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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of July 25, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment


PART 87—CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES


Contents

Subpart A—General Provisions

§87.1   Definitions.
§87.2   Abbreviations.
§87.3   General applicability and requirements.
§87.4   [Reserved]
§87.6   Aircraft safety.
§87.8   Incorporation by reference.

Subpart B—Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines)

§87.10   Applicability.
§87.11   Standard for fuel venting emissions.

Subpart C—Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines)

§87.20   Applicability.
§87.21   Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.
§87.23   Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

Subpart D—Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines)

§87.30   Applicability.
§87.31   Standards for exhaust emissions.

Subpart E—Certification Provisions

§87.40   General certification requirement.
§87.42   Production report to EPA.
§87.46   Recordkeeping.
§87.48   Derivative engines for emissions certification purposes.

Subpart F—Exemptions and Exceptions

§87.50   Exemptions and exceptions.

Subpart G—Test Procedures

§87.60   Testing engines.
§87.64   Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.

Source: 47 FR 58470, Dec. 30, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General Provisions

§87.1   Definitions.

The definitions in this section apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts. Any terms not defined in this section have the meaning given in the Clean Air Act. The definitions follow:

Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq).

Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any other officer or employee of the Environmental Protection Agency to whom authority involved may be delegated.

Aircraft has the meaning given in 14 CFR 1.1, which defines aircraft to mean a device used or intended to be used for flight in the air. Note that under §87.3, the requirements of this part generally apply only to propulsion engines used on certain airplanes for which U.S. airworthiness certificates are required.

Aircraft engine means a propulsion engine which is installed in or which is manufactured for installation in an aircraft.

Aircraft gas turbine engine means a turboprop, turbofan, or turbojet aircraft engine.

Characteristic level has the meaning given in Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 (as of July 2008). The characteristic level is a calculated emission level for each pollutant based on a statistical assessment of measured emissions from multiple tests.

Class TP means all aircraft turboprop engines.

Class TF means all turbofan or turbojet aircraft engines or aircraft engines designed for applications that otherwise would have been fulfilled by turbojet and turbofan engines except engines of class T3, T8, and TSS.

Class T3 means all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT3D model family.

Class T8 means all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT8D model family.

Class TSS means all aircraft gas turbine engines employed for propulsion of aircraft designed to operate at supersonic flight speeds.

Commercial aircraft engine means any aircraft engine used or intended for use by an “air carrier,” (including those engaged in “intrastate air transportation”) or a “commercial operator” (including those engaged in “intrastate air transportation”) as these terms are defined in subtitle 7 of title 49 of the United States Code and title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

Commercial aircraft gas turbine engine means a turboprop, turbofan, or turbojet commercial aircraft engine.

Date of introduction or introduction date means the date of manufacture of the first individual production engine of a given engine model or engine type certificate family to be certificated. This does not include test engines or other engines not placed into service.

Date of manufacture means the date on which a manufacturer is issued documentation by FAA (or other competent authority for engines certificated outside the United States) attesting that the given engine conforms to all applicable requirements. This date may not be earlier that the date on which assembly of the engine is complete. Where the manufacturer does not obtain such documentation from FAA (or other competent authority for engines certificated outside the United States), date of manufacture means the date of final assembly of the engine.

Derivative engine for emissions certification purposes means an engine that has the same or similar emissions characteristics as an engine covered by a U.S. type certificate issued under 14 CFR part 33. These characteristics are specified in §87.48.

Designated EPA Program Officer means the Director of the Assessment and Standards Division, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105.

DOT Secretary means the Secretary of the Transportation and any other officer or employee of the Department of Transportation to whom the authority involved may be delegated.

Engine means an individual engine. A group of identical engines together make up an engine model or sub-model.

Engine model means an engine manufacturer's designation for an engine grouping of engines and/or engine sub-models within a single engine type certificate family, where such engines have similar design, including being similar with respect to the core engine and combustor designs.

Engine sub-model means a designation for a grouping of engines with essentially identical design, especially with respect to the core engine and combustor designs and other emission-related features. Engines from an engine sub-model must be contained within a single engine model. For purposes of this part, an original engine model configuration is considered a sub-model. For example, if a manufacturer initially produces an engine model designated ABC and later introduces a new sub-model ABC-1, the engine model consists of two sub-models: ABC and ABC-1.

Engine type certificate family means a group of engines (comprising one or more engine models, including sub-models and derivative engines for emissions certification purposes of those engine models) determined by FAA to have a sufficiently common design to be grouped together under a type certificate.

EPA means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Except means to routinely allow engines to be produced and sold that do not meet (or do not fully meet) otherwise applicable standards. (Note that this definition applies only with respect to spare engines and that the term “except” has its plain meaning in other contexts.) Excepted engines must conform to regulatory conditions specified for an exception in this part and other applicable regulations. Excepted engines are deemed to be “subject to” the standards of this part even though they are not required to comply with the otherwise applicable requirements. Engines excepted with respect to certain standards must comply with other standards from which they are not excepted.

Exempt means to allow (through a formal case-by-case process) engines to be produced and sold that do not meet (or do not fully meet) otherwise applicable standards. Exempted engines must conform to regulatory conditions specified for an exemption in this part and other applicable regulations. Exempted engines are deemed to be “subject to” the standards of this part even though they are not required to comply with the otherwise applicable requirements. Engines exempted with respect to certain standards must comply with other standards as a condition of the exemption.

Exhaust emissions means substances emitted to the atmosphere from exhaust discharge nozzles, as measured by the test procedures specified in subpart G of this part.

FAA means the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

Fuel venting emissions means raw fuel, exclusive of hydrocarbons in the exhaust emissions, discharged from aircraft gas turbine engines during all normal ground and flight operations.

Good engineering judgment involves making decisions consistent with generally accepted scientific and engineering principles and all relevant information, subject to the provisions of 40 CFR 1068.5.

ICAO Annex 16 means Volume II of Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (incorporated by reference in §87.8).

In-use aircraft gas turbine engine means an aircraft gas turbine engine which is in service.

Military aircraft means aircraft owned by, operated by, or produced for sale to the armed forces or other agency of the federal government responsible for national security (including but not limited to the Department of Defense) and other aircraft considered to be military aircraft under international law and conventions.

New means relating to an aircraft or aircraft engine that has never been placed into service.

Operator means any person or company that owns or operates an aircraft.

Production cutoff date or date of the production cutoff means the date on which interim phase-out allowances end.

Rated output (rO) means the maximum power/thrust available for takeoff at standard day conditions as approved for the engine by FAA, including reheat contribution where applicable, but excluding any contribution due to water injection, expressed in kilowatts or kilonewtons (as applicable) and rounded to at least three significant figures.

Rated pressure ratio (rPR) means the ratio between the combustor inlet pressure and the engine inlet pressure achieved by an engine operating at rated output, rounded to at least three significant figures.

Round has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Smoke means the matter in exhaust emissions that obscures the transmission of light, as measured by the test procedures specified in subpart G of this part.

Smoke number means a dimensionless value quantifying smoke emissions calculated in accordance with ICAO Annex 16.

Spare engine means an engine installed (or intended to be installed) on an in-service aircraft to replace an existing engine and that is excepted as described in §87.50(c).

Standard day conditions means the following ambient conditions: temperature = 15 °C, specific humidity = 0.00634 kg H2O/kg dry air, and pressure = 101.325 kPa.

Subsonic means relating to aircraft that are not supersonic aircraft.

Supersonic means relating to aircraft that are certificated to fly faster than the speed of sound.

Tier 0 means relating to an engine that is subject to the Tier 0 NOX standards specified in §87.21.

Tier 2 means relating to an engine that is subject to the Tier 2 NOX standards specified in §87.21.

Tier 4 means relating to an engine that is subject to the Tier 4 NOX standards specified in §87.21.

Tier 6 means relating to an engine that is subject to the Tier 6 NOX standards specified in §87.23.

Tier 8 means relating to an engine that is subject to the Tier 8 NOX standards specified in §87.23.

Turbofan engine means a gas turbine engine designed to create its propulsion from exhaust gases and from air that bypasses the combustion process and is accelerated in a ducted space between the inner (core) engine case and the outer engine fan casing.

Turbojet engine means a gas turbine engine that is designed to create all of its propulsion from exhaust gases.

Turboprop engine means a gas turbine engine that is designed to create most of its propulsion from a propeller driven by a turbine, usually through a gearbox.

Turboshaft engine means a gas turbine engine that is designed to drive a rotor transmission system or a gas turbine engine not used for propulsion.

U.S.-registered aircraft means an aircraft that is on the U.S. Registry.

We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.

[77 FR 36379, June 18, 2012]

§87.2   Abbreviations.

The abbreviations used in this part have the following meanings:

%   percent

°   degree

CO   carbon monoxide

CO2   carbon dioxide

g   gram

HC   hydrocarbon(s)

kN   kilonewton

kW   kilowatt

LTO   landing and takeoff

NOX   oxides of nitrogen

rO   rated output

rPR   rated pressure ratio

SN   smoke number

[77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012]

§87.3   General applicability and requirements.

(a) The regulations of this part apply to engines on all aircraft that are required to be certificated by FAA under 14 CFR part 33 except as specified in this paragraph (a). These regulations do not apply to the following aircraft engines:

(1) Reciprocating engines (including engines used in ultralight aircraft).

(2) Turboshaft engines such as those used in helicopters.

(3) Engines used only in aircraft that are not airplanes. For purposes of this paragraph (a)(3), “airplane” means a fixed-wing aircraft that is heavier than air.

(4) Engines not used for propulsion.

(b) Under section 232 of the Act, the Secretary of Transportation issues regulations to ensure compliance with the standards and related requirements of this part (42 U.S.C. 7572).

(c) The Secretary of Transportation shall apply these regulations to aircraft of foreign registry in a manner consistent with obligations assumed by the United States in any treaty, convention or agreement between the United States and any foreign country or foreign countries.

(d) No State or political subdivision of a State may adopt or attempt to enforce any aircraft or aircraft engine standard respecting emissions unless the standard is identical to a standard applicable to such aircraft under this part (including prior-tier standards applicable to exempt engines).

[77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012]

§87.4   [Reserved]

§87.6   Aircraft safety.

The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the DOT Secretary determines that an emission standard cannot be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety.

[77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012]

§87.8   Incorporation by reference.

(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the Environmental Protection Agency must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved material is available for inspection at U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Room B102, EPA West Building, Washington, DC 20460, (202) 202-1744, and is available from the sources listed below. It is also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(b) International Civil Aviation Organization, Document Sales Unit, 999 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7, (514) 954-8022, www.icao.int, or sales@icao.int.

(1) Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Environmental Protection, Volume II—Aircraft Engine Emissions, Third Edition, July 2008 (ICAO Annex 16). IBR approved for §§87.1, 87.42(c), and 87.60(a) and (b).

(2) [Reserved]

[77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012]

Subpart B—Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines)

§87.10   Applicability.

(a) The provisions of this subpart are applicable to all new aircraft gas turbines of classes T3, T8, TSS and TF equal to or greater than 36 kilonewton rated output, manufactured on or after January 1, 1974, and to all in-use aircraft gas turbine engines of classes T3, T8, TSS and TF equal to or greater than 36 kilonewton rated output manufactured after February 1, 1974.

(b) The provisions of this subpart are also applicable to all new aircraft gas turbines of class TF less than 36 kilonewton rated output and class TP manufactured on or after January 1, 1975 and to all in-use aircraft gas turbines of class TF less than 36 kilonewton rated output and class TP manufactured after January 1, 1975.

[49 FR 41002, Oct. 18, 1984]

§87.11   Standard for fuel venting emissions.

(a) No fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas turbine engine subject to the subpart. This paragraph is directed at the elimination of intentional discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and does not apply to normal fuel seepage from shaft seals, joints, and fittings.

(b) Conformity with the standard set forth in paragraph (a) of this section shall be determined by inspection of the method designed to eliminate these emissions.

Subpart C—Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines)

§87.20   Applicability.

The provisions of this subpart are applicable to all aircraft gas turbine engines of the classes specified beginning on the dates specified.

§87.21   Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

This section describes the emission standards that apply for Tier 4 and earlier engines that apply for aircraft engines manufactured before July 18, 2012 and certain engines exempted under §87.50. Note that the tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions and that the specified standards for HC, CO, and smoke emissions apply independent of the changes to the NOX emission standards.

(a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30.

(b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or greater, manufactured on or after January 1, 1976, shall not exceed:

SN=83.6(r0)−0.274 (r0 is in kilonewtons).

(c) Exhaust emission of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T3 manufactured on or after January 1, 1978, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 25.

(d) Gaseous exhaust emissions from each new commercial aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed:

(1) Classes TF, T3, T8 engines greater than 26.7 kilonewtons rated output:

(i) Engines manufactured on or after January 1, 1984:

Hydrocarbons: 19.6 grams/kilonewton rO.

(ii) Engines manufactured on or after July 7, 1997.

Carbon Monoxide: 118 grams/kilonewton rO.

(iii) The following Tier 0 emission standard applies for engines of a type or model of which the date of manufacture of the first individual production model was on or before December 31, 1995 and for which the date of manufacture of the individual engine was on or before December 31, 1999.

Oxides of Nitrogen: (40 + 2(rPR)) grams/kilonewton rO.

(iv) The following Tier 2 emission standard applies for engines of a type or model of which the date of manufacture of the first individual production model was after December 31, 1995 or for which the date of manufacture of the individual engine was after December 31, 1999:

Oxides of Nitrogen: (32 + 1.6(rPR)) grams/kilonewton rO.

(v) The emission standards prescribed in paragraphs (d)(1) (iii) and (iv) of this section apply as prescribed beginning July 7, 1997.

(vi) The following Tier 4 emission standards apply for engines of a type or model of which the date of manufacture of the first individual production model was after December 31, 2003:

(A) Engines with a rated pressure ratio of 30 or less:

(1) Engines with a maximum rated output greater than 89 kilonewtons:

Oxides of Nitrogen: (19 + 1.6(rPR)) grams/kilonewtons rO.

(2) Engines with a maximum rated output greater than 26.7 kilonewtons but not greater than 89 kilonewtons:

Oxides of Nitrogen: (37.572 + 1.6(rPR) − 0.2087(rO)) grams/kilonewtons rO.

(B) Engines with a rated pressure ratio greater than 30 but less than 62.5:

(1) Engines with a maximum rated output greater than 89 kilonewtons:

Oxides of Nitrogen: (7 + 2(rPR)) grams/kilonewtons rO.

(2) Engines with a maximum rated output greater than 26.7 kilonewtons but not greater than 89 kilonewtons:

Oxides of Nitrogen: (42.71 + 1.4286(rPR) − 0.4013(rO) + 0.00642(rPR × rO)) grams/kilonewtons rO.

(C) Engines with a rated pressure ratio of 62.5 or more:

Oxides of Nitrogen: (32 + 1.6(rPR)) grams/kilonewtons rO.

(vii) The emission standards prescribed in paragraph (d)(1)(vi) of this section shall apply as prescribed beginning December 19, 2005.

(2) Class TSS: Engines manufactured on or after January 1, 1984:

Hydrocarbons=140(0.92)rPR grams/kilonewtons rO.

(e) Smoke exhaust emissions from each gas turbine engine of the classes specified below shall not exceed:

(1) Class TF of rated output less than 26.7 kilonewtons manufactured on or after August 9, 1985:

SN = 83.6(rO)−0.274 (rO is in kilonewtons) not to exceed a maximum of SN = 50.

(2) Classes T3, T8, TSS and TF of rated output equal to or greater than 26.7 kilonewtons manufactured on or after January 1, 1984:

SN=83.6(ro)−0.274 (ro is in kilonewtons) not to exceed a maximum of SN=50.

(3) Class TP of rated output equal to or greater than 1,000 kilowatts manufactured on or after January 1, 1984:

SN=187(ro)−0.168 (ro is in kilowatts)

(f) The standards in this section refer to a composite emission sample measured and calculated in accordance with the procedures described in subpart G of this part.

[47 FR 58470, Dec. 30, 1982, as amended at 49 FR 31875, Aug. 9, 1984; 62 FR 25365, May 8, 1997; 70 FR 69686, Nov. 17, 2005; 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012]

§87.23   Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

This section describes the emission standards that apply for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. The standards of this section apply for aircraft engines manufactured on or after July 18, 2012, except where we specify that they apply differently by year, or where the engine is exempt from one or more standards of this section. Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, these standards apply based on the date the engine is manufactured. Where a gaseous emission standard is specified by a formula, calculate and round the standard to three significant figures or to the nearest 0.1 g/kN (for standards at or above 100 g/kN). Where a smoke standard is specified by a formula, calculate and round the standard to the nearest 0.1 SN. Engines comply with an applicable standard if the testing results show that the engine type certificate family's characteristic level does not exceed the numerical level of that standard, as described in §87.60. The tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions and that the specified standards for HC, CO, and smoke emissions apply independent of the changes to the NOX emission standards.

(a) New turboprop aircraft engines with rated output at or above 1,000 kilowatts must comply with a smoke standard of 187 · rO−0.168.

(b) New supersonic engines must comply with the standards shown in the following table:

Table 1 to §87.23—Smoke and Gaseous Emission Standards for New Supersonic Engines

Rated output Smoke number HC (g/kN rated
output)
NOX (g/kN rated
output)
CO (g/kN rated
output)
rO <26.7 kN140 · 0.92rPR36 + 2.42 · rPR4550 · rPR−1.03
rO 26.7 kN83.6 · rO−0.274 or 50.0, whichever is smaller140 · 0.92rPR36+2.42 · rPR4550 · rPR−1.03

(c) New turbofan or turbojet aircraft engines that are installed in subsonic aircraft must comply with the following standards:

(1) The applicable smoke, HC, and CO standards are shown in the following table:

Table 2 to §87.23—Smoke, HC, and CO Standards for New Subsonic Turbofan or Turbojet Engines

Rated output (kN)Smoke standardGaseous emission standards
(g/kN rated output)
HCCO
rO <26.7 kN83.6 · rO−0.274 or 50.0, whichever is smaller
rO ≥26.7 kN83.6 · rO−0.274 or 50.0, whichever is smaller19.6118

(2) The Tier 6 NOX standards apply as described in this paragraph (c)(2). See paragraph (d) of this section for provisions related to models introduced before these standards started to apply and engines determined to be derivative engines for emissions certification purposes under the requirements of this part.

Table 3 to §87.23—Tier 6 NOX Standards for New Subsonic Turbofan or Turbojet Engines With Rated Output Above 26.7 kN

If the rated pressure ratio is—and the rated output (in kN) is—The NOX emission standard (in g/kN rated output) is—
rPR ≤3026.7 <rO ≤8938.5486 + 1.6823·rPR - 0.2453·rO − 0.00308·rPR·rO
   rO >8916.72 + 1.4080·rPR
30 <rPR <82.626.7 <rO ≤8946.1600 + 1.4286·rPR − 0.5303·rO + 0.00642·rPR·rO
   rO >89−1.04 + 2.0·rPR
rPR ≥82.6all32 + 1.6·rPR

(3) The Tier 8 NOX standards apply as described in this paragraph (c)(3) beginning January 1, 2014. See paragraph (d) of this section for provisions related to models introduced before January 1, 2014 apply and engines determined to be derivative engines for emissions certification purposes under the requirements of this part.

Table 4 to §87.23—Tier 8 NOX Standards for New Subsonic Turbofan or Turbojet Engines With Rated Output Above 26.7 kN

If the rated pressure ratio is—and the rated output (in kN) is—The NOX emission standard (in g/kN rated output) is—
rPR ≤3026.7 <rO ≤8940.052 + 1.5681·rPR − 0.3615·rO - 0.0018·rPR·rO
   rO >897.88 + 1.4080·rPR
30 <rPR <104.726.7 <rO ≤8941.9435 + 1.505·rPR − 0.5823·rO + 0.005562·rPR·rO
   rO >89−9.88 + 2.0·rPR
rPR ≥104.7all32 + 1.6·rPR

(d) This paragraph (d) specifies phase-in provisions that allow continued production of certain engines after the Tier 6 and Tier 8 standards begin to apply.

(1) Engine type certificate families certificated with characteristic levels at or below the Tier 4 NOX standards of §87.21 (as applicable based on rated output and rated pressure ratio) and introduced before July 18, 2012 may be produced through December 31, 2012 without meeting the Tier 6 NOX standards of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. This also applies for engines that are covered by the same type certificate and are determined to be derivative engines for emissions certification purposes under the requirements of this part. Note that after this production cutoff date for the Tier 6 NOX standards, such engines may be produced only if they are covered by an exemption under §87.50. This production cutoff does not apply to engines installed (or delivered for installation) on military aircraft.

(2) Engine type certificate families certificated with characteristic levels at or below the Tier 6 NOX standards of paragraph (c)(2) of this section with an introduction date before January 1, 2014 may continue to be produced. This also applies for engines that are covered by the same type certificate and are determined to be derivative engines for emissions certification purposes under the requirements of this part.

(3) An engine manufacturer may produce up to six newly manufactured Tier 4 engines on or after July 18, 2012, subject to the provisions of this paragraph (d)(3). Tier 4 engines meeting the criteria of this paragraph (d)(3) are excepted without request from the otherwise applicable Tier 6 NOX emission standard. To be eligible for this exception the engines must have a date of manufacture prior to August 31, 2013 and be fully compliant with all requirements applicable to Tier 4 engines. The manufacturer must include these engines in the report required by §87.50. This exception is void for any manufacturer that produces more than six excepted engines under this paragraph.

[77 FR 36382, June 18, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 65823, Oct. 31, 2012]

Subpart D—Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines)

§87.30   Applicability.

The provisions of this subpart are applicable to all in-use aircraft gas turbine engines certified for operation within the United States of the classes specified beginning on the dates specified.

§87.31   Standards for exhaust emissions.

(a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30.

(b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or greater, beginning January 1, 1976, shall not exceed:

SN=83.6(r0)−0.274(r0 is in kilonewtons).

(c) The standards set forth in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section refer to exhaust smoke emissions emitted during operations of the engine as specified in the applicable section of subpart H of this part, and measured and calculated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this subpart.

[47 FR 58470, Dec. 30, 1982, as amended at 48 FR 2718, Jan. 20, 1983]

Subpart E—Certification Provisions

Source: 77 FR 36383, June 18, 2012, unless otherwise noted.

§87.40   General certification requirement.

Manufacturers of engines subject to this part must meet the requirements of title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations as applicable.

§87.42   Production report to EPA.

Engine manufacturers must submit an annual production report as specified in this section. This requirement applies for engines produced on or after January 1, 2013.

(a) You must submit the report for each calendar year in which you produce any engines subject to emission standards under this part. The report is due by February 28 of the following calendar year. Note that §87.64 requires you to report CO2 emission rates to EPA in addition to NOX. Include these data in the report required by this section. If you produce exempted or excepted engines, you may submit a single report with information on exempted/excepted and normally certificated engines.

(b) Send the report to the Designated EPA Program Officer.

(c) In the report, specify your corporate name and the year for which you are reporting. Include information as described in this section for each engine sub-model subject to emission standards under this part. List each engine sub-model produced or certificated during the calendar year, including the following information for each sub-model:

(1) The type of engine (turbofan, turboprop, etc.) and complete sub-model name, including any applicable model name, sub-model identifier, and engine type certificate family identifier.

(2) The certificate under which it was produced. Identify all the following:

(i) The type certificate number. Specify if the sub-model also has a type certificate issued by a certificating authority other than FAA.

(ii) Your corporate name as listed in the certificate.

(iii) Emission standards to which the engine is certificated.

(iv) Date of issue of type certificate (month and year).

(v) Whether or not this is a derivative engine for emissions certification purposes. If so, identify the original certificated engine model.

(vi) The engine sub-model that received the original type certificate for an engine type certificate family.

(3) Identify the combustor of the sub-model, where more than one type of combustor is available.

(4) The calendar-year production volume of engines from the sub-model that are covered by an FAA type certificate. Record zero for sub-models with no engines produced during the calendar year, or state that the engine model is no longer in production and list the date of manufacture (month and year) of the last engine produced. Specify the number of these engines that are intended for use on new aircraft and the number that are intended for use as non-exempt engines on in-use aircraft. For engines delivered without a final sub-model status and for which the manufacturer has not ascertained the engine's sub-model when installed before submitting its production report, the manufacturer may do any of the following in its initial report, and amend it later:

(i) List the sub-model that was shipped or the most probable sub-model.

(ii) List all potential sub-models.

(iii) State “Unknown Sub-Model.”

(5) The number of engines tested and the number of test runs for the applicable type certificate.

(6) The applicable test data and related information specified in Part III, Section 2.4 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in §87.8), except as otherwise allowed by this paragraph. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(6), applicable test data means data required to certify the engine sub-model, which would typically include NOX, HC, CO and smoke number. However, applicable test data would not include NOX, HC, or CO emissions for engines subject to only smoke standards. Note that §87.64 also requires you to report CO2 emissions. Specify thrust in kW for turboprop engines. You may omit the following items specified in Part III, Section 2.4 of ICAO Annex 16:

(i) Fuel specifications including fuel specification reference and hydrogen/carbon ratio.

(ii) Methods used for data acquisition, correcting for ambient conditions, and data analysis.

(iii) Intermediate emission indices and rates, however you may not omit the final characteristic level for each regulated pollutant in units of g/kN or g/kW.

(d) Clearly show what information you consider confidential by marking, circling, bracketing, stamping, or some other method. We will store your confidential information as described in 40 CFR part 2. Also, we will disclose it only as specified in 40 CFR part 2. If you send us information without claiming it is confidential, we may make it available to the public without further notice to you, as described in 40 CFR 2.204.

(e) Include the following signed statement and endorsement by an authorized representative of your company: “We submit this report under 40 CFR 87.42. All the information in this report is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge.”

(f) Where information provided for the previous year remains valid and complete, you may report your production volumes and state that there are no changes, without resubmitting the other information specified in this section.

§87.46   Recordkeeping.

(a) You must keep a copy of any reports or other information you submit to us for at least three years.

(b) Store these records in any format and on any media, as long as you can promptly send us organized, written records in English if we ask for them. You must keep these records readily available. We may review them at any time.

§87.48   Derivative engines for emissions certification purposes.

(a) General. A type certificate holder may request from the FAA a determination that an engine configuration is considered a derivative engine for emissions certification purposes. This would mean that the engine configuration is determined to be similar in design to a previously certificated engine (the “original” engine) for purposes of compliance with exhaust emission standards (gaseous and smoke). In order for the engine configuration to be considered a derivative engine for emission purposes under this part, it must have been derived from an original engine that was certificated to the requirements of 14 CFR part 33, and one of the following conditions must be met:

(1) The FAA determined that a safety issue exists that requires an engine modification.

(2) Emissions from the derivative engines are determined to be similar. In general, this means the emissions must meet the criteria specified in paragraph (b) of this section. FAA may adjust these criteria in unusual circumstances, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(3) All of the regulated emissions from the derivative engine are lower than the original engine.

(b) Emissions similarity. (1) The type certificate holder must demonstrate that the proposed derivative engine model's emissions meet the applicable standards and differ from the original model's emission rates only within the following ranges:

(i) ±3.0 g/kN for NOX.

(ii) ±1.0 g/kN for HC.

(iii) ±5.0 g/kN for CO.

(iv) ±2.0 SN for smoke.

(2) If the characteristic level of the original certificated engine model (or any other sub-models within the emission type certificate family tested for certification) before modification is at or above 95% of the applicable standard for any pollutant, you must measure the proposed derivative engine model's emissions for all pollutants to demonstrate that the derivative engine's resulting characteristic levels will not exceed the applicable emission standards. If the characteristic levels of the originally certificated engine model (and all other sub-models within the emission type certificate family tested for certification) are below 95% of the applicable standard for each pollutant, then, you may use engineering analysis to demonstrate that the derivative engine will not exceed the applicable emission standards, consistent with good engineering judgment. The engineering analysis must address all modifications from the original engine, including those approved for previous derivative engines.

(c) Continued production allowance. Where we allow continued production of an engine model after new standards begin to apply, you may also produce engine derivatives if they conform to the specifications of this section.

(d) Non-derivative engines. If the FAA determines that an engine model does not meet the requirements for a derivative engine for emissions certification purposes, the type certificate holder is required to demonstrate that the engine complies with the emissions standards applicable to a new engine type.

Subpart F—Exemptions and Exceptions

Source: 77 FR 36384, June 18, 2012, unless otherwise noted.

§87.50   Exemptions and exceptions.

This section specifies provisions related to exempting/excepting engines from some or all of the standards and requirements of this part 87. Exempted/excepted engines must conform to regulatory conditions specified for an exemption in this section and other applicable regulations. Exempted/excepted engines are deemed to be “subject to” the standards of this part even though they are not required to comply with the otherwise applicable requirements. Engines exempted/excepted with respect to certain standards must comply with other standards. Exemption requests under paragraph (a) of this section must be approved by the FAA, with the written concurrence of EPA, to be effective. Exemption requests under paragraph (b) of this section must be approved only by the FAA to be effective. Exceptions do not require a case-by-case FAA approval.

(a) Engines installed in new aircraft. Type certificate holders may request an exemption to produce a limited number of newly manufactured engines through December 31, 2016, to be installed in new aircraft as specified in this paragraph (a). This exemption is limited to NOX emissions from engines that are covered by a valid type certificate issued by FAA.

(1) Submit your request for an exemption to the FAA before producing the engines to be exempted, who will provide a copy to the Designated EPA Program Officer. Exemption by an authority outside the United States does not satisfy this requirement. Unless EPA and FAA allow otherwise, all requests must include the following:

(i) Your corporate name and an authorized representative's contact information.

(ii) A description of the engines for which you are requesting the exemption including the type certificate number and date it was issued by the FAA. Include in your description the engine model and sub-model names and the types of aircraft in which the engines are expected to be installed. Specify the number of engines that you would produce under the exemption and the period during which you would produce them.

(iii) Information about the aircraft in which the engines will be installed. Specify the airframe models and expected first purchasers/users of the aircraft. Identify all countries in which you expect the aircraft to be registered. Specify how many aircraft will be registered in the United States and how many will be registered in other countries; you may estimate this if it is not known.

(iv) A justification of why the exemption is appropriate. Justifications must include a description of the environmental impact of granting the exemption. Include other relevant information such as the following:

(A) Technical issues, from an environmental and airworthiness perspective, which may have caused a delay in compliance with a production cutoff.

(B) Economic impacts on the manufacturer, operator(s), and aviation industry at large.

(C) Environmental effects. This should consider the amount of additional air pollutant emissions that will result from the exemption. This could include consideration of items such as:

(1) The amount that the engine model exceeds the standard, taking into account any other engine models in the engine type certificate family covered by the same type certificate and their relation to the standard.

(2) The amount of the applicable air pollutant that would be emitted by an alternative engine for the same application.

(3) The impact of changes to reduce the applicable air pollutant on other environmental factors, including emission rates of other air pollutants, community noise, and fuel consumption.

(4) The degree to which the adverse impact would be offset by cleaner engines produced in the same time period (unless we decide to consider earlier engines).

(D) Impact of unforeseen circumstances and hardship due to business circumstances beyond your control (such as an employee strike, supplier disruption, or calamitous events).

(E) Projected future production volumes and plans for producing a compliant version of the engine model in question.

(F) Equity issues in administering the production cutoff among economically competing parties.

(G) List of other certificating authorities from which you have requested (or expect to request) exemptions, and a summary of the request.

(H) Any other relevant factors.

(v) A statement signed by your authorized representative attesting that all information included in the request is accurate.

(2) In consultation with the EPA, the FAA may specify additional conditions for the exemption.

(3) You must submit the annual report specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

(4) The permanent record for each engine exempted under this paragraph (a) must indicate that the engine is an exempted new engine.

(5) Engines exempted under this paragraph (a) must be labeled with the following statement: “EXEMPT NEW”.

(6) You must notify the FAA if you determine after submitting your request that the information is not accurate, either from an error or from changing circumstances. If you believe the new or changed information could have affected approval of your exemption (including information that could have affected the number of engines we exempt), you must notify the FAA promptly. The FAA will consult with EPA as needed to address any concerns related to this new or corrected information.

(b) Temporary exemptions based on flights for short durations at infrequent intervals. The emission standards of this part do not apply to engines which power aircraft operated in the United States for short durations at infrequent intervals. Such operations are limited to:

(1) Flights of an aircraft for the purpose of export to a foreign country, including any flights essential to demonstrate the integrity of an aircraft prior to its flight to a point outside the United States.

(2) Flights to a base where repairs, alterations or maintenance are to be performed, or to a point of storage, and flights for the purpose of returning an aircraft to service.

(3) Official visits by representatives of foreign governments.

(4) Other flights the Secretary determines to be for short durations at infrequent intervals. A request for such a determination shall be made before the flight takes place.

(c) Spare engines. Newly manufactured engines meeting the definition of “spare engine” are excepted as follows:

(1) This exception allows production of a newly manufactured engine for installation on an in-service aircraft. It does not allow for installation of a spare engine on a new aircraft.

(2) Each spare engine must be identical to a sub-model previously certificated to meet all requirements applicable to Tier 4 engines or later requirements.

(3) Spare engines excepted under this paragraph (c) may be used only where the emissions of the spare engines are certificated to equal to or lower emission standards than those of the engines they are replacing, for all regulated pollutants.

(4) No prior approval is required to produce spare engines. Engine manufacturers must include information about their production of spare engines in the annual report specified in paragraph (d) of this section

(5) The permanent record for each engine excepted under this paragraph (c) must indicate that the engine was produced as an excepted spare engine.

(6) Engines excepted under this paragraph (c) must be labeled with the following statement: “EXCEPTED SPARE”.

(d) Annual reports. If you produce engines with an exemption/exception under this section, you must submit an annual report with respect to such engines.

(1) You must send the Designated EPA Program Officer a report describing your production of exempted/excepted engines for each calendar year in which you produce such engines by February 28 of the following calendar year. You may include this information in the certification report described in §87.42. Confirm that the information in your initial request is still accurate, or describe any relevant changes.

(2) Provide the information specified in this paragraph (d)(2). For purposes of this paragraph (d), treat spare engine exceptions separate from other new engine exemptions. Include the following for each exemption/exception and each engine model and sub-model:

(i) Engine model and sub-model names.

(ii) Serial number of each engine.

(iii) Use of each engine (for example, spare or new installation).

(iv) Types of aircraft in which the engines were installed (or are intended to be installed for spare engines).

(v) Serial number of the new aircraft in which engines are installed (if known), or the name of the air carriers (or other operators) using spare engines.

(3) Include information in the report only for engines having a date of manufacture within the specific calendar year.

Subpart G—Test Procedures

§87.60   Testing engines.

(a) Use the equipment and procedures specified in Appendix 3, Appendix 5, and Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in §87.8), as applicable, to demonstrate whether engines meet the gaseous emission standards specified in subpart C of this part. Measure the emissions of all regulated gaseous pollutants. Similarly, use the equipment and procedures specified in Appendix 2 and Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 to determine whether engines meet the smoke standard specified in subpart C of this part. The compliance demonstration consists of establishing a mean value from testing some number of engines, then calculating a “characteristic level” by applying a set of statistical factors that take into account the number of engines tested. Round each characteristic level to the same number of decimal places as the corresponding emission standard. For turboprop engines, use the procedures specified for turbofan engines, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(b) Use a test fuel meeting the specifications described in Appendix 4 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in §87.8). The test fuel must not have additives whose purpose is to suppress smoke, such as organometallic compounds.

(c) Prepare test engines by including accessories that are available with production engines if they can reasonably be expected to influence emissions. The test engine may not extract shaft power or bleed service air to provide power to auxiliary gearbox-mounted components required to drive aircraft systems.

(d) Test engines must reach a steady operating temperature before the start of emission measurements.

(e) In consultation with the EPA, the FAA may approve alternate procedures for measuring emissions as specified in this paragraph (e). This might include testing and sampling methods, analytical techniques, and equipment specifications that differ from those specified in this part. Manufacturers and operators may request this approval by sending a written request with supporting justification to the FAA and to the Designated EPA Program Officer. Such a request may be approved only if one of the following conditions is met:

(1) The engine cannot be tested using the specified procedures.

(2) The alternate procedure is shown to be equivalent to or better (e.g., more accurate or precise) than the specified procedure.

(f) The following landing and take-off (LTO) cycles apply for emission testing and calculating weighted LTO values:

Table 1 to §87.60—LTO Test Cycles

ModeTurbopropSubsonic turbofanSupersonic turbofan
Percent of rated outputTime in mode
(minutes)
Percent of rated outputTime in mode
(minutes)
Percent of rated outputTime in mode
(minutes)
Take-off1000.51000.71001.2
Climb902.5852.2652.0
Descent151.2
Approach304.5304.0342.3
Taxi/ground idle726.0726.05.826.0

(g) Engines comply with an applicable standard if the testing results show that the engine type certificate family's characteristic level does not exceed the numerical level of that standard, as described in §87.60.

[77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012]

§87.64   Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Starting January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels of regulated NOX to the Administrator for engines of a type or model of which the date of manufacture of the first individual production model was on or after January 1, 2011. By January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels of regulated NOX to the Administrator for engines currently in production and of a type or model for which the date of manufacture of the individual engine was before January 1, 2011. Round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/kilonewton rO.

(c) Report CO2 by calculation from fuel mass flow rate measurements in Appendices 3 and 5 to ICAO Annex 16, volume II or alternatively, according to the measurement criteria of CO2 in Appendices 3 and 5 to ICAO Annex 16, volume II.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012]



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