpart.

(b) The minimum frequency of the measurement and analysis is annually except as follows:

(1) Monthly for anode effect minutes per cell day (or anode effect overvoltage and current efficiency).

(2) Monthly for aluminum production.

(3) Smelter-specific slope coefficients, overvoltage emission factors, and weight fractions according to paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Sources may use either smelter-specific values from annual measurements of parameters needed to complete the equations in §98.63 (e.g., sulfur, ash, and hydrogen contents) or the default values shown in Table F-2 of this subpart.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79155, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.65   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a meter malfunctions during unit operation or if a required sample measurement is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations, according to the following requirements:

(a) Where anode or paste consumption data are missing, CO2 emissions can be estimated from aluminum production per Equation F-8 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.033.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

ECO2 = CO2 emissions from anode and/or paste consumption, metric tons CO2.

EFp = Prebake technology specific emission factor (1.6 metric tons CO2/metric ton aluminum produced).

MPp = Metal production from prebake process (metric tons Al).

EFs = Søderberg technology specific emission factor (1.7 metric tons CO2/metric ton Al produced).

MPs = Metal production from Søderberg process (metric tons Al).

(b) For other parameters, use the average of the two most recent data points after the missing data.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.66   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), you must report the following information at the facility level:

(a) Annual aluminum production in metric tons.

(b) Type of smelter technology used.

(c) The following PFC-specific information on an annual basis:

(1) Perfluoromethane emissions and perfluoroethane emissions from anode effects in all prebake and all Søderberg electrolysis cells combined.

(2) Anode effect minutes per cell-day (AE-mins/cell-day), anode effect frequency (AE/cell-day), anode effect duration (minutes). (Or anode effect overvoltage factor ((kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(mV/cell day)), potline overvoltage (mV/cell day), current efficiency (%).)

(3) Smelter-specific slope coefficients (or overvoltage emission factors) and the last date when the smelter-specific-slope coefficients (or overvoltage emission factors) were measured.

(d) Method used to measure the frequency and duration of anode effects (or overvoltage).

(e) The following CO2-specific information for prebake cells:

(1) Annual anode consumption.

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(f) The following CO2-specific information for Søderberg cells:

(1) Annual paste consumption.

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(g) Smelter-specific inputs to the CO2 process equations (e.g., levels of sulfur and ash) that were used in the calculation, on an annual basis.

(h) Exact data elements required will vary depending on smelter technology (e.g., point-feed prebake or Søderberg) and process control technology (e.g., Pechiney or other).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.67   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the following records:

(a) Monthly aluminum production in metric tons.

(b) Type of smelter technology used.

(c) The following PFC-specific information on a monthly basis:

(1) Perfluoromethane and perfluoroethane emissions from anode effects in prebake and Søderberg electolysis cells.

(2) Anode effect minutes per cell-day (AE-mins/cell-day), anode effect frequency (AE/cell-day), anode effect duration (minutes). (Or anode effect overvoltage factor ((kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(mV/cell day)), potline overvoltage (mV/cell day), current efficiency (%).))

(3) Smelter-specific slope coefficients and the last date when the smelter-specific-slope coefficients were measured.

(d) Method used to measure the frequency and duration of anode effects (or to measure anode effect overvoltage and current efficiency).

(e) The following CO2-specific information for prebake cells:

(1) Annual anode consumption.

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(f) The following CO2-specific information for Søderberg cells:

(1) Annual paste consumption.

(2) Annual CO2 emissions from the smelter.

(g) Smelter-specific inputs to the CO2 process equations (e.g., levels of sulfur and ash) that were used in the calculation, on an annual basis.

(h) Exact data elements required will vary depending on smelter technology (e.g., point-feed prebake or Søderberg) and process control technology (e.g., Pechiney or other).

§98.68   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production

TechnologyCF4 slope coefficient
[(kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(AE-Mins/cell-day)]
CF4 overvoltage coefficient
[(kg CF4/metric ton Al)/(mV)]
Weight fraction C2F6/CF4
[(kg C2F6/kg CF4)]
Center Worked Prebake (CWPB)0.1431.160.121
Side Worked Prebake (SWPB)0.2723.650.252
Vertical Stud Søderberg (VSS)0.092NA0.053
Horizontal Stud Søderberg (HSS)0.099NA0.085

[75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98—Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

ParameterData source
CO2 Emissions from Prebake Cells (CWPB and SWPB)
MP: metal production (metric tons Al)Individual facility records.
NAC: net annual prebaked anode consumption per metric ton Al (metric tons C/metric tons Al)Individual facility records.
Sa: sulfur content in baked anode (percent weight)2.0.
Asha: ash content in baked anode (percent weight)0.4.
CO2 Emissions From Pitch Volatiles Combustion (CWPB and SWPB)
MP: metal production (metric tons Al)Individual facility records.
PC: annual paste consumption (metric ton/metric ton Al)Individual facility records.
CSM: annual emissions of cyclohexane soluble matter (kg/metric ton Al)HSS: 4.0.
VSS: 0.5.
BC: binder content of paste (percent weight)Dry Paste: 24.
Wet Paste: 27.
Sp: sulfur content of pitch (percent weight)0.6.
Ashp: ash content of pitch (percent weight)0.2.
Hp: hydrogen content of pitch (percent weight)3.3.
Sc: sulfur content in calcined coke (percent weight)1.9.
Ashc: ash content in calcined coke (percent weight)0.2.
CD: carbon in skimmed dust from Søderberg cells (metric ton C/metric ton Al)0.01.
CO2 Emissions from Pitch Volatiles Combustion (VSS and HSS)
GA: initial weight of green anodes (metric tons)Individual facility records.
Hw: annual hydrogen content in green anodes (metric tons)0.005 × GA.
BA: annual baked anode production (metric tons)Individual facility records.
WT: annual waste tar collected (metric tons)(a) 0.005 × GA.
(a) Riedhammer furnaces(b) insignificant.
(b) all other furnaces
CO2 Emissions From Bake Furnace Packing Materials (CWPB and SWPB)
PCC: annual packing coke consumption (metric tons/metric ton baked anode)0.015.
BA: annual baked anode production (metric tons)Individual facility records.
Spc: sulfur content in packing coke (percent weight)2.
Ashpc: ash content in packing coke (percent weight)2.5.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

Subpart G—Ammonia Manufacturing

§98.70   Definition of source category.

The ammonia manufacturing source category comprises the process units listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(a) Ammonia manufacturing processes in which ammonia is manufactured from a fossil-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon.

(b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in which ammonia is manufactured through the gasification of solid and liquid raw material.

§98.71   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains an ammonia manufacturing process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (2).

§98.72   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) CO2 process emissions from steam reforming of a hydrocarbon or the gasification of solid and liquid raw material, reported for each ammonia manufacturing process unit following the requirements of this subpart (CO2 process emissions reported under this subpart may include CO2 that is later consumed on site for urea production, and therefore is not released to the ambient air from the ammonia manufacturing process unit).

(b) CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each stationary fuel combustion unit. You must report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources), by following the requirements of subpart C, except that for ammonia manufacturing processes subpart C does not apply to any CO2 resulting from combustion of the waste recycle stream (commonly referred to as the purge gas stream).

(c) CO2 emissions collected and transferred off site under subpart PP of this part (Suppliers of CO2), following the requirements of subpart PP.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.73   Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each ammonia manufacturing process unit using the procedures in either paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.

(a) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(b) Calculate and report under this subpart process CO2 emissions using the procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section for gaseous feedstock, liquid feedstock, or solid feedstock, as applicable.

(1) Gaseous feedstock. You must calculate, from each ammonia manufacturing unit, the CO2 process emissions from gaseous feedstock according to Equation G-1 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.034.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2,G,k = Annual CO2 emissions arising from gaseous feedstock consumption (metric tons).

Fdstkn = Volume of the gaseous feedstock used in month n (scf of feedstock).

CCn = Carbon content of the gaseous feedstock, for month n (kg C per kg of feedstock), determined according to 98.74(c).

MW = Molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole).

MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard conditions).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

k = Processing unit.

n = Number of month.

(2) Liquid feedstock. You must calculate, from each ammonia manufacturing unit, the CO2 process emissions from liquid feedstock according to Equation G-2 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.035.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2,L,k = Annual CO2 emissions arising from liquid feedstock consumption (metric tons).

Fdstkn = Volume of the liquid feedstock used in month n (gallons of feedstock).

CCn = Carbon content of the liquid feedstock, for month n (kg C per gallon of feedstock) determined according to 98.74(c).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

k = Processing unit.

n = Number of month.

(3) Solid feedstock. You must calculate, from each ammonia manufacturing unit, the CO2 process emissions from solid feedstock according to Equation G-3 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.036.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2,S,k = Annual CO2 emissions arising from solid feedstock consumption (metric tons).

Fdstkn = Mass of the solid feedstock used in month n (kg of feedstock).

CCn = Carbon content of the solid feedstock, for month n (kg C per kg of feedstock), determined according to 98.74(c).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

k = Processing unit.

n = Number of month.

(4) You must calculate the annual process CO2 emissions from each ammonia processing unit k at your facility according to Equation G-4 of this section:

eCFR graphic er29no13.027.gif

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Where:

ECO2k = Annual CO2 emissions from each ammonia processing unit k (metric tons).

k = Processing unit.

(5) You must determine the combined CO2 emissions from all ammonia processing units at your facility using Equation G-5 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.038.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 = Annual combined CO2 emissions from all ammonia processing units (metric tons) (CO2 process emissions reported under this subpart may include CO2 that is later consumed on site for urea production, and therefore is not released to the ambient air from the ammonia manufacturing process unit(s)).

ECO2k = Annual CO2 emissions from each ammonia processing unit (metric tons).

k = Processing unit.

n = Total number of ammonia processing units.

(c) If GHG emissions from an ammonia manufacturing unit are vented through the same stack as any combustion unit or process equipment that reports CO2 emissions using a CEMS that complies with the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources), then the calculation methodology in paragraph (b) of this section shall not be used to calculate process emissions. The owner or operator shall report under this subpart the combined stack emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.74   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) You must continuously measure the quantity of gaseous or liquid feedstock consumed using a flow meter. The quantity of solid feedstock consumed can be obtained from company records and aggregated on a monthly basis.

(b) You must document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the estimates of feedstock consumption.

(c) You must determine monthly carbon contents and the average molecular weight of each feedstock consumed from reports from your supplier. As an alternative to using supplier information on carbon contents, you can also collect a sample of each feedstock on a monthly basis and analyze the carbon content and molecular weight of the fuel using any of the following methods listed in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(8) of this section, as applicable.

(1) ASTM D1945-03 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(2) ASTM D1946-90 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(3) ASTM D2502-04 (Reapproved 2002) Standard Test Method for Estimation of Mean Relative Molecular Mass of Petroleum Oils from Viscosity Measurements (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(4) ASTM D2503-92 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Method for Relative Molecular Mass (Molecular Weight) of Hydrocarbons by Thermoelectric Measurement of Vapor Pressure (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(5) ASTM D3238-95 (Reapproved 2005) Standard Test Method for Calculation of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils by the n-d-M Method (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(6) ASTM D5291-02 (Reapproved 2007) Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(7) ASTM D3176-89 (Reapproved 2002) Standard Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(8) ASTM D5373-08 Standard Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(d) Calibrate all oil and gas flow meters that are used to measure liquid and gaseous feedstock volumes and flow rates (except for gas billing meters) according to the monitoring and QA/QC requirements for the Tier 3 methodology in §98.34(b)(1). Perform oil tank drop measurements (if used to quantify feedstock volumes) according to §98.34(b)(2).

(e) For quality assurance and quality control of the supplier data, on an annual basis, you must measure the carbon contents of a representative sample of the feedstocks consumed using the appropriate ASTM Method as listed in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(8) of this section.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) If CO2 from ammonia production is used to produce urea at the same facility, you must determine the quantity of urea produced using methods or plant instruments used for accounting purposes (such as sales records). You must document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the estimates of urea produced.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79156, Dec. 17, 2010]

§98.75   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations is required. Therefore, whenever the monitoring and quality assurance procedures in §98.74 cannot be followed (e.g., if a meter malfunctions during unit operation), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations following paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. You must document and keep records of the procedures used for all such estimates.

(a) For missing data on monthly carbon contents of feedstock, the substitute data value shall be the arithmetic average of the quality-assured values of that carbon content in the month preceding and the month immediately following the missing data incident. If no quality-assured data are available prior to the missing data incident, the substitute data value shall be the first quality-assured value for carbon content obtained in the month after the missing data period.

(b) For missing feedstock supply rates used to determine monthly feedstock consumption, you must determine the best available estimate(s) of the parameter(s), based on all available process data.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79157, Dec. 17, 2010; 78 FR 71953, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.76   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the information specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, as applicable for each ammonia manufacturing process unit.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report the relevant information required under §98.36 for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology and the information in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section:

(1) Annual quantity of each type of feedstock consumed for ammonia manufacturing (scf of feedstock or gallons of feedstock or kg of feedstock).

(2) Method used for determining quantity of feedstock used.

(b) If a CEMS is not used to measure emissions, then you must report all of the following information in this paragraph (b):

(1) Annual CO2 process emissions (metric tons) for each ammonia manufacturing process unit.

(2) Monthly quantity of each type of feedstock consumed for ammonia manufacturing for each ammonia processing unit (scf of feedstock or gallons of feedstock or kg of feedstock).

(3) Method used for determining quantity of monthly feedstock used.

(4) Whether carbon content for each feedstock for month n is based on reports from the supplier or analysis of carbon content.

(5) If carbon content of feedstock for month n is based on analysis, the test method used.

(6) Sampling analysis results of carbon content of feedstock as determined for QA/QC of supplier data under §98.74(e).

(7) If a facility uses gaseous feedstock, the carbon content of the gaseous feedstock, for month n, (kg C per kg of feedstock).

(8) If a facility uses gaseous feedstock, the molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole).

(9) If a facility uses gaseous feedstock, the molar volume conversion factor of the gaseous feedstock (scf per kg-mole).

(10) If a facility uses liquid feedstock, the carbon content of the liquid feedstock, for month n, (kg C per gallon of feedstock).

(11) If a facility uses solid feedstock, the carbon content of the solid feedstock, for month n, (kg C per kg of feedstock).

(12) Annual urea production (metric tons) and method used to determine urea production.

(13) Annual CO2 emissions (metric tons) from the steam reforming of a hydrocarbon or the gasification of solid and liquid raw material at the ammonia manufacturing process unit used to produce urea and the method used to determine the CO2 consumed in urea production.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 79157, Dec. 17, 2010; 78 FR 71953, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.77   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the records required by §98.3(g), you must retain the following records specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section for each ammonia manufacturing unit.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure emissions, retain records of all feedstock purchases in addition to the requirements in §98.37 for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology.

(b) If a CEMS is not used to measure process CO2 emissions, you must also retain the records specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(2) of this section:

(1) Records of all analyses and calculations conducted for reported data as listed in §98.76(b).

(2) Monthly records of carbon content of feedstock from supplier and/or all analyses conducted of carbon content.

§98.78   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Subpart H—Cement Production

§98.80   Definition of the source category.

The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills that burn hazardous waste.

§98.81   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a cement production process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (2).

§98.82   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) CO2 process emissions from calcination in each kiln.

(b) CO2 combustion emissions from each kiln.

(c) CH4 and N2O combustion emissions from each kiln. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C.

(d) CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each stationary combustion unit other than kilns. You must report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C.

§98.83   Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each kiln using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(a) For each cement kiln that meets the conditions specified in §98.33(b)(4)(ii) or (b)(4)(iii), you must calculate and report under this subpart the combined process and combustion CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(b) For each kiln that is not subject to the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section, calculate and report the process and combustion CO2 emissions from the kiln by using the procedure in either paragraph (c) or (d) of this section.

(c) Calculate and report under this subpart the combined process and combustion CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(d) Calculate and report process and combustion CO2 emissions separately using the procedures specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(4) of this section.

(1) Calculate CO2 process emissions from all kilns at the facility using Equation H-1 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.040.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

CO2 CMF = Annual process emissions of CO2 from cement manufacturing, metric tons.

CO2 Cli,m = Total annual emissions of CO2 from clinker production from kiln m, metric tons.

CO2 rm = Total annual emissions of CO2 from raw materials, metric tons.

k = Total number of kilns at a cement manufacturing facility.

(2) CO2 emissions from clinker production. Calculate CO2 emissions from each kiln using Equations H-2 through H-5 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.041.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Cli,j = Quantity of clinker produced in month j from kiln m, tons.

EFCli,j = Kiln specific clinker emission factor for month j for kiln m, metric tons CO2/metric ton clinker computed as specified in Equation H-3 of this section.

CKD,i = Cement kiln dust (CKD) not recycled to the kiln in quarter i from kiln m, tons.

EFCKD,i = Kiln specific CKD emission factor for quarter i from kiln m, metric tons CO2/metric ton CKD computed as specified in Equation H-4 of this section.

p = Number of months for clinker calculation, 12.

r = Number of quarters for CKD calculation, 4.

2000/2205 = Conversion factor to convert tons to metric tons.

(i) Kiln-Specific Clinker Emission Factor. (A) Calculate the kiln-specific clinker emission factor using Equation H-3 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.042.gif

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Where:

CliCaO = Monthly total CaO content of Clinker, wt-fraction.

ClincCaO = Monthly non-calcined CaO content of Clinker, wt-fraction.

MRCaO = Molecular-weight Ratio of CO2/CaO = 0.785.

CliMgO = Monthly total MgO content of Clinker, wt-fraction.

ClincMgO = Monthly non-calcined MgO content of Clinker, wt-fraction.

MRMgO = Molecular-weight Ratio of CO2/MgO = 1.092.

(B) Non-calcined CaO is CaO that remains in the clinker in the form of CaCO3 and CaO in the clinker that entered the kiln as a non-carbonate species. Non-calcined MgO is MgO that remains in the clinker in the form of MgCO3 and MgO in the clinker that entered the kiln as a non-carbonate species.

(ii) Kiln-Specific CKD Emission Factor. (A) Calculate the kiln-specific CKD emission factor for CKD not recycled to the kiln using Equation H-4 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.043.gif

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Where:

CKDCaO = Quarterly total CaO content of CKD not recycled to the kiln, wt-fraction.

CKDCaO = Quarterly non-calcined CaO content of CKD not recycled to the kiln, wt-fraction.

MRCaO = Molecular-weight Ratio of CO2/CaO = 0.785.

CKDMgO = Quarterly total MgO content of CKD not recycled to the kiln, wt-fraction.

CKDMgO = Quarterly non-calcined MgO content of CKD not recycled to the kiln, wt-fraction.

MRMgO = Molecular-weight Ratio of CO2/MgO = 1.092.

(B) Non-calcined CaO is CaO that remains in the CKD in the form of CaCO3 and CaO in the CKD that entered the kiln as a non-carbonate species. Non-calcined MgO is MgO that remains in the CKD in the form of MgCO3 and MgO in the CKD that entered the kiln as a non-carbonate species.

(3) CO2 emissions from raw materials. Calculate CO2 emissions from raw materials using Equation H-5 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.044.gif

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Where:

rm = The amount of raw material i consumed annually, tons/yr (dry basis) or the amount of raw kiln feed consumed annually, tons/yr (dry basis).

CO2,rm = Annual CO2 emissions from raw materials.

TOCrm = Organic carbon content of raw material i or organic carbon content of combined raw kiln feed (dry basis), as determined in §98.84(c) or using a default factor of 0.2 percent of total raw material weight.

M = Number of raw materials or 1 if calculating emissions based on combined raw kiln feed.

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

2000/2205 = Conversion factor to convert tons to metric tons.

(4) Calculate and report under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) the combustion CO2 emissions from the kiln according to the applicable requirements in subpart C.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.84   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) You must determine the weight fraction of total CaO and total MgO in CKD not recycled to the kiln from each kiln using ASTM C114-09, Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement (incoporated by reference, see §98.7). The monitoring must be conducted quarterly for each kiln from a CKD sample drawn either as CKD is exiting the kiln or from bulk CKD storage.

(b) You must determine the weight fraction of total CaO and total MgO in clinker from each kiln using ASTM C114-09 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement (incorporated by reference, see §98.7). The monitoring must be conducted monthly for each kiln from a monthly clinker sample drawn from bulk clinker storage if storage is dedicated to the specific kiln, or from a monthly arithmetic average of daily clinker samples drawn from the clinker conveying systems exiting each kiln.

(c) The total organic carbon content (dry basis) of raw materials must be determined annually using ASTM C114-09 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) or a similar industry standard practice or method approved for total organic carbon determination in raw mineral materials. The analysis must be conducted either on sample material drawn from bulk raw kiln feed storage or on sample material drawn from bulk raw material storage for each category of raw material (i.e., limestone, sand, shale, iron oxide, and alumina). Facilities that opt to use the default total organic carbon factor provided in §98.83(d)(3), are not required to monitor for TOC.

(d) The quantity of clinker produced monthly by each kiln must be determined by direct weight measurement of clinker using the same plant techniques used for accounting purposes, such as reconciling weigh hopper or belt weigh feeder measurements against inventory measurements. As an alternative, facilities may also determine clinker production by direct measurement of raw kiln feed and application of a kiln-specific feed-to-clinker factor. Facilities that opt to use a feed-to-clinker factor must verify the accuracy of this factor on a monthly basis.

(e) The quantity of CKD not recycled to the kiln generated by each kiln must be determined quarterly using the same plant techniques used for accounting purposes, such as direct weight measurement using weigh hoppers, truck weigh scales, or belt weigh feeders.

(f) The annual quantity of raw kiln feed or annual quantity of each category of raw materials consumed by the facility (e.g., limestone, sand, shale, iron oxide, and alumina) must be determined monthly by direct weight measurement using the same plant instruments used for accounting purposes, such as weigh hoppers, truck weigh scales, or belt weigh feeders.

(g) The monthly non-calcined CaO and MgO that remains in the clinker in the form of CaCO3 or that enters the kiln as a non-carbonate species may be assumed to be a default value of 0.0 or may be determined monthly by careful chemical analysis of feed material and clinker material from each kiln using well documented analytical and calculational methods or the appropriate industry standard practice.

(h) The quarterly non-calcined CaO and MgO that remains in the CKD in the form of CaCO3 or that enters the kiln as a non-carbonate species may be assumed to be a default value of 0.0 or may be determined quarterly by careful chemical analysis of feed material and CKD material from each kiln using well documented analytical and calculational methods or the appropriate industry standard practice.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.85   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations in §98.83 is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable, a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations. The owner or operator must document and keep records of the procedures used for all such estimates.

(a) If the CEMS approach is used to determine combined process and combustion CO2 emissions, the missing data procedures in §98.35 apply.

(b) For CO2 process emissions from cement manufacturing facilities calculated according to §98.83(d), if data on the carbonate content (of clinker or CKD), noncalcined content (of clinker or CKD) or the annual organic carbon content of raw materials are missing, facilities must undertake a new analysis.

(c) For each missing value of monthly clinker production the substitute data value must be the best available estimate of the monthly clinker production based on information used for accounting purposes, or use the maximum tons per day capacity of the system and the number of days per month.

(d) For each missing value of monthly raw material consumption the substitute data value must be the best available estimate of the monthly raw material consumption based on information used for accounting purposes (such as purchase records), or use the maximum tons per day raw material throughput of the kiln and the number of days per month.

§98.86   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the information specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, as appropriate.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report under this subpart the relevant information required by §98.36(e)(2)(vi) and the information listed in this paragraph(a):

(1) Monthly clinker production from each kiln at the facility.

(2) Annual facility cement production.

(3) Number of kilns and number of operating kilns.

(b) If a CEMS is not used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report the information listed in this paragraph (b) for each kiln:

(1) Kiln identification number.

(2) Monthly clinker production from each kiln.

(3) Annual cement production at the facility.

(4) Number of kilns and number of operating kilns.

(5) Quarterly quantity of CKD not recycled to the kiln for each kiln at the facility.

(6) Monthly fraction of total CaO, total MgO, non-calcined CaO and non-calcined MgO in clinker for each kiln (as wt-fractions).

(7) Method used to determine non-calcined CaO and non-calcined MgO in clinker.

(8) Quarterly fraction of total CaO, total MgO, non-calcined CaO and non-calcined MgO in CKD not recycled to the kiln for each kiln (as wt-fractions).

(9) Method used to determine non-calcined CaO and non-calcined MgO in CKD.

(10) Monthly kiln-specific clinker CO2 emission factors for each kiln (metric tons CO2/metric ton clinker produced).

(11) Quarterly kiln-specific CKD CO2 emission factors for each kiln (metric tons CO2/metric ton CKD produced).

(12) Annual organic carbon content of raw kiln feed or annual organic carbon content of each raw material (wt-fraction, dry basis).

(13) Annual consumption of raw kiln feed or annual consumption of each raw material (dry basis).

(14) Number of times missing data procedures were used to determine the following information:

(i) Clinker production (number of months).

(ii) Carbonate contents of clinker (number of months).

(iii) Non-calcined content of clinker (number of months).

(iv) CKD not recycled to kiln (number of quarters).

(v) Non-calcined content of CKD (number of quarters)

(vi) Organic carbon contents of raw materials (number of times).

(vii) Raw material consumption (number of months).

(15) Method used to determine the monthly clinker production from each kiln reported under (b)(2) of this section, including monthly kiln-specific clinker factors, if used.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71953, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.87   Records that must be retained.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then in addition to the records required by §98.3(g), you must retain under this subpart the records required for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.37.

(b) If a CEMS is not used to measure CO2 emissions, then in addition to the records required by §98.3(g), you must retain the records specified in this paragraph (b) for each portland cement manufacturing facility.

(1) Documentation of monthly calculated kiln-specific clinker CO2 emission factor.

(2) Documentation of quarterly calculated kiln-specific CKD CO2 emission factor.

(3) Measurements, records and calculations used to determine reported parameters.

[75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.88   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Subpart I—Electronics Manufacturing

Source: 75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, unless otherwise noted.

§98.90   Definition of the source category.

(a) The electronics manufacturing source category consists of any of the production processes listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section that use fluorinated GHGs or N2O. Facilities that may use these processes include, but are not limited to, facilities that manufacture micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), photovoltaic cells (PV), and semiconductors (including light-emitting diodes (LEDs)).

(1) Any electronics production process in which the etching process uses plasma-generated fluorine atoms and other reactive fluorine-containing fragments, that chemically react with exposed thin-films (e.g., dielectric, metals) or substrate (e.g., silicon) to selectively remove portions of material.

(2) Any electronics production process in which chambers used for depositing thin films are cleaned periodically using plasma-generated fluorine atoms and other reactive fluorine-containing fragments.

(3) Any electronics production process in which wafers are cleaned using plasma generated fluorine atoms or other reactive fluorine-containing fragments to remove residual material from wafer surfaces, including the wafer edge.

(4) Any electronics production process in which the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process or other manufacturing processes use N2O.

(5) Any electronics manufacturing production process in which fluorinated heat transfer fluids are used to cool process equipment, to control temperature during device testing, to clean substrate surfaces and other parts, and for soldering (e.g., vapor phase reflow).

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012]

§98.91   Reporting threshold.

(a) You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if electronics manufacturing production processes, as defined in §98.90, are performed at your facility and your facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2). To calculate total annual GHG emissions for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year emission threshold in §98.2(a)(2), follow the requirements of §98.2(b), with one exception. Rather than using the calculation methodologies in §98.93 to calculate emissions from electronics manufacturing production processes, calculate emissions of each fluorinated GHG from electronics manufacturing production processes by using paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section, as appropriate, and then sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG by using paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(1) If you manufacture semiconductors or MEMS you must calculate annual production process emissions of each input gas i for threshold applicability purposes using the default emission factors shown in Table I-1 to this subpart and Equation I-1 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.002.gif

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where:

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons CO2e).

S = 100 percent of annual manufacturing capacity of a facility as calculated using Equation I-5 of this subpart (m2).

EFi = Emission factor for input gas i (kg/m2).

GWPi = Gas-appropriate GWP as provided in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

(2) If you manufacture LCDs, you must calculate annual production process emissions of each input gas i for threshold applicability purposes using the default emission factors shown in Table I-1 to this subpart and Equation I-2 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.003.gif

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where:

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e).

S = 100 percent of annual manufacturing capacity of a facility as calculated using Equation I-5 of this subpart (m2).

EFi = Emission factor for input gas i (g/m2).

GWPi = Gas-appropriate GWP as provided in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

0.000001 = Conversion factor from g to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

(3) If you manufacture PVs, you must calculate annual production process emissions of each input gas i for threshold applicability purposes using gas-appropriate GWP values shown in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part and Equation I-3 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.004.gif

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where:

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e).

Ci = Annual fluorinated GHG (input gas i) purchases or consumption (kg). Only gases that are used in PV manufacturing processes listed at §98.90(a)(1) through (a)(4) that have listed GWP values in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part must be considered for threshold applicability purposes.

GWPi = Gas-appropriate GWP as provided in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

(4) You must calculate total annual production process emissions for threshold applicability purposes using Equation I-4 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.005.gif

View or download PDF

where:

ET = Annual production process emissions of all fluorinated GHGs for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e).

δ = Factor accounting for fluorinated heat transfer fluid emissions, estimated as 10 percent of total annual production process emissions at a semiconductor facility. Set equal to 1.1 when Equation I-4 of this subpart is used to calculate total annual production process emissions from semiconductor manufacturing. Set equal to 1 when Equation I-4 of this subpart is used to calculate total annual production process emissions from MEMS, LCD, or PV manufacturing.

Ei = Annual production process emissions of input gas i for threshold applicability purposes (metric tons Co2e), as calculated in Equations I-1, I-2 or I-3 of this subpart.

i = Input gas.

(b) You must calculate annual manufacturing capacity of a facility using Equation I-5 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.006.gif

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where:

S = 100 percent of annual manufacturing capacity of a facility (m2).

WX = Maximum substrate starts of fab f in month x (m2 per month).

x = Month.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013]

§98.92   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report emissions of fluorinated GHGs (as defined in §98.6), N2O, and fluorinated heat transfer fluids (as defined in §98.98). The fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids that are emitted from electronics manufacturing production processes include, but are not limited to, those listed in Table I-2 to this subpart. You must individually report, as appropriate:

(1) Fluorinated GHGs emitted.

(2)-(3) [Reserved]

(4) N2O emitted from chemical vapor deposition and other electronics manufacturing processes.

(5) Emissions of fluorinated heat transfer fluids.

(6) All fluorinated GHGs and N2O consumed.

(b) CO2, CH4, and N2O combustion emissions from each stationary combustion unit. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C of this part.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013]

§98.93   Calculating GHG emissions.

(a) You must calculate total annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG emitted by electronics manufacturing production processes from each fab (as defined in §98.98) at your facility, including each input gas and each by-product gas. You must use either default gas utilization rates and by-product formations rates according to the procedures in paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(6) of this section, as appropriate, or the stack test method according to paragraph (i) of this section, to calculate emissions of each input gas and each by-product gas.

(1) If you manufacture semiconductors, you must adhere to the procedures in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section. You must calculate annual emissions of each input gas and of each by-product gas using Equations I-6 and I-7, respectively. If your fab uses less than 50 kg of a fluorinated GHG in one reporting year, you may calculate emissions as equal to your fab's annual consumption for that specific gas as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart, plus any by-product emissions of that gascalculated under this paragraph (a).

eCFR graphic er13no13.000.gif

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Where:

ProcesstypeEi = Annual emissions of input gas i from the process type on a fab basis (metric tons).

Eij = Annual emissions of input gas i from process sub-type or process type j as calculated in Equation I-8 of this subpart (metric tons).

N = The total number of process sub-types j that depends on the electronics manufacturing fab and emission calculation methodology. If Eij is calculated for a process type j in Equation I-8 of this subpart, N = 1.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

eCFR graphic er13no13.001.gif

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Where:

ProcesstypeBEk = Annual emissions of by-product gas k from the processes type on a fab basis (metric tons).

BEijk = Annual emissions of by-product gas k formed from input gas i used for process sub-type or process type j as calculated in Equation I-9 of this subpart (metric tons).

N = The total number of process sub-types j that depends on the electronics manufacturing fab and emission calculation methodology. If BEijk is calculated for a process type j in Equation I-9 of this subpart, N = 1.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type, or process type.

k = By-product gas.

(i) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG used for the plasma etching/wafer cleaning process type using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-3 or I-4 of this subpart, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er06my14.001.gif

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Where:

Eij = Annual emissions of input gas i from process sub-type or process type j, on a fab basis (metric tons).

Cij = Amount of input gas i consumed for process sub-type or process type j, as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart, on a fab basis (kg).

Uij = Process utilization rate for input gas i for process sub-type or process type j (expressed as a decimal fraction).

aij = Fraction of input gas i used in process sub-type or process type j with abatement systems, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dij = Fraction of input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process sub-type, or process type j is used, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). This is zero unless the facility adheres to the requirements in §98.94(f).

UTij = The average uptime factor of all abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab using input gas i in process sub-type or process type j, as calculated in Equation I-15 of this subpart, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

eCFR graphic er13no13.003.gif

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Where:

BEijk = Annual emissions of by-product gas k formed from input gas i from process sub-type or process type j, on a fab basis (metric tons).

Bijk = By-product formation rate of gas k created as a by-product per amount of input gas i (kg) consumed by process sub-type or process type j (kg).

Cij = Amount of input gas i consumed for process sub-type, or process type j, as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart, on a fab basis (kg).

aij = Fraction of input gas i used for process sub-type, or process type j with abatement systems, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

djk = Fraction of by-product gas k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process sub-type, or process type j is used, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). This is zero unless the facility adheres to the requirements in §98.94(f).

UTijk = The average uptime factor of all abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab emitting by-product gas k, formed from input gas i in process sub-type or process type j, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). For this equation, UTijk is assumed to be equal to UTij as calculated in Equation I-15 of this subpart.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

k = By-product gas.

(ii) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG used for each of the process sub-types associated with the chamber cleaning process type, including in-situ plasma chamber clean, remote plasma chamber clean, and in-situ thermal chamber clean, using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-3 or I-4 of this subpart, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart.

(iii) If default values are not available for a particular input gas and process type or sub-type combination in Tables I-3 or I-4, you must follow the procedures in paragraph (a)(6) of this section.

(2) If you manufacture MEMS, LCDs, or PVs, you must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG used for the plasma etching and chamber cleaning process types using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-5, I-6, or I-7 of this subpart, as appropriate, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart. If default values are not available for a particular input gas and process type or sub-type combination in Tables I-5, I-6, or I-7, you must follow the procedures in paragraph (a)(6) of this section. If your fab uses less than 50 kg of a fluorinated GHG in one reporting year, you may calculate emissions as equal to your fab's annual consumption for that specific gas as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart, plus any by-product emissions of that gas calculated under this paragraph (a).

(3)-(5) [Reserved]

(6) If you are required, or elect, to perform calculations using default emission factors for gas utilization and by-product formation rates according to the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section, and default values are not available for a particular input gas and process type or sub-type combination in Tables I-3, I-4, I-5, I-6, or I-7, you must use the utilization and by-product formation rates of zero and use Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart.

(b) You must calculate annual fab-level N2O emissions from all chemical vapor deposition processes and from the aggregate of all other electronics manufacturing production processes using Equation I-10 of this subpart and the methods in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section. If your fab uses less than 50 kg of N2O in one reporting year, you may calculate fab emissions as equal to your fab's annual consumption for N2O as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er13no13.004.gif

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Where:

E(N2O)j = Annual emissions of N2O for N2O-using process j, on a fab basis (metric tons).

CN2O,j = Amount of N2O consumed for N2O-using process j, as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart and apportioned to N2O process j, on a fab basis (kg).

UN2O,j = Process utilization factor for N2O-using process j (expressed as a decimal fraction) from Table I-8 of this subpart.

aN2O,j = Fraction of N2O used in N2O-using process j with abatement systems, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dN2O,j = Fraction of N2O for N2O-using process j destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process j is used, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). This is zero unless the facility adheres to the requirements in §98.94(f).

UTN2O = The average uptime factor of all the abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab that use N2O, as calculated in Equation I-15 of this subpart, on a fab basis (expressed as a decimal fraction). For purposes of calculating the abatement system uptime for N2O using process tools, in Equation I-15 of this subpart, the only input gas i is N2O, j is the N2O using process, and p is the N2O abatement system connected to the N2O using tool.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

j = Type of N2O-using process, either chemical vapor deposition or all other N2O-using manufacturing processes.

(1) You must use the factor for N2O utilization for chemical vapor deposition processes as shown in Table I-8 to this subpart.

(2) You must use the factor for N2O utilization for all other manufacturing production processes other than chemical vapor deposition as shown in Table I-8 to this subpart.

(c) You must calculate total annual input gas i consumption on a fab basis for each fluorinated GHG and N2O using Equation I-11 of this subpart. Where a gas supply system serves more than one fab, Equation I-11 is applied to that gas which has been apportioned to each fab served by that system using the apportioning factors determined in accordance with §98.94(c).

eCFR graphic er01de10.012.gif

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where:

Ci = Annual consumption of input gas i, on a fab basis (kg per year).

IBi = Inventory of input gas i stored in containers at the beginning of the reporting year, including heels, on a fab basis (kg). For containers in service at the beginning of a reporting year, account for the quantity in these containers as if they were full.

IEi = Inventory of input gas i stored in containers at the end of the reporting year, including heels, on a fab basis (kg). For containers in service at the end of a reporting year, account for the quantity in these containers as if they were full.

Ai = Acquisitions of input gas i during the year through purchases or other transactions, including heels in containers returned to the electronics manufacturing facility, on a fab basis (kg).

Di = Disbursements of input gas i through sales or other transactions during the year, including heels in containers returned by the electronics manufacturing facility to the chemical supplier, as calculated using Equation I-12 of this subpart, on a fab basis (kg).

i = Input gas.

(d) You must calculate disbursements of input gas i using fab-wide gas-specific heel factors, as determined in §98.94(b), and by using Equation I-12 of this subpart. Where a gas supply system serves more than one fab, Equation I-12 is applied to that gas which has been apportioned to each fab served by that system using the apportioning factors determined in accordance with §98.94(c).

eCFR graphic er01de10.013.gif

View or download PDF

where:

Di = Disbursements of input gas i through sales or other transactions during the reporting year on a fab basis, including heels in containers returned by the electronics manufacturing fab to the gas distributor (kg).

hil = Fab-wide gas-specific heel factor for input gas i and container size and type l (expressed as a decimal fraction), as determined in §98.94(b). If your fab uses less than 50 kg of a fluorinated GHG or N2O in one reporting year, you may assume that any hil for that fluorinated GHG or N2O is equal to zero.

Nil = Number of containers of size and type l returned to the gas distributor containing the standard heel of input gas i.

Fil = Full capacity of containers of size and type l containing input gas i, on a fab basis (kg).

Xi = Disbursements under exceptional circumstances of input gas i through sales or other transactions during the year, on a fab basis (kg). These include returns of containers whose contents have been weighed due to an exceptional circumstance as specified in §98.94(b)(4).

i = Input gas.

l = Size and type of gas container.

M = The total number of different sized container types on a fab basis. If only one size and container type is used for an input gas i, M=1

(e) You must calculate the amount of input gas i consumed, on a fab basis, for each process sub-type or process type j, using Equation I-13 of this subpart. Where a gas supply system serves more than one fab, Equation I-13 is applied to that gas which has been apportioned to each fab served by that system using the apportioning factors determined in accordance with §98.94(c). If you elect to calculate emissions using the stack test method in paragraph (i) of this section, you must calculate the amount of input gas i consumed on the applicable basis by using an appropriate apportioning factor. For example, when calculating fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG consumed using Equation I-21 of this section, you must substitute the term fij with the appropriate apportioning factor to calculate the total consumption of each fluorinated GHG in tools that are vented to stack systems that are tested.

eCFR graphic er01de10.014.gif

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where:

Ci,j = The annual amount of input gas i consumed, on a fab basis, for process sub-type or process type j (kg).

fi,j = Process sub-type-specific or process type-specific j, input gas i apportioning factor (expressed as a decimal fraction), as determined in accordance with §98.94(c).

Ci = Annual consumption of input gas i, on a fab basis, as calculated using Equation I-11 of this subpart (kg).

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) If you report controlled emissions pursuant to §98.94(f), you must calculate the uptime of all the abatement systems for each combination of input gas or by-product gas, and process sub-type or process type, by using Equation I-15 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er06my14.002.gif

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Where:

UTij = The average uptime factor of all abatement systems connected to process tools in the fab using input gas i in process sub-type or process type j (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Tdijp = The total time, in minutes, that abatement system p, connected to process tool(s) in the fab using input gas i in process sub-type or process type j, is not in operational mode, as defined in §98.98, when at least one of the tools connected to abatement system p is in operation.

UTijp = Total time, in minutes per year, in which abatement system p has at least one associated tool in operation. For determining the amount of tool operating time, you may assume that tools that were installed for the whole of the year were operated for 525,600 minutes per year. For tools that were installed or uninstalled during the year, you must prorate the operating time to account for the days in which the tool was not installed; treat any partial day that a tool was installed as a full day (1,440 minutes) of tool operation. For an abatement system that has more than one connected tool, the tool operating time is 525,600 minutes per year if at least one tool was installed at all times throughout the year. If you have tools that are idle with no gas flow through the tool for part of the year, you may calculate total tool time using the actual time that gas is flowing through the tool.

i = Input gas.

j = Process sub-type or process type.

p = Abatement system.

(h) If you use fluorinated heat transfer fluids, you must calculate the annual emissions of fluorinated heat transfer fluids on a fab basis using the mass balance approach described in Equation I-16 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er01de10.017.gif

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where:

EHi = Emissions of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis (metric tons/year).

Densityi = Density of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i (kg/l).

IiB = Inventory of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, in containers other than equipment at the beginning of the reporting year (in stock or storage) (l). The inventory at the beginning of the reporting year must be the same as the inventory at the end of the previous reporting year.

Pi = Acquisitions of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, during the reporting year (l), including amounts purchased from chemical suppliers, amounts purchased from equipment suppliers with or inside of equipment, and amounts returned to the facility after off-site recycling.

Ni = Total nameplate capacity (full and proper charge) of equipment that uses fluorinated heat transfer fluid i and that is newly installed in the fab during the reporting year (l).

Ri = Total nameplate capacity (full and proper charge) of equipment that uses fluorinated heat transfer fluid i and that is removed from service in the fab during the reporting year (l).

IiE = Inventory of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, in containers other than equipment at the end of the reporting year (in stock or storage) (l). The inventory at the beginning of the reporting year must be the same as the inventory at the end of the previous reporting year.

Di = Disbursements of fluorinated heat transfer fluid i, on a fab basis, during the reporting year, including amounts returned to chemical suppliers, sold with or inside of equipment, and sent off-site for verifiable recycling or destruction (l). Disbursements should include only amounts that are properly stored and transported so as to prevent emissions in transit.

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

i = Fluorinated heat transfer fluid.

(1) If you use a fluorinated chemical both as a fluorinated heat transfer fluid and in other applications, you may calculate and report either emissions from all applications or from only those specified in the definition of fluorinated heat transfer fluids in §98.98.

(2) [Reserved]

(i) Stack Test Method. As an alternative to the default emission factor method in paragraph (a) of this section, you may calculate fab-level fluorinated GHG emissions using fab-specific emission factors developed from stack testing. To use the method in this paragraph, you must first make a preliminary estimate of the fluorinated GHG emissions from each stack system in the fab under paragraph (i)(1) of this section. You must then compare the preliminary estimate for each stack system to the criteria in paragraph (i)(2) of this section to determine whether the stack system meets the criteria for using the stack test method described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section or whether the stack system meets the criteria for using the method described in paragraph (i)(4) of this section to estimate emissions from the stack systems that are not tested.

(1) Preliminary estimate of emissions by stack system in the fab. You must calculate a preliminary estimate of the total annual emissions, on a metric ton CO2e basis, of all fluorinated GHG from each stack system in the fab using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Table I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, or I-15 of this subpart, as applicable, and by using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart. You must include any intermittent low-use fluorinated GHGs, as defined in §98.98 of this subpart, in any preliminary estimates. When using Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart for the purposes of this paragraph (i)(1), you must also adhere to the procedures in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) to (iv) of this section to calculate preliminary estimates.

(i) When you are calculating preliminary estimates for the purpose of this paragraph (i)(1), you must consider the subscript “j” in Equations I-8 and I-9, and I-13 of this subpart to mean “stack system” instead of “process sub-type or process type.” For the value of aij, the fraction of input gas i that is used in tools with abatement systems, for use in Equations I-8 and I-9, you may use the ratio of the number of tools using input gas i that have abatement systems that are vented to the stack system for which you are calculating the preliminary estimate to the total number of tools using input gas i that are vented to that stack system, expressed as a decimal fraction. In calculating the preliminary estimates, you must account for the effect of any fluorinated GHG abatement system meeting the definition of abatement system in §98.98. You may use this approach to determining aij only for this preliminary estimate.

(ii) You must use representative data from the previous reporting year to estimate the consumption of input gas i as calculated in Equation I-13 of this subpart and the fraction of input gas i destroyed in abatement systems for each stack system as calculated by Equation I-24 of this subpart. If you were not required to submit an annual report under subpart I for the previous reporting year and data from the previous reporting year are not available, you may estimate the consumption of input gas i and the fraction of input gas i destroyed in abatement systems based on representative operating data from a period of at least 30 days in the current reporting year. When calculating the consumption of input gas i using Equation I-13 of this subpart, the term “fij” is replaced with the ratio of the number of tools using input gas i that are vented to the stack system for which you are calculating the preliminary estimate to the total number of tools in the fab using input gas i, expressed as a decimal fraction. You may use this approach to determining fij only for this preliminary estimate.

(iii) You must use representative data from the previous reporting year to estimate the total uptime of all abatement systems for the stack system as calculated by Equation I-23 of this subpart, instead of using Equation I-15 of this subpart to calculate the average uptime factor. If you were not required to submit an annual report under subpart I for the previous reporting year and data from the previous reporting year are not available, you may estimate the total uptime of all abatement systems for the stack system based on representative operating data from a period of at least 30 days in the current reporting year.

(iv) If you anticipate an increase or decrease in annual consumption or emissions of any fluorinated GHG, or the number of tools connected to abatement systems greater than 10 percent for the current reporting year compared to the previous reporting year, you must account for the anticipated change in your preliminary estimate. You may account for such a change using a quantifiable metric (e.g., the ratio of the number tools that are expected to be vented to the stack system in the current year as compared to the previous reporting year, ratio of the expected number of wafer starts in the current reporting year as compared to the previous reporting year), engineering judgment, or other industry standard practice.

(2) Method selection for stack systems in the fab. If the calculations under paragraph (i)(1) of this section, as well as any subsequent annual measurements and calculations under this subpart, indicate that the stack system meets the criteria in paragraph (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, then you may comply with either paragraph (i)(3) of this section (stack test method) or paragraph (i)(4) of this section (method to estimate emissions from the stack systems that are not tested). If the stack system does not meet all three criteria in paragraph (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, then you must comply with the stack test method specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section. For those fluorinated GHGs in Tables I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, and I-15 of this subpart for which Table A-1 to subpart A of this part does not define a GWP value, you must use a value of 2,000 for the GWP in calculating metric ton CO2e for that fluorinated GHG for use in paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The sum of annual emissions of fluorinated GHGs from all of the combined stack systems that are not tested in the fab must be less than 10,000 metric ton CO2e per year.

(ii) When all stack systems in the fab are ordered from lowest to highest emitting in metric ton CO2e of fluorinated GHG per year, each of the stack systems that is not tested must be within the set of the fab's lowest emitting fluorinated GHG stack systems that together emit 15 percent or less of total CO2e fluorinated GHG emissions from the fab.

(iii) Fluorinated GHG emissions from each of the stack systems that is not tested can only be attributed to particular process tools during the test (that is, the stack system that is not tested cannot be used as an alternative emission point or bypass stack system from other process tools not attributed to the untested stack system).

(3) Stack system stack test method. For each stack system in the fab for which testing is required, measure the emissions of each fluorinated GHG from the stack system by conducting an emission test. In addition, measure the fab-specific consumption of each fluorinated GHG by the tools that are vented to the stack systems tested. Measure emissions and consumption of each fluorinated GHG as specified in §98.94(j). Develop fab-specific emission factors and calculate fab-level fluorinated GHG emissions using the procedures specified in paragraph (i)(3)(i) through (viii) of this section. All emissions test data and procedures used in developing emission factors must be documented and recorded according to §98.97.

(i) You must measure, and, if applicable, apportion the fab-specific fluorinated GHG consumption of the tools that are vented to the stack systems that are tested during the emission test as specified in §98.94(j)(3). Calculate the consumption for each fluorinated GHG for the test period.

(ii) You must calculate the emissions of each fluorinated GHG consumed as an input gas using Equation I-17 of this subpart and each fluorinated GHG formed as a by-product gas using Equation I-18 of this subpart and the procedures specified in paragraphs (i)(3)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section. If a stack system is comprised of multiple stacks, you must sum the emissions from each stack in the stack system when using Equation I-17 or Equation I-18 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er13no13.006.gif

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Where:

Eis = Total fluorinated GHG input gas i, emitted from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg).

Xism = Average concentration of fluorinated GHG input gas i in stack system s, during the time interval m (ppbv).

MWi = Molecular weight of fluorinated GHG input gas i (g/g-mole).

Qs = Flow rate of the stack system s, during the sampling period (m3/min).

SV = Standard molar volume of gas (0.0240 m3/g-mole at 68    °F and 1 atm).

Δtm = Length of time interval m (minutes). Each time interval in the FTIR sampling period must be less than or equal to 60 minutes (for example an 8 hour sampling period would consist of at least 8 time intervals).

1/103 = Conversion factor (1 kilogram/1,000 grams).

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

s = Stack system.

N = Total number of time intervals m in sampling period.

m = Time interval.

eCFR graphic er13no13.007.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Eks = Total fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, emitted from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg).

Xks = Average concentration of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k in stack system s, during the time interval m (ppbv).

MWk = Molecular weight of the fluorinated GHG by-product gas k (g/g-mole).

Qs = Flow rate of the stack system s, during the sampling period (m3/min).

SV = Standard molar volume of gas (0.0240 m3/g-mole at 68    °F and 1 atm).

Δtm = Length of time interval m (minutes). Each time interval in the FTIR sampling period must be less than or equal to 60 minutes (for example an 8 hour sampling period would consist of at least 8 time intervals).

1/103 = Conversion factor (1 kilogram/1,000 grams).

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product gas.

s = Stack system.

N = Total number of time intervals m in sampling period.

m = Time interval.

(A) If a fluorinated GHG is consumed during the sampling period, but emissions are not detected, use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xism” in Equation I-17.

(B) If a fluorinated GHG is consumed during the sampling period and detected intermittently during the sampling period, use the detected concentration for the value of “Xism” in Equation I-17 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xism” when the fluorinated GHG is not detected.

(C) If an expected or possible by-product, as listed in Table I-17 of this subpart, is detected intermittently during the sampling period, use the measured concentration for “Xksm” in Equation I-18 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” when the fluorinated GHG is not detected.

(D) If a fluorinated GHG is not consumed during the sampling period and is an expected by-product gas as listed in Table I-17 of this subpart and is not detected during the sampling period, use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for that fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” in Equation I-18.

(E) If a fluorinated GHG is not consumed during the sampling period and is a possible by-product gas as listed in Table I-17 of this subpart, and is not detected during the sampling period, then assume zero emissions for that fluorinated GHG for the tested stack system.

(iii) You must calculate a fab-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG input gas consumed (in kg of fluorinated GHG emitted per kg of input gas i consumed) in the tools that vent to stack systems that are tested, as applicable, using Equation I-19 of this subpart. If the emissions of input gas i exceed the consumption of input gas i during the sampling period, then equate “Eis” to the consumption of input gas i and treat the difference between the emissions and consumption of input gas i as a by-product of the other input gases, using Equation I-20 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er13no13.008.gif

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Where:

EFif = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG input gas i, from fab f, representing 100 percent abatement system uptime (kg emitted/kg input gas consumed).

Eis = Mass emission of fluorinated GHG input gas i from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg emitted).

Activityif = Consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i, for fab f, in the tools vented to the stack systems being tested, during the sampling period, as determined following the procedures specified in §98.94(j)(3) (kg consumed).

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the sampling period, as calculated in Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction). If the stack system does not have abatement systems on the tools vented to the stack system, the value of this parameter is zero.

aif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, as calculated in Equation I-24 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction). If the stack system does not have abatement systems on the tools vented to the stack system, the value of this parameter is zero.

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

s = Stack system.

(iv) You must calculate a fab-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG formed as a by-product (in kg of fluorinated GHG per kg of total fluorinated GHG consumed) in the tools vented to stack systems that are tested, as applicable, using Equation I-20 of this subpart. When calculating the by-product emission factor for an input gas for which emissions exceeded its consumption, exclude the consumption of that input gas from the term “∑(Activityif).”

eCFR graphic er13no13.009.gif

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Where:

EFkf = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, from fab f, representing 100 percent abatement system uptime (kg emitted/kg of all input gases consumed in tools vented to stack systems that are tested).

Eks = Mass emission of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, emitted from stack system s, during the sampling period (kg emitted).

Activityif = Consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i for fab f in tools vented to stack systems that are tested, during the sampling period as determined following the procedures specified in §98.94(j)(3) (kg consumed).

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the sampling period, as calculated in Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

af = Fraction of all fluorinated input gases used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = Fraction of fluorinated GHG by-product gas k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, as calculated in Equation I-24 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product gas.

s = Stack system.

(v) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG consumed using Equation I-21 of this section.

eCFR graphic er13no13.010.gif

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Where:

Eif = Annual emissions of fluorinated GHG input gas i (kg/year) from the stack systems that are tested for fab f.

EFif = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG input gas i emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-19 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg input gas consumed).

Cif = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i in tools that are vented to stack systems that are tested, for fab f, for the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart (kg/year).

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as a decimal fraction).

aif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f that are included in the stack testing option, as calculated in Equation I-24 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

(vi) You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG by-product formed using Equation I-22 of this section.

eCFR graphic er13no13.011.gif

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Where:

Ekf = Annual emissions of fluorinated GHG by-product k (kg/year) from the stack systems that are tested for fab f.

EFkf = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG by-product k, emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-20 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg of all fluorinated input gases consumed).

Cif = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i in tools that are vented to stack systems that are tested, for fab f, for the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart.

UTf = The total uptime of all abatement systems for fab f, during the reporting year as calculated using Equation I-23 of this subpart (expressed as a decimal fraction).

af = Fraction of fluorinated input gases used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = Fraction of fluorinated GHG by-product k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f that are included in the stack testing option, as calculated in Equation I-24 of this subpart (expressed as decimal fraction).

f = Fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product

(vii) When using the stack testing method described in this paragraph (i), you must calculate abatement system uptime on a fab basis using Equation I-23 of this subpart. When calculating abatement system uptime for use in Equation I-19 and I-20 of this subpart, you must evaluate the variables “Tdpf” and “UTpf” for the sampling period instead of the reporting year.

eCFR graphic er06my14.003.gif

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Where:

UTf = The average uptime factor for all abatement systems in fab f (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Tdpf = The total time, in minutes, that abatement system p, connected to process tool(s) in fab f, is not in operational mode as defined in §98.98.

UTpf = Total time, in minutes per year, in which the tool(s) connected at any point during the year to abatement system p, in fab f could be in operation. For determining the amount of tool operating time, you may assume that tools that were installed for the whole of the year were operated for 525,600 minutes per year. For tools that were installed or uninstalled during the year, you must prorate the operating time to account for the days in which the tool was not installed; treat any partial day that a tool was installed as a full day (1,440 minutes) of tool operation. For an abatement system that has more than one connected tool, the tool operating time is 525,600 minutes per year if there was at least one tool installed at all times throughout the year. If you have tools that are idle with no gas flow through the tool, you may calculate total tool time using the actual time that gas is flowing through the tool.

f = Fab.

p = Abatement system.

(viii) When using the stack testing option described in this paragraph (i), you must calculate the weighted-average fraction of fluorinated input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems for each fab f, as applicable, byusing Equation I-24 of this subpart.

eCFR graphic er13no13.013.gif

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Where:

dif = The average weighted fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i destroyed or removed in abatement systems in fab f (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Cijf = The amount of fluorinated GHG input gas i consumed for process type j fed into abatement systems in fab f as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart (kg).

DREij = Destruction or removal efficiency for fluorinated GHG input gas i in abatement systems connected to process tools where process type j is used (expressed as a decimal fraction) determined according to §98.94(f).

f = fab.

i = Fluorinated GHG input gas.

j = Process type.

(4) Method to calculate emissions from stack systems that are not tested. You must calculate annual fab-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG input gas and by-product gas for those fluorinated GHG listed in paragraphs (i)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section using default utilization and by-product formation rates as shown in Tables I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, or I-15 of this subpart, as applicable, and by using Equations I-8, I-9, and I-13 of this subpart. When using Equations I-8, I-9, and I-13 of this subpart to fulfill the requirements of this paragraph, you must use, in place of the term Cij in each equation, the total consumption of each fluorinated GHG meeting the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section or that is used in tools vented to the stack systems that meet the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section. You must use, in place of the term aij, the fraction of fluorinated GHG meeting the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section used in tools with abatement systems or that is used in tools with abatement systems that are vented to the stack systems that meet the criteria in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section. You also must use the results of Equation I-24 of this subpart in place of the terms dij in Equation I-8 of this subpart and djk in Equation I-9 of this subpart, and use the results of Equation I-23 of this subpart in place of the results of Equation I-15 of this subpart for the term UTij.

(i) Calculate emissions from consumption of each intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG as defined in §98.98 of this subpart using the default utilization and by-product formation rates and equations specified in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. If a fluorinated GHG was not being used during the stack testing and does not meet the definition of intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG in §98.98, then you must test the stack systems associated with the use of that fluorinated GHG at a time when that gas is in use at a magnitude that would allow you to determine an emission factor for that gas according to the procedures specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section.

(ii) Calculate emissions from consumption of each fluorinated GHG used in tools vented to stack systems that meet the criteria specified in paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (i)(2)(iii) of this section, and were not tested according to the procedures in paragraph (i)(3) of this section. Calculate emissions using the default utilization and by-product formation rates and equations specified in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. If you are using a fluorinated GHG not listed in Tables I-11, I-12, I-13, I-14, or I-15 of this subpart, then you must assume utilization and by-product formation rates of zero for that fluorinated GHG.

(5) To determine the total emissions of each fluorinated GHG from each fab under this stack testing option, you must sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG determined from the procedures in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with the emissions of the same fluorinated GHG determined from the procedures in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. Sum the total emissions of each fluorinated GHG from all fabs at your facility to determine the facility-level emissions of each fluorinated GHG.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 59551, Sept. 27, 2011; 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68202, Nov. 13, 2013; 79 FR 25682, May 6, 2014]

§98.94   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) For purposes of Equation I-12 of this subpart, you must estimate fab-wide gas-specific heel factors for each container type for each gas used, according to the procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section. This paragraph (b) does not apply to fluorinated GHGs or N2O that your fab uses in quantities of less than 50 kg in one reporting year and for which you calculate emissions as equal to consumption under §98.93(a)(1), (a)(2), or (b), or for any intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG for which you calculate emissions according to §98.93(i)(4)(i).

(1) Base your fab-wide gas-specific heel factors on the trigger point for change out of a container for each container size and type for each gas used. Fab-wide gas-specific heel factors must be expressed as the ratio of the trigger point for change out, in terms of mass, to the initial mass in the container, as determined by paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) The trigger points for change out you use to calculate fab-wide gas-specific heel factors in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be determined by monitoring the mass or the pressure of your containers. If you monitor the pressure, convert the pressure to mass using the ideal gas law, as displayed in Equation I-25 of this subpart, with the appropriate Z value selected based upon the properties of the gas.

eCFR graphic er13no13.014.gif

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Where:

p = Absolute pressure of the gas (Pa).

V = Volume of the gas container (m3).

Z = Compressibility factor.

n = Amount of substance of the gas (moles).

R = Gas constant (8.314 Joule/Kelvin mole).

T = Absolute temperature (K).

(3) The initial mass you use to calculate a fab-wide gas-specific heel factor in paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be based on the weight of the gas provided to you in gas supplier documents; however, you remain responsible for the accuracy of these masses and weights under this subpart.

(4) If a container is changed in an exceptional circumstance, as specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section, you must weigh that container or measure the pressure of that container with a pressure gauge, in place of using a heel factor to determine the residual weight of gas. When using mass-based trigger points for change out, you must determine if an exceptional circumstance has occurred based on the net weight of gas in the container, excluding the tare weight of the container.

(i) For containers with a maximum storage capacity of less than 9.08 kg (20 lbs) of gas, an exceptional circumstance is a change out point that differs by more than 50 percent from the trigger point for change out used to calculate your fab-wide gas-specific heel factor for that gas and container type.

(ii) For all other containers, an exceptional circumstance is a change out point that differs by more than 20 percent from the trigger point for change out used to calculate your fab-wide gas-specific heel factor for that gas and container type.

(5) You must re-calculate a fab-wide gas-specific heel factor if you execute a process change to modify the trigger point for change out for a gas and container type that differs by more than 5 percent from the previously used trigger point for change out for that gas and container type.

(c) You must develop apportioning factors for fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption (including the fraction of gas consumed by process tools connected to abatement systems as in Equations I-8, I-9, I-10, I-19, I-20, I-21, and I-22 of this subpart), to use in the equations of this subpart for each input gas i, process sub-type, process type, stack system, and fab as appropriate, using a fab-specific engineering model that is documented in your site GHG Monitoring Plan as required under §98.3(g)(5). This model must be based on a quantifiable metric, such as wafer passes or wafer starts, or direct measurement of input gas consumption as specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. To verify your model, you must demonstrate its precision and accuracy by adhering to the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) You must demonstrate that the fluorinated GHG and N2O apportioning factors are developed using calculations that are repeatable, as defined in §98.98.

(2) You must demonstrate the accuracy of your fab-specific model by comparing the actual amount of input gas i consumed and the modeled amount of input gas i consumed in the fab, as follows:

(i) You must analyze actual and modeled gas consumption for a period when the fab is at a representative operating level (as defined in §98.98) lasting at least 30 days but no more than the reporting year.

(ii) You must compare the actual gas consumed to the modeled gas consumed for one fluorinated GHG reported under this subpart for the fab. You must certify that the fluorinated GHG selected for comparison corresponds to the largest quantity, on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHG consumed at the fab during the reporting year for which you are required to apportion following the procedures specified in §98.93(a), (b), or (i). You may compare the actual gas consumed to the modeled gas consumed for two fluorinated GHGs and demonstrate conformance according to paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section on an aggregate use basis for both fluorinated GHGs if one of the fluorinated GHGs selected for comparison corresponds to the largest quantity, on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHGs used at each fab that requires apportionment during the reporting year.

(iii) You must demonstrate that the comparison performed for the largest quantity of gas(es), on a mass basis, consumed in the fab in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, does not result in a difference between the actual and modeled gas consumption that exceeds 20 percent relative to actual gas consumption, reported to two significant figures using standard rounding conventions.

(iv) If you are required to apportion gas consumption and you use the procedures in §98.93(i) to calculate annual emissions from a fab, you must verify your apportioning factors using the procedures in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section such that the time period specified in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section and the last day you perform the sampling events specified under §98.93(i)(3) occur in the same accounting month.

(v) If your facility has multiple fabs with a single centralized fluorinated-GHG supply system, you must verify that your apportioning model can apportion fluorinated GHG consumption among the fabs by adhering to the procedures in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) through (c)(2)(iv) of this section.

(3) As an alternative to developing apportioning factors for fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption using a fab-specific engineering model, you may develop apportioning factors through the use of direct measurement using gas flow meters and weigh scales to measure process sub-type, process type, stack system, or fab-specific input gas consumption. You may use a combination of apportioning factors developed using a fab-specific engineering model and apportioning factors developed through the use of direct measurement, provided this is documented in your site GHG Monitoring Plan as required under 98.3(g)(5).

(d)-(e) [Reserved]

(f) If your fab employs abatement systems and you elect to reflect emission reductions due to these systems, or if your fab employs abatement systems designed for fluorinated GHG abatement and you elect to calculate fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack test method under 98.93(i), you must comply with the requirements of paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(3) of this section. If you use an average of properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies for a gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, in your emission calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), you must also adhere to procedures in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(1) You must certify and document that the abatement systems are properly installed, operated, and maintained according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9).

(2) You must calculate and document the uptime of abatement systems using Equation I-15 or I-23 of this subpart, as applicable.

(3) If you use default destruction and removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), you must certify and document that the abatement systems at your facility for which you use default destruction or removal efficiency values are specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement, as applicable. If you elect to calculate fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack test method under §98.93(i), you must also certify that you have included and accounted for all abatement systems designed for fluorinated GHG abatement and any respective downtime in your emissions calculations under §98.93(i)(3).

(4) If you do not use the default destruction or removal efficiency values in Table I-16 of this subpart to calculate and report controlled emissions, including situations in which your fab employs abatement systems not specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement and you elect to reflect emission reduction due to these systems, you must use an average of properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, determined in accordance with procedures in paragraphs (f)(4)(i) through (vi) of this section. You must not use a default value from Table I-16 of this subpart for any abatement system not specifically designed for fluorinated GHG and N2O abatement, or for any gas and process type combination for which you have measured the destruction or removal efficiency according to the requirements of paragraphs (f)(4)(i) through (vi) of this section.

(i) A properly measured destruction or removal efficiency value must be determined in accordance with EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), or according to an alternative method approved by the Administrator (or authorized representative) as specified in paragraph (k) of this section. If you are measuring destruction or removal efficiency according to EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you may follow the alternative procedures specified in Appendix A to this subpart.

(ii) You must select and properly measure the destruction or removal efficiency for a random sample of abatement systems to include in a random sampling abatement system testing program in accordance with procedures in paragraphs (f)(4)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) For the first 2 years for which your fab is required to report emissions of fluorinated GHG and N2O, for each abatement system gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, a random sample of a minimum of 10 percent of installed abatement systems must be tested annually for a total of a minimum of 20 percent, or a minimum of 20 percent may be tested in the first year. For every 3-year period following the initial 2-year period, a random sample of at least 15 percent of installed abatement systems must be tested for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination; you may test 15-percent in the first year of the 3-year period, but you must test at least 5 percent each year until 15 percent are tested. For each 3-year period, you must determine the number of abatement systems to be tested based on the average number of abatement systems in service over the 3-year period. If the required percent of the total number of abatement systems to be tested for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination does not equate to a whole number, the number of systems to be tested must be determined by rounding up to the nearest integer. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(4)(v) of this section, you may not retest an abatement system for any gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, until all of the abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination have been tested.

(B) If testing of a randomly selected abatement system would be disruptive to production, you may replace that system with another randomly selected system for testing and return the system to the sampling pool for subsequent testing. Any one abatement system must not be replaced by another randomly selected system for more than three consecutive selections. When you have to replace a system in one year, you may select that specific system to be tested in one of the next two sampling years so that you may plan testing of that abatement system to avoid disrupting production.

(iii) If you elect to take credit for abatement system destruction or removal efficiency before completing testing on 20 percent of the abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable, you must use default destruction or removal efficiencies for a gas and process type combination. You must not use a default value from Table I-16 of this subpart for any abatement system not specifically designed for fluorinated GHG and N2O abatement, and must not take credit for abatement system destruction or removal efficiency before completing testing on 20 percent of the abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, as applicable. Following testing on 20 percent of abatement systems for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, you must calculate the average destruction or removal efficiency as the arithmetic mean of all test results for that gas and process sub-type or process type combination, until you have tested at least 30 percent of all abatement systems for each gas and process sub-type or process type combination. After testing at least 30 percent of all systems for a gas and process sub-type or process type combination, you must use the arithmetic mean of the most recent 30 percent of systems tested as the average destruction or removal efficiency. You may include results of testing conducted on or after January 1, 2011 for use in determining the site-specific destruction or removal efficiency for a given gas and process sub-type or process type combination if the testing was conducted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section.

(iv) If a measured destruction or removal efficiency is below the manufacturer-claimed fluorinated GHG or N2O destruction or removal efficiency for any abatement system specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement and the abatement system is installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9), the measured destruction or removal efficiency must be included in the calculation of the destruction or removal efficiency value for that gas and process sub-type or process type.

(v) If a measured destruction or removal efficiency is below the manufacturer-claimed fluorinated GHG or N2O destruction or removal efficiency for any abatement system specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement and the abatement system is not installed, operated, or maintained in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9), you must implement corrective action and perform a retest to replace the measured value within the reporting year. In lieu of retesting within the reporting year, you may use the measured value in calculating the average destruction or removal efficiency for the reporting year, implement corrective action, and then include the same system in the next abatement system testing period in addition to the testing of randomly selected systems for that next testing period. Regardless of whether you use the lower measured destruction or removal efficiency and when you perform the retest of the abatement system, you must count the time that the abatement system is not operated and maintained according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems as not being in operational mode for purposes of calculating abatement system uptime.

(vi) If your fab uses redundant abatement systems, you may account for the total abatement system uptime (that is, the time that at least one abatement system is in operational mode) calculated for a specific exhaust stream during the reporting year.

(g) You must adhere to the QA/QC procedures of this paragraph when calculating fluorinated GHG and N2O emissions from electronics manufacturing production processes:

(1)-(2) [Reserved]

(3) Follow the QA/QC procedures in accordance with those in EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), or the applicable QA/QC procedures specified in an alternative method approved by the Administrator (or authorized representative) according to paragraph (k) of this section, when calculating abatement systems destruction or removal efficiencies. If you are measuring destruction or removal efficiency according to EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), and you elect to follow the alternative procedures specified in Appendix A to this subpart according to paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, you must follow any additional QA/QC procedures specified in Appendix A to this subpart.

(4) As part of normal operations for each fab, the inventory of gas stored in containers at the beginning of the reporting year must be the same as the inventory of gas stored in containers at the end of the previous reporting year. You must maintain records documenting the year end and year beginning inventories under §98.97(a).

(h) You must adhere to the QA/QC procedures of this paragraph (h) when calculating annual gas consumption for each fluorinated GHG and N2O used at each fab and emissions from the use of each fluorinated heat transfer fluid on a fab basis.

(1) Review all inputs to Equations I-11 and I-16 of this subpart to ensure that all inputs and outputs are accounted for.

(2) Do not enter negative inputs into the mass balance Equations I-11 and I-16 of this subpart and ensure that no negative emissions are calculated.

(3) Ensure that the inventory at the beginning of one reporting year is identical to the inventory at the end of the previous reporting year. You must maintain records documenting the year end and year beginning inventories under §98.97(a) and (r).

(4) Ensure that the total quantity of gas i in containers in service at the end of a reporting year is accounted for as if the in-service containers were full for Equation I-11 of this subpart. Ensure also that the same quantity is accounted for in the inventory of input gas i stored in containers at the beginning of the subsequent reporting year.

(i) All flow meters, weigh scales, pressure gauges, and thermometers used to measure quantities that are monitored under this section or used in calculations under §98.93 must meet the calibration and accuracy requirements specified in §98.3(i).

(j) Stack test methodology. For each fab for which you calculate annual emissions for any fluorinated GHG emitted from your facility using the stack test method according to the procedure specified in §98.93(i)(3), you must adhere to the requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) through (8) of this section. You may request approval to use an alternative stack test method and procedure according to paragraph (k) of this section.

(1) Stack system testing. Conduct an emissions test for each applicable stack system according to the procedures in paragraphs (j)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) You must conduct an emission test during which the fab is operating at a representative operating level, as defined in §98.98, and with the abatement systems connected to the stack system being tested operating with at least 90 percent uptime, averaged over all abatement systems, during the 8-hour (or longer) period for each stack system, or at no less than 90 percent of the abatement system uptime rate measured over the previous reporting year, averaged over all abatement systems.

(ii) You must measure for the expected and possible by-products identified in Table I-17 of this subpart and those fluorinated GHGs used as input fluorinated GHG in process tools vented to the stack system, except for any intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG as defined in §98.98. You must calculate annual emissions of intermittent low-use fluorinated GHGs by adhering to the procedures in §98.93(i)(4)(i).

(iii) If a fluorinated GHG being consumed in the reporting year was not being consumed during the stack testing and does not meet the definition of intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG in §98.98, then you must test the stack systems associated with the use of that fluorinated GHG at a time when that gas is in use at a magnitude that would allow you to determine an emission factor for that gas. If a fluorinated GHG consumed in the reporting year was not being consumed during the stack testing and is no longer in use by your fab (e.g., use of the gas has become obsolete or has been discontinued), then you must calculate annual emissions for that fluorinated GHG according to the procedure specified in §98.93(i)(4).

(iv) Although all applicable stack systems are not required to be tested simultaneously, you must certify that no significant changes in stack flow configuration occur between tests conducted for any particular fab in a reporting year. You must certify that no more than 10 percent of the total number of fluorinated GHG emitting process tools are connected or disconnected from a stack system during testing. You must also certify that no process tools that were in operation at the start of the test period have been moved to a different stack system during the test period (i.e., during or in between testing of individual stack systems) and that no point-of-use abatement systems have been permanently removed from service during the test period. You must document any changes in stack flow configuration in the emissions test data and report required to be kept as records under §98.97(i)(4).

(2) Test methods and procedures. You must adhere to the applicable test methods and procedures specified in Table I-9 to this subpart, or adhere to an alternative method approved by the Administrator (or authorized representative) according to paragraph (k) of this section. If you select Method 320 of 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A to measure the concentration of each fluorinated GHG in the stack system, you must complete a method validation according to Section 13 of Method 320 of 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A for each FTIR system (hardware and software) and each tester (testing company). Method 320 validation is necessary when any change occurs in instrumentation, tester (i.e., testing company), or stack condition (e.g., acid gas vs. base). Measurement of new compounds require validation for those compounds according to Section 13 of Method 320 of 40 CFR part 63, Appendix A. The field detection limits achieved under your test methods and procedures must fall at or below the maximum field detection limits specified in Table I-10 to this subpart.

(3) Fab-specific fluorinated GHG consumption measurements. You must determine the amount of each fluorinated GHG consumed by each fab during the sampling period for all process tools connected to the stack systems tested under §98.93(i)(3), according to the procedures in paragraphs (j)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section. This determination must include apportioning gas consumption between stack systems that are being tested and those that are not tested under §98.93(i)(2).

(i) Measure fluorinated GHG consumption using gas flow meters, scales, or pressure measurements. Measure the mass or pressure, as applicable, at the beginning and end of the sampling period and when containers are changed out. If you elect to measure gas consumption using pressure (i.e., because the gas is stored in a location above its critical temperature) you must estimate consumption as specified in paragraphs (j)(3)(i)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) For each fluorinated GHG, you must either measure the temperature of the fluorinated GHG container(s) when the sampling periods begin and end and when containers are changed out, or measure the temperature of the fluorinated GHG container(s) every hour for the duration of the sampling period. Temperature measurements of the immediate vicinity of the containers (e.g., in the same room, near the containers) shall be considered temperature measurements of the containers.

(B) Convert the sampling period-beginning, sampling period-ending, and container change-out pressures to masses using Equation I-25 of this subpart, with the appropriate Z value selected based upon the properties of the gas (e.g., the Z value yielded by the Redlich, Kwong, Soave equation of state with appropriate values for that gas). Apply the temperatures measured at or nearest to the beginning and end of the sampling period and to the time(s) when containers are changed out, as applicable. For each gas, the consumption during the sampling period is the difference between the masses of the containers of that gas at the beginning and at the end of the sampling period, summed across containers, including containers that are changed out.

(ii) For each fluorinated GHG gas for which consumption is too low to be accurately measured during the sampling period using gas flow meters, scales, or pressure measurements as specified in paragraph (j)(3)(i) of this section, you must follow at least one of the procedures listed in paragraph (j)(3)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section to obtain a consumption measurement.

(A) Draw the gas from a single gas container if it is normally supplied from multiple containers connected by a shared manifold.

(B) Calculate consumption from pro-rated long-term consumption data (for example, calculate and use hourly consumption rates from monthly consumption data).

(C) Increase the duration of the sampling period for consumption measurement beyond the minimum duration specified in Table I-9 of this subpart.

(4) Emission test results. The results of an emission test must include the analysis of samples, number of test runs, the average emission factor for each fluorinated GHG measured, the analytical method used, calculation of emissions, the fluorinated GHGs consumed during the sampling period, an identification of the stack systems tested, and the fluorinated GHGs that were included in the test. The emissions test report must contain all information and data used to derive the fab-specific emission factor.

(5) Emissions testing frequency. You must conduct emissions testing to develop fab-specific emission factors on a frequency according to the procedures in paragraph (j)(5)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) Annual testing. You must conduct an annual emissions test for each stack system for which emissions testing is required under §98.93(i)(3), unless you meet the criteria in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section to skip annual testing. Each set of emissions testing for a stack system must be separated by a period of at least 2 months.

(ii) Criteria to test less frequently. After the first 3 years of annual testing, you may calculate the relative standard deviation of the emission factors for each fluorinated GHG included in the test and use that analysis to determine the frequency of any future testing. As an alternative, you may conduct all three tests in less than 3 calendar years for purposes of this paragraph (j)(5)(ii), but this does not relieve you of the obligation to conduct subsequent annual testing if you do not meet the criteria to test less frequently. If the criteria specified in paragraphs (j)(5)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section are met, you may use the arithmetic average of the three emission factors for each fluorinated GHG and fluorinated GHG by-product for the current year and the next 4 years with no further testing unless your fab operations are changed in way that triggers the re-test criteria in paragraph (j)(8) of this section. In the fifth year following the last stack test included in the previous average, you must test each of the stack systems for which testing is required and repeat the relative standard deviation analysis using the results of the most recent three tests (i.e., the new test and the two previous tests conducted prior to the 4 year period). If the criteria specified in paragraphs (j)(5)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section are not met, you must use the emission factors developed from the most recent testing and continue annual testing. You may conduct more than one test in the same year, but each set of emissions testing for a stack system must be separated by a period of at least 2 months. You may repeat the relative standard deviation analysis using the most recent three tests, including those tests conducted prior to the 4 year period, to determine if you are exempt from testing for the next 4 years.

(A) The relative standard deviation of the total CO2e emission factors calculated from each of the three tests (expressed as the total CO2e fluorinated GHG emissions of the fab divided by the total CO2e fluorinated GHG use of the fab) is less than or equal to 15 percent.

(B) The relative standard deviation for all single fluorinated GHGs that individually accounted for 5 percent or more of CO2e emissions were less than 20 percent.

(C) For those fluorinated GHG that do not have GWP values listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, you must use a GWP value of 2,000 in calculating CO2e in paragraphs (j)(5)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(6) Subsequent measurements. You must make an annual determination of each stack system's exemption status under §98.93(i)(2) by March 31 each year. If a stack system that was previously not required to be tested per §98.93(i)(2), no longer meets the criteria in §98.93(i)(2), you must conduct the emissions testing for the stack system during the current reporting and develop the fab-specific emission factor from the emissions testing.

(7) Previous measurements. You may include the results of emissions testing conducted on or after January 1, 2011 for use in the relative standard deviation calculation in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section if the previous results were determined using a method meeting the requirements in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. You may request approval to use results of emissions testing conducted between January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2014 using a method that deviated from the requirements in paragraph (j)(2) of this section by adhering to the requirements in paragraphs (j)(7)(i) through (j)(7)(iv) of this section.

(i) Notify the Administrator (or an authorized representative) of your intention to use the results of the previous emissions testing. You must include in the notification the data and results you intend to use for meeting either reporting or recordkeeping requirements, a description of the method, and any deviations from the requirements in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. Your description must include an explanation of how any deviations do not affect the quality of the data collected.

(ii) The Administrator will review the information submitted under paragraph (j)(7)(i) and determine whether the results of the previous emissions testing are adequate and issue an approval or disapproval of the use of the results within 120 days of the date on which you submit the notification specified in paragraph (j)(7)(i) of this section.

(iii) If the Administrator finds reasonable grounds to disapprove the results of the previous emissions testing, the Administrator may request that you provide additional information to support the use of the results of the previous emissions testing. Failure to respond to any request made by the Administrator does not affect the 120 day deadline specified in paragraph (j)(7)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Neither the approval process nor the failure to obtain approval for the use of results from previous emissions testing shall abrogate your responsibility to comply with the requirements of this subpart.

(8) Scenarios that require a stack system to be re-tested. By March 31 of each reporting year, you must evaluate and determine whether any changes to your fab operations meet the criteria specified in paragraphs (j)(8)(i) through (vi) of this section. If any of the scenarios specified in paragraph (j)(8)(i) through (vi) of this section occur, you must perform a re-test of any applicable stack system, irrespective of whether you have met the criteria for less frequent testing in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section, before the end of the year in which the evaluation was completed. You must adhere to the methods and procedures specified in §98.93(i)(3) for performing a stack system emissions test and calculating emissions. If you meet the criteria for less frequent testing in paragraph (j)(5)(ii), and you are required to perform a re-test as specified in paragraph (j)(8)(i) through (vi) of this section, the requirement to perform a re-test does not extend the date of the next scheduled test that was established prior to meeting the requirement to perform a re-test. If the criteria specified in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section are not met using the results from the re-test and the two most recent stack tests, you must use the emission factors developed from the most recent testing to calculate emissions and resume annual testing. You may resume testing less frequently according to your original schedule if the criteria specified in paragraph (j)(5)(ii) of this section are met using the most recent three tests.

(i) Annual consumption of a fluorinated GHG used during the most recent emissions test (expressed in CO2e) changes by more than 10 percent of the total annual fluorinated GHG consumption, relative to gas consumption in CO2e for that gas during the year of the most recent emissions test (for example, if the use of a single gas goes from 25 percent of CO2e to greater than 35 percent of CO2e, this change would trigger a re-test). For those fluorinated GHGs that do not have GWP values listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, you must use a GWP value of 2,000 in calculating CO2e for purposes of this paragraph.

(ii) A change in the consumption of an intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG (as defined in §98.98) that was not used during the emissions test and not reflected in the fab-specific emission factor, such that it no longer meets the definition of an intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG.

(iii) A decrease by more than 10 percent in the fraction of tools with abatement systems, compared to the number during the most recent emissions test.

(iv) A change in the wafer size manufactured by the fab since the most recent emissions test.

(v) A stack system that formerly met the criteria specified under §98.93(i)(2) for not being subject to testing no longer meets those criteria.

(vi) If a fluorinated GHG being consumed in the reporting year was not being consumed during the stack test and does not meet the definition of intermittent, low-use fluorinated GHG in §98.98, then you must test the stack systems associated with the use of that fluorinated GHG at a time when that gas is in use as required in paragraph (j)(1)(iii) of this section.

(k) You may request approval to use an alternative stack test method and procedure or to use an alternative method to determine abatement system destruction or removal efficiency by adhering to the requirements in paragraphs (k)(1) through (6) of this section. An alternative method is any method of sampling and analyzing for a fluorinated GHG or N2O, or the determination of parameters other than concentration, for example, flow measurements, that is not a method specified in this subpart and that has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction, using Method 301 in appendix A of part 63, to produce results adequate for the Administrator's determination that it may be used in place of a method specified elsewhere in this subpart.

(1) You may use an alternative method from that specified in this subpart provided that you:

(i) Notify the Administrator (or an authorized representative) of your intention to use an alternative method. You must include in the notification a site-specific test plan describing the alternative method and procedures (the alternative test plan), the range of test conditions over which the validation is intended to be applicable, and an alternative means of calculating the fab-level fluorinated GHG or N2O emissions or determining the abatement system destruction or removal efficiency if the Administrator denies the use of the results of the alternative method under paragraph (k)(2) or (3) of this section.

(ii) Use Method 301 in appendix A of part 63 of this chapter to validate the alternative method. This may include the use of only portions of specific procedures of Method 301 if use of such procedures are sufficient to validate the alternative method; and

(iii) Submit the results of the Method 301 validation process along with the notification of intention and the rationale for not using the specified method.

(2) The Administrator will determine whether the validation of the proposed alternative method is adequate and issue an approval or disapproval of the alternative test plan within 120 days of the date on which you submit the notification and alternative test plan specified in paragraph (k)(1) of this section. If the Administrator approves the alternative test plan, you are authorized to use the alternative method(s) in place of the methods described in paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section for measuring destruction or removal efficiency or paragraph (j) of this section for conducting the stack test, as applicable, taking into account the Administrator's comments on the alternative test plan. Notwithstanding the requirement in the preceding sentence, you may at any time prior to the Administrator's approval or disapproval proceed to conduct the stack test using the methods specified in paragraph (j) of this section or the destruction or removal efficiency determination specified in (f)(4)(i) of this section if you use a method specified in this subpart instead of the requested alternative. If an alternative test plan is not approved and you still want to use an alternative method, you must recommence the process to have an alternative test method approved starting with the notification of intent to use an alternative test method specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.

(3) You must report the results of stack testing or destruction or removal efficiency determination using the alternative method and procedure specified in the approved alternative test plan. You must include in your report for an alternative stack test method and for an alternative abatement system destruction or removal efficiency determination the information specified in paragraph (j)(4) of this section, including all methods, calculations and data used to determine the fluorinated GHG emission factor or the abatement system destruction or removal efficiency. The Administrator will review the results of the test using the alternative methods and procedure and then approve or deny the use of the results of the alternative test method and procedure no later than 120 days after they are submitted to EPA.

(4) If the Administrator finds reasonable grounds to dispute the results obtained by an alternative method for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions or destruction or removal efficiency of an abatement system, the Administrator may require the use of another method specified in this subpart.

(5) Once the Administrator has approved the use of the alternative method for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions for specific fluorinated GHGs and types of stack systems or abatement system destruction or removal efficiency, that method may be used at any other facility for the same fluorinated GHGs and types of stack systems, or fluorinated GHGs and abatement systems, if the approved conditions apply to that facility. In granting approval, the Administrator may limit the range of test conditions and emission characteristics for which that approval is granted and under which the alternative method may be used without seeking approval under paragraphs (k)(1) through (4) of this section. The Administrator will specify those limitations, if any, in the approval of the alternative method.

(6) Neither the validation and approval process nor the failure to validate or obtain approval of an alternative method shall abrogate your responsibility to comply with the requirements of this subpart.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 36342, June 22, 2011; 76 FR 59551, Sept. 27, 2011; 77 FR 10380, Feb. 22, 2012; 77 FR 48089, Aug. 13, 2012; 78 FR 68209, Nov. 13, 2013]

§98.95   Procedures for estimating missing data.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a complete record of all measured parameters used in the fluorinated GHG and N2O emissions calculations in §98.93 and §98.94 is required.

(b) If you use fluorinated heat transfer fluids at your facility and are missing data for one or more of the parameters in Equation I-16 of this subpart, you must estimate fluorinated heat transfer fluid emissions using the arithmetic average of the emission rates for the reporting year immediately preceding the period of missing data and the months immediately following the period of missing data. Alternatively, you may estimate missing information using records from the fluorinated heat transfer fluid supplier. You must document the method used and values used for all missing data values.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012]

§98.96   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), you must include in each annual report the following information for each electronics manufacturing facility:

(a) Annual manufacturing capacity of each fab at your facility used to determine the annual manufacturing capacity of your facility in Equation I-5 of this subpart.

(b) For facilities that manufacture semiconductors, the diameter of wafers manufactured at each fab at your facility (mm).

(c) Annual emissions, on a fab basis as described in paragraph (c)(1) through (5) of this section.

(1) When you use the procedures specified in §98.93(a) of this subpart, each fluorinated GHG emitted from each process type for which your fab is required to calculate emissions as calculated in Equations I-6 and I-7 of this subpart.

(2) Each fluorinated GHG emitted from each process type or process sub-type as calculated in Equations I-8 and I-9 of this subpart, as applicable.

(3) N2O emitted from all chemical vapor deposition processes and N2O emitted from the aggregate of other N2O-using manufacturing processes as calculated in Equation I-10 of this subpart.

(4) Each fluorinated heat transfer fluid emitted as calculated in Equation 1-16 of this subpart.

(5) When you use the procedures specified in §98.93(i) of this subpart, annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG, on a fab basis.

(d) The method of emissions calculation used in §98.93.

(e) Annual production in terms of substrate surface area (e.g., silicon, PV-cell, glass).

(f)-(l) [Reserved]

(m) For the fab-specific apportioning model used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption under §98.94(c), the following information to determine it is verified in accordance with procedures in §98.94(c)(1) and (2):

(1) Identification of the quantifiable metric used in your fab-specific engineering model to apportion gas consumption for each fab, and/or an indication if direct measurements were used in addition to, or instead of, a quantifiable metric.

(2) The start and end dates selected under §98.94(c)(2)(i).

(3) Certification that the gas(es) you selected under §98.94(c)(2)(ii) for each fab corresponds to the largest quantity(ies) consumed, on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHG used at your fab during the reporting year for which you are required to apportion.

(4) The result of the calculation comparing the actual and modeled gas consumption under §98.94(c)(2)(iii) and (iv), as applicable.

(5) If you are required to apportion fluorinated GHG consumption between fabs as required by §98.94(c)(2)(v), certification that the gas(es) you selected under §98.94(c)(2)(ii) corresponds to the largest quantity(ies) consumed on a mass basis, of fluorinated GHG used at your facility during the reporting year for which you are required to apportion.

(n)-(o) [Reserved]

(p) Inventory and description of all abatement systems through which fluorinated GHGs or N2O flow at your facility and for which you are claiming destruction or removal efficiency, including:

(1) The number of abatement systems controlling emissions for each process sub-type, or process type, as applicable, for each gas used in the process sub-type or process type.

(2) The basis of the destruction or removal efficiency being used (default or site specific measurement according to §98.94(f)(4)(i)) for each process sub-type or process type and for each gas.

(q) For all abatement systems through which fluorinated GHGs or N2O flow at your facility, for which you are reporting controlled emissions, the following:

(1) Certification that all abatement systems at the facility have been installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is developed and maintained in your records as specified in §98.97(d)(9).

(2) If you use default destruction or removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), or (i), certification that the site maintenance plan for abatement systems for which emissions are being reported contains manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance for each abatement system.

(3) If you use default destruction or removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), certification that the abatement systems for which emissions are being reported were specifically designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement, as applicable. You must support this certification by providing abatement system supplier documentation stating that the system was designed for fluorinated GHG or N2O abatement, as applicable.

(4) For all stack systems for which you calculate fluorinated GHG emissions according to the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(3), certification that you have included and accounted for all abatement systems and any respective downtime in your emissions calculations under §98.93(i)(3).

(r) You must report an effective fab-wide destruction or removal efficiency value for each fab at your facility calculated using Equation I-26, I-27, and I-28 of this subpart, as appropriate.

eCFR graphic er13no13.015.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

DREFAB = Fab-wide effective destruction or removal efficiency value, expressed as a decimal fraction.

FGHGi = Total emissions of each fluorinated GHG i emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, calculated according to the procedures in §98.93.

N2Oj = Emissions of N2O from each N2O-emitting electronics manufacturing process j in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents, calculated according to the procedures in §98.93.

UAFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents as calculated in Equation I-27 of this subpart.

SFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents, as calculated in Equation I-28 of this subpart.

CN2O,j = Consumption of N2O in each N2O emitting process j, expressed in metric ton CO2 equivalents.

1-UN2O,j = N2O emission factor for each N2O emitting process j from Table I-8 of this subpart.

GWPi = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG i from Table A-1 of this part. For those fluorinated GHGs for which Table A-1 to subpart A of this part does not define a GWP value, use a GWP value of 2,000 for purposes of this equation.

GWPN2O = GWP of N2O from Table A-1 of this part.

i = Fluorinated GHG.

j = Process Type.

(1) Use Equation I-27 of this subpart to calculate total unabated emissions, in metric tons CO2e, of all fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes whose emissions of fluorinated GHG you calculated according to the default utilization and by-product formation rate procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4). For each fluorinated GHG i in process j, use the same consumption (Cij), emission factors (1−Uij), and by-product formation rates (Bijk) to calculate unabated emissions as you used to calculate emissions in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

eCFR graphic er13no13.016.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

UAFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2e for which you calculated total emission according to the procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

Cij = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG i, apportioned to process j, expressed in metric ton CO2e, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

Uij = Process utilization rate for fluorinated GHG i, process type j, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(a) or §98.93(i)(4).

GWPi = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG i from Table A-1 of this part. For those fluorinated GHGs for which Table A-1 to subpart A of this part does not define a GWP value, use a GWP value of 2,000 for purposes of this equation.

GWPk = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG by-product k, from Table A-1 of this part. For those fluorinated GHGs for which Table A-1 to subpart A of this part does not define a GWP value, use a GWP value of 2,000 for purposes of this equation.

Bijk = By-product formation rate of fluorinated GHG k created as a by-product per amount of fluorinated GHG input gas i (kg) consumed by process type j (kg).

i = Fluorinated GHG.

j = Process Type.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product.

(2) Use Equation I-28 to calculate total unabated emissions, in metric ton CO2e, of all fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes whose emissions of fluorinated GHG you calculated according to the stack testing procedures in §98.93(i)(3). For each set of processes, use the same input gas consumption (Cif), input gas emission factors (EFif), by-product gas emission factors (EFkf), fractions of tools abated (aif and af), and destruction efficiencies (dif and dkf) to calculate unabated emissions as you used to calculate emissions.

eCFR graphic er13no13.017.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

SFGHG = Total unabated emissions of fluorinated GHG emitted from electronics manufacturing processes in the fab, expressed in metric ton CO2e for which you calculated total emission according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3).

EFif = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG input gas i, emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-19 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg input gas consumed).

aif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG input gas i used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dif = Fraction of fluorinated GHG i destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3) (expressed as a decimal fraction).

Cif = Total consumption of fluorinated GHG input gas i, of tools vented to stack systems that are tested, for fab f, for the reporting year, expressed in metric ton CO2e, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3) (expressed as a decimal fraction).

EFkf = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG by-product gas k, emitted from fab f, as calculated in Equation I-20 of this subpart (kg emitted/kg of all input gases consumed in tools vented to stack systems that are tested).

af = Fraction of input gases used in fab f in tools with abatement systems (expressed as a decimal fraction).

dkf = Fraction of fluorinated GHG by-product k destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools in fab f, which you used to calculate total emissions according to the procedures in §98.93(i)(3) (expressed as a decimal fraction).

GWPi = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG i from Table A-1 of this part. For those fluorinated GHGs for which Table A-1 of subpart A to this part does not define a GWP value, use a GWP value of 2,000 for purposes of this equation.

GWPk = GWP of emitted fluorinated GHG by-product k, from Table A-1 of this part. For those fluorinated GHGs for which Table A-1 to subpart A of this part does not define a GWP value, use a GWP value of 2,000 for purposes of this equation.

i = Fluorinated GHG.

k = Fluorinated GHG by-product.

(s) Where missing data procedures were used to estimate inputs into the fluorinated heat transfer fluid mass balance equation under §98.95(b), the number of times missing data procedures were followed in the reporting year and the method used to estimate the missing data.

(t)-(v) [Reserved]

(w) If you elect to calculate fab-level emissions of fluorinated GHG using the stack test methods specified in §98.93(i), you must report the following in paragraphs (w)(1) and (2) for each stack system, in addition to the relevant data in paragraphs (a) through (v) of this section:

(1) The date of any stack testing conducted during the reporting year, and the identity of the stack system tested.

(2) An inventory of all stack systems from which process fluorinated GHG are emitted. For each stack system, indicate whether the stack system is among those for which stack testing was performed as per §98.93(i)(3) or not performed as per §98.93(i)(2).

(x) If the emissions you report under paragraph (c) of this section include emissions from research and development activities, as defined in §98.6, report the approximate percentage of total GHG emissions, on a metric ton CO2e basis, that are attributable to research and development activities, using the following ranges: less than 5 percent, 5 percent to less than 10 percent, 10 percent to less than 25 percent, 25 percent to less than 50 percent, 50 percent and higher. For those fluorinated GHG that do not have GWP values listed in Table A-1 of subpart A of this part, you must use a GWP value of 2,000 in calculating CO2e for purposes of this paragraph.

(y) If your semiconductor manufacturing facility emits more than 40,000 metric ton CO2e of GHG emissions, based on your most recently submitted annual report (beginning with the 2015 reporting year) as required in paragraph (c) of this section, from the electronics manufacturing processes subject to reporting under this subpart, you must prepare and submit a triennial (every 3 years) technology assessment report to the Administrator (or an authorized representative) that meets the requirements specified in paragraphs (y)(1) through (6) of this section. Any other semiconductor manufacturing facility may voluntarily submit this report to the Administrator.

(1) The first report must be submitted with the annual GHG emissions report that is due no later than March 31, 2017, and subsequent reports must be delivered every 3 years no later than March 31 of the year in which it is due.

(2) The report must include the information described in paragraphs (y)(2)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) It must describe how the gases and technologies used in semiconductor manufacturing using 200 mm and 300 mm wafers in the United States have changed in the past 3 years and whether any of the identified changes are likely to have affected the emissions characteristics of semiconductor manufacturing processes in such a way that the default utilization and by-product formation rates or default destruction or removal efficiency factors of this subpart may need to be updated.

(ii) It must describe the effect on emissions of the implementation of new process technologies and/or finer line width processes in 200 mm and 300 mm technologies, the introduction of new tool platforms, and the introduction of new processes on previously tested platforms.

(iii) It must describe the status of implementing 450 mm wafer technology and the potential need to create or update default emission factors compared to 300 mm technology.

(iv) It must provide any utilization and by-product formation rates and/or destruction or removal efficiency data that have been collected in the previous 3 years that support the changes in semiconductor manufacturing processes described in the report.

(v) It must describe the use of a new gas, use of an existing gas in a new process type or sub-type, or a fundamental change in process technology.

(3) If, on the basis of the information reported in paragraph (y)(2) of this section, the report indicates that GHG emissions from semiconductor manufacturing may have changed from those represented by the default utilization and by-product formation rates in Tables I-3 or I-4, or the default destruction or removal efficiency values in Table I-16 of this subpart, the report must lay out a data gathering and analysis plan focused on the areas of potential change. The plan must describe the elements in paragraphs (y)(3)(i) and (ii).

(i) The testing of tools to determine the potential effect on current utilization and by-product formation rates and destruction or removal efficiency values under the new conditions.

(ii) A planned analysis of the effect on overall facility emissions using a representative gas-use profile for a 200 mm, 300 mm, or 450 mm fab (depending on which technology is under consideration).

(4) Multiple semiconductor manufacturing facilities may submit a single consolidated 3-year report as long as the facility identifying information in §98.3(c)(1) and the certification statement in §98.3(c)(9) is provided for each facility for which the consolidated report is submitted.

(5) The Administrator will review the report received and determine whether it is necessary to update the default utilization rates and by-product formation rates in Tables I-3, I-4, I-11, and I-12 of this subpart and default destruction or removal efficiency values in Table I-16 of this subpart based on the following:

(i) Whether the revised default utilization and by-product formation rates and destruction or removal efficiency values will result in a projected shift in emissions of 10 percent or greater.

(ii) Whether new platforms, processes, or facilities that are not captured in current default utilization and by-product formation rates and destruction or removal efficiency values should be included in revised values.

(iii) Whether new data are available that could expand the existing data set to include new gases, tools, or processes not included in the existing data set (i.e. gases, tools, or processes for which no data are currently available).

(6) The Administrator will review the reports within 120 days and will notify you of a determination whether it is necessary to update any default utilization and by-product formation rates and/or destruction or removal efficiency values. If the Administrator determines it is necessary to update default utilization and by-product formation rates and/or destruction or removal efficiency values, you will then have 180 days from the date you receive notice of the determination to execute the data collection and analysis plan described in the report and submit those data to the Administrator.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2010; 78 FR 68215, Nov. 13, 2013; 78 FR 71954, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.97   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(g), you must retain the following records:

(a) All data used and copies of calculations made as part of estimating gas consumption and emissions, including all spreadsheets.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) Documentation for the fab-specific engineering model used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption. This documentation must be part of your site GHG Monitoring Plan as required under §98.3(g)(5). At a minimum, you must retain the following:

(1) A clear, detailed description of the fab-specific model, including how it was developed; the quantifiable metric used in the model; all sources of information, equations, and formulas, each with clear definitions of terms and variables; all apportioning factors used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O; and a clear record of any changes made to the model while it was used to apportion fluorinated GHG and N2O consumption across process sub-types, process types, tools with and without abatement systems, stack systems, and/or fabs.

(2) Sample calculations used for developing the gas apportioning factors (fij) for the two fluorinated GHGs used at your facility in the largest quantities, on a mass basis, during the reporting year.

(3) If you develop apportioning factors through the use of direct measurement according to §98.94(c)(3), calculations and data used to develop each gas apportioning factor.

(4) Calculations and data used to determine and document that the fab was operating at representative operating levels, as defined in §98.98, during the apportioning model verification specified in §98.94(c).

(d) For all abatement systems through which fluorinated GHGs or N2O flow at your facility, and for which you are reporting controlled emissions, the following in paragraphs (d)(1) to (9) of this section:

(1) Records of the information in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) though (iv) of this section:

(i) Documentation to certify that each abatement system or group of abatement systems is installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with the site maintenance plan for abatement systems that is specified in paragraph (d)(9) of this section.

(ii) Documentation from the abatement system supplier describing the abatement system's designed purpose and emission control capabilities for fluorinated GHG and N2O for which the systems or group of systems is certified to abate, where available.

(iii) If you use default destruction or removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i), certification that the abatement systems for which emissions are being reported were specifically designed for fluorinated GHG and N2O abatement, as required under §98.94(f)(3), and certification that the site maintenance plan includes manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance for all applicable abatement systems.

(iv) Certification that you have included and accounted for all abatement systems and any respective downtime in your emissions calculations under §98.93(i)(3), as required under §98.94(f)(3).

(2) Abatement system calibration and maintenance records.

(3) Where the default destruction or removal efficiency value is used, documentation from the abatement system supplier describing the equipment's designed purpose and emission control capabilities for fluorinated GHG and N2O.

(4) Where properly measured site-specific destruction or removal efficiencies are used to report emissions, the information in paragraphs (d)(4)(i) though (vi) of this section:

(i) Dated certification by the technician who made the measurement that the destruction or removal efficiency is calculated in accordance with methods in EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and, if applicable Appendix A of this subpart, or an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k), complete documentation of the results of any initial and subsequent tests, the final report as specified in EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) and, if applicable, the records and documentation specified in Appendix A of this subpart including the information required in paragraph (b)(7) of Appendix A of this subpart, or a final report as specified in an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k).

(ii) The average destruction or removal efficiency of the abatement systems operating during the reporting year for each process type and gas combination.

(iii) A description of the calculation used to determine the average destruction or removal efficiency for each process type and gas combination, including all inputs to the calculation.

(iv) The records of destruction or removal efficiency measurements for abatement systems for all tests that have been used to determine the site-specific destruction or removal efficiencies currently being used.

(v) A description of the method used for randomly selecting abatement systems for testing.

(vi) The total number of systems for which destruction or removal efficiency was properly measured for each process type and gas combination for the reporting year.

(5) In addition to the inventory specified in §98.96(p), the information in paragraphs (d)(5)(i) though (iii) of this section:

(i) The number of abatement systems of each manufacturer, and model numbers, and the manufacturer's claimed fluorinated GHG and N2O destruction or removal efficiency, if any.

(ii) Records of destruction or removal efficiency measurements over the in-use life of each abatement system.

(iii) A description of the tool, with the process type or sub-type, for which the abatement system treats exhaust.

(6) Records of all inputs and results of calculations made accounting for the uptime of abatement systems used during the reporting year, in accordance with Equations I-15 or I-23 of this subpart, as applicable. The inputs should include an indication of whether each value for destruction or removal efficiency is a default value or a measured site-specific value.

(7) Records of all inputs and results of calculations made to determine the average weighted fraction of each gas destroyed or removed in the abatement systems for each stack system using Equation I-24 of this subpart, if applicable. The inputs should include an indication of whether each value for destruction or removal efficiency is a default value or a measured site-specific value.

(8) Records of all inputs and the results of the calculation of the facility-wide emission destruction or removal efficiency factor calculated according to Equations I-26, I-27, and I-28 of this subpart.

(9) A site maintenance plan for abatement systems, which must be maintained on-site at the facility as part of the facility's GHG Monitoring Plan as described in §98.3(g)(5), and be developed and implemented according to paragraphs (d)(9)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) The site maintenance plan for abatement systems must be based on the abatement system manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance if you use default destruction and removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i). If the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance are not available, you cannot use default destruction and removal efficiency values in your emissions calculations under §98.93(a), (b), and/or (i). If you use an average of properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies determined in accordance with the procedures in §98.94(f)(4)(i) through (vi), the site maintenance plan for abatement systems must be based on the abatement system manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for installation, operation, and maintenance, where available. If you deviate from the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications, you must include documentation that demonstrates how the deviations do not negatively affect the performance or destruction or removal efficiency of the abatement systems.

(ii) The site maintenance plan for abatement systems must include a defined preventative maintenance process and checklist.

(iii) The site maintenance plan for abatement systems must include a corrective action process that you must follow whenever an abatement system is found to be not operating properly.

(e) Purchase records for gas purchased.

(f) Invoices for gas purchases and sales.

(g) Documents and records used to monitor and calculate abatement system uptime.

(h) GHG Monitoring Plans, as described in §98.3(g)(5), must be completed by April 1, 2011. You must update your GHG Monitoring Plan to comply with §98.94(c) consistent with the requirements in §98.3(g)(5)(iii).

(i) Retain the following records for each fab for which you elect to calculate fab-level emissions of fluorinated GHG using the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(3) or (4).

(1) Document all stack systems with emissions of fluorinated GHG that are less than 10,000 metric tons of CO2e per year and all stack systems with emissions of 10,000 metric tons CO2e per year or more. Include the data and calculation used to develop the preliminary estimate of emissions for each stack system.

(2) For each stack system, identify the method used to calculate annual emissions; either §98.93(i)(3) or (4).

(3) The identity and total annual consumption of each gas identified as an intermittent low use fluorinated GHG as specified in §98.93(i)(4)(i) and defined in §98.98.

(4) The emissions test data and reports (see §98.94(j)(4)) and the calculations used to determine the fab-specific emission factor, including the actual fab-specific emission factor, the average hourly emission rate of each fluorinated GHG from the stack system during the test and the stack system activity rate during the test. The report must also contain any changes in the stack system configuration during or between tests in a reporting year.

(5) The fab-specific emission factor and the calculations and data used to determine the fab-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG and by-product, as calculated using Equations I-19 and I-20 of §98.93(i)(3).

(6) Calculations and data used to determine annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG for each fab.

(7) Calculations and data used to determine and document that the fab was operating at representative operating levels, as defined in §98.98, during the stack testing period.

(8) A copy of the certification that no significant changes in stack system flow configuration occurred between tests conducted for any particular fab in a reporting year, as required by §98.94(j)(1)(iv) and any calculations and data supporting the certification.

(9) The number of tools vented to each stack system in the fab.

(j) If you report the approximate percentage of total GHG emissions from research and development activities under §98.96(x), documentation for the determination of the percentage of total emissions of each fluorinated GHG and/or N2O attributable to research and development activities, as defined in §98.6.

(k) Annual gas consumption for each fluorinated GHG and N2O as calculated in Equation I-11 of this subpart, including where your fab used less than 50 kg of a particular fluorinated GHG or N2O used at your facility for which you have not calculated emissions using Equations I-6, I-7, I-8, I-9, I-10, I-21, or I-22 of this subpart, the chemical name of the GHG used, the annual consumption of the gas, and a brief description of its use.

(l) All inputs used to calculate gas consumption in Equation I-11 of this subpart, for each fluorinated GHG and N2O used.

(m) Annual amount of each fluorinated GHG consumed for process sub-type, process type, stack system, or fab, as appropriate, and the annual amount of N2O consumed for the aggregate of all chemical vapor deposition processes and for the aggregate of all other electronics manufacturing production processes, as calculated using Equation I-13 of this subpart.

(n) Disbursements for each fluorinated GHG and N2O during the reporting year, as calculated using Equation I-12 of this subpart and all inputs used to calculate disbursements for each fluorinated GHG and N2O used in Equation I-12 of this subpart, including all fab-wide gas-specific heel factors used for each fluorinated GHG and N2O. If your fab used less than 50 kg of a particular fluorinated GHG during the reporting year, fab-wide gas-specific heel factors do not need to be reported for those gases.

(o) Fraction of each fluorinated GHG or N2O fed into a process sub-type, process type, stack system, or fab that is fed into tools connected to abatement systems.

(p) Fraction of each fluorinated GHG or N2O destroyed or removed in abatement systems connected to process tools where process sub-type, process type j is used, or to process tools vented to stack system j or fab f.

(q) All inputs and results of calculations made accounting for the uptime of abatement systems used during the reporting year, or during an emissions sampling period, in accordance with Equations I-15 and/or I-23 of this subpart, as applicable.

(r) For fluorinated heat transfer fluid emissions, inputs to the fluorinated heat transfer fluid mass balance equation, Equation I-16 of this subpart, for each fluorinated heat transfer fluid used.

(s) Where missing data procedures were used to estimate inputs into the fluorinated heat transfer fluid mass balance equation under §98.95(b), the estimates of those data.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68218, Nov. 13, 2013

§98.98   Definitions.

Except as provided in this section, all of the terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part. If a conflict exists between a definition provided in this subpart and a definition provided in subpart A, the definition in this subpart takes precedence for the reporting requirements in this subpart.

Abatement system means a device or equipment that is designed to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs or N2O in exhaust streams from one or more electronics manufacturing production processes, or for which the destruction or removal efficiency for a fluorinated GHG or N2O has been properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4), even if that abatement system is not designed to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs or N2O. The device or equipment is only an abatement system for the individual fluorinated GHGs or N2O that it is designed to destroy or remove or for the individual fluorinated GHGs or N2O for which destruction or removal efficiencies were properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4).

Actual gas consumption means the quantity of gas used during wafer/substrate processing over some period based on a measured change in gas container weight or gas container pressure or on a measured volume of gas.

By-product formation means the creation of fluorinated GHGs during electronics manufacturing production processes or the creation of fluorinated GHGs by an abatement system. Where the procedures in §98.93(a) are used to calculate annual emissions, by-product formation is the ratio of the mass of the by-product formed to the mass flow of the input gas. Where the procedures in §98.93(i) are used to calculate annual emissions, by-product formation is the ratio of the mass of the by-product formed to the total mass flow of all fluorinated GHG input gases.

Chamber cleaning is a process type that consists of the process sub-types defined in paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition.

(1) In situ plasma process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent that is dissociated into its cleaning constituents by a plasma generated inside the chamber where the film is produced.

(2) Remote plasma process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent dissociated by a remotely located plasma source.

(3) In situ thermal process sub-type consists of the cleaning of thin-film production chambers, after processing substrates, with a fluorinated GHG cleaning reagent that is thermally dissociated into its cleaning constituents inside the chamber where thin films are produced.

Controlled emissions means the quantity of emissions that are released to the atmosphere after application of an emission control device (e.g., abatement system).

Destruction or removal efficiency (DRE) means the efficiency of an abatement system to destroy or remove fluorinated GHGs, N2O, or both. The destruction or removal efficiency is equal to one minus the ratio of the mass of all relevant GHGs exiting the abatement system to the mass of GHG entering the abatement system. When GHGs are formed in an abatement system, destruction or removal efficiency is expressed as one minus the ratio of amounts of exiting GHGs to the amounts entering the system in units of CO2-equivalents (CO2e).

Fab means the portion of an electronics manufacturing facility located in a separate physical structure that began manufacturing on a certain date.

Fluorinated heat transfer fluids means fluorinated GHGs used for temperature control, device testing, cleaning substrate surfaces and other parts, and soldering in certain types of electronics manufacturing production processes. Fluorinated heat transfer fluids do not include fluorinated GHGs used as lubricants or surfactants. For fluorinated heat transfer fluids under this subpart I, the lower vapor pressure limit of 1 mm Hg in absolute at 25 °C in the definition of Fluorinated greenhouse gas in §98.6 shall not apply. Fluorinated heat transfer fluids used in the electronics manufacturing sector include, but are not limited to, perfluoropolyethers, perfluoroalkanes, perfluoroethers, tertiary perfluoroamines, and perfluorocyclic ethers.

Fully fluorinated GHGs means fluorinated GHGs that contain only single bonds and in which all available valence locations are filled by fluorine atoms. This includes, but is not limited to, saturated perfluorocarbons, SF6, NF3, SF5CF3, C4F8O, fully fluorinated linear, branched, and cyclic alkanes, fully fluorinated ethers, fully fluorinated tertiary amines, fully fluorinated aminoethers, and perfluoropolyethers.

Gas utilization means the fraction of input N2O or fluorinated GHG converted to other substances during the etching, deposition, and/or wafer and chamber cleaning processes. Gas utilization is expressed as a rate or factor for specific electronics manufacturing process sub-types or process types.

Heel means the amount of gas that remains in a gas container after it is discharged or off-loaded; heel may vary by container type.

Input gas means a fluorinated GHG or N2O used in one of the processes described in §98.90(a)(1) through (4)

Intermittent low-use fluorinated GHG, for the purposes of determining fluorinated GHG emissions using the stack testing method, means a fluorinated GHG that meets all of the following:

(1) The fluorinated GHG is used by the fab but is not used during the period of stack testing for the fab/stack system.

(2) The emissions of the fluorinated GHG, estimated using the methods in §98.93(i)(4) do not constitute more than 5 percent of the total fluorinated GHG emissions from the fab on a CO2e basis.

(3) The sum of the emissions of all fluorinated GHGs that are considered intermittent low use gases does not exceed 10,000 metric tons CO2e for the fab for that year, as calculated using the procedures specified in §98.93(i)(1) of this subpart.

(4) The fluorinated GHG is not an expected or possible by-product identified in Table I-17 of this subpart.

Maximum substrate starts means for the purposes of Equation I-5 of this subpart, the maximum quantity of substrates, expressed as surface area, that could be started each month during a reporting year based on the equipment installed in that facility and assuming that the installed equipment were fully utilized. Manufacturing equipment is considered installed when it is on the manufacturing floor and connected to required utilities.

Modeled gas consumed means the quantity of gas used during wafer/substrate processing over some period based on a verified facility-specific engineering model used to apportion gas consumption.

Nameplate capacity means the full and proper charge of chemical specified by the equipment manufacturer to achieve the equipment's specified performance. The nameplate capacity is typically indicated on the equipment's nameplate; it is not necessarily the actual charge, which may be influenced by leakage and other emissions.

Operational mode means the time in which an abatement system is properly installed, maintained, and operated according to the site maintenance plan for abatement systems as required in §98.94(f)(1) and defined in §98.97(d)(9). This includes being properly operated within the range of parameters as specified in the site maintenance plan for abatement systems.

Plasma etching is a process type that consists of any production process using fluorinated GHG reagents to selectively remove materials from a substrate during electronics manufacturing. The materials removed may include SiO2, SiOX-based or fully organic-based thin-film material, SiN, SiON, Si3N4, SiC, SiCO, SiCN, etc. (represented by the general chemical formula, SiwOXNyXz where w, x, y and z are zero or integers and X may be some other element such as carbon), substrate, or metal films (such as aluminum or tungsten).

Process sub-type is a set of similar manufacturing steps, more closely related within a broad process type. For example, the chamber cleaning process type includes in-situ plasma chamber cleaning, remote plasma chamber cleaning, and in-situ thermal chamber cleaning sub-types.

Process types are broad groups of manufacturing steps used at a facility associated with substrate (e.g., wafer) processing during device manufacture for which fluorinated GHG emissions and fluorinated GHG consumption is calculated and reported. The process types are Plasma etching/Wafer Cleaning and Chamber cleaning.

Properly measured destruction or removal efficiency means destruction or removal efficiencies measured in accordance with EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), and, if applicable, Appendix A to this subpart, or by an alternative method approved by the Administrator as specified in §98.94(k).

The Random Sampling Abatement System Testing Program (RSASTP) means the required frequency for measuring the destruction or removal efficiencies of abatement systems in order to apply properly measured destruction or removal efficiencies to report controlled emissions.

Redundant abatement systems means a system that is specifically designed, installed and operated for the purpose of destroying fluorinated GHGs and N2O gases, or for which the destruction or removal efficiency for a fluorinated GHG or N2O has been properly measured according to the procedures under §98.94(f)(4), and that is used as a backup to the main fluorinated GHGs and N2O abatement system during those times when the main system is not functioning or operating in accordance with design and operating specifications.

Repeatable means that the variables used in the formulas for the facility's engineering model for gas apportioning factors are based on observable and measurable quantities that govern gas consumption rather than engineering judgment about those quantities or gas consumption.

Representative operating levels means (for purposes of verification of the apportionment model or for determining the appropriate conditions for stack testing) operating the fab, in terms of substrate starts for the period of testing or monitoring, at no less than 50 percent of installed production capacity or no less than 70 percent of the average production rate for the reporting year, where production rate for the reporting year is represented in average monthly substrate starts. For the purposes of stack testing, the period for determining the representative operating level must be the period ending on the same date on which testing is concluded.

Stack system means one or more stacks that are connected by a common header or manifold, through which a fluorinated GHG-containing gas stream originating from one or more fab processes is, or has the potential to be, released to the atmosphere. For purposes of this subpart, stack systems do not include emergency vents or bypass stacks through which emissions are not usually vented under typical operating conditions.

Trigger point for change out means the residual weight or pressure of a gas container type that a facility uses as an indicator that operators need to change out that gas container with a full container. The trigger point is not the actual residual weight or pressure of the gas remaining in the cylinder that has been replaced.

Unabated emissions means a gas stream containing fluorinated GHG or N2O that has exited the process, but which has not yet been introduced into an abatement system to reduce the mass of fluorinated GHG or N2O in the stream. If the emissions from the process are not routed to an abatement system, or are routed to an abatement device that is not in an operational mode, unabated emissions are those fluorinated GHG or N2O released to the atmosphere.

Uptime means the ratio of the total time during which the abatement system is in an operational mode, to the total time during which production process tool(s) connected to that abatement system are normally in operation.

Wafer cleaning is a process type that consists of any production process using fluorinated GHG reagents to clean wafers at any step during production.

Wafer passes is a count of the number of times a wafer substrate is processed in a specific process sub-type, or type. The total number of wafer passes over a reporting year is the number of wafer passes per tool multiplied by the number of operational process tools in use during the reporting year.

Wafer starts means the number of fresh wafers that are introduced into the fabrication sequence each month. It includes test wafers, which means wafers that are exposed to all of the conditions of process characterization, including but not limited to actual etch conditions or actual film deposition conditions.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012; 78 FR 68220, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-1 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors for Threshold Applicability Determination

Product typeEmission factors EFi
CF4C2F6CHF3C3F8NF3SF6
Semiconductors (kg/m2)0.901.000.040.050.040.20
LCD (g/m2)0.50NANANA0.904.00
MEMS (kg/m2)NANANANANA1.02

Notes: NA denotes not applicable based on currently available information.

[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68221, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98—Examples of Fluorinated GHGs Used by the Electronics Industry

Product typeFluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids used during manufacture
ElectronicsCF4, C2F6, C3F8, c-C4F8, c-C4F8O, C4F6, C5F8, CHF3, CH2F2, NF3, SF6, and fluorinated HTFs (CF3-(O-CF(CF3)-CF2)n-(O-CF2)m-O-CF3, CnF2n+2, CnF2n+1(O)CmF2m+1, CnF2nO, (CnF2n+1)3N).

[77 FR 10381, Feb. 22, 2012]

Table I-3 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 150 mm and 200 mm Wafer Sizes

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[78 FR 68221, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-4 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for 300 mm and 450 mm Wafer Size

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[78 FR 68221, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing

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[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68225, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing

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[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68225, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-7 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing

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[75 FR 74818, Dec. 1, 2010, as amended at 78 FR 68226, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98— Default Emission Factors (1-UN2O,j) for N2O Utilization (UN2O,j)

Process type factorsN2O
CVD 1-Ui0.8
Other Manufacturing Process 1-Ui1.0

Table I-9 to Subpart I of Part 98—Methods and Procedures for Conducting Emissions Test for Stack Systems

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[78 FR 68227, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-10 to Subpart I of Part 98—Maximum Field Detection Limits Applicable to Fluorinated GHG Concentration Measurements for Stack Systems

Fluorinated GHG AnalyteMaximum field
detection
limit (ppbv)
CF420
C2F620
C3F820
C4F620
C5F820
c-C4F820
CH2F240
CH3F40
CHF320
NF320
SF64
Other fully fluorinated GHGs20
Other fluorinated GHGs40

ppbv—Parts per billion by volume.

[78 FR 68228, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-11 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (150 mm and 200 mm Wafers)

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[78 FR 68229, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-12 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for Semiconductor Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method (300 mm and 450 mm Wafers)

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[78 FR 68230, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-13 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method

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[78 FR 68231, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-14 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method

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[78 FR 68232, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-15 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing for Use With the Stack Test Method

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[78 FR 68233, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-16 to Subpart I of Part 98—Default Emission Destruction or Removal Efficiency (DRE) Factors for Electronics Manufacturing

Manufacturing type/process type/gasDefault
DRE
(percent)
MEMS, LCDs, and PV Manufacturing60
Semiconductor Manufacturing:
Plasma Etch/Wafer Clean Process Type:
CF475
CH3F97
CHF397
CH2F297
C2F697
C3F897
C4F697
C4F897
C5F897
SF697
NF396
All other carbon-based plasma etch/wafer clean fluorinated GHG60
Chamber Clean Process Type:
NF388
All other chamber clean fluorinated GHG60
N2O Processes:
CVD and all other N2O-using processes60

[78 FR 68234, Nov. 13, 2013]

Table I-17 to Subpart I of Part 98—Expected and Possible By-Products for Electronics Manufacturinglg

For each stack system for which you use the “stack test method” to calculate annual emissions, you must measure the following:If emissions are detected intermittently, use the
following procedures:
If emissions are not detected, use the
following procedures:
Expected By-products:
   CF4
   C2F6
   CHF3
   CH2F2
   CH3F
Use the measured concentration for “Xksm” in Equation I-18 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for the fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” when the fluorinated GHG is not detectedUse one-half of the field detection limit you determined for the fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” in Equation I-18.
Possible By-products:
   C3F8
   C4F6
   c-C4F8
   C5F8
Use the measured concentration for “Xksm” in Equation I-18 when available and use one-half of the field detection limit you determined for the fluorinated GHG according to §98.94(j)(2) for the value of “Xksm” when the fluorinated GHG is not detectedAssume zero emissions for that fluorinated GHG for the tested stack system.

[78 FR 68234, Nov. 13, 2013]

Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 98—Alternative Procedures for Measuring Point-of-Use Abatement Device Destruction or Removal Efficiency

If you are measuring destruction or removal efficiency of a point-of-use abatement device according to EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) as specified in §98.94(f)(4), you may follow the alternative procedures specified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this appendix.

(a) In place of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry protocol requirements specified in section 2.2.4 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you must conduct mass spectrometry testing in accordance with the provisions in paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(15) of this appendix.

(1) Detection limits. The mass spectrometer chosen for this application must have the necessary sensitivity to detect the selected effluent species at or below the maximum field detection limits specified in Table 3 of section 2.2.7 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(2) Sampling location. The sample at the inlet of the point-of-use abatement device must be taken downstream of the process tool and pump package. The sample exhaust must be vented back into the corrosive house ventilation system at a point downstream of the sample inlet location.

(3) Sampling conditions. For etch processes, destruction or removal efficiencies must be determined while etching a substrate (product, dummy, or test). For chemical vapor deposition processes, destruction or removal efficiencies must be determined during a chamber clean after deposition (destruction or removal efficiencies must not be determined in a clean chamber). All sampling must be performed non-intrusively during wafer processing. Samples must be drawn through the mass spectrometer source by an external sample pump. Because of the volatility, vapor pressure, stability and inertness of CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CHF3, NF3, and SF6, the sample lines do not need to be heated.

(4) Mass spectrometer parameters. The specific mass spectrometer operating conditions such as electron energy, secondary electron multiplier voltage, emission current, and ion focusing voltage must be selected according to the specifications provided by the mass spectrometer manufacturer, the mass spectrometer system manual, basic mass spectrometer textbook, or other such sources. The mass spectrometer responses to each of the target analytes must all be calibrated under the same mass spectrometer operating conditions.

(5) Flow rates. A sample flow rate of 0.5-1.5 standard liters per minute (slm) must be drawn from the process tool exhaust stream under study.

(6) Sample frequency. The mass spectrometer sampling frequency for etch processes must be in the range of 0.5 to 1 cycles per second, and for chemical vapor deposition processes must be in the range of 0.25 to 0.5 cycles per second. As an alternative you may use the sampling frequencies specified in section 2.2.4 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(7) Dynamic dilution calibration parameters. The quadrupole mass spectrometer must be calibrated for both mass location and response to analytes. A dynamic dilution calibration system may be used to perform both types of mass spectrometer system calibrations using two mass flow controllers. Use one mass flow controller to regulate the flow rate of the standard component used to calibrate the system and the second mass flow controller to regulate the amount of diluent gas used to mix with the standard to generate the calibration curve for each compound of interest. The mass flow controller must be calibrated using the single component gas being used with them, for example, nitrogen (N2) for the diluent. A mass flow controller used with calibration mixtures must be calibrated with the calibration mixture balance gas (for example, N2 or He) if the analyte components are 2 percent or less of the volume of the sample. All calibration mixtures must be National Institute of Standards and Technology Traceable gases or equivalent. They must be calibrated over their range of use and must be operated in their experimentally determined dynamic linear range. If compressed gas standards cannot be brought into the fab, metered gas flows of target compounds into the process chamber, under no thermal or plasma conditions and with no wafer(s) present, and with no process emissions from other tools contributing to the sample location, must then be performed throughout the appropriate concentration ranges to derive calibration curves for the subsequent destruction or removal efficiency tests.

(8) Mass location calibration. A mixture containing 1 percent He, Ar, Kr, and Xe in a balance gas of nitrogen must be used to assure the alignment of the quadrupole mass filter (see EPA Method 205 at 40 CFR part 51, appendix M as reference). The mass spectrometer must be chosen so that the mass range is sufficient to detect the predominant peaks of the components under study.

(9) Quadrupole mass spectrometer response calibration. A calibration curve must be generated for each compound of interest.

(10) Calibration frequency. The mass spectrometer must be calibrated at the start of testing a given process. The calibration must be checked at the end of testing.

(11) Calibration range. The mass spectrometer must be calibrated over the expected concentration range of analytes using a minimum of five concentrations including a zero. The zero point is defined as diluent containing no added analyte.

(12) Operating procedures. You must follow the operating procedures specified in paragraphs (a)(12)(i) through (v) of this appendix.

(i) You must perform a qualitative mass calibration by running a standard (or by flowing chamber gases under non-process conditions) containing stable components such as Ar, Kr, and Xe that provide predominant signals at m/e values distributed throughout the mass range to be used. You must adjust the quadrupole mass filter as needed to align with the inert gas fragments.

(ii) You must quantitatively calibrate the quadrupole mass spectrometer for each analyte of interest. The analyte concentrations during calibration must include the expected concentrations in the process effluent. The calibration must be performed under the same operating conditions, such as inlet pressure, as when sampling process exhaust. If the calibration inlet pressure differs from the sampling inlet pressure then the relationship between inlet pressure and quadrupole mass spectrometer signal response must be empirically determined and applied to correct for any differences between calibration and process emissions monitoring data.

(iii) To determine the response time of the instrument to changes in a process, a process gas such as C2F6 must be turned on at the process tool for a fixed period of time (for example, 20 seconds), after which the gas is shut off. The sample flow rate through the system must be adjusted so that the signal increases to a constant concentration within a few seconds and decreases to background levels also within a few seconds.

(iv) You must sample the process effluent through the quadrupole mass spectrometer and acquire data for the required amount of time to track the process, as determined in paragraph (a)(12)(iii) of this appendix. You must set the sample frequency to monitor the changes in the process as specified in paragraph (a)(6) of this appendix. You must repeat this for at least five substrates on the same process and calculate the average and standard deviation of the analyte concentration.

(v) You must repeat the quantitative calibration at the conclusion of sampling to identify any drifts in quadrupole mass spectrometer sensitivity. If drift is observed, you must use an internal standard to correct for changes in sensitivity.

(13) Sample analysis. To determine the concentration of a specific component in the sample, you must divide the ion intensity of the sample response by the calibrated response factor for each component.

(14) Deconvolution of interfering peaks. The effects of interfering peaks must be deconvoluted from the mass spectra for each target analyte.

(15) Calculations. Plot ion intensity versus analyte concentration for a given compound obtained when calibrating the analytical system. Determine the slope and intercept for each calibrated species to obtain response factors with which to calculate concentrations in the sample. For an acceptable calibration, the R2 value of the calibration curve must be at least 0.98.

(b) In place of the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy protocol requirements specified in section 2.2.4 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you may conduct Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy testing in accordance with the provisions in paragraph (b)(1) through (17) of this appendix, including the laboratory study phase described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (7), and the field study phase described in paragraphs (b)(8) through (17) of this appendix.

(1) Conformance with provisions associated with the Calibration Transfer Standard. This procedure calls for the use of a calibration transfer standard in a number of instances. The use of a calibration transfer standard is necessary to validate optical pathlength and detector response for spectrometers where cell temperature, cell pressure, and cell optical pathlength are potentially variable. For fixed pathlength spectrometers capable of controlling cell temperature and pressure to within ± 10 percent of a desired set point, the use of a calibration transfer standard, as described in paragraphs (b)(2) to (17) this appendix is not required.

(2) Defining spectroscopic conditions. Define a set of spectroscopic conditions under which the field studies and subsequent field applications are to be carried out. These include the minimum instrumental line-width, spectrometer wave number range, sample gas temperature, sample gas pressure, absorption pathlength, maximum sampling system volume (including the absorption cell), minimum sample flow rate, and maximum allowable time between consecutive infrared analyses of the effluent.

(3) Criteria for reference spectral libraries. On the basis of previous emissions test results and/or process knowledge (including the documentation of results of any initial and subsequent tests, and the final reports required in §98.97(d)(4)(i)), estimate the maximum concentrations of all of the analytes in the effluent and their minimum concentrations of interest (those concentrations below which the measurement of the compounds is of no importance to the analysis). Values between the maximum expected concentration and the minimum concentration of interest are referred to below as the “expected concentration range.” A minimum of three reference spectra is sufficient for a small expected concentration range (e.g., a difference of 30 percent of the range between the low and high ends of the range), but a minimum of four spectra are needed where the range is greater, especially for concentration ranges that may differ by orders of magnitude. If the measurement method is not linear then multiple linear ranges may be necessary. If this approach is adopted, then linear range must be demonstrated to pass the required quality control. When the set of spectra is ordered according to absorbance, the absorbance levels of adjacent reference spectra should not differ by more than a factor of six. Reference spectra for each analyte should be available at absorbance levels that bracket the analyte's expected concentration range; minimally, the spectrum whose absorbance exceeds each analyte's expected maximum concentration or is within 30 percent of it must be available. The reference spectra must be collected at or near the same temperature and pressure at which the sample is to be analyzed under. The gas sample pressure and temperature must be continuously monitored during field testing and you must correct for differences in temperature and pressure between the sample and reference spectra. Differences between the sample and reference spectra conditions must not exceed 50 percent for pressure and 40 °C for temperature.

(4) Spectra without reference libraries. If reference spectral libraries meeting the criteria in paragraph (b)(3) of this appendix do not exist for all the analytes and interferants or cannot be accurately generated from existing libraries exhibiting lower minimum instrumental line-width values than those proposed for the testing, prepare the required spectra according to the procedures specified in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) and (ii) of this appendix.

(i) Reference spectra at the same absorbance level (to within 10 percent) of independently prepared samples must be recorded. The reference samples must be prepared from neat forms of the analyte or from gas standards of the highest quality commonly available from commercial sources. Either barometric or volumetric methods may be used to dilute the reference samples to the required concentrations, and the equipment used must be independently calibrated to ensure suitable accuracy. Dynamic and static reference sample preparation methods are acceptable, but dynamic preparations must be used for reactive analytes. Any well characterized absorption pathlength may be employed in recording reference spectra, but the temperature and pressure of the reference samples should match as closely as possible those of the proposed spectroscopic conditions.

(ii) If a mercury cadmium telluride or other potentially non-linear detector (i.e., a detector whose response vs. total infrared power is not a linear function over the range of responses employed) is used for recording the reference spectra, you must correct for the effects of this type of response on the resulting concentration values. As needed, spectra of a calibration transfer standard must be recorded with the laboratory spectrometer system to verify the absorption pathlength and other aspects of the system performance. All reference spectral data must be recorded in interferometric form and stored digitally.

(5) Sampling system preparation. Construct a sampling system suitable for delivering the proposed sample flow rate from the effluent source to the infrared absorption cell. For the compounds of interest, the surfaces of the system exposed to the effluent stream may need to be stainless steel or Teflon; because of the potential for generation of inorganic automated gases, glass surfaces within the sampling system and absorption cell may need to be Teflon-coated. The sampling system should be able to deliver a volume of sample that results in a necessary response time.

(6) Preliminary analytical routines. For the proposed absorption pathlength to be used in actual emissions testing, you must prepare an analysis method containing of all the effluent compounds at their expected maximum concentrations plus the field calibration transfer standard compound at 20 percent of its full concentration as needed.

(7) Documentation. The laboratory techniques used to generate reference spectra and to convert sample spectral information to compound concentrations must be documented. The required level of detail for the documentation is that which allows an independent analyst to reproduce the results from the documentation and the stored interferometric data.

(8) Spectroscopic system performance. The performance of the proposed spectroscopic system, sampling system, and analytical method must be rigorously examined during and after a field study. Several iterations of the analysis method may need to be applied depending on observed concentrations, absorbance intensities, and interferences. During the field study, all the sampling and analytical procedures envisioned for future field applications must be documented. Additional procedures not required during routine field applications, notably dynamic spiking studies of the analyte gases, may be performed during the field study. These additional procedures need to be performed only once if the results are acceptable and if the effluent sources in future field applications prove suitably similar to those chosen for the field study. If changes in the effluent sources in future applications are noted and require substantial changes to the analytical equipment and/or conditions, a separate field study must be performed for the new set of effluent source conditions. All data recorded during the study must be retained and documented, and all spectral information must be permanently stored in interferometric form.

(9) System installation. The spectroscopic and sampling sub-systems must be assembled and installed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. For the field study, the length of the sample lines used must not be less than the maximum length envisioned for future field applications. The system must be given sufficient time to stabilize before testing begins.

(10) Pre-Test calibration. Record a suitable background spectrum using pure nitrogen gas; alternatively, if the analytes of interest are in a sample matrix consistent with ambient air, it is beneficial to use an ambient air background to control interferences from water and carbon dioxide. For variable pathlength Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers, introduce a sample of the calibration transfer standard gas directly into the absorption cell at the expected sample pressure and record its absorbance spectrum (the “initial field calibration transfer standard spectrum”). Compare it to the laboratory calibration transfer standard spectra to determine the effective absorption pathlength. If possible, record spectra of field calibration gas standards (single component standards of the analyte compounds) and determine their concentrations using the reference spectra and analytical routines developed in paragraphs (b)(2) through (7) of this appendix; these spectra may be used instead of the reference spectra in actual concentration and uncertainty calculations.

(11) Deriving the calibration transfer standard gas from tool chamber gases. The calibration transfer standard gas may be derived by flowing appropriate semiconductor tool chamber gases under non-process conditions (no thermal or plasma conditions and with no wafer(s) present) if compressed gas standards cannot be brought on-site.

(12) Reactivity and response time checks. While sampling ambient air and continuously recording absorbance spectra, suddenly replace the ambient air flow with calibration transfer standard gas introduced as close as possible to the probe tip. Examine the subsequent spectra to determine whether the flow rate and sample volume allow the system to respond quickly enough to changes in the sampled gas. Should a corrosive or reactive gas be of interest in the sample matrix it would be beneficial to determine the reactivity in a similar fashion, if practical. Examine the subsequent spectra to ensure that the reactivities of the analytes with the exposed surfaces of the sampling system do not limit the time response of the analytical system. If a pressure correction routine is not automated, monitor the absorption cell temperature and pressure; verify that the (absolute) pressure remains within 2 percent of the pressure specified in the proposed system conditions.

(13) Analyte spiking. Analyte spiking must be performed. While sampling actual source effluent, introduce a known flow rate of calibration transfer standard gas into the sample stream as close as possible to the probe tip or between the probe and extraction line. Measure and monitor the total sample flow rate, and adjust the spike flow rate until it represents 10 percent to 20 percent of the total flow rate. After waiting until at least four absorption cell volumes have been sampled, record four spectra of the spiked effluent, terminate the calibration transfer standard spike flow, pause until at least four cell volumes are sampled, and then record four (unspiked) spectra. Repeat this process until 12 spiked and 12 unspiked spectra have been obtained. If a pressure correction routine is not automated, monitor the absorption cell temperature and pressure; verify that the pressure remains within 2 percent of the pressure specified in the proposed system conditions. Calculate the expected calibration transfer standard compound concentrations in the spectra and compare them to the values observed in the spectrum. This procedure is best performed using a spectroscopic tracer to calculate dilution (as opposed to measured flow rates) of the injected calibration transfer standard (or analyte). The spectroscopic tracer should be a component not in the gas matrix that is easily detectable and maintains a linear absorbance over a large concentration range. Repeat this spiking process with all effluent compounds that are potentially reactive with either the sampling system components or with other effluent compounds. The gas spike is delivered by a mass flow controller, and the expected concentration of analyte of interest (AOITheoretical) is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er13no13.028.gif

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Where:

AOITheoretical = Theoretical analyte of interest concentration (parts per million (ppm)).

Tracersample = Tracer concentration (ppm) as seen by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer during spiking.

Tracercylinder = The concentration (ppm) of tracer recorded during direct injection of the cylinder to the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer cell.

AOIcylinder = The supplier-certified concentration (ppm) of the analyte of interest gas standard.

AOInative = The native AOI concentration (ppm) of the effluent during stable conditions.

(14) Post-test calibration. At the end of a sampling run and at the end of the field study, record the spectrum of the calibration transfer standard gas. The resulting “final field calibration transfer standard spectrum” must be compared to the initial field calibration transfer standard spectrum to verify suitable stability of the spectroscopic system throughout the course of the field study.

(15) Amendment of analytical routines. The presence of unanticipated interferant compounds and/or the observation of compounds at concentrations outside their expected concentration ranges may necessitate the repetition of portions of the procedures in paragraphs (b)(2) through (14) of this appendix. Such amendments are allowable before final analysis of the data, but must be represented in the documentation required in paragraph (b)(16) of this appendix.

(16) Documentation. The sampling and spiking techniques used to generate the field study spectra and to convert sample spectral information to concentrations must be documented at a level of detail that allows an independent analyst to reproduce the results from the documentation and the stored interferometric data.

(17) Method application. When the required laboratory and field studies have been completed and if the results indicate a suitable degree of accuracy, the methods developed may be applied to practical field measurement tasks. During field applications, the procedures demonstrated in the field study specified in paragraphs (b)(8) through (16) of this appendix must be adhered to as closely as possible, with the following exceptions specified in paragraphs (b)(17)(i) through (iii) of this appendix:

(i) The sampling lines employed should be as short as practically possible and not longer than those used in the field study.

(ii) Analyte spiking and reactivity checks are required after the installation of or major repair to the sampling system or major change in sample matrix. In these cases, perform three spiked/unspiked samples with calibration transfer standard or a surrogate analyte on a daily basis if time permits and gas standards are easy to obtain and get on-site.

(iii) Sampling and other operational data must be recorded and documented as during the field study, but only the interferometric data needed to sufficiently reproduce actual test and spiking data must be stored permanently. The format of this data does not need to be interferograms but may be absorbance spectra or single beams.

(c) When using the flow and dilution measurement protocol specified in section 2.2.6 of EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), you may determine point-of-use abatement device total volume flow with the modifications specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this appendix.

(1) You may introduce the non-reactive, non-native gas used for determining total volume flow and dilution across the point-of-use abatement device at a location in the exhaust of the point-of-use abatement device. For abatement systems operating in a mode where specific F-GHG are not readily abated, you may introduce the non-reactive, non-native gas used for determining total volume flow and dilution across the point-of-use abatement device prior to the point-of-use abatement system; in this case, the tracer must be more difficult to destroy than the target compounds being measured based on the thermal stability of the tracer and target.

(2) You may select a location for downstream non-reactive, non-native gas analysis that complies with the requirements in this paragraph (c)(2) of this appendix. The sampling location should be traversed with the sampling probe measuring the non-reactive, non-native gas concentrations to ensure homogeneity of the non-reactive gas and point-of-use abatement device effluent (i.e., stratification test). To test for stratification, measure the non-reactive, non-native gas concentrations at three points on a line passing through the centroidal area. Space the three points at 16.7, 50.0, and 83.3 percent of the measurement line. Sample for a minimum of twice the system response time, determined according to paragraph (c)(3) of this appendix, at each traverse point. Calculate the individual point and mean non-reactive, non-native gas concentrations. If the non-reactive, non-native gas concentration at each traverse point differs from the mean concentration for all traverse points by no more than ±5.0 percent of the mean concentration, the gas stream is considered unstratified and you may collect samples from a single point that most closely matches the mean. If the 5.0 percent criterion is not met, but the concentration at each traverse point differs from the mean concentration for all traverse points by no more than ±10.0 percent of the mean, you may take samples from two points and use the average of the two measurements. Space the two points at 16.7, 50.0, or 83.3 percent of the measurement line. If the concentration at each traverse point differs from the mean concentration for all traverse points by more than ±10.0 percent of the mean but less than 20.0 percent, take samples from three points at 16.7, 50.0, and 83.3 percent of the measurement line and use the average of the three measurements. If the gas stream is found to be stratified because the 20.0 percent criterion for a 3-point test is not met, locate and sample the non-reactive, non-native gas from traverse points for the test in accordance with Sections 11.2 and 11.3 of EPA Method 1 in 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A-1. A minimum of 40 non-reactive gas concentration measurements will be collected at three to five different injected non-reactive gas flow rates for determination of point-of-use abatement device effluent flow. The total volume flow of the point-of-use abatement device exhaust will be calculated consistent with the EPA 430-R-10-003 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) Equations 1 through 7.

(3) You must determine the measurement system response time according to paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (iii) of this appendix.

(i) Before sampling begins, introduce ambient air at the probe upstream of all sample condition components in system calibration mode. Record the time it takes for the measured concentration of a selected compound (for example, carbon dioxide) to reach steady state.

(ii) Introduce nitrogen in the system calibration mode and record the time required for the concentration of the selected compound to reach steady state.

(iii) Observe the time required to achieve 95 percent of a stable response for both nitrogen and ambient air. The longer interval is the measurement system response time.

[78 FR 68234, Nov. 13, 2013]

Subpart J [Reserved]

Subpart K—Ferroalloy Production

§98.110   Definition of the source category.

The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum, ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal.

§98.111   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a ferroalloy production process and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (2).

§98.112   GHGs to report.

You must report:

(a) Process CO2 emissions from each electric arc furnace (EAF) used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in §98.110, and process CH4 emissions from each EAF that is used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 to subpart K.

(b) CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each stationary combustion unit following the requirements of subpart C of this part. You must report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010]

§98.113   Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each EAF not subject to paragraph (c) of this section using the procedures in either paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. For each EAF also subject to annual process CH4 emissions reporting, you must also calculate and report the annual process CH4 emissions from the EAF using the procedures in paragraph (d) of this section.

(a) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(b) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions using the procedure in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.

(1) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions from EAFs by operating and maintaining a CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology specified in §98.33(a)(4) and the applicable requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources).

(2) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions from the EAFs using the carbon mass balance procedure specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(2)(ii) of this section.

(i) For each EAF, determine the annual mass of carbon in each carbon-containing input and output material for the EAF and estimate annual process CO2 emissions from the EAF using Equation K-1 of this section. Carbon-containing input materials include carbon electrodes and carbonaceous reducing agents. If you document that a specific input or output material contributes less than 1 percent of the total carbon into or out of the process, you do not have to include the material in your calculation using Equation K-1 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.045.gif

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Where:

ECO2 = Annual process CO2 emissions from an individual EAF (metric tons).

44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to carbon.

2000/2205 = Conversion factor to convert tons to metric tons.

Mreducing agenti = Annual mass of reducing agent i fed, charged, or otherwise introduced into the EAF (tons).

Creducing agenti = Carbon content in reducing agent i (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Melectrodem = Annual mass of carbon electrode m consumed in the EAF (tons).

Celectrodem = Carbon content of the carbon electrode m (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Moreh = Annual mass of ore h charged to the EAF (tons).

Coreh = Carbon content in ore h (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Mfluxj = Annual mass of flux material j fed, charged, or otherwise introduced into the EAF to facilitate slag formation (tons).

Cfluxj = Carbon content in flux material j (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Mproductk = Annual mass of alloy product k tapped from EAF (tons).

Cproductk = Carbon content in alloy product k. (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

Mnon-product outgoingl = Annual mass of non-product outgoing material l removed from EAF (tons).

Cnon-product outgoingl = Carbon content in non-product outgoing material l (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

(ii) Determine the combined annual process CO2 emissions from the EAFs at your facility using Equation K-2 of this section.

eCFR graphic er30oc09.046.gif

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Where:

CO2 = Annual process CO2 emissions from EAFs at facility used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in §98.110 (metric tons).

ECO2k = Annual process CO2 emissions calculated from EAF k calculated using Equation K-1 of this section (metric tons).

k = Total number of EAFs at facility used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in §98.110.

(c) If GHG emissions from an EAF are vented through the same stack as any combustion unit or process equipment that reports CO2 emissions using a CEMS that complies with the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources), then the calculation methodology in paragraph (b) of this section shall not be used to calculate process emissions. The owner or operator shall report under this subpart the combined stack emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.33(a)(4) and all associated requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part.

(d) For the EAFs at your facility used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 of this subpart, you must calculate and report the annual CH4 emissions using the procedure specified in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) For each EAF, determine the annual CH4 emissions using Equation K-3 of this section.

eCFR graphic er29no13.014.gif

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Where:

ECH4 = Annual process CH4 emissions from an individual EAF (metric tons).

Mproducti = Annual mass of alloy product i produced in the EAF (tons).

2/2205 = Conversion factor to convert kg CH4/ton of product to metric tons CH4.

EFproducti = CH4 emission factor for alloy product i from Table K-1 in this subpart (kg of CH4 emissions per metric ton of alloy product i).

(2) Determine the combined process CH4 emissions from the EAFs at your facility using Equation K-4 of this section:

eCFR graphic er30oc09.048.gif

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Where:

CH4 = Annual process CH4 emissions from EAFs at facility used for the production of ferroalloys listed in Table K-1 of this subpart (metric tons).

ECH4j = Annual process CH4 emissions from EAF j calculated using Equation K-3 of this section (metric tons).

j = Total number of EAFs at facility used for the production of ferroalloys listed in Table K-1 of this subpart.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66461, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71954, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.114   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

If you determine annual process CO2 emissions using the carbon mass balance procedure in §98.113(b)(2), you must meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(a) Determine the annual mass for each material used for the calculations of annual process CO2 emissions using Equation K-1 of this subpart by summing the monthly mass for the material determined for each month of the calendar year. The monthly mass may be determined using plant instruments used for accounting purposes, including either direct measurement of the quantity of the material placed in the unit or by calculations using process operating information.

(b) For each material identified in paragraph (a) of this section, you must determine the average carbon content of the material consumed, used, or produced in the calendar year using the methods specified in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section. If you document that a specific process input or output contributes less than one percent of the total mass of carbon into or out of the process, you do not have to determine the monthly mass or annual carbon content of that input or output.

(1) Information provided by your material supplier.

(2) Collecting and analyzing at least three representative samples of the material inputs and outputs each year. The carbon content of the material must be analyzed at least annually using the standard methods (and their QA/QC procedures) specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(iii) of this section, as applicable.

(i) ASTM E1941-04, Standard Test Method for Determination of Carbon in Refractory and Reactive Metals and Their Alloys (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) for analysis of metal ore and alloy product.

(ii) ASTM D5373-08 Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal (incorporated by reference, see §98.7), for analysis of carbonaceous reducing agents and carbon electrodes.

(iii) ASTM C25-06, Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime, and Hydrated Lime (incorporated by reference, see §98.7) for analysis of flux materials such as limestone or dolomite.

§98.115   Procedures for estimating missing data.

A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations in §98.113 is required. Therefore, whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable, a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as specified in the paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. You must document and keep records of the procedures used for all such estimates.

(a) If you determine CO2 emissions for the EAFs at your facility using the carbon mass balance procedure in §98.113(b), 100 percent data availability is required for the carbon content of the input and output materials. You must repeat the test for average carbon contents of inputs according to the procedures in §98.114(b) if data are missing.

(b) For missing records of the monthly mass of carbon-containing inputs and outputs, the substitute data value must be based on the best available estimate of the mass of the inputs and outputs from on all available process data or data used for accounting purposes, such as purchase records.

(c) If you are required to calculate CH4 emissions for an EAF at your facility as specified in §98.113(d), the estimate is based an annual quantity of certain alloy products, so 100 percent data availability is required.

§98.116   Data reporting requirements.

In addition to the information required by §98.3(c), each annual report must contain the information specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, as applicable:

(a) Annual facility ferroalloy product production capacity (tons).

(b) Annual production for each ferroalloy product identified in §98.110, from each EAF (tons).

(c) Total number of EAFs at facility used for production of ferroalloy products.

(d) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions, then you must report under this subpart the relevant information required by §98.36 for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology and the following information specified in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(3) of this section.

(1) Annual process CO2 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy product identified in §98.110.

(2) Annual process CH4 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 of this subpart (metric tons).

(3) Identification number of each EAF.

(e) If a CEMS is not used to measure CO2 process emissions, and the carbon mass balance procedure is used to determine CO2 emissions according to the requirements in §98.113(b), then you must report the following information specified in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(7) of this section.

(1) Annual process CO2 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy identified in §98.110 (metric tons).

(2) Annual process CH4 emissions (in metric tons) from each EAF used for the production of any ferroalloy listed in Table K-1 of this subpart.

(3) Identification number for each material.

(4) Annual material quantity for each material included for the calculation of annual process CO2 emissions for each EAF.

(5) Annual average of the carbon content determinations for each material included for the calculation of annual process CO2 emissions for each EAF (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction).

(6) List the method used for the determination of carbon content for each material reported in paragraph (e)(5) of this section (e.g., supplier provided information, analyses of representative samples you collected).

(7) If you use the missing data procedures in §98.115(b), you must report how monthly mass of carbon-containing inputs and outputs with missing data was determined and the number of months the missing data procedures were used.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 66462, Oct. 28, 2010; 78 FR 71954, Nov. 29, 2013]

§98.117   Records that must be retained.

In addition to the records required by §98.3(g), you must retain the records specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section for each EAF, as applicable.

(a) If a CEMS is used to measure CO2 emissions according to the requirements in §98.113(a), then you must retain under this subpart the records required for the Tier 4 Calculation Methodology in §98.37 and the information specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section.

(1) Monthly EAF production quantity for each ferroalloy product (tons).

(2) Number of EAF operating hours each month.

(3) Number of EAF operating hours in a calendar year.

(b) If the carbon mass balance procedure is used to determine CO2 emissions according to the requirements in §98.113(b)(2), then you must retain records for the information specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section.

(1) Monthly EAF production quantity for each ferroalloy product (tons).

(2) Number of EAF operating hours each month.

(3) Number of EAF operating hours in a calendar year.

(4) Monthly material quantity consumed, used, or produced for each material included for the calculations of annual process CO2 emissions (tons).

(5) Average carbon content determined and records of the supplier provided information or analyses used for the determination for each material included for the calculations of annual process CO2 emissions.

(c) You must keep records that include a detailed explanation of how company records of measurements are used to estimate the carbon input and output to each EAF, including documentation of specific input or output materials excluded from Equation K-1 of this subpart that contribute less than 1 percent of the total carbon into or out of the process. You also must document the procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the measurements of materials fed, charged, or placed in an EAF including, but not limited to, calibration of weighing equipment and other measurement devices. The estimated accuracy of measurements made with these devices must also be recorded, and the technical basis for these estimates must be provided.

(d) If you are required to calculate CH4 emissions for the EAF as specified in §98.113(d), you must maintain records of the total amount of each alloy product produced for the specified reporting period, and the appropriate alloy-product specific emission factor used to calculate the CH4 emissions.

§98.118   Definitions.

All terms used of this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.

Table K-1 to Subpart K of Part 98—Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) CH4 Emission Factors

Alloy product produced in EAFCH4 emission factor
(kg CH4 per metric ton product)
EAF Operation
Batch-chargingSprinkle-chargingaSprinkle-charging and
>750 °Cb
Silicon metal1.51.20.7
Ferrosilicon 90%1.41.10.6
Ferrosilicon 75%1.31.00.5
Ferrosilicon 65%1.31.00.5

aSprinkle-charging is charging intermittently every minute.

bTemperature measured in off-gas channel downstream of the furnace hood.

Subpart L—Fluorinated Gas Production

Source: 75 FR 74831, Dec. 1, 2010, unless otherwise noted.

§98.120   Definition of the source category.

(a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23 during the production of HCFC-22.

(b) To produce a fluorinated gas means to manufacture a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical. Producing a fluorinated gas includes producing a fluorinated GHG as defined at §98.410(b). Producing a fluorinated gas also includes the manufacture of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) or hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) from any raw material or feedstock chemical, including manufacture of a CFC or HCFC as an isolated intermediate for use in a process that will result in the transformation of the CFC or HCFC either at or outside of the production facility. Producing a fluorinated gas does not include the reuse or recycling of a fluorinated gas, the creation of HFC-23 during the production of HCFC-22, the creation of intermediates that are created and transformed in a single process with no storage of the intermediates, or the creation of fluorinated GHGs that are released or destroyed at the production facility before the production measurement in §98.414(a).

§98.121   Reporting threshold.

You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a fluorinated gas production process that generates or emits fluorinated GHG and the facility meets the requirements of either §98.2(a)(1) or (a)(2). To calculate GHG emissions for comparison to the 25,000 metric ton CO2e per year emission threshold in §98.2(a)(2), calculate process emissions from fluorinated gas production using uncontrolled GHG emissions.

§98.122   GHGs to report.

(a) You must report CO2, CH4, and N2O combustion emissions from each stationary combustion unit. You must calculate and report these emissions under subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources) by following the requirements of subpart C.

(b) You must report under subpart O of this part (HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction) the emissions of HFC-23 from HCFC-22 production processes and HFC-23 destruction processes. Do not report the generation and emissions of HFC-23 from HCFC-22 production under this subpart.

(c) You must report the total mass of each fluorinated GHG emitted from:

(1) Each fluorinated gas production process and all fluorinated gas production processes combined.

(2) Each fluorinated gas transformation process that is not part of a fluorinated gas production process and all such fluorinated gas transformation processes combined, except report separately fluorinated GHG emissions from transformation processes where a fluorinated GHG reactant is produced at another facility.

(3) Each fluorinated gas destruction process that is not part of a fluorinated gas production process or a fluorinated gas transformation process and all such fluorinated gas destruction processes combined.

(4) Venting of residual fluorinated GHGs from containers returned from the field.

§98.123   Calculating GHG emissions.

For fluorinated gas production and transformation processes, you must calculate the fluorinated GHG emissions from each process using either the mass balance method specified in paragraph (b) of this section or the emission factor or emission calculation factor method specified in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section, as appropriate. For destruction processes that destroy fluorinated GHGs that were previously “produced” as defined at §98.410(b), you must calculate emissions using the procedures in paragraph (f) of this section. For venting of residual gas from containers (e.g., cylinder heels), you must calculate emissions using the procedures in paragraph (g) of this section.

(a) Default GWP value. In paragraphs (b)(1) and (c)(1) of this section and in §98.124(b)(8) and (c)(2), use a GWP of 2,000 for fluorinated GHGs that do not have GWPs listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, except as provided in paragraph §98.123(c)(1)(vi). Do not report CO2e emissions under §98.3(c)(4) for fluorinated GHGs that do not have GWPs listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

(b) Mass balance method. Before using the mass balance approach to estimate your fluorinated GHG emissions from a process, you must ensure that the process and the equipment and methods used to measure it meet either the error limits described in this paragraph and calculated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section or the requirements specified in paragraph §98.124(b)(8). If you choose to calculate the error limits, you must estimate the absolute and relative errors associated with using the mass balance approach on that process using Equations L-1 through L-4 of this section in conjunction with Equations L-5 through L-10 of this section. You may use the mass-balance approach to estimate emissions from the process if this calculation results in an absolute error of less than or equal to 3,000 metric tons CO2e per year or a relative error of less than or equal to 30 percent of the estimated CO2e fluorinated GHG emissions. If you do not meet either of the error limits or the requirements of paragraph §98.124(b)(8), you must use the emission factor approach detailed in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section to estimate emissions from the process.

(1) Error calculation. To perform the calculation, you must first calculate the absolute and relative errors associated with the quantities calculated using either Equations L-7 through L-10 of this section or Equation L-17 of this section. Alternatively, you may estimate these errors based on the variability of previous process measurements (e.g., the variability of measurements of stream concentrations), provided these measurements are representative of the current process and current measurement devices and techniques. Once errors have been calculated for the quantities in these equations, those errors must be used to calculate the errors in Equations L-6 and L-5 of this section. You may ignore the errors associated with Equations L-11, L-12, and L-13 of this section.

(i) Where the measured quantity is a mass, the error in the mass must be equated to the accuracy or precision (whichever is larger) of the flowmeter, scale, or combination of volumetric and density measurements at the flow rate or mass measured.

(ii) Where the measured quantity is a concentration of a stream component, the error of the concentration must be equated to the accuracy or precision (whichever is larger) with which you estimate the mean concentration of that stream component, accounting for the variability of the process, the frequency of the measurements, and the accuracy or precision (whichever is larger) of the analytical technique used to measure the concentration at the concentration measured. If the variability of process measurements is used to estimate the error, this variability shall be assumed to account both for the variability of the process and the precision of the analytical technique. Use standard statistical techniques such as the student's t distribution to estimate the error of the mean of the concentration measurements as a function of process variability and frequency of measurement.

(iii) Equation L-1 of this section provides the general formula for calculating the absolute errors of sums and differences where the sum, S, is the summation of variables measured, a, b, c, etc. (e.g., S = a + b + c):

eCFR graphic er01de10.019.gif

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where:

eSA = Absolute error of the sum, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

ea = Relative error of a, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

eb = Relative error of b, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

ec = Relative error of c, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

(iv) Equation L-2 of this section provides the general formula for calculating the relative errors of sums and differences:

eCFR graphic er01de10.020.gif

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where:

eSR = Relative error of the sum, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

eSA = Absolute error of the sum, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

a+b+c = Sum of the variables measured.

(v) Equation L-3 of this section provides the general formula for calculating the absolute errors of products (e.g., flow rates of GHGs calculated as the product of the flow rate of the stream and the concentration of the GHG in the stream), where the product, P, is the result of multiplying the variables measured, a, b, c, etc. (e.g., P = a*b*c):

eCFR graphic er01de10.021.gif

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where:

ePA = Absolute error of the product, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

ea = Relative error of a, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

eb = Relative error of b, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

ec = Relative error of c, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

(vi) Equation L-4 of this section provides the general formula for calculating the relative errors of products:

eCFR graphic er01de10.022.gif

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where:

ePR = Relative error of the product, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

ePA = Absolute error of the product, expressed as one half of a 95 percent confidence interval.

a*b*c = Product of the variables measured.

(vii) Calculate the absolute error of the emissions estimate in terms of CO2e by performing a preliminary estimate of the annual CO2e emissions of the process using the method in paragraph (b)(1)(viii) of this section. Multiply this result by the relative error calculated for the mass of fluorine emitted from the process in Equation L-6 of this section.

(viii) To estimate the annual CO2e emissions of the process for use in the error estimate, apply the methods set forth in paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(7) and (b)(9) through (b)(16) of this section to representative process measurements. If these process measurements represent less than one year of typical process activity, adjust the estimated emissions to account for one year of typical process activity. To estimate the terms FERd, FEP, and FEBk for use in the error estimate for Equations L-11, L-12, and L-13 of this section, you must either use emission testing, monitoring of emitted streams, and/or engineering calculations or assessments, or in the alternative assume that all fluorine is emitted in the form of the fluorinated GHG that has the highest GWP among the fluorinated GHGs that occur in more than trace concentrations in the process. To convert the fluorinated GHG emissions to CO2e, use Equation A-1 of §98.2. For fluorinated GHGs whose GWPs are not listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, use a default GWP of 2,000.

(2) The total mass of each fluorinated GHG emitted annually from each fluorinated gas production and each fluorinated GHG transformation process must be estimated by using Equation L-5 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.023.gif

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where:

EFGHGf = Total mass of each fluorinated GHG f emitted annually from production or transformation process i (metric tons).

ERp-FGHGf = Total mass of fluorinated GHG reactant f emitted from production process i over the period p (metric tons, calculated in Equation L-11 of this section).

EPp-FGHGf = Total mass of the fluorinated GHG product f emitted from production process i over the period p (metric tons, calculated in Equation L-12 of this section).

EBp-FGHGf = Total mass of fluorinated GHG by-product f emitted from production process i over the period p (metric tons, calculated in Equation L-13 of this section).

n = Number of concentration and flow measurement periods for the year.

(3) The total mass of fluorine emitted from process i over the period p must be estimated at least monthly by calculating the difference between the total mass of fluorine in the reactant(s) (or inputs, for processes that do not involve a chemical reaction) and the total mass of fluorine in the product (or outputs, for processes that do not involve a chemical reaction), accounting for the total mass of fluorine in any destroyed or recaptured streams that contain reactants, products, or by-products (or inputs or outputs). This calculation must be performed using Equation L-6 of this section. An element other than fluorine may be used in the mass-balance equation, provided the element occurs in all of the fluorinated GHGs fed into or generated by the process. In this case, the mass fractions of the element in the reactants, products, and by-products must be calculated as appropriate for that element.

eCFR graphic er01de10.024.gif

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where:

EF = Total mass of fluorine emitted from process i over the period p (metric tons).

Rd = Total mass of the fluorine-containing reactant d that is fed into process i over the period p (metric tons).

P = Total mass of the fluorine-containing product produced by process i over the period p (metric tons).

MFFRd = Mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d, calculated in Equation L-14 of this section.

MFFP = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product, calculated in Equation L-15 of this section.

FD = Total mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams from process i containing fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products over the period p, calculated in Equation L-7 of this section.

v = Number of fluorine-containing reactants fed into process i.

(4) The mass of total fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams containing fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products must be estimated at least monthly using Equation L-7 of this section unless you use the alternative approach provided in paragraph (b)(15) of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.025.gif

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where:

FD = Total mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams from process i containing fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products over the period p.

Pj = Mass of the fluorine-containing product removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p (calculated in Equation L-8 or L-9 of this section).

Bkj = Mass of fluorine-containing by-product k removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p (calculated in Equation L-8 or L-9 of this section).

Bkl = Mass of fluorine-containing by-product k removed from process i in stream l and recaptured over the period p.

Rdj = Mass of fluorine-containing reactant d removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p (calculated in Equation L-8 or L-9 of this section).

MFFRd = Mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d, calculated in Equation L-14 of this section.

MFFP = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product, calculated in Equation L-15 of this section.

MFFBk = Mass fraction of fluorine in by-product k, calculated in Equation L-16 of this section.

q = Number of streams destroyed in process i.

x = Number of streams recaptured in process i.

u = Number of fluorine-containing by-products generated in process i.

v = Number of fluorine-containing reactants fed into process i.

(5) The mass of each fluorinated GHG removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p (i.e., Pj, Bkj, or Rdj, as applicable) must be estimated by applying the destruction efficiency of the device that has been demonstrated for the fluorinated GHG f to fluorinated GHG f using Equation L-8 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.026.gif

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where:

MFGHGfj = Mass of fluorinated GHG f removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p. (This may be Pj, Bkj, or Rdj, as applicable.)

DEFGHGf = Destruction efficiency of the device that has been demonstrated for fluorinated GHG f in stream j (fraction).

CFGHGfj = Concentration (mass fraction) of fluorinated GHG f in stream j removed from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cF-GHGfj is equal to zero.

Sj = Mass removed in stream j from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p (metric tons).

(6) The mass of each fluorine-containing compound that is not a fluorinated GHG and that is removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p (i.e., Pj, Bkj, or Rdj, as applicable) must be estimated using Equation L-9 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.027.gif

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where:

MFCgj = Mass of non-GHG fluorine-containing compound g removed from process i in stream j and destroyed over the period p. (This may be Pj, Bkj, or Rdj, as applicable).

cFCgj = Concentration (mass fraction) of non-GHG fluorine-containing compound g in stream j removed from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cFCgj is equal to zero.

Sj = Mass removed in stream j from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p (metric tons).

(7) The mass of fluorine-containing by-product k removed from process i in stream l and recaptured over the period p must be estimated using Equation L-10 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.028.gif

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where:

Bkl = Mass of fluorine-containing by-product k removed from process i in stream l and recaptured over the period p (metric tons).

cBkl = Concentration (mass fraction) of fluorine-containing by-product k in stream l removed from process i and recaptured over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cBkl is equal to zero.

Sl = Mass removed in stream l from process i and recaptured over the period p (metric tons).

(8) To estimate the terms FERd, FEP, and FEBk for Equations L-11, L-12, and L-13 of this section, you must assume that the total mass of fluorine emitted, EF, estimated in Equation L-6 of this section, occurs in the form of the fluorinated GHG that has the highest GWP among the fluorinated GHGs that occur in more than trace concentrations in the process unless you possess emission characterization measurements showing otherwise. These emission characterization measurements must meet the requirements in paragraph (8)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section, as appropriate. The sum of the terms must equal 1. You must document the data and calculations that are used to speciate individual compounds and to estimate FERd, FEP, and FEBk. Exclude from your calculations the fluorine included in FD. For example, exclude fluorine-containing compounds that are not fluorinated GHGs and that result from the destruction of fluorinated GHGs by any destruction devices (e.g., the mass of HF created by combustion of an HFC). However, include emissions of fluorinated GHGs that survive the destruction process.

(i) If the calculations under paragraph (b)(1)(viii) of this section, or any subsequent measurements and calculations under this subpart, indicate that the process emits 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more, estimate the emissions from each process vent, considering controls, using the methods in §98.123(c)(1). You must characterize the emissions of any process vent that emits 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more as specified in §98.124(b)(4).

(ii) For other vents, including vents from processes that emit less than 25,000 metric tons CO2e, you must characterize emissions as specified in §98.124(b)(5).

(iii) For fluorine emissions that are not accounted for by vent estimates, you must characterize emissions as specified in §98.124(b)(6).

(9) The total mass of fluorine-containing reactant d emitted must be estimated at least monthly based on the total fluorine emitted and the fraction that consists of fluorine-containing reactants using Equation L-11 of this section. If the fluorine-containing reactant d is a non-GHG, you may assume that FERd is zero.

eCFR graphic er01de10.029.gif

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where:

ER-ip = Total mass of fluorine-containing reactant d that is emitted from process i over the period p (metric tons).

FERd = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of the fluorine-containing reactant d.

EF = Total mass of fluorine emissions from process i over the period p (metric tons), calculated in Equation L-6 of this section.

FEP = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of the fluorine-containing product.

FEBk = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of fluorine-containing by-product k.

MFFRd = Mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d, calculated in Equation L-14 of this section.

MFFP = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product, calculated in Equation L-15 of this section.

MFFBk = Mass fraction of fluorine in by-product k, calculation in Equation L-16 of this section.

u = Number of fluorine-containing by-products generated in process i.

v = Number of fluorine-containing reactants fed into process i.

(10) The total mass of fluorine-containing product emitted must be estimated at least monthly based on the total fluorine emitted and the fraction that consists of fluorine-containing products using Equation L-12 of this section. If the fluorine-containing product is a non-GHG, you may assume that FEP is zero.

eCFR graphic er01de10.030.gif

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where:

EP-ip = Total mass of fluorine-containing product emitted from process i over the period p (metric tons).

FEP = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of the fluorine-containing product.

EF = Total mass of fluorine emissions from process i over the period p (metric tons), calculated in Equation L-6 of this section.

FERd = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of fluorine-containing reactant d.

FEBk = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of fluorine-containing by-product k.

MFFRd = Mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d, calculated in Equation L-14 of this section.

MFFP = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product, calculated in Equation L-15 of this section.

MFFBk = Mass fraction of fluorine in by-product k, calculation in Equation L-16 of this section.

u = Number of fluorine-containing by-products generated in process i.

v = Number of fluorine-containing reactants fed into process i.

(11) The total mass of fluorine-containing by-product k emitted must be estimated at least monthly based on the total fluorine emitted and the fraction that consists of fluorine-containing by-products using Equation L-13 of this section. If fluorine-containing by-product k is a non-GHG, you may assume that FEBk is zero.

eCFR graphic er01de10.031.gif

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where:

EBk-ip = Total mass of fluorine-containing by-product k emitted from process i over the period p (metric tons).

FEBk = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of fluorine-containing by-product k.

FERd = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of fluorine-containing reactant d.

FEP = The fraction of the mass emitted that consists of the fluorine-containing product.

EF = Total mass of fluorine emissions from process i over the period p (metric tons), calculated in Equation L-6 of this section.

MFFRd = Mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d, calculated in Equation L-14 of this section.

MFFP = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product, calculated in Equation L-15 of this section.

MFFBk = Mass fraction of fluorine in by-product k, calculation in Equation L-16 of this section.

u = Number of fluorine-containing by-products generated in process i.

v = Number of fluorine-containing reactants fed into process i.

(12) The mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d must be estimated using Equation L-14 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.032.gif

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where:

MFFRd = Mass fraction of fluorine in reactant d (fraction).

MFRd = Moles fluorine per mole of reactant d.

AWF = Atomic weight of fluorine.

MWRd = Molecular weight of reactant d.

(13) The mass fraction of fluorine in the product must be estimated using Equation L-15 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.033.gif

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where:

MFFP = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product (fraction).

MFP = Moles fluorine per mole of product.

AWF = Atomic weight of fluorine.

MWP = Molecular weight of the product produced.

(14) The mass fraction of fluorine in by-product k must be estimated using Equation L-16 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.034.gif

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where:

MFFBk = Mass fraction of fluorine in the product (fraction).

MFBk = Moles fluorine per mole of by-product k.

AWF = Atomic weight of fluorine.

MWBk = Molecular weight of by-product k.

(15) Alternative for determining the mass of fluorine destroyed or recaptured. As an alternative to using Equation L-7 of this section as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, you may estimate at least monthly the total mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams containing fluorine-containing compounds (including all fluorine-containing reactants, products, and byproducts) using Equation L-17 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.035.gif

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where:

FD = Total mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams from process i containing fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products over the period p.

DEavgj = Weighted average destruction efficiency of the destruction device for the fluorine-containing compounds identified in destroyed stream j under §98.124(b)(4)(ii) and (5)(ii) (calculated in Equation L-18 of this section)(fraction).

cTFj = Concentration (mass fraction) of total fluorine in stream j removed from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cTFj is equal to zero.

Sj = Mass removed in stream j from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p (metric tons).

cTFl = Concentration (mass fraction) of total fluorine in stream l removed from process i and recaptured over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cBkl is equal to zero.

Sl = Mass removed in stream l from process i and recaptured over the period p.

q = Number of streams destroyed in process i.

x = Number of streams recaptured in process i.

(16) Weighted average destruction efficiency. For purposes of Equation L-17 of this section, calculate the weighted average destruction efficiency applicable to a destroyed stream using Equation L-18 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.036.gif

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where:

DEavgj = Weighted average destruction efficiency of the destruction device for the fluorine-containing compounds identified in destroyed stream j under 98.124(b)(4)(ii) or (b)(5)(ii), as appropriate.

DEFGHGf = Destruction efficiency of the device that has been demonstrated for fluorinated GHG f in stream j (fraction).

cFGHGfj = Concentration (mass fraction) of fluorinated GHG f in stream j removed from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cF-GHGfj is equal to zero.

cFCgj = Concentration (mass fraction) of non-GHG fluorine-containing compound g in stream j removed from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p. If this concentration is only a trace concentration, cFCgj is equal to zero.

Sj = Mass removed in stream j from process i and fed into the destruction device over the period p (metric tons).

MFFFGHGf = Mass fraction of fluorine in fluorinated GHG f, calculated in Equation L-14, L-15, or L-16 of this section, as appropriate.

MFFFCg = Mass fraction of fluorine in non-GHG fluorine-containing compound g, calculated in Equation L-14, L-15, or L-16 of this section, as appropriate.

w = Number of fluorinated GHGs in destroyed stream j.

y = Number of non-GHG fluorine-containing compounds in destroyed stream j.

(c) Emission factor and emission calculation factor methods. To use the method in this paragraph for batch processes, you must comply with either paragraph (c)(3) of this section (Emission Factor approach) or paragraph (c)(4) of this section (Emission Calculation Factor approach). To use the method in this paragraph for continuous processes, you must first make a preliminary estimate of the emissions from each individual continuous process vent under paragraph (c)(1) of this section. If your continuous process operates under different conditions as part of normal operations, you must also define the different operating scenarios and make a preliminary estimate of the emissions from the vent for each operating scenario. Then, compare the preliminary estimate for each continuous process vent (summed across operating scenarios) to the criteria in paragraph (c)(2) of this section to determine whether the process vent meets the criteria for using the emission factor method described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section or whether the process vent meets the criteria for using the emission calculation factor method described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. For continuous process vents that meet the criteria for using the emission factor method described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section and that have more than one operating scenario, compare the preliminary estimate for each operating scenario to the criteria in (c)(3)(ii) to determine whether an emission factor must be developed for that operating scenario.

(1) Preliminary estimate of emissions by process vent. You must estimate the annual CO2e emissions of fluorinated GHGs for each process vent within each operating scenario of a continuous process using the approaches specified in paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (c)(1)(ii) of this section, accounting for any destruction as specified in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. You must determine emissions of fluorinated GHGs by process vent by using measurements, by using calculations based on chemical engineering principles and chemical property data, or by conducting an engineering assessment. You may use previous measurements, calculations, and assessments if they represent current process operating conditions or process operating conditions that would result in higher fluorinated GHG emissions than the current operating conditions and if they were performed in accordance with paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(ii), and (c)(1)(iii) of this section, as applicable. You must document all data, assumptions, and procedures used in the calculations or engineering assessment and keep a record of the emissions determination as required by §98.127(a).

(i) Engineering calculations. For process vent emission calculations, you may use any of paragraphs (c)(1)(i)(A), (c)(1)(i)(B), or (c)(1)(i)(C) of this section.

(A) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Inventory Improvement Program, Volume II: Chapter 16, Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from Chemical Manufacturing Facilities, August 2007, Final (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(B) You may determine the fluorinated GHG emissions from any process vent within the process using the procedures specified in §63.1257(d)(2)(i) and (d)(3)(i)(B) of this chapter, except as specified in paragraphs (c)(1)(i)(B)(1) through (c)(1)(i)(B)(4) of this section. For the purposes of this subpart, use of the term “HAP” in §63.1257(d)(2)(i) and (d)(3)(i)(B) of this chapter means “fluorinated GHG”.

(1) To calculate emissions caused by the heating of a vessel without a process condenser to a temperature lower than the boiling point, you must use the procedures in §63.1257(d)(2)(i)(C)(3) of this chapter.

(2) To calculate emissions from depressurization of a vessel without a process condenser, you must use the procedures in §63.1257(d)(2)(i)(D)(10) of this chapter.

(3) To calculate emissions from vacuum systems, the terms used in Equation 33 to §63.1257(d)(2)(i)(E) of this chapter are defined as follows:

(i) Psystem = Absolute pressure of the receiving vessel.

(ii) Pi= Partial pressure of the fluorinated GHG determined at the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or at the conditions of the dedicated receiver.

(iii) Pj= Partial pressure of condensables (including fluorinated GHG) determined at the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or at the conditions of the dedicated receiver.

(iv) MWFluorinated GHG= Molecular weight of the fluorinated GHG determined at the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or at the conditions of the dedicated receiver.

(4) To calculate emissions when a vessel is equipped with a process condenser or a control condenser, you must use the procedures in §63.1257(d)(3)(i)(B) of this chapter, except as follows:

(i) You must determine the flowrate of gas (or volume of gas), partial pressures of condensables, temperature (T), and fluorinated GHG molecular weight (MWFluorinated GHG) at the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or at the conditions of the dedicated receiver.

(ii) You must assume that all of the components contained in the condenser exit vent stream are in equilibrium with the same components in the exit condensate stream (except for noncondensables).

(iii) You must perform a material balance for each component, if the condensate receiver composition is not known.

(iv) For the emissions from gas evolution, the term for time, t, must be used in Equation 12 to §63.1257(d)(2)(i)(B) of this chapter.

(v) Emissions from empty vessel purging must be calculated using Equation 36 to §63.1257(d)(2)(i)(H) of this chapter and the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or the conditions of the dedicated receiver.

(C) Commercial software products that follow chemical engineering principles (e.g., including the calculation methodologies in paragraphs (c)(1)(i)(A) and (c)(1)(i)(B) of this section).

(ii) Engineering assessments. For process vent emissions determinations, you may conduct an engineering assessment to calculate uncontrolled emissions. An engineering assessment includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(A) Previous test results, provided the tests are representative of current operating practices of the process.

(B) Bench-scale or pilot-scale test data representative of the process operating conditions.

(C) Maximum flow rate, fluorinated GHG emission rate, concentration, or other relevant parameters specified or implied within a permit limit applicable to the process vent.

(D) Design analysis based on chemical engineering principles, measureable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or properties.

(iii) Impact of destruction for the preliminary estimate. If the process vent is vented to a destruction device, you may reflect the impact of the destruction device on emissions. In your emissions estimate, account for the following:

(A) The destruction efficiencies of the device that have been demonstrated for the fluorinated GHGs in the vent stream for periods when the process vent is vented to the destruction device.

(B) Any periods when the process vent is not vented to the destruction device.

(iv) Use of typical recent values. In the calculations in paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(ii), and (c)(1)(iii) of this section, the values used for the expected process activity and for the expected fraction of that activity whose emissions will be vented to the properly functioning destruction device must be based on either typical recent values for the process or values that would overestimate emissions from the process, unless there is a compelling reason to adopt a different value (e.g., installation of a destruction device for a previously uncontrolled process). If there is such a reason, it must be documented in the GHG Monitoring Plan.

(v) GWPs. To convert the fluorinated GHG emissions to CO2e, use Equation A-1 of §98.2. For fluorinated GHGs whose GWPs are not listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, use a default GWP of 2,000 unless you submit a request to use other GWPs for those fluorinated GHGs in that process under paragraph (c)(1)(vi) of this section and we approve that request.

(vi) Request to use a GWP other than 2,000 for fluorinated GHGs whose GWPs are not listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part. If your process vent emits one or more fluorinated GHGs whose GWPs are not listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, that are emitted in quantities that, with a default GWP of 2,000, result in total calculated annual emissions equal to or greater than 10,000 metric tons CO2e for the vent, and that you believe have GWPs that would result in total calculated annual emissions less than 10,000 metric tons CO2e for the vent, you may submit a request to use provisional GWPs for these fluorinated GHGs for purposes of the calculations in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The request must be submitted by February 28, 2011 for a completeness determination and review by EPA.

(A) Contents of the request. You must include the following information in the request for each fluorinated GHG that does not have a GWP listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part and that constitutes more than one percent by mass of the stream emitted from the vent:

(1) The identity of the fluorinated GHG, including its chemical formula and, if available, CAS number.

(2) The estimated GWP of the fluorinated GHG.

(3) The data and analysis that supports your estimate of the GWP of the fluorinated GHG, including:

(i) Data and analysis related to the low-pressure gas phase infrared absorption spectrum of the fluorinated GHG.

(ii) Data and analysis related to the estimated atmospheric lifetime of the fluorinated GHG (reaction mechanisms and rates, including e.g., photolysis and reaction with atmospheric components such as OH, O3, CO, and water).

(iii) The radiative transfer analysis that integrates the lifetime and infrared absorption spectrum data to calculate the GWP.

(iv) Any published or unpublished studies of the GWP of the gas.

(4) The engineering calculations or assessments and underlying data that demonstrate that the process vent is calculated to emit less than 10,000 metric tons CO2e of this and other fluorinated GHGs only when the proposed provisional GWPs, not the default GWP of 2,000, are used for fluorinated GHGs whose GWPs are not listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part.

(B) Review and completeness determination by EPA. If EPA makes a preliminary determination that the request is complete, that it substantiates each of the provisional GWPs, and that it demonstrates that the process vent is calculated to emit less than 10,000 metric tons CO2e of this and other fluorinated GHGs only when the provisional GWPs, not the default GWP of 2,000, are used for fluorinated GHGs whose GWPs are not listed in Table A-1 to subpart A of this part, then EPA will publish a notice including the data and analysis submitted under paragraphs (c)(1)(vi)(A)(1) through (c)(1)(vi)(A)(3) of this section. If, after review of public comment on the notice, EPA finalizes its preliminary determination, then EPA will permit the facility to use the provisional GWPs for the calculations in paragraph (c)(1) of this section unless and until EPA determines that one or more of the provisional GWPs is in error and provides reasonable notice to the facility.

(2) Method selection for continuous process vents. (i) If the calculations under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, as well as any subsequent measurements and calculations under this subpart, indicate that the continuous process vent has fluorinated GHG emissions of less than 10,000 metric ton CO2e per year, summed across all operating scenarios, then you may comply with either paragraph (c)(3) of this section (Emission Factor approach) or paragraph (c)(4) of this section (Emission Calculation Factor approach).

(ii) If the continuous process vent does not meet the criteria in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, then you must comply with the emission factor method specified in paragraph (c)(3) (Emission Factor approach) of this section.

(A) You must conduct emission testing for process-vent-specific emission factor development before the destruction device unless the calculations you performed under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section indicate that the uncontrolled fluorinated GHG emissions that occur during periods when the process vent is not vented to the properly functioning destruction device are less than 10,000 metric tons CO2e per year. In this case, you may conduct emission testing after the destruction device to develop a process-vent-specific emission factor. If you do so, you must develop and apply an emission calculation factor under paragraph (c)(4) to estimate emissions during any periods when the process vent is not vented to the properly functioning destruction device.

(B) Regardless of the level of uncontrolled emissions, the emission testing for process-vent-specific emission factor development may be conducted on the outlet side of a wet scrubber in place for acid gas reduction, if one is in place, as long as there is no appreciable reduction in the fluorinated GHG.

(3) Process-vent-specific emission factor method. For each process vent, conduct an emission test and measure fluorinated GHG emissions from the process and measure the process activity, such as the feed rate, production rate, or other process activity rate, during the test as described in this paragraph (c)(3). Conduct the emission test according to the procedures in §98.124. All emissions test data and procedures used in developing emission factors must be documented according to §98.127. If more than one operating scenario applies to the process that contains the subject process vent, you must comply with either paragraph (3)(i) or paragraph (3)(ii) of this section.

(i) Conduct a separate emissions test for operation under each operating scenario.

(ii) Conduct an emissions test for the operating scenario that is expected to have the largest emissions in terms of CO2e (considering both activity levels and emission calculation factors) on an annual basis. Also conduct an emissions test for each additional operating scenario that is estimated to emit 10,000 metric tons CO2e or more annually from the vent and whose emission calculation factor differs by 15 percent or more from the emission calculation factor of the operating scenario that is expected to have the largest emissions (or of another operating scenario for which emission testing is performed), unless the difference between the operating scenarios is solely due to the application of a destruction device to emissions under one of the operating scenarios. For any other operating scenarios, adjust the process-vent specific emission factor developed for the operating scenario that is expected to have the largest emissions (or for another operating scenario for which emission testing is performed) using the approach in paragraph (c)(3)(viii) of this section.

(iii) You must measure the process activity, such as the process feed rate, process production rate, or other process activity rate, as applicable, during the emission test and calculate the rate for the test period, in kg (or another appropriate metric) per hour.

(iv) For continuous processes, you must calculate the hourly emission rate of each fluorinated GHG using Equation L-19 of this section and determine the hourly emission rate of each fluorinated GHG per process vent (and per operating scenario, as applicable) for the test run.

eCFR graphic er01de10.037.gif

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where:

EContPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, during the emission test during test run r (kg/hr).

CPV = Concentration of fluorinated GHG f during test run r of the emission test (ppmv).

MW = Molecular weight of fluorinated GHG f (g/g-mole).

QPV = Flow rate of the process vent stream during test run r of the emission test (m3/min).

SV = Standard molar volume of gas (0.0240 m3/g-mole at 68 °F and 1 atm).

1/103 = Conversion factor (1 kilogram/1,000 grams).

60/1 = Conversion factor (60 minutes/1 hour).

(v) You must calculate a site-specific, process-vent-specific emission factor for each fluorinated GHG for each process vent and each operating scenario, in kg of fluorinated GHG per process activity rate (e.g., kg of feed or production), as applicable, using Equation L-20 of this section. For continuous processes, divide the hourly fluorinated GHG emission rate during the test by the hourly process activity rate during the test runs.

eCFR graphic er01de10.038.gif

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where:

EFPV = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j (e.g., kg emitted/kg activity).

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, during the emission test during test run r, for either continuous or batch (kg emitted/hr for continuous, kg emitted/batch for batch).

ActivityEmissionTest = Process feed, process production, or other process activity rate for process i, operating scenario j, during the emission test during test run r (e.g., kg product/hr).

r = Number of test runs performed during the emission test.

(vi) If you conducted emissions testing after the destruction device, you must calculate the emissions of each fluorinated GHG for the process vent (and operating scenario, as applicable) using Equation L-21 of this section. You must also develop a process-vent-specific emission calculation factor based on paragraph (c)(4) of this section for the periods when the process vent is not venting to the destruction device.

eCFR graphic er01de10.039.gif

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where:

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, for the year (kg).

EFPV-C = Emission factor for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j, based on testing after the destruction device (kg emitted/activity) (e.g., kg emitted/kg product).

ActivityC = Total process feed, process production, or other process activity for process i, operating scenario j, during the year for which emissions are vented to the properly functioning destruction device (i.e., controlled).

ECFPV-U = Emission calculation factor for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j during periods when the process vent is not vented to the properly functioning destruction device (kg emitted/activity) (e.g., kg emitted/kg product).

ActivityU = Total process feed, process production, or other process activity during the year for which the process vent is not vented to the properly functioning destruction device (e.g., kg product).

(vii) If you conducted emissions testing before the destruction device, apply the destruction efficiencies of the device that have been demonstrated for the fluorinated GHGs in the vent stream to the fluorinated GHG emissions for the process vent (and operating scenario, as applicable), using Equation L-22 of this section. You may apply the destruction efficiency only to the portion of the process activity during which emissions are vented to the properly functioning destruction device (i.e., controlled).

eCFR graphic er01de10.040.gif

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where:

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, for the year, considering destruction efficiency (kg).

EFPV-U = Emission factor (uncontrolled) for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j (kg emitted/kg product).

ActivityU = Total process feed, process production, or other process activity for process i, operating scenario j, during the year for which the process vent is not vented to the properly functioning destruction device (e.g., kg product).

ActivityC = Total process feed, process production, or other process activity for process i, operating scenario j, during the year for which the process vent is vented to the properly functioning destruction device (e.g., kg product).

DE = Demonstrated destruction efficiency of the destruction device (weight fraction).

(viii) Adjusted process-vent-specific emission factors for other operating scenarios. For process vents from processes with multiple operating scenarios, use Equation L-23 of this section to develop an adjusted process-vent-specific emission factor for each operating scenario from which the vent is estimated to emit less than 10,000 metric tons CO2e annually or whose emission calculation factor differs by less than 15 percent from the emission calculation factor of the operating scenario that is expected to have the largest emissions (or of another operating scenario for which emission testing is performed).

eCFR graphic er01de10.041.gif

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where:

EFPVadj = Adjusted process-vent-specific emission factor for an untested operating scenario.

ECFUT = Emission calculation factor for the untested operating scenario developed under paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

ECFT = Emission calculation for the tested operating scenario developed under paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

EFPV = Process vent specific emission factor for the tested operating scenario.

(ix) Sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG from all process vents in each operating scenario and all operating scenarios in the process for the year to estimate the total process vent emissions of each fluorinated GHG from the process, using Equation L-24 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.042.gif

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where:

EPfi = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vents for process i for the year (kg).

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, for the year, considering destruction efficiency (kg).

v = Number of process vents in process i, operating scenario j.

o = Number of operating scenarios for process i.

(4) Process-vent-specific emission calculation factor method. For each process vent within an operating scenario, determine fluorinated GHG emissions by calculations and determine the process activity rate, such as the feed rate, production rate, or other process activity rate, associated with the emission rate.

(i) You must calculate uncontrolled emissions of fluorinated GHG by individual process vent, EPV, by using measurements, by using calculations based on chemical engineering principles and chemical property data, or by conducting an engineering assessment. Use the procedures in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section, except paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(C) of this section. The procedures in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section may be applied either to batch process vents or to continuous process vents. The uncontrolled emissions must be based on a typical batch or production rate under a defined operating scenario. The process activity rate associated with the uncontrolled emissions must be determined. The methods, data, and assumptions used to estimate emissions for each operating scenario must be selected to yield a best estimate (expected value) of emissions rather than an over- or underestimate of emissions for that operating scenario. All data, assumptions, and procedures used in the calculations or engineering assessment must be documented according to §98.127.

(ii) You must calculate a site-specific, process-vent-specific emission calculation factor for each process vent, each operating scenario, and each fluorinated GHG, in kg of fluorinated GHG per activity rate (e.g., kg of feed or production) as applicable, using Equation L-25 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.043.gif

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where:

ECFPV = Emission calculation factor for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j, (e.g., kg emitted/kg product).

EPV = Average mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted, based on calculations, from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, during the period or batch for which emissions were calculated, for either continuous or batch (kg emitted/hr for continuous, kg emitted/batch for batch).

ActivityRepresentative = Process feed, process production, or other process activity rate corresponding to average mass of emissions based on calculations (e.g., kg product/hr for continuous, kg product/batch for batch).

(iii) You must calculate emissions of each fluorinated GHG for the process vent (and operating scenario, as applicable) for the year by multiplying the process-vent-specific emission calculation factor by the total process activity, as applicable, for the year, using Equation L-26 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.044.gif

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where:

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, for the year (kg).

ECFPV = Emission calculation factor for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j, (kg emitted/activity) (e.g., kg emitted/kg product).

Activity = Process feed, process production, or other process activity for process i, operating scenario j, during the year.

(iv) If the process vent is vented to a destruction device, apply the demonstrated destruction efficiency of the device to the fluorinated GHG emissions for the process vent (and operating scenario, as applicable), using Equation L-27 of this section. Apply the destruction efficiency only to the portion of the process activity that is vented to the properly functioning destruction device (i.e., controlled).

eCFR graphic er01de10.045.gif

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where:

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, for the year considering destruction efficiency (kg).

ECFPV = Emission calculation factor for fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v during process i, operating scenario j, (e.g., kg emitted/kg product).

ActivityU = Total process feed, process production, or other process activity for process i, operating scenario j, during the year for which the process vent is not vented to the properly functioning destruction device (e.g., kg product).

ActivityC = Total process feed, process production, or other process activity for process i, operating scenario j, during the year for which the process vent is vented to the properly functioning destruction device (e.g., kg product).

DE = Demonstrated destruction efficiency of the destruction device (weight fraction).

(v) Sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG from all process vents in each operating scenario and all operating scenarios in the process for the year to estimate the total process vent emissions of each fluorinated GHG from the process, using Equation L-28 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.046.gif

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where:

EPfi = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vents for process i for the year (kg).

EPV = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from process vent v from process i, operating scenario j, for the year, considering destruction efficiency (kg).

v = Number of process vents in process i, operating scenario j.

o = Number of operating scenarios in process i.

(d) Calculate fluorinated GHG emissions for equipment leaks (EL). If you comply with paragraph (c) of this section, you must calculate the fluorinated GHG emissions from pieces of equipment associated with processes covered under this subpart and in fluorinated GHG service. If you conduct monitoring of equipment in fluorinated GHG service, monitoring must be conducted for those in light liquid and in gas and vapor service. If you conduct monitoring of equipment in fluorinated GHG service, you may exclude from monitoring each piece of equipment that is difficult-to-monitor, that is unsafe-to-monitor, that is insulated, or that is in heavy liquid service; you may exclude from monitoring each pump with dual mechanical seals, agitator with dual mechanical seals, pump with no external shaft, agitator with no external shaft; you may exclude from monitoring each pressure relief device in gas and vapor service with upstream rupture disk, each sampling connection system with closed-loop or closed-purge systems, and any pieces of equipment where leaks are routed through a closed vent system to a destruction device. You must estimate emissions using another approach for those pieces of equipment excluded from monitoring. Equipment that is in fluorinated GHG service for less than 300 hr/yr; equipment that is in vacuum service; pressure relief devices that are in light liquid service; and instrumentation systems are exempted from these requirements.

(1) The emissions from equipment leaks must be calculated using any of the procedures in paragraphs (d)(1)(i), (d)(1)(ii), (d)(1)(iii), or (d)(1)(iv) of this section.

(i) Use of Average Emission Factor Approach in EPA Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates. The emissions from equipment leaks may be calculated using the default Average Emission Factor Approach in EPA-453/R-95-017 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7).

(ii) Use of Other Approaches in EPA Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates in conjunction with EPA Method 21 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7. The emissions from equipment leaks may be calculated using one of the following methods in EPA-453/R-95-017 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7): The Screening Ranges Approach; the EPA Correlation Approach; or the Unit-Specific Correlation Approach. If you determine that EPA Method 21 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7 is appropriate for monitoring a fluorinated GHG, and if you calibrate your instrument with a compound different from one or more of the fluorinated GHGs or surrogates to be measured, you must develop response factors for each fluorinated GHG or for each surrogate to be measured using EPA Method 21 at 40 CFR part 60, appendix A-7. For each fluorinated GHG or surrogate measured, the response factor must be less than 10. The response factor is the ratio of the known concentration of a fluorinated GHG or surrogate to the observed meter reading when measured using an instrument calibrated with the reference compound.

(iii) Use of Other Approaches in EPA Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates in conjunction with site-specific leak monitoring methods. The emissions from equipment leaks may be calculated using one of the following methods in EPA-453/R-95-017 (incorporated by reference, see §98.7): The Screening Ranges Approach; the EPA Correlation Approach; or the Unit-Specific Correlation Approach. You may develop a site-specific leak monitoring method appropriate for monitoring fluorinated GHGs or surrogates to use along with these three approaches. The site-specific leak monitoring method must meet the requirements in §98.124(f)(1).

(iv) Use of site-specific leak monitoring methods. The emissions from equipment leaks may be calculated using a site-specific leak monitoring method. The site-specific leak monitoring method must meet the requirements in §98.124(f)(1).

(2) You must collect information on the number of each type of equipment; the service of each piece of equipment (gas, light liquid, heavy liquid); the concentration of each fluorinated GHG in the stream; and the time period each piece of equipment was in service. Depending on which approach you follow, you may be required to collect information for equipment on the associated screening data concentrations for greater than or equal to 10,000 ppmv and associated screening data concentrations for less than 10,000 ppmv; associated actual screening data concentrations; or associated screening data and leak rate data (i.e., bagging) used to develop a unit-specific correlation.

(3) Calculate and sum the emissions of each fluorinated GHG in metric tons per year for equipment pieces for each process, EELf, annually. You must include and estimate emissions for types of equipment that are excluded from monitoring, including difficult-to-monitor, unsafe-to-monitor and insulated pieces of equipment, pieces of equipment in heavy liquid service, pumps with dual mechanical seals, agitators with dual mechanical seals, pumps with no external shaft, agitators with no external shaft, pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service with upstream rupture disk, sampling connection systems with closed-loop or closed purge systems, and pieces of equipment where leaks are routed through a closed vent system to a destruction device.

(e) Calculate total fluorinated GHG emissions for each process and for production or transformation processes at the facility. (i) Estimate annually the total mass of each fluorinated GHG emitted from each process, including emissions from process vents in paragraphs (c)(3) and (c)(4) of this section, as appropriate, and from equipment leaks in paragraph (d), using Equation L-29 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.047.gif

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where:

Ei = Total mass of each fluorinated GHG f emitted from process i, annual basis (kg/year).

EPfi = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from all process vents and all operating scenarios in process i, annually (kg/year, calculated in Equation L-24 or L-28 of this section, as appropriate).

EELfi = Mass of fluorinated GHG f emitted from equipment leaks for pieces of equipment for process i, annually (kg/year, calculated in paragraph (d)(3) of this section).

(ii) Estimate annually the total mass of each fluorinated GHG emitted from each type of production or transformation process at the facility using Equation L-30 of this section. Develop separate totals for fluorinated gas production processes, transformation processes that transform fluorinated gases produced at the facility, and transformation processes that transform fluorinated gases produced at another facility.

eCFR graphic er01de10.048.gif

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where:

E = Total mass of each fluorinated GHG f emitted from all fluorinated gas production processes, all transformation processes that transform fluorinated gases produced at the facility, or all transformation processes that transform fluorinated gases produced at another facility, as appropriate (metric tons).

Ei = Total mass of each fluorinated GHG f emitted from each production or transformation process, annual basis (kg/year, calculated in Equation L-29 of this section).

0.001 = Conversion factor from kg to metric tons.

z = Total number of fluorinated gas production processes, fluorinated gas transformation processes that transform fluorinated gases produced at the facility, or transformation processes that transform fluorinated gases produced at another facility, as appropriate.

(f) Calculate fluorinated GHG emissions from destruction of fluorinated GHGs that were previously “produced”. Estimate annually the total mass of fluorinated GHGs emitted from destruction of fluorinated GHGs that were previously “produced” as defined at §98.410(b) using Equation L-31 of this section:

eCFR graphic er01de10.049.gif

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where:

ED = The mass of fluorinated GHGs emitted annually from destruction of fluorinated GHGs that were previously “produced” as defined at §98.410(b) (metric tons).

RED = The mass of fluorinated GHGs that were previously “produced” as defined at §98.410(b) and that are fed annually into the destruction device (metric tons).

DE = Destruction efficiency of the destruction device (fraction).

(g) Emissions from venting of residual fluorinated GHGs in containers. If you vent residual fluorinated GHGs from containers, you must either measure the residual fluorinated GHGs vented from each container or develop a heel factor for each combination of fluorinated GHG, container size, and container type that you vent. You do not need to estimate de minimis emissions associated with good-faith attempts to recycle or recover residual fluorinated GHGs in or from containers.

(1) Measuring contents of each container. If you weigh or otherwise measure the contents of each container before venting the residual fluorinated GHGs, use Equation L-32 of this section to calculate annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG from venting of residual fluorinated GHG from containers. Convert pressures to masses as directed in paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.050.gif

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where:

ECf = Total mass of each fluorinated GHG f emitted from the facility through venting of residual fluorinated GHG from containers, annual basis (kg/year).

HBfj = Mass of residual fluorinated GHG f in container j when received by facility.

HEfj = Mass of residual fluorinated GHG f in container j after evacuation by facility. (Facility may equate to zero.)

n = Number of vented containers for each fluorinated GHG f.

(2) Developing and applying heel factors. If you use heel factors to estimate emissions of residual fluorinated GHGs vented from containers, you must annually develop these factors based on representative samples of the containers received by your facility from fluorinated GHG users.

(i) Sample size. For each combination of fluorinated GHG, container size, and container type that you vent, select a representative sample of containers that reflects the full range of quantities of residual gas returned in that container size and type. This sample must reflect the full range of the industries and a broad range of the customers that use and return the fluorinated GHG, container size, and container type. The minimum sample size for each combination of fluorinated GHG, container size, and container type must be 30, unless this is greater than the number of containers returned within that combination annually, in which case the contents of every container returned must be measured.

(ii) Measurement of residual gas. The residual weight or pressure you use for paragraph (g)(1) of this section must be determined by monitoring the mass or the pressure of your cylinders/containers according to §98.124(k). If you monitor the pressure, convert the pressure to mass using the ideal gas law, as displayed in Equation L-33 of this section, with an appropriately selected Z value.

eCFR graphic er01de10.051.gif

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where:

p = Absolute pressure of the gas (Pa)

V = Volume of the gas (m3)

Z = Compressibility factor

n = Amount of substance of the gas (moles)

R = Gas constant (8.314 Joule/Kelvin mole)

T = Absolute temperature (K)

(iii) Heel factor calculation. To determine the heel factor hfj for each combination of fluorinated GHG, container size, and container type, use paragraph (g)(1) of this section to calculate the total heel emissions for each sample selected under paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section. Divide this total by the number of containers in the sample. Divide the result by the full capacity (the mass of the contents of a full container) of that combination of fluorinated GHG, container size, and container type. The heel factor is expressed as a fraction of the full capacity.

(iv) Calculate annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG from venting of residual fluorinated GHG from containers using Equation L-34 of this section.

eCFR graphic er01de10.052.gif

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where:

ECf = Total mass of each fluorinated GHG f emitted from the facility through venting of residual fluorinated GHG from containers, annual basis (kg/year).

hfj = Facility-wide gas-specific heel factor for fluorinated GHG f (fraction) and container size and type j, as determined in paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section.

Nfj = Number of containers of size and type j returned to the fluorinated gas production facility.

Ffj = Full capacity of containers of size and type j containing fluorinated GHG f (kg).

n = Number of combinations of container sizes and types for fluorinated GHG f.

§98.124   Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

(a) Initial scoping speciation to identify fluorinated GHGs. You must conduct an initial scoping speciation to identify all fluorinated GHGs that may be generated from processes that are subject to this subpart and that have at least one process vent with uncontrolled emissions of 1.0 metric ton or more of fluorinated GHGs per year based on the preliminary estimate of emissions in §98.123(c)(1). You are not required to quantify emissions under this initial scoping speciation. Only fluorinated GHG products and by-products that occur in greater than trace concentrations in at least one stream must be identified under this paragraph.

(1) Procedure. To conduct the scoping speciation, select the stream(s) (including process streams or destroyed streams) or process vent(s) that would be expected to individually or collectively contain all of the fluorinated GHG by-products of the process at their maximum concentrations and sample and analyze the contents of these selected streams or process vents. For example, if fluorinated GHG by-products are separated into one low-boiling-point and one high-boiling-point stream, sample and analyze both of these streams. Alternatively, you may sample and analyze streams where fluorinated GHG by-products occur at less than their maximum concentrations, but you must ensure that the sensitivity of the analysis is sufficient to compensate for the expected difference in concentration. For example, if you sample and analyze streams where fluorinated GHG by-products are expected to occur at one half their maximum concentrations elsewhere in the process, you must ensure that the sensitivity of the analysis is sufficient to detect fluorinated GHG by-products that occur at concentrations of 0.05 percent or higher. You do not have to sample and analyze every stream or process vent, i.e., you do not have to sample and analyze a stream or process vent that contains only fluorinated GHGs that are contained in other streams or process vents that are being sampled and analyzed. Sampling and analysis must be conducted according to the procedures in paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Previous measurements. If you have conducted testing of streams (including process streams or destroyed streams) or process vents less than 10 years before December 31, 2010, and the testing meets the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, you may use the previous testing to satisfy this requirement.

(b) Mass balance monitoring. If you determine fluorinated GHG emissions from any process using the mass balance method under §98.123(b), you must estimate the total mass of each fluorinated GHG emitted from that process at least monthly. Only streams that contain greater than trace concentrations of fluorine-containing reactants, products, or by-products must be monitored under this paragraph. If you use an element other than fluorine in the mass-balance equation pursuant to §98.123(b)(3), substitute that element for fluorine in the monitoring requirements of this paragraph.

(1) Mass measurements. Measure the following masses on a monthly or more frequent basis using flowmeters, weigh scales, or a combination of volumetric and density measurements with accuracies and precisions that allow the facility to meet the error criteria in §98.123(b)(1):

(i) Total mass of each fluorine-containing product produced. Account for any used fluorine-containing product added into the production process upstream of the output measurement as directed at §98.413(b) and §98.414(b). For each product, the mass produced used for the mass-balance calculation must be the same as the mass produced that is reported under subpart OO of this part, where applicable.

(ii) Total mass of each fluorine-containing reactant fed into the process.

(iii) The mass removed from the process in each stream fed into the destruction device.

(iv) The mass removed from the process in each recaptured stream.

(2) Concentration measurements for use with §98.123(b)(4). If you use §98.123(b)(4) to estimate the mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams, measure the following concentrations at least once each calendar month during which the process is operating, on a schedule to ensure that the measurements are representative of the full range of process conditions (e.g., catalyst age). Measure more frequently if this is necessary to meet the error criteria in §98.123(b)(1). Use equipment and methods (e.g., gas chromatography) that comply with paragraph (e) of this section and that have an accuracy and precision that allow the facility to meet the error criteria in §98.123(b)(1). Only fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products that occur in a stream in greater than trace concentrations must be monitored under this paragraph.

(i) The concentration (mass fraction) of the fluorine-containing product in each stream that is fed into the destruction device.

(ii) The concentration (mass fraction) of each fluorine-containing by-product in each stream that is fed into the destruction device.

(iii) The concentration (mass fraction) of each fluorine-containing reactant in each stream that is fed into the destruction device.

(iv) The concentration (mass fraction) of each fluorine-containing by-product in each stream that is recaptured (cBkl).

(3) Concentration measurements for use with §98.123(b)(15). If you use §98.123(b)(15) to estimate the mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams, measure the concentrations listed in paragraphs (3)(i) and (ii) of this section at least once each calendar month during which the process is operating, on a schedule to ensure that the measurements are representative of the full range of process conditions (e.g., catalyst age). Measure more frequently if this is necessary to meet the error criteria in §98.123(b)(1). Use equipment and methods (e.g., gas chromatography) that comply with paragraph (e) of this section and that have an accuracy and precision that allow the facility to meet the error criteria in §98.123(b)(1). Only fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products that occur in a stream in greater than trace concentrations must be monitored under this paragraph.

(i) The concentration (mass fraction) of total fluorine in each stream that is fed into the destruction device.

(ii) The concentration (mass fraction) of total fluorine in each stream that is recaptured.

(4) Emissions characterization: process vents emitting 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more. To characterize emissions from any process vent emitting 25,000 metric tons CO2e or more, comply with paragraphs (b)(4)(i) through (b)(4)(v) of this section, as appropriate. Only fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products that occur in a stream in greater than trace concentrations must be monitored under this paragraph.

(i) Uncontrolled emissions. If emissions from the process vent are not routed through a destruction device, sample and analyze emissions at the process vent or stack or sample and analyze emitted streams before the process vent. If the process has more than one operating scenario, you must either perform the emission characterization for each operating scenario or perform the emission characterization for the operating scenario that is expected to have the largest emissions and adjust the emission characterization for other scenarios using engineering calculations and assessments as specified in §98.123(c)(4). To perform the characterization, take three samples under conditions that are representative for the operating scenario. Measure the concentration of each fluorine-containing compound in each sample. Use equipment and methods that comply with paragraph (e) of this section. Calculate the average concentration of each fluorine-containing compound across all three samples.

(ii) Controlled emissions using §98.123(b)(15). If you use §98.123(b)(15) to estimate the total mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams, and if the emissions from the process vent are routed through a destruction device, characterize emissions as specified in paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section before the destruction device. Apply the destruction efficiency demonstrated for each fluorinated GHG in the destroyed stream to that fluorinated GHG. Exclude from the characterization fluorine-containing compounds that are not fluorinated GHGs.

(iii) Controlled emissions using §98.123(b)(4). If you use §98.123(b)(4) to estimate the mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams, and if the emissions from the process vent are routed through a destruction device, characterize the process vent's emissions monthly (or more frequently) using the monthly (or more frequent) measurements under paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(iii) of this section. Apply the destruction efficiency demonstrated for each fluorinated GHG in the destroyed stream to that fluorinated GHG. Exclude from the characterization fluorine-containing compounds that are not fluorinated GHGs.

(iv) Emissions characterization frequency. You must repeat emission characterizations performed under paragraph (b)(4)(i) and (b)(4)(ii) of this section under paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(A) or (b)(4)(iv)(B) of this section, whichever occurs first:

(A) 10-year revision. Repeat the emission characterization every 10 years. In the calculations under §98.123, apply the revised emission characterization to the process activity that occurs after the revision.

(B) Operating scenario change that affects the emission characterization. For planned operating scenario changes, you must estimate and compare the emission calculation factors for the changed operating scenario and for the original operating scenario whose process vent specific emission factor was measured. Use the engineering calculations and assessments specified in §98.123(c)(4). If the share of total fluorine-containing compound emissions represented by any fluorinated GHG changes under the changed operating scenario by 15 percent or more of the total, relative to the previous operating scenario (this includes the cumulative change in the emission calculation factor since the last emissions test), you must repeat the emission characterization. Perform the emission characterization before February 28 of the year that immediately follows the change. In the calculations under §98.123, apply the revised emission characterization to the process activity that occurs after the operating scenario change.

(v) Subsequent measurements. If a process vent with fluorinated GHG emissions less than 25,000 metric tons CO2e, per §98.123(c)(2), is later found to have fluorinated GHG emissions of 25,000 metric tons CO2e or greater, you must perform an emission characterization under this paragraph during the following year.

(5) Emissions characterization: process vents emitting less than 25,000 metric tons CO2e. To characterize emissions from any process vent emitting less than 25,000 metric tons CO2e, comply with paragraphs (b)(5)(i) through (b)(5)(iii) of this section, as appropriate. Only fluorine-containing reactants, products, and by-products that occur in a stream in greater than trace concentrations must be monitored under this paragraph.

(i) Uncontrolled emissions. If emissions from the process vent are not routed through a destruction device, emission measurements must consist of sampling and analysis of emissions at the process vent or stack, sampling and analysis of emitted streams before the process vent, previous test results, provided the tests are representative of current operating conditions of the process, or bench-scale or pilot-scale test data representative of the process operating conditions.

(ii) Controlled emissions using §98.123(b)(15). If you use §98.123(b)(15) to estimate the total mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams, and if the emissions from the process vent are routed through a destruction device, characterize emissions as specified in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section before the destruction device. Apply the destruction efficiency demonstrated for each fluorinated GHG in the destroyed stream to that fluorinated GHG. Exclude from the characterization fluorine-containing compounds that are not fluorinated GHGs.

(iii) Controlled emissions using §98.123(b)(4). If you use §98.123(b)(4) to estimate the mass of fluorine in destroyed or recaptured streams, and if the emissions from the process vent are routed through a destruction device, characterize the process vent's emissions monthly (or more frequently) using the monthly (or more frequent) measurements under paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(2)(i) through (b)(2)(iii) of this section. Apply the destruction efficiency demonstrated for each fluorinated GHG in the destroyed stream to that fluorinated GHG. Exclude from the characterization fluorine-containing compounds that are not fluorinated GHGs.

(6) Emissions characterization: emissions not accounted for by process vent estimates. Calculate the weighted average emission characterization across the process vents before any destruction devices. Apply the weighted average emission characterization for all the process vents to any fluorine emissions that are not accounted for by process vent estimates.

(7) Impurities in reactants. If any fluorine-containing impurity is fed into a process along with a reactant (or other input) in greater than trace concentrations, this impurity shall be monitored under this section and included in the calculations under §98.123 in the same manner as reactants fed into the process, fed into the destruction device, recaptured, or emitted, except the concentration of the impurity in the mass fed into the process shall be measured, and the mass of the impurity fed into the process shall be calculated as the product of the concentration of the impurity and the mass fed into the process. The mass of the reactant fed into the process may be reduced to account for the mass of the impurity.

(8) Alternative to error calculation. As an alternative to calculating the relative and absolute errors associated with the estimate of emissions under §98.123(b), you may comply with the precision, accuracy, measurement and calculation frequency, and fluorinated GHG throughput requirements of paragraph (b)(8)(i) through (b)(8)(iv) of this section.

(i) Mass measurements. Measure the masses specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section using flowmeters, weigh scales, or a combination of volumetric and density measurements with accuracies and precisions of ±0.2 percent of full scale or better.

(ii) Concentration measurements. Measure the concentrations specified in parag