About GPO   |   Newsroom/Media   |   Congressional Relations   |   Inspector General   |   Careers   |   Contact   |   askGPO   |   Help  
 
Home   |   Customers   |   Vendors   |   Libraries  

The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is a regularly updated, unofficial editorial compilation of CFR material and Federal Register amendments produced by the National Archives and Records Administration's Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Printing Office.

Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States Code
Text | PDF

Find, review, and submit comments on Federal rules that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register using Regulations.gov.

Purchase individual CFR titles from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.

Find issues of the CFR (including issues prior to 1996) at a local Federal depository library.

[1]
 
 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 17, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment


PART 86—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)


Contents

Subpart G—Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

§§86.601-1--86.601-83   [Reserved]
§86.601-84   Applicability.
§86.602-84   Definitions.
§86.602-98   Definitions.
§86.603-88   Test orders.
§86.603-98   Test orders.
§86.604-84   Testing by the Administrator.
§86.605-88   Maintenance of records; submittal of information.
§86.605-98   Maintenance of records; submittal of information.
§86.606-84   Entry and access.
§86.607-84   Sample selection.
§86.608-98   Test procedures.
§86.609-98   Calculation and reporting of test results.
§86.610-98   Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective Enforcement Audits.
§86.612-97   Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity.
§86.614-84   Hearings on suspension, revocation, and voiding of certificates of conformity.
§86.615-84   Treatment of confidential information.

Subpart H—General Provisions for In-Use Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks

§86.701-94   General applicability.
§86.702-94   Definitions.
§86.703-94   Abbreviations.
§86.704-94   Section numbering; construction.
§§86.705-94--86.707-94   [Reserved]
§86.708-94   In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty vehicles.
§86.708-98   In-use emission standards for 1998 and later model year light-duty vehicles.
§86.709-94   In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks.
§86.709-99   In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

Subpart I—Emission Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure

§86.884-1   General applicability.
§86.884-2   Definitions.
§86.884-3   Abbreviations.
§86.884-4   Section numbering.
§86.884-5   Test procedures.
§86.884-6   Fuel specifications.
§86.884-7   Dynamometer operation cycle for smoke emission tests.
§86.884-8   Dynamometer and engine equipment.
§86.884-9   Smoke measurement system.
§86.884-10   Information.
§86.884-11   Instrument checks.
§86.884-12   Test run.
§86.884-13   Data analysis.
§86.884-14   Calculations.

Subpart J—Fees for the Motor Vehicle and Engine Compliance Program

§86.901   Assessment of fees.

Subpart K—Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Heavy-Duty Engines

§86.1001   Applicability.

Subpart L—Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks

§86.1101-87   Applicability.
§86.1102-87   Definitions.
§86.1103-87   Criteria for availability of nonconformance penalties.
§86.1104-91   Determination of upper limits.
§86.1105-87   Emission standards for which nonconformance penalties are available.
§86.1106-87   Production compliance auditing.
§86.1107-87   Testing by the Administrator.
§86.1108-87   Maintenance of records.
§86.1109-87   Entry and access.
§86.1110-87   Sample selection.
§86.1111-87   Test procedures for PCA testing.
§86.1112-87   Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.
§86.1113-87   Calculation and payment of penalty.
§86.1114-87   Suspension and voiding of certificates of conformity.
§86.1115-87   Hearing procedures for nonconformance determinations and penalties.
§86.1116-87   Treatment of confidential information.

Subpart M—Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

§86.1201-90   Applicability.
§86.1202-85   Definitions.
§86.1203-85   Abbreviations.
§86.1204   Section numbering.
§86.1205-90   Introduction; structure of subpart.
§86.1206-96   Equipment required; overview.
§86.1207-96   Sampling and analytical systems; evaporative emissions.
§86.1213-08   Fuel specifications.
§86.1213-94   Fuel specifications.
§86.1214-85   Analytical gases.
§86.1215-85   EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.
§86.1216-90   Calibrations; frequency and overview.
§86.1217-96   Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.
§86.1218-85   Dynamometer calibration.
§86.1221-90   Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.
§86.1226-85   Calibration of other equipment.
§86.1227-96   Test procedures; overview.
§86.1228-85   Transmissions.
§86.1229-85   Dynamometer load determination and fuel temperature profile.
§86.1230-96   Test sequence; general requirements.
§86.1231-90   Vehicle preparation.
§86.1231-96   Vehicle preparation.
§86.1232-96   Vehicle preconditioning.
§86.1233-96   Diurnal emission test.
§86.1234-96   Running loss test.
§86.1235-96   Dynamometer procedure.
§86.1236-85   Engine starting and restarting.
§86.1237-85   Dynamometer runs.
§86.1237-96   Dynamometer runs.
§86.1238-96   Hot soak test.
§86.1242-90   Records required.
§86.1243-96   Calculations; evaporative emissions.
§86.1246-96   Fuel dispensing spitback procedure.

Subpart N—Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures

§86.1301   Scope; applicability.
§86.1302-84   Definitions.
§86.1303-84   Abbreviations.
§86.1304   Section numbering; construction.
§86.1305-90   Introduction; structure of subpart.
§86.1305-2004   Introduction; structure of subpart.
§86.1305-2010   Introduction; structure of subpart.
§86.1306-07   Equipment required and specifications; overview.
§86.1306-96   Equipment required and specifications; overview.
§86.1308-84   Dynamometer and engine equipment specifications.
§86.1309-90   Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.
§86.1310-90   Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.
§86.1310-2007   Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled engines and particulate emissions from all engines.
§86.1311-94   Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.
§86.1312-88   Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.
§86.1312-2007   Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and weighing procedures.
§86.1313-94   Fuel specifications.
§86.1313-98   Fuel specifications.
§86.1313-2004   Fuel specifications.
§86.1313-2007   Fuel specifications.
§86.1314-94   Analytical gases.
§86.1316-94   Calibrations; frequency and overview.
§86.1318-84   Engine dynamometer system calibrations.
§86.1319-90   CVS calibration.
§86.1320-90   Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.
§86.1321-94   Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.
§86.1322-84   Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.
§86.1323-84   Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.
§86.1323-2007   Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.
§86.1324-84   Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.
§86.1325-94   Methane analyzer calibration.
§86.1326-90   Calibration of other equipment.
§86.1327-96   Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.
§86.1327-98   Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.
§86.1330-90   Test sequence; general requirements.
§86.1332-90   Engine mapping procedures.
§86.1333-90   Transient test cycle generation.
§86.1333-2010   Transient test cycle generation.
§86.1334-84   Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.
§86.1335-90   Cool-down procedure.
§86.1336-84   Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.
§86.1337-96   Engine dynamometer test run.
§86.1337-2007   Engine dynamometer test run.
§86.1338-84   Emission measurement accuracy.
§86.1338-2007   Emission measurement accuracy.
§86.1339-90   Particulate filter handling and weighing.
§86.1340-90   Exhaust sample analysis.
§86.1340-94   Exhaust sample analysis.
§86.1341-90   Test cycle validation criteria.
§86.1341-98   Test cycle validation criteria.
§86.1342-90   Calculations; exhaust emissions.
§86.1342-94   Calculations; exhaust emissions.
§86.1343-88   Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.
§86.1344-94   Required information.
§86.1360-2007   Supplemental emission test; test cycle and procedures.
§86.1362-2007   Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
§86.1362-2010   Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
§86.1363-2007   Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle.
§86.1370-2007   Not-To-Exceed test procedures.
§86.1372-2007   Measuring smoke emissions within the NTE zone.
§86.1375-2007   Equipment specifications for field testing.
§86.1380-2004   Load response test.

Subpart O—Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures

§86.1401   Scope; applicability.
§86.1402   Definitions.
§86.1403   Abbreviations.
§86.1404   [Reserved]
§86.1405   Introduction; structure of subpart.
§86.1406   Equipment required and specifications; overview.
§§86.1407-86.1412   [Reserved]
§86.1413   Fuel specifications.
§§86.1414-86.1415   [Reserved]
§86.1416   Calibration; frequency and overview.
§§86.1417-86.1421   [Reserved]
§86.1422   Analyzer calibration.
§§86.1423-86.1426   [Reserved]
§86.1427   Certification Short Test procedure; overview.
§§86.1428-86.1429   [Reserved]
§86.1430   Certification Short Test sequence; general requirements.
§86.1431   [Reserved]
§86.1432   Vehicle preparation.
§86.1433   [Reserved]
§86.1434   Equipment preparation.
§§86.1435-86.1436   [Reserved]
§86.1437   Test run—manufacturer.
§86.1438   Test run—EPA.
§86.1439   Certification Short Test emission test procedures—EPA.
§§86.1440-86.1441   [Reserved]
§86.1442   Information required.

Subpart P—Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures

§86.1501   Scope; applicability.
§86.1502   Definitions.
§86.1503   Abbreviations.
§86.1505   Introduction; structure of subpart.
§86.1506   Equipment required and specifications; overview.
§86.1509   Exhaust gas sampling system.
§86.1511   Exhaust gas analysis system.
§86.1513   Fuel specifications.
§86.1514   Analytical gases.
§86.1516   Calibration; frequency and overview.
§86.1519   CVS calibration.
§86.1522   Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.
§86.1524   Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.
§86.1526   Calibration of other equipment.
§86.1527   Idle test procedure; overview.
§86.1530   Test sequence; general requirements.
§86.1537   Idle test run.
§86.1540   Idle exhaust sample analysis.
§86.1542   Information required.
§86.1544   Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

Subpart Q—Regulations for Altitude Performance Adjustments for New and In-Use Motor Vehicles and Engines

§86.1601   General applicability.
§86.1602   Definitions.
§86.1603   General requirements.
§86.1604   Conditions for disapproval.
§86.1605   Information to be submitted.
§86.1606   Labeling.

Subpart R—General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks

§86.1701-99   General applicability.
§86.1702-99   Definitions.
§86.1703-99   Abbreviations.
§86.1704-99   Section numbering; construction.
§86.1705-99   General provisions; opt-in.
§86.1706-99   National LEV program in effect.
§86.1707-99   General provisions; opt-outs.
§86.1708-99   Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.
§86.1709-99   Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light light-duty trucks.
§86.1710-99   Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks.
§86.1711-99   Limitations on sale of Tier 1 vehicles and TLEVs.
§86.1712-99   Maintenance of records; submittal of information.
§86.1713-01   [Reserved]
§86.1713-99   Light-duty exhaust durability programs.
§86.1714-01   [Reserved]
§86.1714-99   Small volume manufacturers certification procedures.
§86.1715-01   [Reserved]
§86.1715-99   [Reserved]
§86.1716-01   [Reserved]
§86.1716-99   Prohibition of defeat devices.
§86.1717-01   Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.
§86.1717-99   Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.
§§86.1718-99--86.1720-99   [Reserved]
§86.1721-01   Application for certification.
§86.1721-99   Application for certification.
§86.1722-01   [Reserved]
§86.1722-99   [Reserved]
§86.1723-01   [Reserved]
§86.1723-99   Required data.
§86.1724-01   Emission data vehicle selection.
§86.1724-99   Test vehicles and engines.
§86.1725-01   Allowable maintenance.
§86.1725-99   Maintenance.
§86.1726-01   [Reserved]
§86.1726-99   Mileage and service accumulation; emission measurements.
§86.1727-99   [Reserved]
§86.1728-01   Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.
§86.1728-99   Compliance with emission standards.
§§86.1729-99--86.1733-99   [Reserved]
§86.1734-01   [Reserved]
§86.1734-99   Alternative procedure for notification of additions and changes.
§86.1735-01   Labeling.
§86.1735-99   Labeling.
§§86.1736-99--86.1769-99   [Reserved]
§86.1770-99   All-Electric Range Test requirements.
§86.1771-99   Fuel specifications.
§86.1772-99   Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.
§86.1773-99   Test sequence; general requirements.
§86.1774-99   Vehicle preconditioning.
§86.1775-99   Exhaust sample analysis.
§86.1776-99   Records required.
§86.1777-99   Calculations; exhaust emissions.
§86.1778-99   Calculations; particulate emissions.
§86.1779-99   General enforcement provisions.
§86.1780-99   Prohibited acts.

Subpart S—General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles

§86.1801-01   Applicability.
§86.1801-12   Applicability.
§86.1802-01   Section numbering; construction.
§86.1803-01   Definitions.
§86.1804-01   Acronyms and abbreviations.
§86.1805-01   Useful life.
§86.1805-04   Useful life.
§86.1805-12   Useful life.
§86.1806-01   On-board diagnostics.
§86.1806-04   On-board diagnostics.
§86.1806-05   On-board diagnostics for vehicles less than or equal to 14,000 pounds GVWR.
§86.1807-01   Vehicle labeling.
§86.1808-01   Maintenance instructions.
§86.1808-07   Maintenance instructions.
§86.1809-01   Prohibition of defeat devices.
§86.1809-10   Prohibition of defeat devices.
§86.1809-12   Prohibition of defeat devices.
§86.1810-01   General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.
§86.1810-09   General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.
§86.1811-01   Emission standards for light-duty vehicles.
§86.1811-04   Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.
§86.1811-09   Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.
§86.1811-10   Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.
§86.1812-01   Emission standards for light-duty trucks 1.
§86.1813-01   Emission standards for light-duty trucks 2.
§86.1814-01   Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.
§86.1814-02   Emission standards for light-duty trucks 3.
§86.1815-01   Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.
§86.1815-02   Emission standards for light-duty trucks 4.
§86.1816-05   Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.
§86.1816-08   Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.
§86.1817-05   Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.
§86.1817-08   Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.
§86.1818-12   Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles.
§86.1819   [Reserved]
§86.1820-01   Durability group determination.
§86.1821-01   Evaporative/refueling family determination.
§86.1822-01   Durability data vehicle selection.
§86.1823-01   Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.
§86.1823-08   Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.
§86.1824-01   Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.
§86.1824-07   Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.
§86.1824-08   Durability demonstration procedures for evaporative emissions.
§86.1825-01   Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.
§86.1825-08   Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.
§86.1826-01   Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.
§86.1827-01   Test group determination.
§86.1828-01   Emission data vehicle selection.
§86.1828-10   Emission data vehicle selection.
§86.1829-01   Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.
§86.1830-01   Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.
§86.1831-01   Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.
§86.1832-01   Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.
§86.1833-01   Adjustable parameters.
§86.1834-01   Allowable maintenance.
§86.1835-01   Confirmatory certification testing.
§86.1836-01   Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.
§86.1837-01   Rounding of emission measurements.
§86.1838-01   Small volume manufacturer certification procedures.
§86.1839-01   Carryover of certification data.
§86.1840-01   Special test procedures.
§86.1841-01   Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.
§86.1842-01   Addition of a vehicle after certification; and changes to a vehicle covered by certification.
§86.1843-01   General information requirements.
§86.1844-01   Information requirements: Application for certification and submittal of information upon request.
§86.1845-01   Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.
§86.1845-04   Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.
§86.1846-01   Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.
§86.1847-01   Manufacturer in-use verification and in-use confirmatory testing; submittal of information and maintenance of records.
§86.1848-01   Certification.
§86.1848-10   Compliance with emission standards for the purpose of certification.
§86.1849-01   Right of entry.
§86.1850-01   Denial, suspension or revocation of certificate of conformity.
§86.1851-01   Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.
§86.1852-01   Waivers for good in-use emission performance.
§86.1853-01   Certification hearings.
§86.1854-12   Prohibited acts.
§§86.1855-86.1859   [Reserved]
§86.1860-04   How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.
§86.1861-04   How do the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 NOX averaging, banking and trading programs work?
§86.1862-04   Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards.
§86.1863-07   Chassis certification for diesel vehicles.
§86.1864-10   How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.
§86.1865-12   How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.
§86.1866-12   CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.
§86.1867-12   CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.
§86.1868-12   CO2 credits for improving the efficiency of air conditioning systems.
§86.1869-12   CO2 credits for off-cycle CO2-reducing technologies.
§86.1870-12   CO2 credits for qualifying full-size pickup trucks.
§86.1871-12   Optional early CO2 credit programs.
Appendix I to Subpart S of Part 86—Vehicle Procurement Methodology
Appendix II to Subpart S of Part 86—As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria
Appendix III to Subpart S of Part 86—As-Received Inspection

Subpart T—Manufacturer-Run In-Use Testing Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

§86.1901   What testing requirements apply to my engines that have gone into service?
§86.1905   How does this program work?
§86.1908   How must I select and screen my in-use engines?
§86.1910   How must I prepare and test my in-use engines?
§86.1912   How do I determine whether an engine meets the vehicle-pass criteria?
§86.1915   What are the requirements for Phase 1 and Phase 2 testing?
§86.1917   How does in-use testing under this subpart relate to the emission-related warranty in Section 207(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act?
§86.1920   What in-use testing information must I report to EPA?
§86.1925   What records must I keep?
§86.1930   What special provisions apply from 2005 through 2010?
Appendix I to Subpart T of Part 86—Sample Graphical Summary of NTE Emission Results
Appendix I to Part 86—Urban Dynamometer Schedules
Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules
Appendix III to Part 86—Constant Volume Sampler Flow Calibration
Appendix IV to Part 86—Durability Driving Schedules
Appendix V to Part 86—The Standard Road Cycle (SRC)
Appendix VI to Part 86—Vehicle and Engine Components
Appendix VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)
Appendix VIII to Part 86—Aging Bench Equipment and Procedures
Appendix IX to Part 86—Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures
Appendix X to Part 86—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks
Appendix XI to Part 86—Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles
Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks
Appendix XIII to Part 86—State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Appendix XIV to Part 86—Determination of Acceptable Durability Test Schedule for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R
Appendix XV to Part 86—Procedure for Determining an Acceptable Exhaust Regeneration Durability-Data Test Schedule for Diesel Cycle Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer Systems Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R
Appendix XVI to Part 86—Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer Systems Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R
Appendix XVII to Part 86—Procedure for Determining Vehicle Emission Control Technology Category/Fuel Reactivity Adjustment Factors for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R
Appendix XVIII to Part 86—Statistical Outlier Identification Procedure for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R

Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 86 appear at 60 FR 34377, June 30, 1995.

Subpart G—Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Source: 41 FR 31483, July 28, 1976, unless otherwise noted.

§§86.601-1--86.601-83   [Reserved]

§86.601-84   Applicability.

The provisions of this subpart apply to light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. However, manufacturers that optionally certify heavy-duty vehicles based on chassis testing under §86.1863-07 may choose instead to perform selective enforcement audits using the procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1068, subpart E. References to “light-duty vehicle” or “LDT” in this subpart G shall be deemed to include light-duty trucks and heavy-duty vehicles as appropriate.

(a) Section numbering; construction. (1) The model year of initial applicability is indicated by the two digits following the hyphen of the section number. A section remains in effect for subsequent model years until it is superseded.

(2) A section reference without a model year suffix shall be interpreted to be a reference to the section applicable to the appropriate model year.

(b) References in this subpart to engine families and emission control systems shall be deemed to refer to durability groups and test groups as applicable for manufacturers certifying new light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks under the provisions of subpart S of this part.

(Secs. 206, 208(a) and 301(a), Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7525, 7542(a) and 7601(a))

[49 FR 69, Jan. 3, 1984. Redesignated at 54 FR 2122, Jan. 19, 1989, as amended at 62 FR 31234, June 6, 1997; 64 FR 23922, May 4, 1999; 75 FR 22980, Apr. 30, 2010]

§86.602-84   Definitions.

(a) The definitions in this section apply to this subpart.

(b) As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein have the meaning given them in the Act.

(1) Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) means the maximum percentage of failing vehicles that, for purposes of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory as a process average.

(2) Axle Ratio means all ratios within ±3% of the axle ratio specified in the configuration in the test order.

(3) Configuration means a subclassification of an engine-system combination on the basis of engine code, inertia weight class, transmission type and gear ratios, axle ratio, and other parameters which may be designated by the Administrator.

(4) Test Sample means the collection of vehicles of the same configuration which have been drawn from the population of vehicles of that configuration and which will receive exhaust emission testing.

(5) Inspection Criteria means the pass and fail numbers associated with a particular sampling plan.

(6) Vehicle means any new production light-duty vehicle as defined in subpart A of this part.

(7) Test Vehicle means a vehicle in a test sample.

(8) In the Hands of the Manufacturer means that vehicles are still in the possession of the manufacturer and have not had their bills of lading transferred to another person for the purpose of transporting.

[49 FR 48480, Dec. 12, 1984. Redesignated at 54 FR 2122, Jan. 19, 1989]

§86.602-98   Definitions.

Section 86.602-98 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.602-84. Where a paragraph in §86.602-84 is identical and applicable to §86.602-98, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.602-84.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.602-84 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”.

(a) through (b)(2) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.602-84.

(b)(3)(i) Configuration, when used for LDV exhaust emissions testing, means a subclassification of an engine-system combination on the basis of engine code, inertia weight class, transmission type and gear ratios, axle ratio, and other parameters which may be designated by the Administrator.

(ii) Configuration, when used for LDV refueling emissions testing, means a subclassification of an evaporative/refueling emission family on the basis of evaporative and refueling control system and other parameters which may be designated by the Administrator.

(4) Test sample means the collection of vehicles of the same configuration which have been drawn from the population of vehicles of that configuration and which will receive emission testing.

(b)(5) through (b)(8) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.602-84.

(9) Executive Officer means the Executive Officer of the California Air Resources Board or his or her authorized representative.

(10) Executive Order means the document the Executive Officer grants a manufacturer for an engine family that certifies the manufacturer has verified that the engine family complies with all applicable standards and requirements pursuant to Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations.

(11) 50-state engine family means an engine family that meets both federal and California Air Resources Board motor vehicle emission control regulations and has received a federal certificate of conformity as well as an Executive Order.

[59 FR 16300, Apr. 6, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 31234, June 6, 1997]

§86.603-88   Test orders.

(a) The Administrator will require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer.

(b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his designee. The test order will be delivered in person by an EPA Enforcement Officer to a company representative or sent by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the manufacturer's representative who signs the Application for Certification submitted by the manufacturer pursuant to the requirements of the applicable sections of subpart A of this part. Upon receipt of a test order, the manufacturer shall comply with all of the provisions of this subpart and instructions in the test order.

(c)(1) The test order will specify the vehicle configuration selected for testing, the time and location at which vehicles must be selected, and the procedure by which vehicles of the specified configuration must be selected. The test order may specify the number of vehicles to be selected per day and may include alternative configurations (primary, secondary, etc.) to be selected for testing in the event that vehicles of the first specified configuration are not available for testing because those vehicles are not being manufactured at the specified assembly plant, not being manufactured during the specified time, or not being stored at the specified assembly plant or associated storage facility. If total production of the specified vehicle configuration is less than the number specified in the test order, the manufacturer will select the actual number of vehicles produced per day. If the first specified configuration is not being manufactured at a rate of at least four vehicles per day over the expected duration of the audit, the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his designated representative may select vehicles of a primary alternate configuration for testing in lieu of the first specified configuration. Likewise, vehicles of a secondary alternate configuration may be selected in lieu of vehicles of the first specified configuration or primary alternate configuration. In addition, the test order may include other directions or information essential to the administration of the required testing.

(2) The following instructions are applicable to each test order issued under this subpart:

(i) The manufacturer shall make the following documents available to an EPA Enforcement Officer upon request:

(A) A properly filed and current Application for Certification following the format prescribed by the EPA for the appropriate model year; and

(B) A copy of the shop manual, dealer service bulletins, and pre-delivery inspection procedures for the configuration being tested.

(ii) Only one mechanic at a time per vehicle shall make authorized checks, adjustments, or repairs, unless a particular check, adjustment, or repair requires a second mechanic as indicated in the shop manual or dealer service bulletins.

(iii) A mechanic shall not perform any check, adjustment, or repair without an Enforcement Officer present unless otherwise authorized.

(iv) The manufacturer shall utilize only those tools and test equipment utilized by its dealers when performing authorized checks, adjustments, or repairs.

(d) A manufacturer may indicate preferred assembly plants for the various engine families produced by the manufacturer for selection of vehicles in response to a test order. This shall be accomplished by submitting a list of engine families and the corresponding assembly plants from which the manufacturer desires to have vehicles selected to the Administrator. In order that a manufacturer's preferred location for issuance of a test order for a configuration of a particular engine family be considered, the list must be submitted prior to issuance of the test order. Notwithstanding the fact that a manufacturer has submitted the above list, the Administrator may, upon making the determination that evidence exists indicating noncompliance at other than the manufacturer's preferred plant, order testing at such other plant where vehicles of the configuration specified in the test order are assembled.

(e) During a given model year, the Administrator shall not issue to a manufacturer more SEA test orders than an annual limit determined by dividing the projected sales bound for the U.S. market for that model year, as made by the manufacturer in its report submitted under paragraph (a)(2) of §600.207-80 of the Automobile Fuel Economy Regulations, by 300,000 and rounding to the nearest whole number, unless the projected sales are less than 150,000, in which case the annual limit is one. However, the annual limit for SEA test orders will be recalculated if a manufacturer submits to EPA in writing prior to or during the model year a sales projection update.

(1) Any SEA test order for which the configuration fails in accordance with §86.610 or for which testing is not completed does not count against the annual limit.

(2) When the annual limit has been met, the Administrator may issue additional test orders for those configurations for which evidence exists indicating noncompliance. An SEA test order issued on this basis will include a statement as to the reason for its issuance.

[41 FR 31483, July 28, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 4552, Feb. 2, 1978; 49 FR 48480, Dec. 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 54 FR 2122, Jan. 19, 1989]

§86.603-98   Test orders.

Section 86.603-98 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.603-88. Where a paragraph in §86.603-88 is identical and applicable to §86.603-98, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.603-88.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.603-88 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”.

(a) through (c) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.603-88.

(d) A manufacturer may indicate preferred assembly plants for the various engine families and evaporative/refueling families produced by the manufacturer for selection of vehicles in response to a test order. This shall be accomplished by submitting a list of engine families with the associated evaporative/refueling families, and the corresponding assembly plants from which the manufacturer desires to have vehicles selected, to the Administrator. In order that a manufacturer's preferred location for issuance of a test order for a configuration of a particular engine family and/or evaporative/refueling family be considered, the list must be submitted prior to issuance of the test order. Notwithstanding the fact that a manufacturer has submitted the above list, the Administrator may, upon making the determination that evidence exists indicating noncompliance at other than the manufacturer's preferred plant, order selection at such other plant where vehicles of the configuration specified in the test order are assembled.

(e) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.603-88.

(f) In the event evidence exists indicating an engine family is in noncompliance, the Administrator may, in addition to other powers provided by this section, issue a test order specifying the engine family the manufacturer is required to test.

[59 FR 16300, Apr. 6, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 31234, June 6, 1997]

§86.604-84   Testing by the Administrator.

(a) The Administrator may require by test order that vehicles of a specified configuration be selected in a manner consistent with the requirements of §86.607 and submitted to him at such place as he may designate for the purpose of conducting emission tests. These tests shall be conducted in accordance with §86.608 of these regulations to determine whether vehicles manufactured by the manufacturer conform with the regulations with respect to which the certificate of conformity was issued.

(b)(1) Whenever the Administrator conducts a test on a test vehicle or the Administrator and manufacturer each conduct a test on the same test vehicle, the results of the Administrator's test shall comprise the official data for that vehicle.

(2) Whenever the manufacturer conducts all tests on a test vehicle, the manufacturer's test data will be accepted as the official data: Provided, That if the Administrator makes a determination based on testing under paragraph (a) of this section that there is a substantial lack of agreement between the manufacturer's test results and the Administrator's test results, no manufacturer's test data from the manufacturer's test facility will be accepted for purposes of this subpart.

(c) In the event that testing conducted under paragraph (a) of this section demonstrates a lack of agreement under paragraph (b)(2), of this section, the Administrator will:

(1) Notify the manufacturer in writing of his determination that the test facility is inappropriate for conducting the tests required by this subpart and the reasons therefor, and

(2) Reinstate any manufacturer's data upon a showing by the manufacturer that the data acquired under paragraph (a) of this section was erroneous and the manufacturer's data was correct.

(d) The manufacturer may request in writing that the Administrator reconsider his determination in paragraph (b)(2) of this section based on data or information which indicates that changes have been made to the test facility and such changes have resolved the reasons for disqualification.

[41 FR 31483, July 28, 1976, as amended at 49 FR 48481, Dec. 12, 1984. Redesignated at 54 FR 2123, Jan. 19, 1989]

§86.605-88   Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

(a) The manufacturer of any new motor vehicle subject to any of the standards or procedures prescribed in this part shall establish, maintain and retain the following adequately organized and indexed records:

(1) General records. (i) A description of all equipment used to test vehicles in accordance with §86.608 pursuant to a test order issued under this subpart, including the following information:

(A) Dynamometer. (1) Inertia loading.

(2) Road load power absorption at 50 m.p.h.

(3) Manufacturer, model and serial number.

(B) Constant volume sampler. (1) Pressure of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air entering the positive displacement pump, pressure increase across the pump, and the temperature set point of the temperature control system.

(2) Number of revolutions of the positive displacement pump accumulated while test is in progress and exhaust samples are being collected.

(3) Humidity of dilution air.

(4) Manufacturer, model, type and serial number.

(C) Instrumentation. (1) Manufacturer, model and serial number for each analyzer.

(2) Pertinent information such as tuning, gain, ranges and calibration data.

(3) Identification of zero, span, exhaust gas and dilution air sample traces.

(4) Temperature set point of heated sample line and heated hydrocarbon detector temperature control system (for diesel vehicles only).

(D) Test cell. (1) Barometric pressure, ambient temperature and humidity.

(2) Data and time of day.

(ii) In lieu of recording test equipment information, reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information.

(2) Individual records. These records pertain to each audit conducted pursuant to this subpart.

(i) The location where audit testing was performed, and the date and time for each emissions test.

(ii) The number of miles on the test vehicle when the test began and ended.

(iii) The names of supervisory personnel responsible for the conduct of the audit.

(iv) A record and description of any repairs performed prior to and/or subsequent to approval by the Administrator, giving the date and time of the repair, the reason for it, the person authorizing it, and the names of supervisory personnel responsible for the repair.

(v) The dates when the test vehicles were shipped from the assembly plant or the storage facility and when they were received at the testing facility.

(vi) The drive wheel tire pressure and the inertia weight class for each test vehicle, and the actual curb weight for each test vehicle required to be weighed pursuant to a test order.

(vii) A complete record of all emission tests performed pursuant to this subpart (except tests performed by EPA directly) including all individual worksheets and/or other documentation relating to each test, or exact copies thereof.

(viii) A brief description of all significant audit events, commencing with the test vehicle selection process, but not described by any other subparagraph under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, including such extraordinary events as vehicle accident.

(ix) A paper copy of the driver's trace for each test.

(3) Additional required records for diesel vehicles.

(4) The manufacturer shall record test equipment description, pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of this section, for each test cell that is used to perform emission testing under this subpart.

(b) All records required to be maintained under this subpart shall be retained by the manufacturer for a period of one (1) year after completion of all testing in response to a test order. Records may be retained as hard copy or reduced to microfilm, punch cards, etc., depending upon the record retention procedures of the manufacturer: Provided, That in every case all the information contained in the hard copy shall be retained.

(c) The manufacturer shall, pursuant to a request made by the Administrator, submit to the Administrator the following information with regard to vehicle production:

(1) Number of vehicles, by configuration and assembly plant, scheduled for production for the time period designated in the request.

(2) Number of vehicles, by configuration and assembly plant, produced during the time period designated in the request which are complete for introduction into commerce.

(d) Nothing in this section shall limit the Administrator's discretion to require the manufacturer to retain additional records or submit information not specifically required by this section.

(e) All reports, submissions, notifications and requests for approvals made under this subpart shall be addressed to:

Director, Manufacturers Operations Division EN-340), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

[41 FR 31483, July 28, 1976, as amended at 44 FR 61962, Oct. 29, 1979; 49 FR 48481, Dec. 12, 1984. Redesignated at 54 FR 2123, Jan. 19, 1989]

§86.605-98   Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

Section 86.605-98 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.605-88. Where a paragraph in §86.605-88 is identical and applicable to §86.605-98, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.605-88.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.605-88 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”.

(a) through (a)(1)(i)(D) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.605-88.

(E) Refueling enclosure (refueling SHED).

(1) Total internal volume.

(2) Capacity of mixing blower.

(3) Location of refueling access ports.

(4) Enclosure barometric pressure and ambient temperature.

(5) Soak area temperature records.

(F) Fuel dispenser for refueling. (1) Fuel dispensing rate.

(2) Manufacturer and model of fuel nozzle.

(3) Dispensed fuel temperature.

(4) Dispensed fuel volume.

(a)(1)(ii) through (e) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.605-88.

(2) [Reserved]

[59 FR 16301, Apr. 6, 1994]

§86.606-84   Entry and access.

(a) In order to allow the Administrator to determine whether a manufacturer is complying with the provisions of this subpart and a test order issued thereunder, EPA Enforcement Officers may enter during normal operating hours upon presentation of credentials any of the following:

(1) Any facility where any vehicle to be introduced into commerce or any emission-related component is or has been manufactured, assembled, or stored;

(2) Any facility where any tests conducted pursuant to a test order or any procedures or activities connected with such tests are or were performed;

(3) Any facility where any vehicle which is being, was, or is to be tested is present; and

(4) Any facility where any record or other document relating to any of the above is located.

(b) Upon admission to any facility referred to in paragraph (a) of this section, EPA Enforcement Officers may:

(1) Inspect and monitor any part or aspect of vehicle manufacturer, assembly, storage, testing and other procedures, and the facilities in which these procedures are conducted;

(2) Inspect and monitor any part or aspect of vehicle test procedures or activities, including, but not limited to, vehicle selection, preparation, mileage accumulation, preconditioning, emission tests, and maintenance; and verify calibration of test equipment;

(3) Inspect and make copies of any records or documents related to the assembly, storage, selection and testing of a vehicle in compliance with a test order; and

(4) Inspect and photograph any part or aspect of any vehicle and any component used in its assembly that is reasonably related to the purpose of the entry.

(c) EPA Enforcement Officers may obtain reasonable assistance without cost from those in charge of a facility to help them perform any function listed in this subpart and may request the recipient of a test order to arrange with those in charge of a facility operated for its benefit to furnish reasonable assistance without cost to EPA whether or not the recipient controls the facility.

(d) EPA Enforcement Officers may seek a warrant or court order authorizing the EPA Enforcement Officers to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section. EPA Enforcement Officers may proceed ex parte to obtain a warrant whether or not the Enforcement Officers first sought permission from the recipient of the test order or the party in charge of the facilities in question to conduct those activities related to entry and access.

(e) A recipient of a test order shall permit EPA Enforcement Officers who present a warrant or court order as described in paragraph (d) of this section to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section and as described in the warrant or court order. A recipient of a test order shall cause those in charge of its facility or a facility operated for its benefit to permit EPA Enforcement Officers to conduct these activities related to entry and access pursuant to a warrant or court order whether or not the recipient controls the facility. In the absence of such a warrant or court order, EPA Enforcement Officers may conduct those activities related to entry and access only upon the consent of either the recipient of the test order or the party in charge of the facilities in question.

(f) It is not a violation of this part or the Clean Air Act for any person to refuse to permit EPA Enforcement Officers to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section without a warrant or court order.

(g) A manufacturer is responsible for locating its foreign testing and manufacturing facilities in jurisdictions in which local foreign law does not prohibit EPA Enforcement Officers from conducting the entry and access activities specified in this section. EPA will not attempt to make any inspections which it has been informed that local foreign law prohibits.

(h) For purposes of this section:

(1) Presentation of Credentials means display of the document designating a person as an EPA Enforcement Officer.

(2) Where vehicle storage areas or facilities are concerned, operating hours means all times during which personnel other than custodial personnel are at work in the vicinity of the area or facility and have access to it.

(3) Where facilities or areas other than those covered by paragraph (h)(2) of this section are concerned, operating hours means all times during which an assembly line is in operation, vehicle assembly is occurring, or testing, repair, mileage accumulation, production or compilation of records, or any other procedure or activity related to testing, or to vehicle manufacture or assembly, is being conducted in a facility.

(4) Reasonable assistance includes, but is not limited to, providing clerical, copying, interpreting and translating services and, at the request of an EPA Enforcement Officer, making available personnel of the facility being inspected during their working hours to provide information relevant to the Enforcement Officer's activities authorized in this section. Any employee whom a manufacturer has instructed to appear at the request of an Enforcement Officer may be accompanied, represented, and advised by counsel.

[41 FR 31483, July 28, 1976, as amended at 49 FR 48481, Dec. 12, 1984. Redesignated at 54 FR 2123, Jan. 19, 1989]

§86.607-84   Sample selection.

(a) Vehicles comprising a test sample which are required to be tested, pursuant to a test order issued in accordance with this subpart, will be selected at the location and in the manner specified in the test order. If a manufacturer determines that the test vehicles cannot be selected in the manner specified in the test order, an alternative selection procedure may be employed: Provided, That the manufacturer requests approval of the alternative procedure in advance of the start of test sample selection and that the Administrator approves the procedure. Special order vehicles are exempt from sample selection unless a test sample cannot be completed otherwise.

(b) The manufacturer shall have assembled the test vehicles of the configuration selected for testing using its normal mass production processes for vehicles to be distributed into commerce. During the audit, the manufacturer shall inform the Administrator of any change(s) implemented in its production processes, including quality control, which may be reasonably expected to affect the emissions of the vehicles selected, between the time the manufacturer received the test order and the time the manufacturer finished selecting test vehicles.

(c) No quality control, testing, or assembly procedures will be used on the completed test vehicles or any portion thereof, including parts and subassemblies, that has not been or will not be used during the production and assembly of all other vehicles of that configuration.

(d) The test order may specify that EPA Enforcement Officers, rather than the manufacturer, will select the test vehicles according to the method described in paragraph (a) of this section.

(e) The order in which test vehicles are selected determines the order in which test results are to be used in applying the sampling plan in accordance with §86.610.

(f) The manufacturer shall keep on hand all untested vehicles, if any, comprising the test sample until a pass or fail decision is reached in accordance with paragraph (d) of §86.610. The manufacturer may ship any tested vehicle which has not failed in accordance with paragraph (a) of §86.610. However, once a manufacturer ships any vehicle from the test sample, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests provided in paragraph (i) of §86.608.

[49 FR 48482, Dec. 12, 1984. Redesignated at 54 FR 2123, Jan. 19, 1989]

§86.608-98   Test procedures.

(a) The prescribed test procedures are the Federal Test Procedure, as described in subpart B and/or subpart R of this part, whichever is applicable, the cold temperature CO test procedure as described in subpart C of this part, and the Certification Short Test procedure as described in subpart O of this part. Where the manufacturer conducts testing based on the requirements specified in Chapter 1 or Chapter 2 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996), the prescribed test procedures are the procedures cited in the previous sentence, or substantially similar procedures, as determined by the Administrator. The California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program are incorporated by reference (see §86.1). For purposes of Selective Enforcement Audit testing, the manufacturer shall not be required to perform any of the test procedures in subpart B of this part relating to evaporative emission testing, other than refueling emissions testing, except as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(1) The Administrator may omit any of the testing procedures described in paragraph (a) of this section and may select and prescribe the sequence of any CSTs. Further, the Administrator may, on the basis of a written application by a manufacturer, approve optional test procedures other than those in subparts B, C, and O of this part for any motor vehicle which is not susceptible to satisfactory testing using the procedures in subparts B, C, and O of this part.

(2) The following exceptions to the test procedures in subpart B and/or subpart R of this part are applicable to Selective Enforcement Audit testing:

(i) For mileage accumulation, the manufacturer may use test fuel meeting the specifications for mileage and service accumulation fuels of §86.113, or, for vehicles certified to the National LEV standards, the specifications of §86.1771. Otherwise, the manufacturer may use fuels other than those specified in this section only with the advance approval of the Administrator.

(ii) The manufacturer may measure the temperature of the test fuel at other than the approximate mid-volume of the fuel tank, as specified in §86.131-96(a) with only a single temperature sensor, and may drain the test fuel from other than the lowest point of the tank, as specified in §§86.131-96(b) and 86.152-98(a), provided an equivalent method is used. Equivalency documentation shall be maintained by the manufacturers and shall be made available to the Administrator upon request. Additionally, for any test vehicle that has remained under laboratory ambient temperature conditions for at least 6 hours prior to testing, the vehicle soak described in §86.132-96(c) may be eliminated upon approval of the Administrator. In such cases, the vehicle shall be operated through the preconditioning drive described in §86.132-96(c) immediately following the fuel drain and fill procedure described in §86.132-96(b).

(iii) The manufacturer may perform additional preconditioning on Selective Enforcement Audit test vehicles other than the preconditioning specified in §86.132, or §86.1773, for vehicles certified to the National LEV standards only if the additional preconditioning was performed on certification test vehicles of the same configuration.

(iv) If the Administrator elects to use the evaporative/refueling canister preconditioning procedure described in §86.132-96(k), the manufacturer shall perform the heat build procedure 11 to 34 hours following vehicle preconditioning rather than according to the time period specified in §86.133-90(a). All references to an evaporative emission enclosure and analyzing for HC during the heat build can be ignored.

(v) The manufacturer may substitute slave tires for the drive wheel tires on the vehicle as specified in paragraph §86.135-90(e): Provided, that the slave tires are the same size.

(vi) If the Administrator elects to use the evaporative/refueling canister preconditioning procedure described in §86.132-96(k), the cold start exhaust emission test described in §86.137-96 shall follow the heat build procedure described in §86.133-90 by not more than one hour.

(vii) In performing exhaust sample analysis under §86.140-94.

(A) When testing diesel vehicles, or methanol-fueled Otto-cycle vehicles, the manufacturer shall allow a minimum of 20 minutes warm-up for the HC analyzer, and for diesel vehicles, a minimum of two hours warm-up for the CO, CO2. and NOX analyzers. (Power is normally left on infrared and chemiluminescent analyzers. When not in use, the chopper motors of the infrared analyzers are turned off and the phototube high voltage supply to the chemiluminescent analyzers is placed in the standby position.)

(B) The manufacturer shall exercise care to prevent moisture from condensing in the sample collection bags.

(viii) The manufacturer need not comply with §86.142, §86.155, or §86.1775, since the records required therein are provided under other provisions of this subpart G.

(ix) If a manufacturer elects to perform the background determination procedure described in paragraph (a)(2)(xi) of this section in addition to performing the refueling emissions test procedure, the elapsed time between the initial and final FID readings shall be recorded, rounded to the nearest second rather than minute as described in §86.154-98(e)(8). In addition, the vehicle soak described in §86.153-98(e) shall be conducted with the windows and luggage compartment of the vehicle open.

(x) The Administrator may elect to perform a seal test, described in §86.153-98(b), of both integrated and non-integrated systems instead of the full refueling test. When testing non-integrated systems, a manufacturer may conduct the canister purge described in §86.153-98(b)(1) directly following the preconditioning drive described in §86.132-96(e) or directly following the exhaust emissions test described in §86.137-96.

(xi) In addition to the refueling test, a manufacturer may elect to perform the following background emissions determination immediately prior to the refueling measurement procedure described in §86.154-98, provided EPA is notified of this decision prior to the start of testing in an SEA.

(A) The SHED shall be purged for several minutes immediately prior to the background determination. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C, the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.

(B) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the background determination. If not already on, the enclosure mixing fan and the spilled fuel mixing blower shall be turned on at this time.

(C) Place the vehicle in the SHED. The ambient temperature level encountered by the test vehicle during the entire background emissions determination shall be 80 °F ±3 °F. The windows and luggage compartment of the vehicle must be open and the gas cap must be secured.

(D) Seal the SHED. Immediately analyze the ambient concentration of hydrocarbons in the SHED and record. This is the initial background hydrocarbon concentration.

(E) Soak the vehicle for ten minutes ±1 minute.

(F) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the end of the background determination.

(G) Analyze the ambient concentration of hydrocarbons in the SHED and record. This is the final background hydrocarbon concentration.

(H) The total hydrocarbon mass emitted during the background determination is calculated according to §86.156-98. To obtain a per-minute background emission rate, divide the total hydrocarbon mass calculated in this paragraph by the duration of the soak, rounded to the nearest second, described in paragraph (a)(2)(xi)(G) of this section.

(I) The background emission rate is multiplied by the duration of the refueling measurement obtained in paragraph (a)(2)(ix) of this section. This number is then subtracted from the total grams of emissions calculated for the refueling test according to §86.156-98(a) to obtain the adjusted value for total refueling emissions. The final results for comparison with the refueling emission standard shall be computed by dividing the adjusted value for total refueling mass emissions by the total gallons of fuel dispensed in the refueling test as described in §86.156-98(b).

(xii) In addition to the requirements of subpart B of this part, the manufacturer shall prepare gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled vehicles as follows prior to emission testing:

(A) The manufacturer shall inspect the fuel system to ensure the absence of any leaks of liquid or vapor to the atmosphere by applying a pressure of 14.5±0.5 inches of water (3.6±0.1 Kpa) to the fuel system allowing the pressure to stabilize and isolating the fuel system from the pressure source. Following isolation of the fuel system, pressure must not drop more than 2.0 inches of water (0.5 Kpa) in five minutes. If required, the manufacturer shall perform corrective action in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section and report this action in accordance with §86.609-98(d).

(B) When performing this pressure check, the manufacturer shall exercise care to neither purge nor load the evaporative or refueling emission control systems.

(C) The manufacturer may not modify the test vehicle's evaporative or refueling emission control systems by component addition, deletion, or substitution, except to comply with paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(3) The following exceptions to the test procedures in subpart C of this part are applicable to Selective Enforcement Audit testing:

(i) The manufacturer may measure the temperature of the test fuel at other than the approximate mid-volume of the fuel tank, as specified in §86.131-90(a), and may drain the test fuel from other than the lowest point of the fuel tank as specified in §86.131-90(b), provided an equivalent method is used. Equivalency documentation shall be maintained by the manufacturer and shall be made available to the Administrator upon request.

(ii) In performing exhaust sample analysis under §86.140-94, the manufacturer shall exercise care to prevent moisture from condensing in the sample collection bags.

(iii) The manufacturer need not comply with §86.142-90 since the records required therein are provided under other provisions of this subpart G.

(iv) In addition to the requirements of subpart C of this part, the manufacturer shall prepare gasoline-fueled vehicles as follows prior to exhaust emission testing:

(A) The manufacturer shall inspect the fuel system to ensure the absence of any leaks of liquid or vapor to the atmosphere by applying a pressure of 14.5±0.5 inches of water (3.6±0.1 Kpa) to the fuel system allowing the pressure to stabilize and isolating the fuel system from the pressure source. Following isolation of the fuel system, pressure must not drop more than 2.0 inches of water (0.5 Kpa) in five minutes. If required, the manufacturer shall perform corrective action in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section and report this action in accordance with §86.609-98(d).

(B) When performing this pressure check, the manufacturer shall exercise care to neither purge nor load the evaporative or refueling emission control system.

(C) The manufacturer shall not modify the test vehicle's evaporative or refueling emission control system by component addition, deletion, or substitution, except if approved in advance by the Administrator, to comply with paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section.

(4) The exceptions to the test procedures in subpart O of this part applicable to Selective Enforcement Audit testing are listed in paragraphs (a)(4) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The manufacturer need not comply with §86.1442, since the records required therein are provided under provisions of this subpart G.

(ii) In addition to the requirements of subpart O of this part, the manufacturer must prepare vehicles as in paragraphs (a)(4)(ii) (A) through (C) of this section prior to exhaust emission testing.

(A) The manufacturer must inspect the fuel system to insure the absence of any leaks of liquid or vapor to the atmosphere by applying a pressure of 14.5±0.5 inches of water (3.6±0.1 Kpa) to the fuel system, allowing the pressure to stabilize, and isolating the fuel system from the pressure source. Pressure must not drop more than 2.0 inches of water (0.5 Kpa) in five minutes. If required, the manufacturer performs corrective action in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section and must report this action in accordance with §86.609-98(d).

(B) When performing this pressure check, the manufacturer must exercise care to neither purge nor load the evaporative or refueling emission control system.

(C) The manufacturer may not modify the test vehicle's evaporative or refueling emission control system by component addition, deletion, or substitution.

(b)(1) The manufacturer shall not adjust, repair, prepare, or modify the vehicles selected for testing and shall not perform any emission tests on vehicles selected for testing pursuant to the test order unless this adjustment repair, preparation, modification, and/or tests are documented in the manufacturer's vehicle assembly and inspection procedures and are actually performed or unless these adjustments and/or tests are required or permitted under this subpart or are approved in advance by the Administrator.

(2) For 1981 and later model years the Administrator may adjust or cause to be adjusted any engine or vehicle parameter which the Administrator has determined to be subject to adjustment for new vehicle compliance testing (e.g., for certification or Selective Enforcement Audit testing) in accordance with §86.081-22(c)(1), to any setting within the physically adjustable range of that parameter, as determined by the Administrator in accordance with §86.081-22(e)(3)(ii), prior to the performance of any tests. However, if the idle speed parameter is one which the Administrator has determined to be subject to adjustment, the Administrator shall not adjust it to a setting which causes a lower engine idle speed than will be possible within the physically adjustable range of the idle speed parameter on the vehicle when it has accumulated 4,000 miles, all other parameters being adjusted identically for the purpose of comparison. The Administrator, in making or specifying such adjustments, will consider the effect of the deviation from the manufacturer's recommended setting on emissions performance characteristics as well as the likelihood that similar settings will occur on in-use light-duty vehicles or light-duty trucks. In determining likelihood, the Administrator will consider factors such as, but not limited to, the effect of the adjustment on vehicle performance characteristics and surveillance information from similar in-use vehicles.

(c) Prior to performing emission testing pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section on an SEA test vehicle, the manufacturer may accumulate on each vehicle a number of miles equal to the greater of 4,000 miles, or the number of miles the manufacturer accumulated during certification on the emission-data vehicle corresponding to the configuration specified in the test order.

(1) Mileage accumulation must be performed in any manner using good engineering judgment to obtain emission results representative of normal production vehicles. This mileage accumulation must be consistent with the new vehicle break-in instructions contained in the applicable vehicle owner's manual, if any.

(2) The manufacturer shall accumulate mileage at a minimum rate of 300 miles per vehicle during each 24-hour period, unless otherwise provided by the Administrator.

(i) The first 24-hour period for mileage accumulation shall begin as soon as authorized vehicle checks, inspections and preparations are completed on each vehicle.

(ii) The minimum mileage accumulation rate does not apply on weekends or holidays.

(iii) If the manufacturer's mileage accumulation target is less than the minimum rate specified (300 miles per day), then the minimum daily accumulation rate shall be equal to the manufacturer's mileage accumulation target.

(3) Mileage accumulation shall be completed on a sufficient number of test vehicles during consecutive 24-hour periods to assure that the number of vehicles tested per day fulfills the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.

(d) The manufacturer shall not perform any maintenance on test vehicles after selection for testing nor shall the Administrator allow deletion of any test vehicle from the test sequence, unless requested by the manufacturer and approved by the Administrator before any test vehicle maintenance of deletion.

(e) The manufacturer will be allowed 24 hours to ship test vehicles from the assembly plant or storage facility to the test facility if the test facility is not located at the plant or storage facility or in close proximity to the plant or storage facility: Except, that the Administrator may approve more time based upon a request by the manufacturer accompanied by a satisfactory justification.

(f) If a vehicle cannot complete the mileage accumulation or emission tests because of vehicle malfunction, the manufacturer may request the Administrator to authorize the repair of that vehicle or its deletion from the test sequence.

(g) Whenever the manufacturer conducts testing pursuant to a test order issued under this subpart, the manufacturer shall notify the Administrator within one working day of receipt of the test order, which test facility will be used to comply with the test order and the number of available test cells at that facility. If no test cells are available at the desired facility, the manufacturer must provide alternate testing capability satisfactory to the Administrator.

(1) The manufacturer shall perform a combination of tests pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section so that a minimum of four tests are performed per 24 hour period, including voided tests, for each available test cell.

(2) The Administrator may approve a longer period based upon a request by a manufacturer accompanied by satisfactory justification.

(h) The manufacturer shall perform test vehicle selection, preparation, mileage accumulation, shipping, and testing in such a manner as to assure that the audit is performed in an expeditious manner.

(i) The manufacturer may retest any test vehicle after a fail decision has been reached in accordance with §86.610-98(d) based on the first test on each vehicle; except that the Administrator may approve retests at other times during the audit based upon a request by the manufacturer accompanied by a satisfactory justification. The manufacturer may test each vehicle a total of three times. The manufacturer shall test each vehicle the same number of times. The manufacturer may accumulate additional mileage on test vehicles before conducting retests, subject to the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section.

[59 FR 16301, Apr. 6, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 43898, Aug. 23, 1995; 62 FR 31235, June 6, 1997]

§86.609-98   Calculation and reporting of test results.

(a) Initial test results are calculated following the test procedures specified in §86.608-98(a). Round the initial test results to the number of decimal places contained in the applicable emission standard expressed to one additional significant figure. Rounding is done in accordance with ASTM E 29-67, (reapproved 1980) (as referenced in §86.094-28 (a)(4)(i)(B)(2)(ii).

(b) Final test results for each test vehicle are calculated by summing the initial test results derived in paragraph (a) of this section for each test vehicle, dividing by the number of times that specific test has been conducted on the vehicle, and rounding to the same number of decimal places contained in the applicable standard expressed to one additional significant figure. Rounding is done in accordance with ASTM E 29-67, (reapproved 1980) (as referenced in §86.094-28 (a)(4)(i)(B)(2)(ii).

(c) Final deteriorated test results—(1) For each test vehicle. The final deteriorated test results for each light-duty vehicle tested for exhaust emissions and/or refueling emissions according to subpart B, subpart C, or subpart R of this part are calculated by first multiplying or adding, as appropriate, the final test results by or to the appropriate deterioration factor derived from the certification process for the engine or evaporative/refueling family and model year to which the selected configuration belongs, and then by multiplying by the appropriate reactivity adjustment factor, if applicable, and rounding to the same number of decimal places contained in the applicable emission standard. Rounding is done in accordance with the Rounding-Off Method specified in ASTM E29-90, Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications. This procedure has been incorporated by reference (see §86.1). For the purpose of this paragraph (c), if a multiplicative deterioration factor as computed during the certification process is less than one, that deterioration factor is one. If an additive deterioration factor as computed during the certification process is less than zero, that deterioration factor will be zero.

(2) Exceptions. There are no deterioration factors for light-duty vehicle emissions obtained during testing in accordance with subpart O of this part or with §86.146-96. Accordingly, for the CST and the fuel dispensing spitback test the term “final deteriorated test results” means the final test results derived in paragraph (b) of this section for each test vehicle, rounded to the same number of decimal places contained in the applicable emission standard. Rounding is done in accordance with ASTM E 29-67, (reapproved 1980) (as referenced in §86.094-28 (a)(4)(i)(B)(2)(ii).

(d) Within five working days after completion of testing of all vehicles pursuant to a test order, the manufacturer shall submit to the Administrator a report which includes the following information:

(1) The location and description of the manufacturer's emission test facilities which were utilized to conduct testing reported pursuant to this section.

(2) The applicable standards against which the vehicles were tested.

(3) Deterioration factors for the selected configuration.

(4) A description of the vehicle selection method used.

(5) For each test conducted.

(i) Test vehicle description including:

(A) Configuration, engine family, and refueling family identification.

(B) Year, make, build date, and model of vehicle.

(C) Vehicle Identification Number.

(D) Miles accumulated on vehicle.

(ii) Location where mileage accumulation was conducted and description of accumulation schedule.

(iii) Test number, date initial test results, final results and final deteriorated test results for all valid and invalid exhaust emission tests, and the reason for invalidation.

(iv) A complete description of any modification, repair, preparation, maintenance and/or testing which was performed on the test vehicle and:

(A) Has not been reported pursuant to any other paragraph of this subpart; and

(B) Will not be performed on all other production vehicles.

(v) Carbon dioxide emission values for all valid and invalid exhaust emission tests.

(vi) Where a vehicle was deleted from the test sequence by authorization of the Administrator, the reason for the deletion.

(vii) Any other information the Administrator may request relevant to the determination as to whether the new motor vehicles being manufactured by the manufacturer do in fact conform with the regulations with respect to which the certificate of conformity was issued.

(6) The following statement and endorsement:

This report is submitted pursuant to sections 206 and 208 of the Clean Air Act. This Selective Enforcement Audit was conducted in complete conformance with all applicable regulations under 40 CFR part 86 and the conditions of the test order. No emission related change(s) to production processes or quality control procedures for the vehicle configuration tested have been made between receipt of this test order and conclusion of the audit. All data and information reported herein is, to the best of

 

(Company Name)

knowledge, true and accurate. I am aware of the penalties associated with violations of the Clean Air Act and the regulations thereunder.

 

(Authorized Company Representative)

[59 FR 16303, Apr. 6, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 31236, June 6, 1997]

§86.610-98   Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective Enforcement Audits.

(a) The prescribed acceptable quality level is 40 percent.

(b) A failed vehicle is one whose final deteriorated test results pursuant to §86.609-98(c) exceed at least one of the applicable emission standards associated with the test procedures pursuant to §86.608-98(a).

(c)(1) Pass/fail criteria. The manufacturer shall test vehicles comprising the test sample until a pass decision is reached for all of the pollutants associated with all of the test procedures pursuant to §86.608-98(a) or a fail decision is reached for one of these pollutants. A pass decision is reached when the cumulative number of failed vehicles, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, for each pollutant is less than or equal to the fail decision number appropriate to the cumulative number of vehicles tested. A fail decision is reached when the cumulative number of failed vehicles for one pollutant is greater than or equal to the fail decision number appropriate to the cumulative number of vehicles tested. The pass and fail decision numbers associated with the cumulative number of vehicles tested are determined by use of the tables in appendix XI of this part appropriate for the annual projected sales as made by the manufacturer in its report submitted under §600.207-80(a)(2) of this chapter (Automobile Fuel Economy Regulations). In the tables in appendix XI of this part, sampling plan “stage” refers to the cumulative number of vehicles tested. Once a pass decision has been made for a particular pollutant associated with a particular test procedure pursuant to §86.608-98(a), the number of vehicles whose final deteriorated test results exceed the emission standard for that pollutant may not be considered any further for purposes of the audit.

(2) CST criteria only. For CST testing pursuant to subpart O, a pass or fail decision is determined according to the pass/fail criteria described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, except that for each vehicle, the CST in its entirety is considered one pollutant.

(d) Passing or failing of an SEA audit occurs when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of this section.

(e) The Administrator may terminate testing earlier than required in paragraph (c) of this section.

[59 FR 16304, Apr. 6, 1994]

§86.612-97   Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity.

(a) The certificate of conformity is immediately suspended with respect to any vehicle failing pursuant to §86.610(b) effective from the time that testing of that vehicle is completed.

(b)(1) Selective enforcement audits. The Administrator may suspend the certificate of conformity for a configuration that does not pass a selective enforcement audit pursuant to §86.610-98(c) based on the first test, or all tests, conducted on each vehicle. This suspension will not occur before ten days after failure to pass the audit.

(2) California assembly-line quality audit testing. The Administrator may suspend the certificate of conformity for a 50-state family or configuration tested in accordance with procedures prescribed under §86.608 that the Executive Officer has determined to be in non-compliance with one or more applicable pollutants based on the requirements specified in Chapter 1 or Chapter 2 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996), if the results of vehicle testing conducted by the manufacturer do not meet the acceptable quality level criteria pursuant to §86.610. The California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) are incorporated by reference (see §86.1). A vehicle that is tested by the manufacturer pursuant to California Assembly-Line Quality Audit Test Procedures, in accordance with procedures prescribed under §86.608, and determined to be a failing vehicle will be treated as a failed vehicle described in §86.610(b), unless the manufacturer can show that the vehicle would not be considered a failed vehicle using the test procedures specified in §86.608. This suspension will not occur before ten days after the manufacturer receives written notification that the Administrator has determined the 50-state family or configuration exceeds one or more applicable federal standards.

(c)(1) Selective enforcement audits. If the results of vehicle testing pursuant to the requirements of this subpart indicates the vehicles of a particular configuration produced at more than one plant do not conform to the regulations with respect to which the certificate of conformity was issued, the Administrator may suspend the certificate of conformity with respect to that configuration for vehicles manufactured by the manufacturer in other plants of the manufacturer.

(2) California Assembly-Line Quality Audit Testing. If the Administrator determines that the results of vehicle testing pursuant to the requirements specified in Chapter 1 or Chapter 2 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) and the procedures prescribed in §86.608 indicate the vehicles of a particular 50-state engine family or configuration produced at more than one plant do not conform to applicable federal regulations with respect to which a certificate of conformity was issued, the Administrator may suspend, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the certificate of conformity with respect to that engine family or configuration for vehicles manufactured in other plants of the manufacturer. The California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) are incorporated by reference (see §86.1).

(d) The Administrator will notify the manufacturer in writing of any suspension or revocation of a certificate of conformity in whole or in part: Except, that the certificate of conformity is immediately suspended with respect to any vehicle failing pursuant to §86.610(b) and as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section.

(e)(1) Selective Enforcement Audits. The Administrator may revoke a certificate of conformity for a configuration when the certificate has been suspended pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) or (c)(1) of this section if the proposed remedy for the nonconformity, as reported by the manufacturer to the Administrator, is one requiring a design change(s) to the engine and/or emission control system as described in the Application for Certification of the affected configuration.

(2) California Assembly-Line Quality Audit Testing. The Administrator may revoke a certificate of conformity for an engine family or configuration when the certificate has been suspended pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) or (c)(2) of this section if the proposed remedy for the nonconformity, as reported by the manufacturer to the Executive Officer and/or the Administrator, is one requiring a design change(s) to the engine and/or emission control system as described in the Application for Certification of the affected engine family or configuration.

(f) Once a certificate has been suspended for a failed vehicle as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section, the manufacturer must take the following actions:

(1) Before the certificate is reinstated for that failed vehicle—

(i) Remedy the nonconformity; and

(ii) Demonstrate that the vehicle's final deteriorated test results conform to the applicable emission standards or family particulate emission limits, as defined in this part 86 by retesting the vehicle in accordance with the requirements of this subpart.

(2) Submit a written report to the Administrator within thirty days after successful completion of testing on the failed vehicle, which contains a description of the remedy and test results for the vehicle in addition to other information that may be required by this subpart.

(g) Once a certificate has been suspended pursuant to paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, the manufacturer must take the following actions before the Administrator will consider reinstating such certificate:

(1) Submit a written report to the Administrator which identifies the reason for the noncompliance of the vehicles, describes the proposed remedy, including a description of any proposed quality control and/or quality assurance measures to be taken by the manufacturer to prevent the future occurrence of the problem, and states the date on which the remedies will be implemented.

(2) Demonstrate that the engine family or configuration for which the certificate of conformity has been suspended does in fact comply with the requirements of this subpart by testing vehicles selected from normal production runs of that engine family or configuration at the plant(s) or the facilities specified by the Administrator, in accordance with:

(i) The conditions specified in the initial test order pursuant to §86.603 for a configuration suspended pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) or (c)(1) of this section; or

(ii) The conditions specified in a test order pursuant to §86.603 for an engine family or configuration suspended pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) or (c)(2) of this section.

(3) If the Administrator has not revoked the certificate pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section and if the manufacturer elects to continue testing individual vehicles after suspension of a certificate, the certificate is reinstated for any vehicle actually determined to have its final deteriorated test results in conformance with the applicable standards through testing in accordance with the applicable test procedures.

(4) In cases where the Administrator has suspended a certificate of conformity for a 50-state engine family or configuration pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) or (c)(2) of this section, manufacturers may request in writing that the Administrator reinstate the certificate of an engine family or configuration when, in lieu of the actions described in paragraphs (g) (1) and (2) of this section, the manufacturer has agreed to comply with Chapter 3 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996), provided an Executive Order is in place for the engine family or configuration. The California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) are incorporated by reference (see §86.1).

(h) Once a certificate for a failed engine family or configuration has been revoked under paragraph (e) (1) or (2) of this section and the manufacturer desires to introduce into commerce a modified version of that engine family or configuration, the following actions will be taken before the Administrator may issue a certificate for the new engine family or configuration:

(1) If the Administrator determines that the proposed change(s) in vehicle design may have an effect on emission performance deterioration and/or fuel economy, he/she shall notify the manufacturer within five working days after receipt of the report in paragraph (g)(1) of this section or after receipt of information pursuant to paragraph (g)(4) of this section whether subsequent testing under this subpart will be sufficient to evaluate the proposed change(s) or whether additional testing will be required.

(2) After implementing the change(s) intended to remedy the nonconformity, the manufacturer shall demonstrate:

(i) If the certificate was revoked pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section, that the modified vehicle configuration does in fact conform with the requirements of this subpart by testing vehicles selected from normal production runs of that modified vehicle configuration in accordance with the conditions specified in the initial test order pursuant to §86.603. The Administrator shall consider this testing to satisfy the testing requirements of §86.079-32 or §86.079-33 if the Administrator had so notified the manufacturer. If the subsequent testing results in a pass decision pursuant to the criteria in §86.610-96(c), the Administrator shall reissue or amend the certificate, if necessary, to include that configuration: Provided, that the manufacturer has satisfied the testing requirements specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. If the subsequent audit results in a fail decision pursuant to the criteria in §86.610(c), the revocation remains in effect. Any design change approvals under this subpart are limited to the modification of the configuration specified by the test order.

(ii) If the certificate was revoked pursuant to paragraph (e)(2) of this section, that the modified engine family or configuration does in fact conform with the requirements of this subpart by testing vehicles selected from normal production runs of that modified engine family or configuration in accordance with the conditions specified in a test order pursuant to §86.603. The Administrator shall consider this testing to satisfy the testing requirements of §86.079-32 or §86.079-33 if the Administrator had so notified the manufacturer. If the subsequent testing results in a pass decision pursuant to §86.610(c), the Administrator shall reissue or amend the certificate as necessary: Provided, That the manufacturer has satisfied the testing requirements specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. If the subsequent testing results in a fail decision pursuant to §86.610(c), the revocation remains in effect. Any design change approvals under this subpart are limited to the modification of engine family or configuration specified by the test order.

(3) In cases where the Administrator has revoked a certificate of conformity for a 50-state engine family or configuration pursuant to paragraph (e)(2) of this section, manufacturers may request in writing that the Administrator reissue the certificate of an engine family or configuration when, in lieu of the actions described in paragraphs (h) (1) and (2) of this section, the manufacturer has complied with Chapter 3 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996), provided an Executive Order is in place for the engine family or configuration. The California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) are incorporated by reference (see §86.1).

(i) A manufacturer may at any time subsequent to an initial suspension of a certificate of conformity with respect to a test vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, but not later than fifteen (15) days or such other period as may be allowed by the Administrator after notification of the Administrator's decision to suspend or revoke a certificate of conformity in whole or in part pursuant to paragraph (b), (c) or (e) of this section, request that the Administrator grant such manufacturer a hearing as to whether the tests have been properly conducted or any sampling methods have been properly applied.

(j) After the Administrator suspends or revokes a certificate of conformity pursuant to this section or notifies a manufacturer of his intent to suspend, revoke or void a certificate of conformity under §86.084-30(d), and prior to the commencement of a hearing under §86.614, if the manufacturer demonstrates to the Administrator's satisfaction that the decision to suspend, revoke or void the certificate was based on erroneous information, the Administrator shall reinstate the certificate.

(k) To permit a manufacturer to avoid storing non-test vehicles when conducting testing of an engine family or configuration subsequent to suspension or revocation of the certificate of conformity for that engine family or configuration pursuant to paragraph (b), (c), or (e) of this section, the manufacturer may request that the Administrator conditionally reinstate the certificate for that engine family or configuration. The Administrator may reinstate the certificate subject to the condition that the manufacturer consents to recall all vehicles of that engine family or configuration produced from the time the certificate is conditionally reinstated if the engine family or configuration fails the subsequent testing and to remedy any nonconformity at no expense to the owner.

[62 FR 31236, June 6, 1997]

§86.614-84   Hearings on suspension, revocation, and voiding of certificates of conformity.

(a) Applicability. The procedures prescribed by this section apply whenever a manufacturer requests a hearing under §86.084-30(d)(6)(i), §86.084-30(d)(7), or §86.612(i).

(b) Definitions. The following definitions shall be applicable to this section:

(1) Hearing Clerk shall mean the Hearing Clerk of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) Manufacturer refers to a manufacturer contesting a suspension or revocation order directed at the manufacturer.

(3) Party shall include the Agency and the manufacturer.

(4) Presiding Officer shall mean an Administrative Law Judge appointed pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3105 (see also 5 CFR part 930 as amended).

(5) Environmental Appeals Board shall mean the Board within the Agency described in section 1.25 of this title. The Administrator delegates to the Environmental Appeals Board authority to issue final decisions in appeals filed under this subpart. Appeals directed by the Administrator, rather than to the Environmental Appeals Board, will not be considered. This delegation of authority to the Environmental Appeals Board does not preclude the Environmental Appeals Board from referring an appeal or a motion filed under this subpart to the Administrator for decision when the Environmental Appeals Board, in its discretion, deems it appropriate to do so. When an appeal or motion is referred to the Administrator, all parties shall be so notified and the rules in this part referring to the Environmental Appeals Board shall be interpreted as referring to the Administrator.

(c) Request for public hearing. (1) If the manufacturer disagrees with the Administrator's decision to suspend, revoke, or void a certificate or disputes the basis for an automatic suspension under §86.612(a), it may request a public hearing as described in this section. Requests for such a hearing shall be filed with the Administrator not later than 15 days after the Administrator's notification of his decision to suspend or revoke unless otherwise specified by the Administrator. Two copies of such request shall simultaneously be served upon the Director of the Manufacturers Operations Division and two copies filed with the Hearing Clerk. Failure of the manufacturer to request a hearing within the time provided shall constitute a waiver of his right to such a hearing. Subsequent to the expiration of the period for requesting a hearing as of right, the Administrator may, in his discretion and for good cause shown, grant the manufacturer a hearing to contest the suspension or revocation.

(2) The request for a public hearing shall contain:

(i) A statement as to which vehicle configurations or engine families are to be the subject of the hearing;

(ii) A concise statement of the issues to be raised by the manufacturer at the hearing for each vehicle configuration or engine family or vehicle for which the manufacturer has requested the hearing: Provided, however, That in the case of a hearing request under paragraph §86.612(i), the hearing is restricted to the following issues:

(A) Whether tests were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations under this part;

(B) Whether test equipment was properly calibrated and functioning;

(C) Whether sampling procedures specified in appendix XI of this part were followed; and

(D) Whether there exists a basis for distinguishing vehicles produced at plants other than the one from which vehicles were selected which would invalidate the Administrator's decision under §86.612(c);

(iii) A statement specifying reasons the manufacturer believes he will prevail on the merits on each of the issues so raised; and

(iv) A summary of the evidence which supports the manufacturer's position on each of the issues so raised.

(3) A copy of all requests for public hearings shall be kept on file in the Office of the Hearing Clerk and shall be made available to the public during Agency business hours.

(d) Summary decision. (1) In the case of a hearing requested under §86.612(i), when it clearly appears from the data and other information contained in the request for a hearing that there is no genuine and substantial question of fact with respect to the issues specified in §86.614(c)(2)(ii), the Administrator shall enter an order denying the request for a hearing. In addition, if the original decision to suspend or revoke a certificate of conformity was made under §86.612(d) prior to the decision to deny the request for a hearing, the order denying the request will reaffirm the suspension or revocation.

(2) In the case of a hearing requested under §86.084-30(d)(6)(i), to challenge a proposed suspension of a certificate of conformity for the reasons specified in §86.084-30(d)(1) (i) or (ii), when it clearly appears from the data and other information contained in the request for a hearing that there is no genuine and substantial question of fact with respect to the issue of whether the refusal to comply with the provisions of a test order or any other requirement of §86.603 was caused by conditions and circumstances outside the control of the manufacturer, the Administrator will enter an order denying the request for a hearing, and suspending the certificate of conformity.

(3) Any order issued under paragraph (d) (1) or (2) of this section shall have the force and effect of a final decision of the Administrator, as issued pursuant to paragraph (w)(4) of this section.

(4) If the Administrator determines that a genuine and substantial question of fact does exist with respect to any of the issues referred to in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section, he shall grant the request for a hearing and publish a notice of public hearing in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section.

(e) Filing and service. (1) An original and two copies of all documents or papers required or permitted to be filed pursuant to this section shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk. Filing shall be deemed timely if mailed, as determined by the postmark, to the Hearing Clerk within the time allowed by this section. If filing is to be accomplished by mailing, the documents shall be sent to the address set forth in the notice of public hearing as described in paragraph (h) of this section.

(2) To the maximum extent possible, testimony shall be presented in written form. Copies of written testimony shall be served upon all parties as soon as practicable prior to the start of the hearing. A certificate of service shall be provided on or accompany each document or paper filed with the Hearing Clerk. Documents to be served upon the Director of the Manufacturers Operations Division shall be sent by registered mail to: Director, Manufacturers Operations Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EN-340), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., WSM, Washington, DC 20460. Service by registered mail is complete upon mailing.

(f) Time. (1) In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this section, except as otherwise provided, the day of the act or event from which the designated period of time begins to run shall not be included. Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal legal holidays shall be included in computing any such period allowed for the filing of any document or paper, except that when such period expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal legal holiday, such period shall be extended to include the next following business day.

(2) A prescribed period of time within which a party is required or permitted to do an act shall be computed from the time of service, except that when service is accomplished by mail, three days shall be added to the prescribed period.

(g) Consolidation. The Administrator or the Presiding Officer in his discretion may consolidate two or more proceedings to be held under this section for the purpose of resolving one or more issues whenever it appears that such consolidation will expedite or simplify consideration of such issues. Consolidation shall not affect the right of any party to raise issues that could have been raised if consolidation had not occurred.

(h) Notice of public hearings. (1) Notice of a public hearing under this section shall be given by publication in the Federal Register and by such other means as the Administrator finds appropriate to provide notice to the public. To the extent possible hearings under this section shall be scheduled to commence within 14 days of receipt of the application in paragraph (c) of this section.

(i) Amicus curiae. Persons not parties to the proceeding wishing to file briefs may do so by leave of the Presiding Officer granted on motion. A motion for leave shall identify the interest of the applicant and shall state the reasons why the proposed amicus brief is desirable.

(j) Presiding Officer. The Presiding Officer shall have the duty to conduct a fair and impartial hearing in accordance with 5 U.S.C. sections 554, 556 and 557 and to take all necessary action to avoid delay in the disposition of the proceedings and to maintain order. He shall have all power consistent with Agency rule and with the Administrative Procedure Act necessary to this end, including the following:

(1) To administer oaths and affirmations;

(2) To rule upon offers of proof and exclude irrelevant or repetitious material;

(3) To regulate the course of the hearings and the conduct of the parties and their counsel therein;

(4) To hold conferences for simplification of the issues or any other proper purpose;

(5) To consider and rule upon all procedural and other motions appropriate in such proceedings;

(6) To require the submission of direct testimony in written form with or without affidavit whenever, in the opinion of the Presiding Officer, oral testimony is not necessary for full and true disclosure of the facts;

(7) To enforce agreements and orders requiring access as authorized by law;

(8) To require the filing of briefs on any matter on which he is required to rule;

(9) To require any party or any witness, during the course of the hearing, to state his position on any issue;

(10) To take or cause depositions to be taken whenever the ends of justice would be served thereby;

(11) To make decisions or recommend decisions to resolve the disputed issues on the record of the hearing;

(12) To issue, upon good cause shown, protective orders as described in paragraph (n) of this section.

(k) Conferences. (1) At the discretion of the Presiding Officer, conferences may be held prior to or during any hearing. The Presiding Officer shall direct the Hearing Clerk to notify all parties of the time and location of any such conference. At the discretion of the Presiding Officer, persons other than parties may attend. At a conference the Presiding Officer may:

(i) Obtain stipulations and admissions, receive requests and order depositions to be taken, identify disputed issues of fact and law, and require or allow the submission of written testimony from any witness or party;

(ii) Set a hearing schedule for as many of the following as are deemed necessary by the Presiding Officer:

(A) Oral and written statements;

(B) Submission of written direct testimony as required or authorized by the Presiding Officer;

(C) Oral direct and cross-examination of a witness where necessary as prescribed in paragraph (p) of this section: and

(D) Oral argument, if appropriate.

(iii) Identify matters of which official notice may be taken;

(iv) Consider limitation of the number of expert and other witnesses;

(v) Consider the procedure to be followed at the hearing; and

(vi) Consider any other matter that may expedite the hearing or aid in the disposition of the issue.

(2) The results of any conference including all stipulations shall, if not transcribed, be summarized in writing by the Presiding Officer and made part of the record.

(l) Primary discovery (exchange of witness lists and documents). (1) At a prehearing conference or within some reasonable time set by the Presiding Officer prior to the hearing, each party shall make available to the other parties the names of the expert and other witnesses the party expects to call, together with a brief summary of their expected testimony and a list of all documents and exhibits which the party expects to introduce into evidence. Thereafter, witnesses, documents, or exhibits may be added and summaries of expected testimony amended upon motion by a party.

(2) The Presiding Officer, may, upon motion by a party or other person, and for good cause shown, by order (i) restrict or defer disclosure by a party of the name of a witness or a narrative summary of the expected testimony of a witness, and (ii) prescribe other appropriate measures to protect a witness. Any party affected by any such action shall have an adequate opportunity, once he learns the name of a witness and obtains the narrative summary of his expected testimony, to prepare for the presentation of his case.

(m) Other discovery. (1) Except as so provided by paragraph (l) of this section, further discovery, under this paragraph, shall be permitted only upon determination by the Presiding Officer:

(i) That such discovery will not in any way unreasonably delay the proceeding;

(ii) That the information to be obtained is not obtainable voluntarily; and

(iii) That such information has significant probative value. The Presiding Officer shall be guided by the procedures set forth in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, where practicable, and the precedents thereunder, except that no discovery shall be undertaken except upon order of the Presiding Officer or upon agreement of the parties.

(2) The Presiding Officer shall order depositions upon oral questions only upon a showing of good cause and upon a finding that:

(i) The information sought cannot be obtained by alternative methods; or

(ii) There is a substantial reason to believe that relevant and probative evidence may otherwise not be preserved for presentation by a witness at the hearing.

(3) Any party to the proceeding desiring an order of discovery shall make a motion or motions therefor. Such a motion shall set forth:

(i) The circumstances warranting the taking of the discovery;

(ii) The nature of the information expected to be discovered; and

(iii) The proposed time and place where it will be taken.

If the Presiding Officer determines the motion should be granted, he shall issue an order for the taking of such discovery together with the conditions and terms thereof.

(4) Failure to comply with an order issued pursuant to this paragraph may lead to the inference that the information to be discovered would be adverse to the person or party from whom the information was sought.

(n) Protective orders, in camera proceedings. (1) Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought, and upon a showing by the movant that the disclosure of the information to be discovered, or a particular part thereof, (other than emission data) would result in methods or processes entitled to protection as trade secrets of such person being divulged, the Presiding Officer may enter a protective order with respect to such material. Any protective order shall contain such terms governing the treatment of the information as may be appropriate under the circumstances to prevent disclosure outside the hearing: Provided, That the order shall state that the material shall be filed separately from other evidence and exhibits in the hearing. Disclosure shall be limited to parties to the hearing, their counsel and relevant technical consultants, and authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out the Act. Except in the case of the government, disclosure may be limited to counsel for parties who shall not disclose such information to the parties themselves. Except in the case of the government, disclosure to a party or his counsel shall be conditioned on execution of a sworn statement that no disclosure of the information will be made to persons not entitled to receive it under the terms of the protective order. (No such provision is necessary where government employees are concerned because disclosure by them is subject to the terms of 18 U.S.C. 1905.)

(2)(i) A party or person seeking a protective order may be permitted to make all or part of the required showing in camera. A record shall be made of such in camera proceedings. If the Presiding Officer enters a protective order following a showing in camera, the record of such showing shall be sealed and preserved and made available to the agency or court in the event of appeal.

(ii) Attendance at any in camera proceeding may be limited to the Presiding Officer, the agency, and the person or party seeking the protective order.

(3) Any party, subject to the terms and conditions of any protective order issued pursuant to paragraph (n)(1) of this section, desiring for the presentation of his case to make use of any in camera documents or testimony shall make application to the Presiding Officer by motion setting forth the justification therefor. The Presiding Officer, in granting any such motion, shall enter an order protecting the rights of the affected persons and parties and preventing unnecessary disclosure of such information, including the presentation of such information and oral testimony and cross-examination concerning it in executive session, as in his discretion is necessary and practicable.

(4) In the submittal of proposed findings, briefs, or other papers, counsel for all parties shall make a good faith attempt to refrain from disclosing the specific details of in camera documents and testimony. This shall not preclude references in such proposed findings, briefs, or other papers to such documents or testimony including generalized statements based on their contents. To the extent that counsel considers it necessary to include specific details in their presentations, such data shall be incorporated in separate proposed findings, briefs, or other papers marked “confidential,” which shall become part of the in camera record.

(o) Motions. (1) All motions, except those made orally during the course of the hearing, shall be in writing and shall state with particularity the grounds therefore, shall set forth the relief or order sought, and shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk and served upon all parties.

(2) Within such time as may be fixed by the Environmental Appeals Board or the Presiding Officer, as appropriate, any party may serve and file an answer to the motion. The movant shall, if requested by the Environmental Appeals Board or the Presiding Officer, as appropriate, serve and file reply papers within the time set by the request.

(3) The Presiding Officer shall rule upon all motions filed or made prior to the filing of his decision or accelerated decision, as appropriate. The Environmental Appeals Board shall rule upon all motions filed prior to the appointment of a Presiding Officer and all motions filed after the filing of the decision of the Presiding Officer or accelerated decision. Oral argument of motions will be permitted only if the Presiding Officer or the Environmental Appeals Board, as appropriate, deems it necessary.

(p) Evidence. (1) The official transcripts and exhibits, together with all papers and requests filed in the proceeding, shall constitute the record. Immaterial or irrelevant parts of an admissible document shall be segregated and excluded so far as practicable. Documents or parts thereof subject to a protective order under paragraph (n) of this section shall be segregated. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to judicial proceedings. The weight to be given evidence shall be determined by its reliability and probative value.

(2) The Presiding Officer shall allow the parties to examine and cross-examine a witness to the extent that such examination and cross-examination is necessary for a full and true disclosure of the facts.

(3) Rulings of the Presiding Officer on the admissibility of evidence, the propriety of examination and cross-examination and other procedural matters shall appear in the record.

(4) Parties shall automatically be presumed to have taken exception to an adverse ruling.

(q) Record. (1) Hearings shall be stenographically reported and transcribed and the original transcripts shall be part of the record and the sole official transcript. Copies of the record shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk and made available during Agency business hours for public inspection. Any person desiring a copy of the record of the hearing or any part thereof, except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, shall be entitled to the same upon payment of the cost thereof.

(2) The official transcripts and exhibits, together with all papers and requests filed in the proceeding, shall constitute the record.

(r) Proposed findings, conclusions. (1) Within 4 days of the close of the reception of evidence, or within such longer time as may be fixed by the Presiding Officer, any party may submit for the consideration of the Presiding Officer proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed order, together with reasons therefor and briefs in support thereof. Such proposals shall be in writing, shall be served upon all parties, and shall contain adequate references to the record and authorities relied upon.

(2) The record shall show the Presiding Officer's ruling on the proposed findings and conclusions except when his order disposing of the proceeding otherwise informs the parties of the action taken by him thereon.

(s) Decision of the Presiding Officer. (1) Unless extended by the Environmental Appeals Board, the Presiding Officer shall issue and file with the Hearing Clerk his decision within 14 days (or within 7 days in the case of a hearing requested under §86.612(i)) after the period for filing proposed findings as provided for in paragraph (r) of this section has expired.

(2) The Presiding Officer's decision shall become the decision of the Environmental Appeals Board (i) when no notice of intention to appeal as described in paragraphs (t) and (u) of this section is filed, 10 days after issuance thereof, unless in the interim the Environmental Appeals Board shall have taken action to review or stay the effective date of the decision; or (ii), when a notice of intention to appeal is filed but the appeal is not perfected as required by paragraphs (t) or (u) of this section, 5 days after the period allowed for perfection of an appeal has expired unless within that 5 day period, the Environmental Appeals Board shall have taken action to review or stay the effective date of the decision.

(3) The Presiding Officer's decision shall include a statement of findings and conclusions, as well as the reasons or basis therefore, upon all the material issues of fact or law presented on the record and an appropriate rule or order. Such decision shall be supported by substantial evidence and based upon a consideration of the whole record.

(4) At any time prior to the issuance of his decision, the Presiding Officer may reopen the proceeding for the reception of further evidence. Except for the correction of clerical errors, the jurisdication of the Presiding Officer is terminated upon the issuance of his decision.

(t) Appeal from the decision of the Presiding Officer. (1) Any party to a proceeding may appeal the Presiding Officer's decision to the Environmental Appeals Board, Provided, That within 10 days after issuance of the Presiding Officer's decision such party files a notice of intention to appeal and an appeal brief within 20 days of such decision.

(2) When an appeal is taken from the decision of the Presiding Officer, any party may file a brief with respect to such appeal. The brief shall be filed within 15 days of the date of the filing of the appellant's brief.

(3) Any brief filed pursuant to this paragraph shall contain in the order indicated, the following:

(i) A subject index of the matter in the brief, with page references, and a table of cases (alphabetically arranged) textbooks, statutes, and other material cited, with page references thereto;

(ii) A specification of the issues intended to be urged: Provided, however, That in the case of a hearing requested under §86.612(i), the brief shall be restricted to the issues specified in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section;

(iii) The argument presenting clearly the points of fact and law relied upon in support of the position taken on each issue, with specific page references to the record and the legal or other material relied upon; and

(iv) A proposed order for the Environmental Appeals Board's consideration if different from the order contained in the Presiding Officer's decision.

(4) No brief in excess of 40 pages shall be filed without leave of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(5) Oral argument shall be allowed only in the discretion of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(u) Summary appeal. (1) In the case of a hearing requested under §86.612(i), any appeal taken from the decision of the Presiding Officer shall be conducted under this paragraph.

(2) Any party to the proceeding may appeal the Presiding Officer's decision to the Environmental Appeals Board by filing a notice of appeal within 10 days.

(3) The notice appeal shall be in the form of a brief, and shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (t)(3) of this section.

(4) Within 10 days after a notice of appeal from the decision of the Presiding Officer is filed under this paragraph, any party may file a brief with respect to such appeal.

(5) No brief in excess of 15 pages shall be filed without leave of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(v) Review of the Presiding Officer's decision in absence of appeal. (1) If after the expiration of the period for taking an appeal as provided for by paragraph (t) or (u) of this section no notice of intention to appeal the decision of the Presiding Officer has been filed, or if filed, not perfected, the Hearing Clerk shall so notify the Environmental Appeals Board.

(2) The Environmental Appeals Board, upon receipt of notice from the Hearing Clerk that no notice of intention to appeal the decision of the Presiding Officer has been filed, or if filed, not perfected pursuant to paragraph (t) or (u) of this section, may, on its own motion, within the time limits specified in paragraph (s)(2) of this section, review the decision of the Presiding Officer. Notice of the intention of the Environmental Appeals Board to review the decision of the Presiding Officer shall be given to all parties and shall set forth the scope of such review and the issues which shall be considered and shall make provision for filing of briefs.

(w) Decision of appeal or review. (1) Upon appeal from or review of the Presiding Officer's decision, the Environmental Appeals Board shall consider such parts of the record as are cited or as may be necessary to resolve the issues presented and in addition shall, to the extent necessary or desirable, exercise all the powers which it could have exercised if it had presided at the hearing.

(2) In rendering its decision, the Environmental Appeals Board shall adopt, modify or set aside the findings, conclusions, and order contained in the decision of the Presiding Officer and shall set forth in its decision a statement of the reasons or bases for its action.

(3) In those cases where the Environmental Appeals Board determines that it should further information or additional views of the parties as to the form and content of the rule or order to be issued, the Environmental Appeals Board, in its discretion, may withhold final action pending the receipt of such additional information or views, or may remand the case to the Presiding Officer.

(4) Any decision rendered under this paragraph which completes disposition of a case shall be a final decision of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(x) Reconsideration. Within twenty (20) days after issuance of the Environmental Appeals Board's decision, any party may file with the Environmental Appeals Board a petition for reconsideration of such decision, setting forth the relief desired and the grounds in support thereof. Any petition filed under this subsection must be confined to new questions raised by the decision or final order and upon which the petitioner had no opportunity to argue before the Presiding Officer or the Environmental Appeals Board; Provided, however, That in the case of a hearing requested under §86.612(i) such new questions shall be limited to the issues specified in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. Any party desiring to oppose such a petition shall file an answer thereto within ten (10) days after the filing of the petition. The filing of a petition for reconsideration shall not operate to stay the effective date of the decision or order or to toll the running of any statutory time period affecting such decision or order unless specifically so ordered by the Environmental Appeals Board.

(y) Accelerated decision, dismissal. (1) The Presiding Officer, upon motion of any party or sua sponte, may at any time render an accelerated decision in favor of the Agency or the manufacturer as to all or any part of the proceeding, without further hearing or upon such limited additional evidence such as affidavits as he may require, or dismiss any party with prejudice, for any of the following reasons:

(i) Failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or direct or collateral estoppel;

(ii) The lack of any genuine issue of material fact, causing a party to be entitled to judgment as a matter of law; or

(iii) Such other and further reasons as are just, including specifically failure to obey a procedural order of the Presiding Officer.

(2) If under this paragraph an accelerated decision is issued as to all the issues and claims joined in the proceeding, the decision shall be treated for the purposes of these procedures as the decision of the Presiding Officer as provided in paragraph (s) of this section.

(3) If under this paragraph, judgment is rendered on less than all issues or claims in the proceeding, the Presiding Officer shall determine what material facts exist without substantial controversy and what material facts are actually and in good faith controverted. He shall thereupon issue an order specifying the facts which appear without substantial controversy, and the issues and claims upon which the hearing will proceed.

(z) Conclusion of hearing. (1) If, after the expiration of the period for taking an appeal as provided for by paragraph (t) and (u) of this section, no appeal has been taken from the Presiding Officer's decision, and after the expiration of the period for review by the Environmental Appeals Board on its own motion as provided for by paragraph (v) of this section, the Environmental Appeals Board does not move to review such decision, the hearing will be deemed to have ended at the expiration of all periods allowed for such appeal and review.

(2) If an appeal of the Presiding Officer's decision is taken pursuant to paragraphs (t) and (u) of this section, or if, in the absence of such appeal, the Environmental Appeals Board moves to review the decision of the Presiding Officer pursuant to paragraph (v) of this section, the hearing will be deemed to have ended upon rendering of a final decision by the Environmental Appeals Board.

(aa) Judicial review. (1) The Administrator hereby designates the General Counsel, Environmental Protection Agency as the officer upon whom copy of any petition for judicial review shall be served. Such officer shall be responsible for filing in the court the record on which the order of the Environmental Appeals Board is based.

(2) Before forwarding the record to the court, the Agency shall advise the petitioner of costs of preparing it and as soon as payment to cover fees is made, shall forward the record to the court.

[41 FR 31483, July 28, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 4553, Feb. 2, 1978; 44 FR 61962, Oct. 29, 1979. Redesignated and amended at 49 FR 48484, Dec. 12, 1984, and further redesignated at 54 FR 2123, Jan. 19, 1989; 57 FR 5330, Feb. 13, 1992]

§86.615-84   Treatment of confidential information.

(a) Any manufacturer may assert that some or all of the information submitted pursuant to this subpart is entitled to confidential treatment as provided by 40 CFR part 2, subpart B.

(b) Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information at the time it is submitted to EPA.

(c) To assert that information submitted pursuant to this subpart is confidential, a manufacturer must indicate clearly the items of information claimed confidential by marking, circling, bracketing, stamping, or otherwise specifying the confidential information. Furthermore, EPA requests, but does not require, that the submitter also provide a second copy of its submittal from which all confidential information has been deleted. If a need arises to publicly release nonconfidential information, EPA will assume that the submitter has accurately deleted the confidential information from this second copy.

(d) If a claim is made that some or all of the information submitted pursuant to this subpart is entitled to confidential treatment, the information covered by that confidentiality claim will be disclosed by the Environmental Appeals Board only to the extent and by means of the procedures set forth in part 2, subpart B, of this chapter.

(e) Information provided without a claim of confidentiality at the time of submission may be made available to the public by EPA without further notice to the submitter, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.204(c)(2)(i)(A).

[50 FR 34798, Aug. 27, 1985. Redesignated at 54 FR 2123, Jan. 19, 1989, and amended at 57 FR 5332, Feb. 13, 1992]

Subpart H—General Provisions for In-Use Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks

Source: 56 FR 25781, June 5, 1991, unless otherwise noted.

§86.701-94   General applicability.

(a) The provisions of this subpart apply to: 1994 through 2003 model year Otto-cycle and diesel light-duty vehicles; 1994 through 2003 model year Otto-cycle and diesel light-duty trucks; and 1994 and later model year Otto-cycle and diesel heavy-duty engines; and 2001 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicles and engines certified under the provisions of subpart S of this part. The provisions of subpart B of this part apply to this subpart. The provisions of §86.1811-04(a)(5) and (p) apply to 2004 and later model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles.

(b) References in this subpart to engine families and emission control systems shall be deemed to apply to durability groups and test groups as applicable for manufacturers certifying new light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and Otto-cycle heavy-duty vehicles and engines under the provisions of subpart S of this part.

[65 FR 59957, Oct. 6, 2000, as amended at 72 FR 8561, Feb. 26, 2007]

§86.702-94   Definitions.

The definitions in subparts A and B of this part apply to this subpart.

§86.703-94   Abbreviations.

The abbreviations in subparts A and B of this part apply to this subpart.

§86.704-94   Section numbering; construction.

Section 86.104 of subpart B applies to this subpart.

§§86.705-94--86.707-94   [Reserved]

§86.708-94   In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

Section 86.708-94 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.090-8 of subpart A of this part. Where a paragraph in §86.090-8 is identical and applicable to §86.708-94, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.090-8.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.090-8 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”

(a)(1) Standards. (i) In-use exhaust emissions from 1994 and later model year light-duty vehicles shall meet all standards in tables H94-3 and H94-4 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type, according to the implementation schedules in tables H94-1 and H94-2, and shall meet all standards in tables H94-6 and H94-7 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type, according to the implementation schedules in table H94-5, as follows:

(A)(1)(i) For model years 1994 and 1995, a minimum of the percentage shown in table H94-1 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light-duty vehicles shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1I standards in table H94-3. The remaining vehicles, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 0 standards in table H94-3.

(ii) For model years 1996 and beyond, a minimum of the percentages shown in table H94-2 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light-duty vehicles shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-3 and H94-4. The remaining vehicles, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1I standards in table H94-3.

(2) Particulates. For in-use exhaust emissions for model years 1994 and later, a minimum of the percentage shown in table H94-5 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light-duty vehicles shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-6 and H94-7. The remaining vehicles, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 0 standards in table H94-6.

(3) Optionally, compliance with the Tier 1I and Tier 1 implementation schedules of this section may be based on the combined sales of light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks, if such option was taken for certification as allowed in §§86.094-8 and 86.094-9 of subpart A of this part. Vehicles meeting Tier 1I in-use standards shall only be combined for this purpose with other vehicles meeting Tier 1I standards, and those meeting Tier 1 standards shall only be combined with those meeting the Tier 1 standards.

Table H94-1—Implementation Schedule for Light-Duty Vehicles for HCs, CO and NOX

Model yearTier 1I percentage
199440
199580
199660
199720
After 19970

Table H94-2—Implementation Schedule for Light-Duty Vehicles for HCs, CO and NOX

Model yearTier 1 percentage
19940
19950
199640
199780
After 1997100

Table H94-3—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles for HCs, CO and NOX

FuelStandardsTHCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOX
GasolineTier 00.413.41.0
GasolineTier 1I0.410.323.40.4
GasolineTier 10.410.253.40.4
DieselTier 00.413.41.0
DieselTier 1I0.410.323.41.0
DieselTier 10.410.253.41.0
MethanolTier 00.413.41.0
MethanolTier 1I0.410.323.40.4
MethanolTier 10.410.253.40.4
Natural GasTier 00.343.41.0
Natural GasTier 1I0.323.40.4
Natural GasTier 10.253.40.4
LPGTier 00.413.41.0
LPGTier 1I0.410.323.40.4
LPGTier 10.410.253.40.4

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H94-4—Full Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles for HCs, CO and NOX

FuelStandardsTHCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOX
GasolineTier 0
GasolineTier 10.314.20.60
DieselTier 0
DieselTier 10.314.21.25
MethanolTier 0
MethanolTier 10.314.20.60
Natural GasTier 0
Natural GasTier 10.314.20.60
LPGTier 0
LPGTier 10.314.20.60

1The applicable useful life is 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H94-5—Implementation Schedule for Light-Duty Vehicles for PM

Model yearTier 1 percentage
199440
199580
After 1995100

Table H94-6—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles for PM

FuelStandardsPM
GasolineTier 0
GasolineTier 10.08
DieselTier 00.20
DieselTier 10.08
MethanolTier 020.20
MethanolTier 110.08
Natural GasTier 020.20
Natural GasTier 10.08
LPGTier 020.20
LPGTier 10.08

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2Applicable only to diesel-cycle vehicles.

Table H94-7—Full Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles for PM

FuelStandardsPM
GasolineTier 0
GasolineTier 10.10
DieselTier 0
DieselTier 10.10
MethanolTier 0
MethanolTier 10.10
Natural GasTier 0
Natural GasTier 10.10
LPGTier 0
LPGTier 10.10

1The applicable useful life is 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

(B)(1)(i) Sales percentages for the purposes of determining compliance with paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section shall be based on total actual U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles of the applicable model year by a manufacturer to a dealer, distributor, fleet operator, broker, or any other entity which comprises the point of first sale. If the option of paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A)(3) is taken, such sales percentages shall be based on the total actual combined U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks of the applicable model year by a manufacturer to a dealer, distributor, fleet operator, broker, or any other entity which comprises the point of first sale.

(ii) The manufacturer may petition the Administrator to allow actual volume produced for U.S. sales to be used in lieu of actual U.S. sales for purposes of determining compliance with the implementation schedule sales percentages of tables H94-1, H94-2 and H94-5 of this section. Such petition shall be submitted within 30 days of the end of the model year to the Manufacturers Operations Division. For the petition to be granted, the manufacturer must establish to the satisfaction of the Administrator that actual production volume is functionally equivalent to actual sales volume.

(iii) The vehicles that are counted toward the implementation schedule sales percentage, or toward the total on which such percentage is based, for certification purposes as prescribed by §86.094-8 (a)(1)(i)(B)(1)(iii) of subpart A of this part, shall be the same vehicles that are counted toward the implementation schedule sales percentage, or the total on which it is based, for in-use purposes.

(iv) Small volume manufacturers, as defined in §86.092-14 (b) (1) and (2), are exempt from the implementation schedules of tables H94-1 and H94-2 of this section for model years 1994 through 1997, and from the implementation schedule of table H94-5 of this section for model years 1994 and 1995. For small volume manufacturers, Tier 0 standards of table H94-6 continue to apply until model year 1996 and Tier 0 standards of table H94-3 continue to apply until model year 1998, when one hundred percent compliance with the Tier 1 standards of tables H94-3, H94-4, H94-6, and H94-7 is required. This exemption does not apply to small volume engine families as defined in §86.092-14 (b)(5).

(2)(i) For 1994 and 1995 model year light-duty vehicles, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting Tier 1 standards for HCs, CO, and NOX, for purposes of certification, shall be the same engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting the interim in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1I” in the tables of in-use standards) for in-use purposes.

(ii) For 1996 and 1997 model year light-duty vehicles the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting interim in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1I” in the tables of in-use standards) and final in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1” in the tables of in-use standards) respectively, for HCs, CO, and NOX, for in-use purposes, shall be designated by the manufacturer at the time of Application for Certification.

(iii) For 1994 and 1995 model year light-duty vehicles, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting Tier 1 standards, for PM, for purposes of certification, shall be the same engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting the final in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1” in the tables of in-use standards) for PM for in-use purposes.

(3) The manufacturer must state at the time of Application for Certification, based on projected U.S. sales or projected production for U.S. sale, which families will be used to attain the required implementation schedule sales percentages for in-use purposes.

(4) A manufacturer cannot use one set of engine families to meet its in-use intermediate useful life standards and another to meet its in-use full useful life standards. The same families which are used to meet the intermediate useful life standards will be required without deviation to meet the corresponding full useful life standards.

(ii) Engine families participating in the particulate averaging program as specified in §86.094-8 (a)(1)(ii) shall be subject, for purposes of in-use compliance, to the particulate family emission limit determined for that engine family for certification purposes, in lieu of the appropriate particulate standard shown in the tables of in-use standards in this section.

(iii) CST emissions from model year 1996 and later gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles measured and calculated in accordance with subpart O of this part may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(iii) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(B) Carbon monoxide: 1.2 percent.

(2) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted over a driving schedule as set forth in subpart B of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those procedures. The test weight basis for light-duty vehicles, for the purposes of determining equivalent test weight as prescribed in §86.129-94, shall be loaded vehicle weight.

(3) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted during the CST as set forth in subpart O of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those provisions.

(b) The provisions of §86.090-8(b) through (h) of subpart A of this part apply to this section. The provisions of §86.096-8(i) through (k) of subpart A of this part apply to this section.

[56 FR 25781, June 5, 1991, as amended at 57 FR 31922, July 17, 1992; 58 FR 33211, June 16, 1993; 58 FR 58424, Nov. 1, 1993; 59 FR 33913, July 1, 1994; 59 FR 48515, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.708-98   In-use emission standards for 1998 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

Section 86.708-98 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.090-8 of subpart A of this part. Where a paragraph in §86.090-8 is identical and applicable to §86.708-98, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.090-8.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.090-8 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”

(a)(1)(i) In-use exhaust emissions from 1998 and later model year light-duty vehicles shall meet all standards in tables H98-1 and H98-2 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type.

Table H98-1—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles

FuelTHCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOXPM
Gasoline0.410.253.40.40.08
Diesel0.410.253.41.00.08
Methanol0.410.253.40.40.08
Natural Gas0.253.40.40.08
LPG0.410.253.40.40.08

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H98-2—Full Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles

FuelTHCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOXPM
Gasoline0.314.20.60.10
Diesel0.314.21.250.10
Methanol0.314.20.60.10
Natural Gas0.314.20.60.10
LPG0.314.20.60.10

1The applicable useful life is 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

(ii)(A) Vehicles subject to the standards of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section shall be all actual U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles of the applicable model year by a manufacturer.

(B) A manufacturer cannot use one set of engine families to meet its in-use intermediate useful life standards and another to meet its in-use full useful life standards. The same families which are used to meet the intermediate useful life standards will be required without deviation to meet the corresponding full useful life standards.

(iii) CST emissions from gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty vehicles measured and calculated in accordance with subpart O of this part may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(iii) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(B) Carbon monoxide: 1.2 percent.

(2) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted over a driving schedule as set forth in subpart B of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those procedures. The test weight basis for light-duty vehicles, for the purposes of determining equivalent test weight as prescribed in §86.129-94, shall be loaded vehicle weight.

(3) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted during the CST as set forth in subpart O of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those provisions.

(b) The provisions of §86.090-8 (b) through (h) of subpart A of this part apply to this section. The provisions of §86.096-8 (i) through (j) of subpart A of this part apply to this section.

[56 FR 25781, June 5, 1991, as amended at 58 FR 58424, Nov. 1, 1993; 59 FR 33913, July 1, 1994; 59 FR 48516, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.709-94   In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks.

Section 86.709-94 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.091-9 of subpart A of this part. Where a paragraph in §86.091-9 is identical and applicable to §86.709-94, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.091-9.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.091-9 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”

(a)(1) Standards—(i) Light light-duty trucks. In-use exhaust emissions from 1994 and later model year light light-duty trucks shall meet all standards in tables H94-9 and H94-10 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type and loaded vehicle weight, according to the implementation schedule in table H94-8, and shall meet all standards in tables H94-12 and H94-13 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type and loaded vehicle weight, according to the implementation schedules in table H94-11, as follows:

(A)(1)(i) For model year 1994 and 1995, a minimum of the respective percentages shown in the Tier 1I column of table H94-8 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1I standards in tables H94-9 and H94-10. The remaining vehicles, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 0 standards in tables H94-9 and H94-10.

(ii) For model years 1996 and 1997, a minimum of the percentages shown in the Tier 1 percentage column of table H94-8 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in table H94-9 and H94-10, and the remaining vehicles, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1I standards in tables H94-9 and H94-10.

(iii) For model year 1998 and beyond, a minimum of the percentage shown in the Tier 1 percentage column of table H94-8 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-9 and H94-10.

(2) Particulates. For in-use exhaust emissions for 1994 and later, a minimum of the percentage shown in table H94-11 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's light light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-12 and H94-13. The remaining light light-duty trucks, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 0 standards in tables H94-12 and H94-13.

(3) Optionally, compliance with the Tier 1I and Tier 1 implementation schedules of this section may be based on the combined sales of light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks, if such option was taken for certification as allowed in §86.094-8 and §86.094-9 of subpart A of this part. Vehicles meeting Tier 1I in-use standards shall only be combined for this purpose with other vehicles meeting Tier 1I standards, and those meeting Tier 1 standards shall only be combined with those meeting the Tier 1 standards.

Table H94-8—Implementation Schedule for Light Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO and NOX

Model yearTier 1I percentageTier 1 percentage
1994400
1995800
19966040
19972080
19980100

Table H94-9—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO and NOX

FuelLVW (lbs)StandardsTHCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOX
Gasoline0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Gasoline0-3750Tier 10.800.325.20.4
Gasoline0-3750Tier 10.800.253.40.4
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 110.800.416.70.7
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.7
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Diesel0-3750Tier 110.800.325.21.2
Diesel0-3750Tier 10.800.253.41.0
Diesel3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
Diesel3751-5750Tier 110.800.416.71.7
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.97
Methanol0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Methanol0-3750Tier 110.800.325.20.4
Methanol0-3750Tier 10.800.253.40.4
Methanol3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
Methanol3751-5750Tier 110.800.416.70.7
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.7
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 00.67101.2
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 110.325.20.4
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 10.253.40.4
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 00.67101.7
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 110.416.70.7
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 10.324.40.7
LPG0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
LPG0-3750Tier 110.800.325.20.4
LPG0-3750Tier 10.800.253.40.4
LPG3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
LPG3751-5750Tier 110.800.416.70.7
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.7

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H94-10—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO and NOX

FuelLVW (lbs)StandardsTHC2NMHC1THCE2NMHCE1CO1NOX1
Gasoline0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Gasoline0-3750Tier 10.800.314.20.60
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.800.405.50.97
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Diesel0-3750Tier 10.800.314.21.25
Diesel3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.800.405.50.97
Methanol0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Methanol0-3750Tier 10.800.314.20.60
Methanol3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.800.405.50.97
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 02.930.67101.2
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 12.930.314.20.60
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 02.930.67101.7
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 12.930.405.50.97
LPG0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
LPG0-3750Tier 10.800.314.20.60
LPG3751-5750Tier 00.80101.7
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.080.405.50.97

1The applicable useful life is 10 years or 100,000 miles, which ever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H94-11—Implementation Schedule for Light Light-Duty Trucks for PM

Model yearTier 1 percentage
19940%
199540%
199680%
after 1996100%

Table H94-12—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks for PM

FuelLVW (lbs)StandardsPM
Gasoline0-3750Tier 0
Gasoline0-3750Tier 10.08
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 0
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.08
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.26
Diesel0-3750Tier 10.08
Diesel3751-5750Tier 00.13
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.08
Methanol0-3750Tier 0
Methanol0-3750Tier 10.08
Methanol3751-5750Tier 0
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.08
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 020.26
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 10.08
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 020.13
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 10.08
LPG0-3750Tier 020.26
LPG0-3750Tier 10.08
LPG3751-5750Tier 020.13
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.08

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2Applicable only to diesel-cycle vehicles.

Table H94-13—Full Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks for PM

FuelLVW (lbs)StandardsPM
Gasoline0-3750Tier 0
Gasoline0-3750Tier 10.10
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 0
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.10
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.26
Diesel0-3750Tier 10.10
Diesel3751-5750Tier 00.13
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.10
Methanol0-3750Tier 0
Methanol0-3750Tier 10.10
Methanol3751-5750Tier 0
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.10
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 020.26
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 10.10
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 020.13
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 10.10
LPG0-3750Tier 020.26
LPG0-3750Tier 10.10
LPG3751-5750Tier 020.13
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.10

1The applicable useful life is 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2Applicable only to diesel-cycle vehicles.

(B)(1)(i) Sales percentages for the purposes of determining compliance with paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A) of this section shall be based on total actual U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles of the applicable model year by a manufacturer to a dealer, distributor, fleet operator, broker, or any other entity which comprises the point of first sale. If the option of paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A)(3) is taken, such sales percentages shall be based on the total actual combined U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks of the applicable model year by a manufacturer to a dealer, distributor, fleet operator, broker, or any other entity which comprises the point of first sale.

(ii) The manufacturer may petition the Administrator to allow actual volume produced for U.S. sale to be used in lieu of actual U.S. sales for purposes of determining compliance with the implementation schedule sales percentages of tables H94-8 and H94-11 of this section. Such petition shall be submitted within 30 days of the end of the model year to the Manufacturers Operations Division. For the petition to be granted, the manufacturer must establish to the satisfaction of the Administrator that actual production volume is functionally equivalent to actual sales volume.

(iii) The vehicles that are counted toward the implementation schedule sales percentage, or toward the total on which such percentage is based, for certification purposes as prescribed by §86.094-9(a)(1)(i)(B)(1)(iii) of subpart A of this part, shall be the same vehicles that are counted toward the implementation schedule sales percentage, or the total on which it is based, for in-use purposes.

(iv) Small volume manufacturers, as defined in §86.092-14(b) (1) and (2), are exempt from the implementation schedules of table H94-8 of this section for model years 1994 through 1997 and from the implementation schedules of table H94-11 of this section for model years 1995 and 1996. For small volume manufacturers, Tier 0 standards of tables H94-9 and H94-10 continue to apply until model year 1998 and the Tier 0 standards of tables H94-12 and H94-13 continue to apply until model year 1997, when one hundred percent compliance with the Tier 1 standards of such tables is required. This exemption does not apply to small volume engine families as defined in §86.092-14 (b)(5).

(2)(i) For 1994 and 1995 model year light light-duty trucks, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting Tier 1 standards for HCs, CO, and NOX, for purposes of certification, shall be the same engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting the interim in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1I” in the tables of in-use standards) for in-use purposes.

(ii) For 1996 and 1997 model year light light-duty trucks, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting interim in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1I” in the tables of in-use standards) and final in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1” in the tables of in-use standards) respectively, for HCs, CO, and NOX, for in-use purposes, shall be designated by the manufacturer at the time of certification.

(iii) For 1995 and 1996 model year light light-duty trucks, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting Tier 1 standards, for PM, for purposes of certification, shall be the same engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting the final in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1” in the tables of in-use standards) for PM for in-use purposes.

(3) The manufacturer must state at the time of Application for Certification, based on projected U.S. sales or projected production for U.S. sale, which families will be used to attain the required implementation schedule sales percentages for in-use purposes.

(4) A manufacturer can not use one set of engine families to meet its in-use intermediate useful life standards and another to meet its in-use full useful life standards. The same families which are used to meet the intermediate useful life standards will be required without deviation to meet the corresponding full useful life standards.

(ii) Heavy light-duty trucks. In-use exhaust emissions from 1994 and later model year heavy light-duty trucks shall meet all standards in tables H94-15 and H94-16 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type and loaded vehicle weight or adjusted loaded vehicle weight, as applicable, according to the implementation schedule in table H94-14, and shall meet all standards in tables H94-18 and H94-19 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type and loaded vehicle weight or adjusted loaded vehicle weight, as applicable, according to the implementation schedules in table H94-17, as follows:

(A)(1)(i) For model years 1994 through 1997, a minimum of the percentage shown in the Tier 1I column of table H94-14 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's heavy light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1I standards in tables H94-15 and H94-16. The remaining vehicles, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 0 standards in tables H94-15 and H94-16.

(ii) For model year 1998, a minimum of the percentage shown in table H94-14 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's heavy light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-15 and H94-16. The remaining vehicles shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1I standards in tables H94-15 and H94-16.

(iii) For model years 1999 and later, a minimum of the percentage shown in table H94-14 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's heavy light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-15 and H94-16.

(2) Particulates. For in-use exhaust emissions for model year 1994 and later, a minimum of the percentage shown in table H94-17 of a manufacturer's sales of the applicable model year's heavy light-duty trucks shall not exceed the applicable Tier 1 standards in tables H94-18 and H94-19. The remaining heavy light-duty trucks, if any, shall not exceed the applicable Tier 0 standards in tables H94-18 and H94-19.

Table H94-14—Implementation Schedule for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO and NOX

Model yearTier 1I percentageTier 1 percentage
19940%0%
19950%0%
199650%0%
1997100%0%
199850%50%
after 19980%100%

Table H94-15—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO and NOX

FuelLVW (lbs)ALVW (lbs)StandardsTHCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOX
Gasoline0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Gasoline>3750Tier 00.80101.7
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 1I0.800.405.50.88
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.7
Gasoline>5750Tier 1I0.800.496.21.38
Gasoline>5750Tier 10.800.395.01.1
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Diesel>3750Tier 00.80101.7
Diesel0-37503751-5750Tier 1I0.800.405.51.2
Diesel>37503751-5750Tier 1I0.800.405.51.7
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.98
Diesel0-3750>5750Tier 1I0.800.496.21.2
Diesel>3750>5750Tier 1I0.800.496.21.7
Diesel>5750Tier 10.800.395.01.53
Methanol0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Methanol>3750Tier 00.80101.7
Methanol3751-5750Tier 1I0.800.405.50.88
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.7
Methanol>5750Tier 1I0.800.496.21.38
Methanol>5750Tier 10.800.395.01.1
Natural Gas0-3570Tier 00.67101.2
Natural Gas>3750Tier 00.67101.7
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 1I0.405.50.88
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 10.324.40.7
Natural Gas>5750Tier 1I0.496.21.38
Natural Gas>5750Tier 10.395.01.1
LPG0-3570Tier 00.80101.2
LPG>3750Tier 00.80101.7
LPG3751-5750Tier 1I0.800.405.50.88
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.800.324.40.7
LPG>5750Tier 1I0.800.496.21.38
LPG>5750Tier 10.800.395.01.1

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H94-16—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for HCs, CO and NOX

FuelLVW (lbs)ALVW (lbs)StandardsTHC2NMHC1THCE2NMHCE1CO1NOX1
Gasoline0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Gasoline>3750Tier 00.80101.7
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.800.466.40.98
Gasoline>5750Tier 10.800.567.31.53
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Diesel>3750Tier 00.80101.7
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.800.466.40.98
Diesel>5750Tier 10.800.567.31.53
Methanol0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
Methanol>3750Tier 00.80101.7
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.800.466.40.98
Methanol>5750Tier 10.800.567.31.53
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 00.67101.2
Natural Gas>3750Tier 00.67101.7
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 10.466.40.98
Natural Gas>5750Tier 10.567.31.53
LPG0-3750Tier 00.80101.2
LPG>3750Tier 00.80101.7
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.800.466.40.98
LPG>5750Tier 10.800.567.31.53

1The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 90,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H94-17—Implementation Schedule for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for PM

Model yearTier 1 percentage
19940
19950
199650
after 1996100

Table H94-18—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for PM

FuelLVW (lbs)ALVW (lbs)StandardsPM
Gasoline0-3750Tier 0
Gasoline>3750Tier 0
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.10
Gasoline>5750Tier 10.12
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.26
Diesel>3750Tier 00.13
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.10
Diesel>5750Tier 10.12
Methanol0-3750Tier 0
Methanol>3750Tier 0
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.10
Methanol>5750Tier 10.12
Natural Gas0-3750Tier 020.26
Natural Gas>3750Tier 020.13
Natural Gas3751-5750Tier 10.10
Natural Gas>5750Tier 10.12
LPG0-3750Tier 020.26
LPG>3750Tier 020.13
LPG3751-5750Tier 10.10
LPG>5750Tier 10.12

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2Applicable only to diesel-cycle vehicles.

Table H94-19—Full Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks for PM

FuelLVW (lbs)ALVW (lbs)StandardsPM
Gasoline0-3750Tier 0
Gasoline>3750Tier 0
Gasoline3751-5750Tier 10.10
Gasoline>5750Tier 10.12
Diesel0-3750Tier 00.26
Diesel>3750Tier 00.13
Diesel3751-5750Tier 10.10
Diesel>5750Tier 10.12
Methanol0-3750Tier 0
Methanol>3750Tier 0
Methanol3751-5750Tier 10.10
Methanol>5750Tier 10.12

1The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 90,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

(B)(1)(i) Sales percentages for the purposes of determining compliance with paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(A) of this section shall be based on total actual U.S. sales of light-duty vehicles of the applicable model year by a manufacturer to a dealer, distributor, fleet operator, broker, or any other entity which comprises the point of first sale.

(ii) The manufacturer may petition the Administrator to allow actual volume produced for U.S. sales to be used in lieu of actual U.S. sales for purposes of determining compliance with the implementation schedule sales percentages of tables H94-14 and H94-17 of this section. Such petition shall be submitted within 30 days of the end of the model year to the Manufacturers Operations Division. For the petition to be granted, the manufacturer must establish to the satisfaction of the Administrator that actual production volume is functionally equivalent to actual sales volume.

(iii) The vehicles that are counted toward the implementation schedule sales percentage, or toward the total on which such percentage is based, for certification purposes as prescribed by §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii)(B)(1)(iii) of subpart A of this part, shall be the same vehicles that are counted toward the implementation schedule sales percentage, or the total on which it is based, for in-use purposes.

(iv) Small volume manufacturers, as defined in §86.092-14(b) (1) and (2), are exempt from the implementation schedules of tables H94-14 of this section for model years 1996 through 1998 and from the implementation schedules of table H94-17 of this section for model year 1996. For small volume manufacturers, Tier 0 standards of tables H94-15 and H94-16 continue to apply until model year 1999 and the Tier 0 standards of tables H94-18 and H94-19 continue to apply until model year 1997, when one hundred percent compliance with the Tier 1 standards of such tables is required. This exemption does not apply to small volume engine families as defined in §86.092-14(b)(5).

(2)(i) For 1996 and 1997 model year heavy light-duty trucks, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting Tier 1 standards for HCs, CO, and NOX, for purposes of certification, shall be the same engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting the interim in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1I” in the tables of in-use standards) for in-use purposes.

(ii) For 1998 model year heavy light-duty trucks the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting interim in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1I” in the tables of in-use standards) and final in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1” in the tables of in-use standards) for HCs, CO, and NOX, for in-use purposes, shall be designated by the manufacturer at the time of certification.

(iii) For 1996 model year heavy light-duty trucks, the engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting Tier 1 standards, for PM, for purposes of certification, shall be the same engine families which comprise the required implementation schedule percentage of sales meeting the final in-use standards (labeled “Tier 1” in the tables of in-use standards) for PM for in-use purposes.

(3) The manufacturer must state at the time of Application for Certification, based on projected U.S. sales or projected production for U.S. sale, which families will be used to attain the required implementation schedule sales percentages.

(4) A manufacturer can not use one set of engine families to meet its in-use intermediate useful life standards and another to meet its in-use full useful life standards. The same families which are used to meet the intermediate useful life standards will be required without deviation to meet the corresponding full useful life standards.

(iii) Exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide from 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks shall not exceed 0.50 percent of exhaust gas flow at curb idle at a useful life of 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs (for Otto-cycle and methanol-fueled diesel-cycle light-duty trucks only).

(iv)(A) Engine families participating in the applicable NOX averaging program as specified in §86.094-9(a)(1)(iv)(A) shall be subject, for purposes of in-use compliance, to the NOX family emission limit determined for that engine family for certification purposes, in lieu of the appropriate NOX standard shown in the tables of in-use standards in this section.

(B) Engine families participating in the applicable particulate averaging program as specified in §86.094-9(a)(1)(iv)(B) shall be subject, for purposes of in-use compliance, to the particulate family emission limit determined for that engine family for certification purposes, in lieu of the appropriate particulate standard shown in the tables of in-use standards in this section.

(v) CST emissions from model year 1996 and later gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty trucks measured and calculated in accordance with subpart O of this part may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(v) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(B) Carbon monoxide: 1.2 percent.

(2) The standards set forth in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted over a driving schedule as set forth in subpart B of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those procedures. The test weight basis for light light-duty trucks, and for heavy light-duty trucks certified to the Tier 0 standards of this section, for the purposes of determining equivalent test weight as prescribed in §86.129-94, shall be loaded vehicle weight. The test weight basis for heavy light-duty trucks certified to the Tier 1 or Tier 1I standards of this section, for the purposes of determining equivalent test weight as prescribed in §86.129-94, shall be adjusted loaded vehicle weight. The standard set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section refers to the exhaust emitted at curb idle and measured and calculated in accordance with the procedures set forth in subpart P of this part.

(3) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted during the CST as set forth in subpart O of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those provisions.

(b) The provision of §86.090-8(b) through (k) of subpart A of this part apply to this section.

[56 FR 25781, June 5, 1991, as amended at 57 FR 31922, July 17, 1992; 58 FR 33211, June 16, 1993; 58 FR 58424, Nov. 1, 1993; 59 FR 48516, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.709-99   In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

Section 86.709-99 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.091-9 of subpart A of this part. Where a paragraph in §86.091-9 is identical and applicable to §86.709-99, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.091-9.” Where a corresponding paragraph of §86.091-9 is not applicable, this is indicated by the statement “[Reserved].”

(a)(1)(i)(A) Light light-duty trucks. In-use exhaust emissions from 1999 and later model year light light-duty trucks shall meet all standards in tables H99-1 and H99-2 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type and loaded vehicle weight.

Table H99-1—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks

FuelLVW (lbs)THCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOXPM
Gasoline0-37500.253.40.40.08
Gasoline3751-57500.324.40.70.08
Diesel0-37500.253.41.00.08
Diesel3751-57500.324.40.970.08
Methanol0-37500.253.40.40.08
Methanol3751-57500.324.40.70.08
Natural Gas0-37500.253.40.40.08
Natural Gas3751-57500.324.40.70.08
LPG0-37500.253.40.40.08
LPG3751-57500.324.40.70.08

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H99-2—Full Useful Life Standards (g/mi) for Light Light-Duty Trucks

FuelLVW (lbs)THC2NMHC1THCE2NMHCE1CO1NOX1PM1
Gasoline0-37500.800.314.20.60.10
Gasoline3751-57500.800.405.50.970.10
Diesel0-37500.800.314.21.250.10
Diesel3751-57500.800.405.50.970.10
Methanol0-37500.800.314.20.60.10
Methanol3751-57500.800.405.50.970.10
Natural Gas0-37500.314.20.60.10
Natural Gas3751-57500.405.50.970.10
LPG0-37500.800.314.20.60.10
LPG3751-57500.800.405.50.970.10

1The applicable useful life is 10 yeras or 100,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

(B)(1) Vehicles subject to the standards of paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A) of this section shall be all actual U.S. sales of light light-duty trucks of the applicable model year by a manufacturer.

(2) A manufacturer can not use one set of engine families to meet its in-use intermediate useful life standards and another to meet its in-use full useful life standards. The same families which are used to meet the intermediate useful life standards will be required without deviation to meet the corresponding full useful life standards.

(ii)(A) Heavy light-duty trucks. In-use exhaust emissions from 1999 and later model year heavy light-duty trucks shall meet all standards in tables H99-3 and H99-4 in the rows designated with the applicable fuel type and adjusted loaded vehicle weight.

Table H99-3—Intermediate Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks

FuelALVW (lbs)THCNMHCTHCENMHCECONOXPM
Gasoline3751-57500.800.324.40.70.10
Gasoline>57500.800.395.01.10.12
Diesel3751-57500.800.324.40.980.10
Diesel>57500.800.395.01.530.12
Methanol3751-57500.800.324.40.70.10
Methanol>57500.800.395.01.10.12
Natural Gas3751-57500.324.40.70.10
Natural Gas>57500.395.01.10.12
LPG3751-57500.800.324.40.70.10
LPG>57500.800.395.01.10.12

1The applicable useful life is 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

Table H99-4—Full Useful Life1 Standards (g/mi) for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks

FuelALVW (lbs)THC2NMHC1THCE2NMHCE1CO1NOX1PM1
Gasoline3751-57500.800.466.40.980.10
Gasoline>57500.800.567.31.530.12
Diesel3751-57500.800.466.40.980.10
Diesel>57500.800.567.31.530.12
Methanol3751-57500.800.466.40.980.10
Methanol>57500.800.567.31.530.12
Natural Gas3751-57500.466.40.980.10
Natural Gas>57500.567.31.530.12
LPG3751-57500.800.466.40.980.10
LPG>57500.800.567.31.530.12

1The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that no enforcement testing will be done beyond 7 years or 90,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

2The applicable useful life is 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs.

(B)(1) Vehicles subject to the standards of paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(A) of this section shall be all actual U.S. sales of heavy light-duty trucks of the applicable model year by a manufacturer.

(2) A manufacturer can not use one set of engine families to meet its in-use intermediate useful life standards and another to meet its in-use full useful life standards. The same families which are used to meet the intermediate useful life standards will be required without deviation to meet the corresponding full useful life standards.

(iii) Exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide from 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks shall not exceed 0.50 percent of exhaust gas flow at curb idle at a useful life of 11 years or 120,000 miles, whichever first occurs (for Otto-cycle and methanol-fueled diesel-cycle light-duty trucks only)

(iv) CST emissions from gasoline-fueled Otto-cycle light-duty trucks measured and calculated in accordance with subpart O of this part may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(iv) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(B) Carbon monoxide: 1.2 percent.

(2) The standards set forth in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted over a driving schedule as set forth in subpart B of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those procedures. The test weight basis for light light-duty trucks, for the purposes of determining equivalent test weight as prescribed in §86.129-94, shall be loaded vehicle weight. The test weight basis for heavy light-duty trucks, for the purposes of determining equivalent test weight as prescribed in §86.129-94, shall be adjusted loaded vehicle weight. The standard set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section refers to the exhaust emitted at curb idle and measured and calculated in accordance with the procedures set forth in subpart P of this part.

(3) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted during the CST as set forth in subpart O of this part and measured and calculated in accordance with those provisions.

(b) The provisions of §86.097-9(b), (c), and (g) through (k) of subpart A of this part apply to this section.

[56 FR 25781, June 5, 1991, as amended at 57 FR 31922, July 17, 1992; 58 FR 58425, Nov. 1, 1993; 59 FR 48520, Sept. 21, 1994]

Subpart I—Emission Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure

Authority: Secs. 202, 206, 207, 208, 301(a), Clean Air Act; as amended 42 U.S.C. 7521, 7524, 7541, 7542, and 7601.

Source: 48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, unless otherwise noted.

§86.884-1   General applicability.

The provisions of this subpart are applicable to new petroleum-fueled diesel heavy-duty engines beginning with the 1984 model year, methanol-fueled diesel heavy-duty engines beginning with the 1990 model year and natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel heavy-duty engines beginning with the 1997 model year. The provisions of this subpart are optional prior to the 1997 model year for natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel heavy-duty engines.

[59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.884-2   Definitions.

The definitions in §86.084-2 apply to this subpart.

§86.884-3   Abbreviations.

The abbreviations in §86.078-3 apply to this subpart.

§86.884-4   Section numbering.

The section numbering system set forth in §86.084-4 applies to this subpart.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.884-5   Test procedures.

The procedures described in this and subsequent sections will be the test program to determine the conformity of engines with the standards set forth in §86.084-11(b).

(a) The test consists of a prescribed sequence of engine operating conditions on an engine dynamometer with continuous examination of the exhaust gases. The test is applicable equally to controlled engines equipped with means for preventing, controlling, or eliminating smoke emissions and to uncontrolled engines.

(b) The test is designed to determine the opacity of smoke in exhaust emissions during those engine operating conditions which tend to promote smoke from diesel vehicles.

(c) The test procedure begins with a preconditioned engine which is then run through preloading and preconditioning operations. After an idling period, the engine is operated through acceleration and lugging modes during which smoke emission measurements are made to compare with the standards. The engine is then returned to the idle condition and the acceleration and lugging modes are repeated. Three consecutive sequences of acceleration and lugging constitutes the full set of operating conditions for smoke emission measurement.

(d)(1) Except in cases of component mulfunction or failure, all emission control systems installed on, or incorporated in, a new motor vehicle engine shall be functioning during all procedures in this subpart.

(2) Maintenance to correct component malfunction or failure shall be authorized in accordance with §86.084-25.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48140, Dec. 10, 1984; 54 FR 14559, Apr. 11, 1989]

§86.884-6   Fuel specifications.

The requirements of this section are set forth in §86.1313.

[54 FR 14559, Apr. 11, 1989]

§86.884-7   Dynamometer operation cycle for smoke emission tests.

(a) The following sequence of operations shall be performed during engine dynamometer testing of smoke emissions, starting with the dynamometer preloading determined and the engine preconditioned (§86.884-12(c)).

(1) Idle Mode. The engine is caused to idle for 5.0 to 5.5 minutes at the manufacturer's recommended curb idle speed. The dynamometer controls shall be set to provide the speed and load necessary to comply with the heavy-duty “curb idle” definition per §86.084-2, in accordance with predominant engine application.

(2) Acceleration mode. (i) The engine speed shall be increased to 200 ±50 rpm above the measured free idle speed measured at the point where the throttle begins to move from part-throttle to the full throttle position. The speed anywhere during this mode should not exceed this checkpoint speed by more than 50 rpm. The duration of this first acceleration shall be three seconds or less measured from the point where the speed first begins to increase above idle to the point where the throttle reaches full open position.

(ii) Immediately upon completion of the mode specified in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, the throttle shall be moved rapidly to, and held in, the fully open position. The inertia of the engine and the dynamometer, or alternately a preselected dynamometer load, shall be used to control the acceleration of the engine so that the speed increases to 85 percent of the rated speed in 5 ±1.5 seconds. This acceleration shall be linear within 100 rpm as specified in §86.884-13(c).

(iii) After the engine reaches the speed required in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section the throttle shall be moved rapidly to, and held in, the fully closed position. Immediately after the throttle is closed, the preselected load required to perform the acceleration in paragraph (a)(2)(iv) of this section shall be applied. For electric motoring dynamometer operation in speed mode, the deceleration shall be performed in 2±1.5 seconds.

(iv) When the engine decelerates to the intermediate speed (within 50 rpm), the throttle shall be moved rapidly to, and held in, the fully open position. The preselected dynamometer load which was applied during the preceding transition period shall be used to control the acceleration of the engine so that the speed increases to at least 95 percent of the rated speed in 10 ±2 seconds.

(v) For electric dynamometer operation in speed mode, motoring assist may be used to offset excessive dynamometer inertia load when necessary. No negative flywheel torque shall occur during any of the three acceleration modes in paragraph (a)(2) of this section except for a maximum of 10ft-lbs. for the first 0.5 second of the mode.

(3) Lugging mode. (i) Immediately upon the completion of the preceding acceleration mode, the dynamometer controls shall be adjusted to permit the engine to develop maximum horsepower at rated speed. This transition period shall be 50 to 60 seconds in duration. During the last 10 seconds of this period, the average engine speed shall be maintained within 50 rpm of the rated speed, and the average observed power (corrected, if necessary, to rating conditions) shall be no less than 95 percent of the maximum horsepower developed during the preconditioning prior to the smoke cycle.

(ii) With the throttle remaining in the fully open position, the dynamometer controls shall be adjusted gradually so that the engine speed is reduced to the intermediate speed. This lugging operation shall be performed smoothly over a period of 35#5 seconds. The rate of slowing of the engine shall be linear, within 100 rpm, as specified in §86.884-13(c).

(4) Engine unloading. Within five seconds of completing the preceding lugging mode, the dynamometer and engine controls shall be returned to the idle position described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The engine must be at free idle condition within one minute after completion of the lugging mode.

(b) The procedures described in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section shall be repeated until three consecutive valid cycles have been completed. If three valid cycles have not been completed after a total of six consecutive cycles have been run, the engine shall be preconditioned by operation at maximum horsepower at rated speed for 10 minutes before the test sequence is repeated.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48141, Dec. 10, 1984; 52 FR 47870, Dec. 16, 1987; 62 FR 47122, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.884-8   Dynamometer and engine equipment.

The following equipment shall be used for smoke emission testing of engines on engine dynamometers:

(a) An engine dynamometer with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle described in §86.884-7.

(b) An engine cooling system having sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures during conduct of the prescribed engine tests.

(c) An exhaust system with an appropriate type of smokemeter placed no more than 32 feet from the exhaust manifold(s), turbocharger outlet(s), exhaust aftertreatment device(s), or crossover junction (on Vee engines), whichever is farthest downstream. The smoke exhaust system shall present an exhaust backpressure within ±0.2 inch Hg of the upper limit at maximum rated horsepower, as established by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature for vehicle application. The following options may also be used:

(1) For engines with multiple exhaust outlets, join the exhaust outlets together into a single exhaust system and install the smokemeter 10 to 32 feet downstream from the junction of the individual exhaust outlets, or exhaust aftertreatment device(s), whichever is farthest downstream.

(2) For engines with multiple exhaust outlets, install a smokemeter in each of the exhaust pipes 10 to 32 feet downstream from each exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream.

(3) For engines with multiple exhaust outlets, install a smokemeter on the exhaust pipe which produces the highest smoke levels 10 to 32 feet downstream from the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, or exhaust aftertreatment device, whichever is farthest downstream. It may be required to make smoke measurements from other exhaust outlets if deemed appropriate by the Administrator.

(4) When utilizing an end-of-line smokemeter, the terminal two feet of the exhaust pipe used for smoke measurement shall be of a circular cross section and be free of elbows and bends. The end of the pipe shall be cut off squarely. The terminal two feet of the exhaust pipe shall have a nominal inside diameter in accordance with the engine being tested, as specified below:

Maximum rated horsepowerExhaust pipe
diameter
(inches)
HP<501.5
50≤HP<1002.0
100≤HP<2003.0
200≤HP<3004.0
300≤HP<5005.0
HP≥5006.0

(5) When utilizing an in-line smokemeter, there shall be no change in the exhaust pipe diameter within 3 exhaust pipe diameters before or after the centerline of the smokemeter optics. Within 6 exhaust pipe diameters upstream of the centerline of the smokemeter optics, no change in exhaust pipe diameter may exceed a 12 degree half-angle.

(d) An engine air inlet system presenting an air inlet restriction within one inch of water of the upper limit for the engine operating condition which results in maximum air flow, as established by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the engine being tested.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 62 FR 47122, Sept. 5, 1997; 63 FR 63967, Nov. 17, 1998; 70 FR 40437, July 13, 2005]

§86.884-9   Smoke measurement system.

(a) Schematic drawing. The Figure I84-1 is a schematic drawing of the optical system of the light extinction meter.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.182.gif

View or download PDF

(b) Equipment. The following equipment shall be used in the system.

(1) Adapter—the smokemeter optical unit may be mounted on a fixed or movable frame. The normal unrestricted shape of the exhaust plume shall not be modified by the adaptor, the meter, or any ventilatory system used to remove the exhaust from the test site.

(2) Smokemeter (light extinction meter)—continuous recording, full-flow light obscuration meter.

(i) It is positioned so that a built-in light beam traverses the exhaust smoke plume at right angles to the axis of the exhaust stream.

(ii) The smokemeter light source shall be an incandescent lamp with a color temperature range of 2800K to 3250K, or a light source with a spectral peak between 550 to 570 nanometers.

(iii) The light output is collimated to a beam with a maximum diameter of 1.125 inches and an included angle of divergence within a 6° included angle.

(iv) The light detector shall be a photocell or photodiode. If the light source is an incandescent lamp, the detector shall have a spectral response similar to the photopic curve of the human eye (a maximum response in the range of 550 to 570 nanometers, to less than 4 percent of that maximum response below 430 nanometers and above 680 nanometers).

(v) A collimating tube with apertures equal to the beam diameter is attached to the detector to restrict the viewing angle of the detector to within a 16° included angle.

(vi) An amplified signal corresponding to the amount of light blocked is recorded continuously on a remote recorder.

(vii) An air curtain across the light source and detector window assemblies may be used to minimize deposition of smoke particles on those surfaces provided that it does not measurably affect the opacity of the plume.

(viii) The smokemeter consists of two units; an optical unit and a remote control unit.

(ix) Light extinction meters employing substantially identical measurement principles and producing substantially equivalent results, but which employ other electronic and optical techniques, may be used only after having been approved in advance by the Administrator.

(3) Recorder—a continuous recorder, with variable chart speed over a minimal range of 0.5 to 8.0 inches per minute (or equivalent) and an automatic marker indicating 1-second intervals continuously records the exhaust gas opacity, engine rpm and throttle position.

(i) The recorder is equipped to indicate only when the throttle is in the fully open or fully closed position.

(ii) The recorder scale for opacity is linear and calibrated to read from 0 to 100 percent opacity full scale.

(iii) The opacity trace has a resolution within one percent opacity.

(iv) The recorder scale for engine rpm is linear and has a resolution of 30 rpm.

(v) The throttle position trace clearly indicates when the throttle is in the fully open and fully closed positions.

(vi) Any means other than a strip-chart recorder may be used provided it produces a permanent visual data record of quality equal to or better than that described above (e.g., tabulated data, traces, or plots).

(4) The recorder used with the smokemeter shall be capable of full-scale deflection in 0.5 second or less. The smokemeter-recorder combination may be damped so that signals with a frequency higher than 10 cycles per second are attenuated. A separate lowpass electronic filter with the following performance characteristics may be installed between the smokemeter and the recorder to achieve the high-frequency attenuation:

(i) Three decibel point—10 cycles per second.

(ii) Insertion loss—zero ±0.5 decibel.

(iii) Selectivity—12 decibels per octave above 10 cycles per second.

(iv) Attenuation—27 decibels down at 40 cycles per second minimum.

(5) In lieu of the use of chart recorders, automatic data collection equipment may be used to record all required data. Automatic data processing equipment may then be used to perform the data analysis specified in §86.884-13. The automatic data collection equipment must be capable of sampling at least two records per second.

(c) Assembling equipment. (1) The optical unit of the smokemeter shall be mounted radially to the exhaust pipe so that the measurement will be made at right angles to the axis of the exhaust plume. For an end-of-line smokemeter the distance from the optical centerline to the exhaust pipe outlet shall be 1 ±0.25 inch. The full flow of the exhaust stream shall be centered between the source and the detector apertures (or windows and lenses) and on the axis of the light beam.

(2) Power shall be supplied to the control unit of the smokemeter in time to allow at least 15 minutes for stabilization prior to testing.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48141, Dec. 10, 1984; 62 FR 47122, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.884-10   Information.

The following information, as applicable, shall be recorded for each test:

(a) Engine description and specifications. A copy of the information specified in this paragraph must accompany each engine sent to the Administrator for compliance testing. If the engine is submitted to the Administrator for testing under subpart N of this part or 40 CFR part 1065, only the specified information need accompany the engine. The manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with the exception of paragraphs (a)(3), (a)(12), and (a)(13) of this section, is included in the manufacturer's part I.

(1) Engine-system combination.

(2) Engine identification numbers.

(3) Number of hours of operation accumulated on engine.

(4) Rated maximum horsepower and torque.

(5) Maximum horsepower and torque speeds.

(6) Engine displacement.

(7) Governed speed.

(8) Idle rpm.

(9) Fuel consumption at maximum power and torque.

(10) Maximum air flow.

(11) Maximum and test air inlet restriction.

(12) Exhaust pipe diameter(s).

(13) Maximum exhaust system backpressure.

(b) Test data; general. This information may be recorded at any time between four hours prior to the test and four hours after the test.

(1) Engine-system combination.

(2) Engine identification numbers.

(3) Instrument operator.

(4) Engine operator.

(5) Number of hours of operation accumulated on the engine prior to beginning the warm-up portion of the test.

(6) Calibration date(s) of neutral density filters used to calibrate the smokemeter.

(c) Test data; pre-test.

(1) Date and time of day.

(2) Test number.

(3) Barometric pressure.

(4) [Reserved]

(5) Intake air humidity and temperature:

(i) Humidity-conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurement must be made within the intake air supply system, and after the humidity conditioning has taken place.

(ii) Non-conditioned air supply. Humidity measurements in non-conditioned intake air supply systems must be made in the intake air stream entering the supply system and within 18 inches of the inlet for supply system. Alternatively, the humidity measurements can be measured within the intake air supply stream.

(iii) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 48 inches of the engine. The measurement location must be made either in the supply system or in the air stream entering the supply system.

(d) Test data; modal. (1) Observed engine torque and speed during the steady-state test conditions specified in §86.884-7(a)(3)(i).

(2) On the recorder or automatic data collection equipment: Identify zero traces—calibration traces—idle traces (or printout of the zero and calibration values)—closed-throttle trace-open throttle trace—acceleration and lugdown test traces—start and finish of each test.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48141, Dec. 10, 1984; 62 FR 47123, Sept. 5, 1997; 70 FR 40437, July 13, 2005]

§86.884-11   Instrument checks.

(a) The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to each test:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) The zero control shall be adjusted under conditions of “no smoke” to give a recorder or data collection equipment response of zero;

(3) Calibrated neutral density filters having approximately 10, 20, and 40 percent opacity shall be employed to check the linearity of the instrument. The filter(s) shall be inserted in the light path perpendicular to the axis of the beam and adjacent to the opening from which the beam of light from the light source emanates, and the recorder response shall be noted. Filters with exposed filtering media should be checked for opacity every six months; all other filters shall be checked every year, using NBS or equivalent reference filters. Deviations in excess of 1 percent of the nominal opacity shall be corrected.

(b) The instruments for measuring and recording engine rpm, engine torque, air inlet restrictions, exhaust system backpressure, throttle position, etc., which are used in the test prescribed herein, shall be calibrated in accordance with good engineering practice.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48141, Dec. 10, 1984]

§86.884-12   Test run.

(a) The temperature of the air supplied to the engine shall be between 68 °F and 86 °F. The engine fuel inlet temperature shall be 100 °F ±10 °F and shall be measured at a point specified by the manufacturer. The observed barometric pressure shall be between 28.5 inches and 31 inches Hg. Higher air temperature or lower barometric pressure may be used, if desired, but no allowance will be made for possible increased smoke emissions because of such conditions.

(b) The governor and fuel system shall have been adjusted to provide engine performance at the levels in the application for certification required under §86.084-21.

(c) The following steps shall be taken for each test:

(1) Start cooling system;

(2) Warm up the engine by the procedure described in 40 CFR 1065.530.

(3) Determine by experimentation the dynamometer inertia and dynamometer load required to perform the acceleration in the dynamometer cycle for smoke emission tests (§86.884-7(a)(2)). In a manner appropriate for the dynamometer and controls being used, arrange to conduct the acceleration mode;

(4) Install smokemeter optical unit and connect it to the recorder/data collection system. Connect the engine rpm and throttle position sensing devices to the recorder/data collection system;

(5) Turn on purge air to the optical unit of the smokemeter, if purge air is used;

(6) Check and record zero and span settings of the smokemeter. (If a recorder is used, a chart speed of approximately one inch per minute shall be used.) The optical unit shall be retracted from its position about the exhaust stream if the engine is left running;

(7) Precondition the engine by operating it for 10 minutes at maximum rated horsepower;

(8) Proceed with the sequence of smoke emission measurements on the engine dynamometer as prescribed in §86.884-7;

(9)(i) During the test sequence of §86.884-7, continuously record smoke measurements, engine rpm, and throttle position.

(ii) If a chart recorder is used for data collection, it shall be run at a minimum chart speed of one inch per minute during the idle mode and transitional periods, and eight inches per minute during the acceleration and lugging modes.

(iii) Automatic data collection equipment, if used, shall sample at least two records per second.

(iv) The smoke meter zero and full scale response may be rechecked and reset during the idle mode of each test sequence.

(v) If either zero or full-scale drift is in excess of 2 percent opacity, the smokemeter controls must be readjusted and the test must be repeated;

(10) Turn off engine;

(11)(i) Check zero and reset if necessary.

(ii) Check span response (linearity) of the smokemeter by inserting neutral density filters.

(iii) If either zero drift or the linearity check is in excess of two percent opacity, the results shall be invalidated.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48141, Dec. 10, 1984; 52 FR 47870, Dec. 16, 1987; 70 FR 40437, July 13, 2005]

§86.884-13   Data analysis.

The following procedure shall be used to analyze the test data:

(a) Locate the modes specified in §86.884-7(a)(1) through (a)(4) by applying the following starting and ending criteria:

(1) The idle mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(1) starts when engine preconditioning or the lugging mode of a preceding cycle has been completed and ends when the engine speed is raised above the idle speed.

(2) The acceleration mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(i) starts when the preceding idle mode has been completed and ends when the throttle is in the fully open position, as indicated by the throttle position trace as specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(ii).

(3) The acceleration mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(ii) starts when the preceding acceleration mode has been completed and ends when the engine speed reaches 85 percent of the rated speed.

(4) The transition period specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(iii) starts when the preceding acceleration mode has been completed and ends when the throttle is in the fully open position as indicated by the throttle position trace, as specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(iv).

(5) The acceleration mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(iv) starts when the preceding transition period has been completed and ends when the engine speed reaches 95 percent of the rated speed.

(6) The transition period specified in §86.884-7 (a)(3)(i) starts when the preceding acceleration mode has been completed and ends when the engine speed is 50 rpm below the rated speed and the provisions of §86.884-7 (a)(3)(i) are met.

(7) The lugging mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(3)(ii) starts when the preceding transition period has been completed and ends when the engine speed is at the intermediate speed.

(b) Determine if the test requirements of §86.884-7 are met by applying the following modal criteria:

(1) Idle mode as specified in §86.884-7(a)(1):

(i) Duration: 5 to 5.5 minutes.

(ii) Speed: within specification during the last four minutes of the mode.

(2) Acceleration mode as specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(i).

(i) Duration: three seconds or less.

(ii) Speed increase: 200±50 rpm.

(3) Acceleration mode as specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(ii);

(i) Linearity: ±100 rpm as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) Duration: 3.5 to 6.5 seconds.

(iii) Throttle position: fully open until speed is at least 85 percent of the rated speed.

(4) Transition period as specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(iii):

(i) Throttle position: moved rapidly to, and held in, the fully closed position.

(5) Acceleration mode as specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(iv):

(i) Duration: 8 to 12 seconds.

(ii) Throttle position: fully open when speed is at intermediate speed.

(6) Transition period as specified in §86.884-7(a)(3)(i):

(i) Duration: 50 to 60 seconds.

(ii) Average speed during the last 10 seconds shall be within ±50 rpm of rated speed.

(iii) Average observed power during the last 10 seconds shall be at least 95 percent of the horsepower developed during the preconditioning mode.

(7) Lugging mode as specified in §86.884-7(a)(3)(ii):

(i) Linearity: ±100 rpm as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) Duration: 30 to 40 seconds.

(iii) Speed at end: intermediate speed.

(c) Determine if the linearity requirements of §86.884-7 were met by means of the following procedure:

(1) For the acceleration mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(2)(ii), note the maximum deflection of the rpm trace from a straight line drawn between the starting and ending points specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(2) For the lugging mode specified in §86.884-7(a)(3)(ii), note the maximum deflection of the rpm trace from a straight line drawn from the starting and ending points specified in paragraph (a)(7) of this section.

(3) The test results will be invalid if any deflection is greater than 100 rpm.

(4) This linearity check may be performed by direct analysis of the recorder traces, or by computer analysis of data collected by automatic data collection equipment.

(d) Analyze the smoke trace by means of the following procedure:

(1) Starting at the beginning of the first acceleration, as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and stopping at the end of the second acceleration, as defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, divide the smoke trace into half-second intervals. Similarly, subdivide into half-second intervals the third acceleration mode and the lugging mode as defined by paragraphs (a) (5) and (7) respectively, of this section.

(2) Determine the average smoke reading during each half-second interval.

(3) Locate and record the 15 highest half-second readings during the acceleration mode of each dynamometer cycle.

(4) Locate and record the five highest half-second readings during the lugging mode of each dynamometer cycle.

(5) Examine the average half-second values which were determined in paragraphs (d)(3) and (d)(4) of this section and record the three highest values for each dynamometer cycle.

(6) This smoke trace analysis may be performed by direct analysis of the recorder traces, or by computer analysis of data collected by automatic data collection equipment.

[48 FR 52203, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48141, Dec. 10, 1984; 62 FR 47123, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.884-14   Calculations.

(a) If the measured half-second opacity values were obtained with a smokemeter with an optical path length different than shown in the table in §86.884-8(c), then convert the measured half-second values or the original instantaneous values to the appropriate equivalent optical path length values specified in the table. Convert the opacity values according to the following equations:

eCFR graphic er15ja04.001.gif

View or download PDF

Lm and Ls must use consistent units in the above equation

Where:

Nm=Measured half-second value for conversion, percent opacity

Lm=Measuring smokemeter optical path length, meters

Ls=Standard optical path length corresponding with engine power, n

Ns=Standard half-second value, percent opacity

(b) Average the 45 readings in §86.884-13(d)(3) or the equivalent converted values from paragraph (a) of this section if appropriate, and designate the value as “A”. This is the value for the engine acceleration mode.

(c) Average the 15 readings in §86.884-13(d)(4) or the equivalent converted values from paragraph (a) of this section if appropriate, and designate the value as “B”. This is the value for the engine lugging mode.

(d) Average the 9 readings in §86.884-13(d)(5) or the equivalent converted values from paragraph (a) of this section if appropriate, and designate the value as “C”. This is the value for the peaks in either mode.

(e)(1) If multiple smokemeters were used, the half-second values for each mode from each smokemeter shall be combined and the calculated average based upon the total number of combined values.

(2) For example, if two smokemeters were used for acceleration mode data, 45 half-second values in each data set from both smokemeters would be combined to form a data set of 90 values, which would then be averaged.

[62 FR 47123, Sept. 5, 1997, as amended at 69 FR 2441, Jan. 15, 2004]

Subpart J—Fees for the Motor Vehicle and Engine Compliance Program

§86.901   Assessment of fees.

See 40 CFR part 85, subpart Y, for the applicable fees associated with certifying engines and vehicles under this part.

[71 FR 51487, Aug. 30, 2006]

Subpart K—Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Heavy-Duty Engines

§86.1001   Applicability.

(a) The selective enforcement auditing program described in 40 CFR part 1068, subpart E, applies for all heavy-duty engines as described in this section. In addition, the provisions of 40 CFR 1068.10 and 1068.20 apply for any selective enforcement audits of these engines.

(b) For heavy-duty engines, the prescribed test procedure is the Federal Test Procedure as described in subparts I, N, and P of this part (including provisions of 40 CFR part 1065 as specified in this part), except that they shall not be subject to the test procedures specified in §§86.1360(b)(2) and (f), 86.1370, 86.1372, and 86.1380. The Administrator may, on the basis of a written application by a manufacturer, approve optional test procedures other than those in subparts I, N, and P of this part for any heavy-duty vehicle which is not susceptible to satisfactory testing using the procedures in subparts I, N, and P of this part.

[75 FR 22980, Apr. 30, 2010]

Subpart L—Nonconformance Penalties for Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks

Source: 50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, unless otherwise noted.

§86.1101-87   Applicability.

(a) The provisions of this subpart are applicable for 1987 and later model year gasoline-fueled and diesel heavy-duty engines and heavy-duty vehicles. These vehicles include light-duty trucks rated in excess of 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight.

(b) References in this subpart to engine families and emission control systems shall be deemed to apply to durability groups and test groups as applicable for manufacturers certifying new light-duty trucks and Otto-cycle complete heavy-duty vehicles under the provisions of subpart S of this part.

[65 FR 59957, Oct. 6, 2000]

§86.1102-87   Definitions.

(a) The definitions in this section apply to this subpart.

(b) As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein have the meaning given them in the Act.

Compliance level means the deteriorated pollutant emissions level at the 60th percentile point for a population of heavy-duty engines or heavy-duty vehicles subject to Production Compliance Audit testing pursuant to the requirements of this subpart. A compliance level for a population can only be determined for a pollutant for which an upper limit has been established in this subpart.

Configuration means a subdivision, if any, of a heavy-duty engine family for which a separate projected sales figure is listed in the manufacturer's Application for Certification and which can be described on the basis of emission control system, governed speed, injector size, engine calibration, or other parameters which may be designated by the Administrator, or a subclassification of light-duty truck engine family emission control system combination on the basis of engine code, inertia weight class, transmission type and gear ratios, rear axle ratio, or other parameters which may be designated by the Administrator.

NCP means a nonconformance penalty as described in section 206(g) of the Clean Air Act and in this subpart.

PCA means Production Compliance Audit as described in §86.1106-87 of this subpart.

Subclass means a classification of heavy-duty engines of heavy-duty vehicles based on such factors as gross vehicle weight rating, fuel usage (gasoline-, diesel-, and methanol-fueled), vehicle usage, engine horsepower or additional criteria that the Administrator shall apply. Subclasses include, but are not limited to:

(i) Light-duty gasoline-fueled Otto cycle trucks (6,001-8,500 lb. GVW)

(ii) Light-duty methanol-fueled Otto cycle trucks (6,001-8,500 lb. GVW)

(iii) Light-duty petroleum-fueled diesel trucks (6,001-8,500 lb. GVW)

(iv) Light-duty methanol-fueled diesel trucks (6,001-8,500 lb. GVW)

(v) Light heavy-duty gasoline-fueled Otto cycle engines (for use in vehicles of 8,501-14,000 lb. GVW)

(vi) Light heavy-duty methanol-fueled Otto cycle engines (for use in vehicles of 8,501-14,000 lb. GVW)

(vii) Heavy heavy-duty gasoline-fueled Otto cycle engines (for use in vehicles of 14,001 lb and above GVW)

(viii) Heavy heavy-duty methanol-fueled Otto cycle engines (for use in vehicles of 14,001 lb. and above GVW)

(ix) Light heavy-duty petroleum-fueled diesel engines (see §86.085-2(a)(1))

(x) Light heavy-duty methanol-fueled diesel engines (see §86.085-2(a)(1))

(xi) Medium heavy-duty petroleum-fueled diesel engines (see §86.085-2(a)(2))

(xii) Medium heavy-duty methanol-fueled diesel engines (see §86.085-2(a)(2))

(xiii) Heavy heavy-duty petroleum-fueled diesel engines (see §86.085-2(a)(3))

(xiv) Heavy heavy-duty methanol-fueled diesel engines (see §86.085-2(a)(3))

(xv) Petroleum-fueled Urban Bus engines (see §86.091-2)

(xvi) Methanol-fueled Urban Bus engines (see §86.091-2).

For NCP purposes, all optionally certified engines and/or vehicles (engines certified in accordance with §86.087-10(a)(3) and vehicles certified in accordance with §86.085-1(b)) shall be considered part of, and included in the FRAC calculation of, the subclass for which they are optionally certified.

Test Sample means a group of heavy-duty engines or heavy-duty vehicles of the same configuration which have been selected for emission testing.

Upper limit means the emission level for a specific pollutant above which a certificate of conformity may not be issued or may be suspended or revoked.

[50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, as amended at 55 FR 46628, Nov. 5, 1990]

§86.1103-87   Criteria for availability of nonconformance penalties.

(a) EPA shall establish for each subclass of heavy-duty engines and heavy-duty vehicles (other than motorcycles), an NCP for a motor vehicle pollutant, when any new or revised emission standard is more stringent than the previous standard for the pollutant, or when an existing standard for that pollutant becomes more difficult to achieve because of a new or revised standard, provided that EPA finds:

(1) That for such subclass of engines or vehicles, substantial work is required to meet the standard for which the NCP is offered, and

(2) That there is likely to be a technological laggard.

(b) Substantial work, as used in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, means the application of technology that was not generally used in an engine or vehicle class or subclass to meet standards prior to the implementation of the new or revised standard, or the significant modification of existing technology or design parameters, needed to bring the vehicle or engine into compliance with either the more stringent new or revised standard or an existing standard which becomes more difficult to achieve because of a new or revised standard. Substantial work is determined by the total amount of work required to meet the standard for which the NCP is offered, compared to the previous standard, irrespective of when EPA establishes the NCP.

[77 FR 54401, Sept. 5, 2012]

§86.1104-91   Determination of upper limits.

EPA shall set a separate upper limit for each phase of NCPs and for each service class.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the upper limit shall be set as follows:

(1) The upper limit applicable to a pollutant emission standard for a subclass of heavy-duty engines or heavy-duty vehicles for which an NCP is established in accordance with §86.1103-87, shall be the previous pollutant emission standard for that subclass.

(2) If a manufacturer participates in any of the emissions averaging, trading, or banking programs, and carries over certification of an engine family from the prior model year, the upper limit for that engine family shall be the family emission limit of the prior model year, unless the family emission limit is less than the upper limit determined in paragraph (a) of this section.

(b) If no previous standard existed for the pollutant under paragraph (a) of this section, the upper limit will be developed by EPA during rulemaking.

(c) EPA may set the upper limit during rulemaking at a level below the level specified in paragraph (a) of this section if we determine that a lower level is achievable by all engines or vehicles in that subclass.

(d) EPA may set the upper limit at a level above the level specified in paragraph (a) of this section if we determine that the such level will not be achievable by all engines or vehicles in that subclass.

[77 FR 54401, Sept. 5, 2012]

§86.1105-87   Emission standards for which nonconformance penalties are available.

(a)-(b) [Reserved]

(c) Effective in the 1991 model year, NCPs will be available for the following additional emission standards:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) Petroleum-fueled diesel heavy-duty engine oxides of nitrogen standard of 5.0 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(i) For petroleum-fueled light heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $830.

(2) COC90: $946.

(3) MC50: $1,167 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.12.

(ii) For petroleum-fueled medium heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $905.

(2) COC90: $1,453.

(3) MC50: $1,417 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.11.

(iii) For petroleum-fueled heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $930.

(2) COC90: $1,590.

(3) MC50: $2,250 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.11.

(3) Petroleum-fueled diesel light-duty trucks (between 6,001 and 14,000 lbs GVW) particulate matter emission standard of 0.13 grams per vehicle mile.

(i) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(A) COC50: $711.

(B) COC90: $1,396.

(C) MC50: $2,960 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(D) F: 1.2.

(ii) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.01.

(d) Effective in the 1993 model year, NCPs will be available for the following additional emission standard:

(1) Petroleum-fueled diesel bus engine (as defined in §86.093-2) particulate emission standard of 0.10 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(i) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP for the standard set forth in §86.093-11(a)(1)(iv)(A) in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(A) COC50: $4,020.

(B) COC90: $4,535.

(C) MC50: $22,971 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(D) F: 1.2.

(E) UL: 0.25 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(ii) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.093-11(a)(1)(iv)(A) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.02.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) The values of COC50, COC90, and MC50 in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section are expressed in December 1984 dollars. The values of COC50, COC90, and MC50 in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section are expressed in December 1989 dollars. The values of COC50, COC90, and MC50 in paragraph (f) of this section are expressed in December 1991 dollars. The values of COC50, COC90, and MC50 in paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section are expressed in December 1994 dollars. The values of COC50, COC90, and MC50 in paragraph (i) of this section are expressed in December 2001 dollars. The values of COC50, COC90, and MC50 in paragraph (j) of this section are expressed in December 2011 dollars. These values shall be adjusted for inflation to dollars as of January of the calendar year preceding the model year in which the NCP is first available by using the change in the overall Consumer Price Index, and rounded to the nearest whole dollar in accordance with ASTM E29-67 (reapproved 1980), Standard Recommended Practice for Indicating Which Places of Figures Are To Be Considered Significant in Specified Limiting Values. This method was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This document is available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, and is also available for inspection as part of Docket A-91-06, located at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Room 3334, EPA West Building, Washington, DC 20004, (202) 202-1744 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register on January 13, 1992. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of the approval and a notice of any change in these materials will be published in the Federal Register.

(f) Effective in the 1994 model year, NCPs will be available for the following emission standards:

(1) Petroleum-fueled urban bus engine (as defined in §86.091-2) particulate emission standard of 0.07 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(i) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(A) in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(A) COC50: $3292.

(B) COC90: $10,014.

(C) MC50: $109,733.

(D) F: 1.2.

(ii) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-11(a)(1)(iv)(A) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.38.

(2) Petroleum-fueled diesel heavy-duty engine particulate matter emission standard of 0.10 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(i) For petroleum-fueled light heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $772.

(2) COC90: $1,325.

(3) MC50: $8,178 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.081.

(ii) For petroleum-fueled medium heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $1,276.

(2) COC90: $3,298.

(3) MC50: $15,370 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.098.

(iii) For petroleum-fueled heavy heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $2,105.

(2) COC90: $6,978.

(3) MC50: $30,070 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.083.

(g) Effective in the 1996 model year, NCPs will be available for the following emission standard:

(1) Light-duty truck 3 diesel-fueled vehicle at full useful life (as defined in §86.094-2) particulate matter emission standard of 0.10 g/mi.

(i) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(A) COC50: $441.

(B) COC90: $1,471.

(C) MC50: $14,700 per gram per mile.

(D) F: 1.2.

(ii) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.093.

(2) Light-duty truck 3 diesel-fueled vehicle at full useful life (as defined in §86.094-2) oxides of nitrogen emission standard of 0.98 g/mi.

(i) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(A) COC50: $654.

(B) COC90: $779.

(C) MC50: $908 per gram per mile.

(D) F: 1.2.

(ii) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.082.

(3) 1996 Urban Bus (as defined in §86.094-2) particulate matter emission standard of 0.05 g/BHp-hr.

(i) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(A) COC50: $576.

(B) COC90: $6,569.

(C) MC50: $28,800 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(D) F: 1.2.

(ii) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.500.

(h) Effective in the 1998 model year, NCPs will be available for the following emission standard:

(1) Petroleum-fueled diesel heavy-duty engine oxides of nitrogen standard of 4.0 grams per brake horsepower-hour.

(i) For petroleum-fueled light heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $833.

(2) COC90: $1,513.

(3) MC50: $833 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.039.

(ii) For petroleum-fueled medium heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $444.

(2) COC90: $1,368.

(3) MC50: $444 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.043.

(iii) For petroleum-fueled heavy heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $1,086.

(2) COC90: $2,540.

(3) MC50: $1,086 per gram per brake horsepower-hour

(4) F: 1.2.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.094-9(a)(1)(ii) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.039.

(2) [Reserved]

(i) Effective in the 2004 model year, NCPs will be available for the following emission standard:

(1) Diesel heavy-duty engine non-methane hydrocarbon plus oxides of nitrogen standard of 2.4 grams per brake horsepower-hour (or alternatively, 2.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour with a limit on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions of 0.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour), in §86.004-11(a)(1)(i).

(i) For light heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $1,240.

(2) COC90: $2,710.

(3) MC50: $2,000 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.3.

(5) UL: 4.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour; notwithstanding §86.1104-91.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.004-11(a)(1)(i) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.403.

(ii) For medium heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $2,740.

(2) COC90: $4,930.

(3) MC50: $1,400 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.3.

(5) UL: 4.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour; notwithstanding §86.1104-91.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.004-11(a)(1)(i) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.197.

(iii) For heavy heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $6,810.

(2) COC90: $12,210.

(3) MC50: $5,600 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.3.

(5) UL: 6.0 grams per brake horsepower-hour; notwithstanding §86.1104-91.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.004-11(a)(1)(i) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.090.

(iv) For diesel urban bus engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC 50: $3,930.

(2) COC90: $6,660.

(3) MC50: $3,800 per gram per brake horsepower-hour.

(4) F: 1.3.

(5) UL: 4.5 grams per brake horsepower-hour; notwithstanding §86.1104-91.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.004-11(a)(1)(i) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.155.

(2) [Reserved]

(j) Effective in the 2012 and later model years, NCPs will be available for the following emission standard:

(1) Diesel heavy-duty engine oxides of nitrogen standard of 0.20 grams per brake horsepower-hour in §86.007-11(a)(1)(i).

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) For heavy heavy-duty diesel engines:

(A) The following values shall be used to calculate an NCP in accordance with §86.1113-87(a):

(1) COC50: $3,219.

(2) COC90: $3,775.

(3) MC50: $10,729 per gram per brake horsepower-hour NOX.

(4) F: 1.173.

(5) UL: 0.50 grams per brake horsepower-hour NOX.

(B) The following factor shall be used to calculate the engineering and development component of the NCP for the standard set forth in §86.007-11(a)(1)(i) in accordance with §86.1113-87(h): 0.005.

(2) Manufacturers may not generate emission credits for any pollutant from engines for which the manufacturer pays an NCP for the NOX standard identified in paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

(3) The penalty shall be adjusted annually as specified in §86.1113-87 with 2012 as the first year. Note that this means AAF2012 is equal to 1.

[50 FR 53466, Dec. 31, 1985, as amended at 52 FR 47870, Dec. 16, 1987; 53 FR 43878, Oct. 31, 1988; 56 FR 64712, Dec. 12, 1991; 58 FR 15802, Mar. 24, 1993; 58 FR 68540, Dec. 28, 1993; 60 FR 33925, June 29, 1995; 61 FR 6949, 6953, Feb. 23, 1996; 67 FR 51477, Aug. 8, 2002; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 77 FR 4687, Jan. 31, 2012; 77 FR 54402, Sept. 5, 2012]

§86.1106-87   Production compliance auditing.

For a model year in which upper limits for heavy-duty engine or heavy-duty vehicle emission standards for one or more exhaust pollutants are specified in §86.1105-87, a manufacturer may elect to conduct a Production Compliance Audit (PCA) for each engine or vehicle configuration satisfying the following conditions:

(a) Certification test results, pursuant to §86.082-23, exceed the emission standard for a particular pollutant but do not exceed the upper limit established for that pollutant. In that event, the manufacturer will be offered a qualified certificate of conformity allowing for the introduction into commerce of the specified engine family, Provided, That:

(1) The manufacturer must agree to conduct a PCA of those engines or vehicles;

(2) PCA testing must be conducted on the same configurations that exceeded the standard in certification. In lieu of that requirement, the Administrator may approve testing of a greater or lesser number of configurations provided the manufacturer agrees to pay the NCP determined from the CL of each tested configuration for that configuration and for other non-tested configurations that have similar emission characteristics. If an acceptable showing of similar emission characteristics is not made, the highest CL of the configurations tested will apply to all non-tested configurations exceeding the standard.

(3) The selection of engines or vehicles for PCA testing must be initiated no later than five (5) days after the start of assembly-line production of the specified engine or vehicle configuration, unless that period is extended by the Administrator;

(4) The manufacturer must agree:

(i) To pay the NCP amount calculated as a result of PCA testing on each engine or vehicle, unless the manufacturer successfully challenges the Administrator's determination of the compliance level or penalty calculation or both under §86.1115-87(c);

(ii) To recall any engines or vehicles introduced into commerce, without invoking the procedural requirements of section 207(c) of the Clean Air Act, if the compliance level for the engine or vehicle configuration of (a)(2) exceeds the upper limit as determined by the PCA;

(5) If the compliance level determined in the PCA is below the emission standard, no NCP will be offered, and all appropriate qualifications will be removed from the qualified certificate of conformity.

(b) An engine or vehicle configuration fails a Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) under subpart K of 40 CFR part 86 with respect to the standard for a particular pollutant but does not fail with respect to the upper limit established for that pollutant, and no NCP has been previously assessed for that configuration, Provided, That:

(1) The manufacturer must submit a written report to the Administrator within five (5) days after failure to pass the audit containing the following:

(i) A statement that the manufacturer does not intend, at that time, to make any engine and/or emission control system design changes that may remedy the nonconformity; and

(ii) A request from the manufacturer to conduct the PCA, including the date the testing will begin;

(2) Failure to submit the report within five (5) days after the SEA failure will result in the forfeiture of the NCP option, unless a satisfactory justification for the delay is provided to the Administrator;

(3) The selection of any required engines or vehicles for PCA testing must be initiated no later than ten (10) days after the SEA failure unless extended by the Administrator; otherwise, the manufacturer may forfeit the option to elect an NCP;

(4) PCA testing must be conducted on the same configuration that failed the SEA;

(5) Test results from the SEA, together with any additional test results required during the PCA, will be used in establishing a compliance level for the configuration pursuant to §86.1112-87(a); and

(6) The manufacturer, upon approval by the Administrator to conduct a PCA on a failed SEA engine or vehicle configuration, must agree:

(i) To pay the NCP amount calculated as a result of PCA testing on each engine or vehicle introduced into commerce after the tenth day of the SEA failure, unless the manufacturer successfully challenges the Administrator's determination of the compliance level or penalty calculation or both under §86.1115-87(c);

(ii) To recall any engines or vehicles introduced into commerce after the tenth day of the SEA failure, without invoking the procedural requirements of section 207(c) of the Clean Air Act, if the compliance level of the engine or vehicle configuration exceeds the upper limit as determined by the PCA.

(c) An engine or vehicle configuration, for which an NCP has been previously assessed for a particular pollutant, either passes an SEA with respect to the particular pollutant standard, fails an SEA with respect to the particular pollutant standard but not the previous compliance level, or fails an SEA with respect to the previous compliance level but not the associated upper limit, Provided, That:

(1) The manufacturer must submit a written statement to the Administrator within five (5) days of the conclusion of the SEA requesting a PCA, including the date the PCA testing will begin; otherwise, the manufacturer forfeits the option to establish a new compliance level;

(2) The selection of any required engines or vehicles for PCA testing must be initiated no later than ten (10) days after the conclusion of the SEA unless the period is extended by the Administrator; otherwise, the manufacturer forfeits the option to establish a new compliance level;

(3) PCA testing must be conducted on the same configuration tested during the SEA, and all conditions in the SEA test order must apply to the PCA;

(4) Test results for the SEA, together with any additional test results required during the PCA, will be used in establishing a new compliance level for the configuration pursuant to §86.1112-87(a);

(5) The manufacturer must agree:

(i) To pay the NCP amount calculated as a result of PCA testing on each engine or vehicle introduced into commerce after the tenth day of the conclusion of the SEA, unless the manufacturer successfully challenges the Administrator's determination of the compliance level or penalty calculation or both under §86.1115-87(c);

(ii) To recall any engines or vehicles introduced into commerce after the tenth day after the conclusion of the SEA, without invoking the procedural requirements of section 207(c) of the Clean Air Act, if the engine or vehicle configuration exceeds the upper limit as determined by the PCA;

(6) A previously assessed NCP will be terminated and no NCP will be established as a result of the new PCA if the compliance level is determined to be below the applicable emission standards.

(d) The implementation of a production running change that causes the emission level for a particular pollutant to be either above the emission standard but below the associated upper limit for a vehicle or engine configuration for which an NCP has not been previously assessed, or below the associated upper limit for a vehicle or engine configuration for which an NCP has been previously assessed, regardless of the previous compliance level. In that event, the manufacturer will be offered a qualified certificate of conformity allowing for the introduction into commerce of the engine or vehicle configuration resulting from the running change, Provided, That:

(1) The manufacturer must submit a written report to the Administrator outlining the reason for the running change and the date the manufacturer will begin PCA testing;

(2) The manufacturer must agree:

(i) To pay the NCP amount calculated as a result of PCA testing on each engine or vehicle, unless the manufacturer successfully challenges the Administrator's determination of compliance level or penalty calculation or both under §86.1115-87(c);

(ii) To recall any engines or vehicles introduced into commerce, without invoking the procedural requirements of section 207(c) of the Clean Air Act, if the engine or vehicle configuration exceeds the upper limit as determined by the PCA;

(3) The selection of engines or vehicles for PCA testing must be initiated no later than five (5) days after the start of assembly line production of the engine or vehicle configuration resulting from the running change unless that period is extended by the Administrator; and

(4) If the compliance level is determined to be below the applicable emission standard, a previously assessed NCP will be terminated, an NCP will not be established as a result of the PCA testing, and all qualifications will be removed from the qualified certificate of conformity.

(e) The following requirements are applicable to each PCA under this subpart.

(1) The manufacturer shall make the following documents available to EPA Enforcement Officers upon request;

(i) A properly filed and current application for certification, following the format prescribed by the EPA for the appropriate model year; and

(ii) A copy of the shop manual and dealer service bulletins for the configurations being tested.

(2) Only one mechanic at a time per engine or vehicle shall make authorized checks, adjustments, or repairs, unless a particular check, adjustment, or repair requires a second mechanic as indicated in the shop manual or dealer service bulletins.

(3) A mechanic shall not perform any check, adjustment, or repair without an Enforcement Officer present unless otherwise authorized.

(4) The manufacturer shall utilize only those tools and test equipment utilized by its dealers or those dealers using its engines when performing authorized checks, adjustments, or repairs.

[50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, as amended at 58 FR 68540, Dec. 28, 1993]

§86.1107-87   Testing by the Administrator.

(a) The Administrator may require that engines or vehicles of a specified configuration be selected in a manner consistent with the requirements of §86.1110-87 and submitted to him at such place as he may designate for the purpose of conducting emission tests in accordance with §86.1111-87 to determine whether engines or vehicles manufactured by the manufacturer conform with the regulations of this subpart.

(b)(1) Whenever the Administrator conducts a test on a test engine or vehicle or the Administrator and manufacturer each conduct a test on the same test engine or vehicle, the results of the Administrator's test will comprise the official data for that engine or vehicle.

(2) Whenever the manufacturer conducts all tests on a test engine or vehicle, the manufacturer's test data will be accepted as the official data, provided that if the Administrator makes a determination based on testing under paragraph (a) of this section that there is a substantial lack of agreement between the manufacturer's test results and the Administrator's test results, no manufacturer's test data from the manufacturer's test facility will be accepted for purposes of this subpart.

(c) If the Administrator determines that testing conducted under paragraph (a) of this section demonstrates a lack of agreement under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the Administrator shall:

(1) Notify the manufacturer in writing of his determination that the manufacturer's test facility is inappropriate for conducting the tests required by this subpart and the reasons therefore; and

(2) Reinstate any manufacturer's data only upon a showing by the manufacturer that the data acquired under paragraph (a) of this section was erroneous and the manufacturer's data was correct.

(d) The manufacturer may request in writing that the Administrator reconsider his determination in paragraph (b)(2) of this section based on data or information which indicates that changes have been made to the test facility and that these changes have resolved the reasons for disqualification.

§86.1108-87   Maintenance of records.

(a) The manufacturer of any new gasoline-fueled or diesel heavy-duty engine or heavy-duty vehicle subject to any of the provisions of this subpart shall establish, maintain, and retain the following adequately organized and indexed records:

(1) General records. A description of all equipment used to test engines or vehicles in accordance with §86.1111-87, pursuant to PCA testing under this subpart, specifically;

(i) If testing heavy-duty gasoline engines, the equipment requirements specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts B and C;

(ii) If testing heavy-duty diesel engines, the equipment requirements specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts B and C;

(iii) If testing light-duty gasoline-fueled trucks, the equipment requirements specified in §§86.106 (excluding all references to particulate emission testing) and 86.1506-84 of this part; and

(iv) If testing light-duty diesel trucks, the equipment requirements specified in §86.106 (excluding all references to evaporative emission testing) of this part.

(2) Individual records. These records pertain to each Production Compliance Audit conducted pursuant to this subpart.

(i) The date, time, and location of each test;

(ii) The number of hours of service accumulated on the engine or the number of miles on the vehicle when the test began and ended;

(iii) The names of all supervisory personnel involved in the conduct of the Production Compliance Audit;

(iv) A record and description of any repair performed, giving the date and time of the repair, the reason for it, the person authorizing it, and the names of all personnel involved in the supervision and performance of the repair;

(v) The date when the engine or vehicle was shipped from the assembly plant or associated storage facility and when it was received at the testing facility;

(vi) A complete record of all emission tests performed pursuant to this subpart (except tests performed by EPA directly), including all individual worksheets and/or other documentation relating to each test, or exact copies thereof, specifically—

(A) If testing heavy-duty gasoline engines, the record requirements specified in 40 CFR 1065.695;

(B) If testing heavy-duty diesel engines, the record requirements specified in 40 CFR 1065.695;

(C) If testing light-duty gasoline fueled trucks, the record requirements specified in §§86.142 (excluding all references to diesel vehicles) and 86.1542-84; and

(D) If the testing light-duty diesel trucks, the record requirements specified in §86.142; and

(vii) A brief description of any significant Production Compliance Audit events commencing with the test engine or vehicle selection process, but not described by any subparagraph under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, including such extraordinary events as engine damage during shipment or vehicle accident.

(3) The manufacturer shall record the test equipment description, pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of this section, for each test cell that was used to perform emission testing under this subpart.

(b) The manufacturer shall retain all records required to be maintained under this subpart for a period of six (6) years after completion of all testing. Records may be retained as hard copy or reduced to microfilm, punch cards, etc., depending upon the manufacturer's record retention procedure, provided that in every case all the information contained in the hard copy is retained.

[50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, as amended at 70 FR 40437, July 13, 2005]

§86.1109-87   Entry and access.

(a) To allow the Administrator to determine whether a manufacturer is complying with the provisions of this subpart, EPA Enforcement Officers are authorized to enter any of the following (during operating hours and upon presentation of credentials):

(1) Any facility where any engine or vehicle to be introduced into commerce or any emission related component is manufactured, assembled, or stored;

(2) Any facility where any tests conducted pursuant to a PCA request or any procedures or activities connected with these tests are or were performed;

(3) Any facility where any engine or vehicle which is being tested, was tested, or will be tested is present; and

(4) Any facility where any record or other document relating to any of the above is located.

(b) Upon admission to any facility referred to in paragraph (a) of this section, EPA Enforcement Officers are authorized to perform the following inspection-related activities:

(1) To inspect and monitor any aspects of engine or vehicle manufacture, assembly, storage, testing and other procedures, and the facilities in which these procedures are conducted.

(2) To inspect and monitor any aspect of engine or vehicle test procedures or activities, including, but not limited to, monitoring engine or vehicle selection, preparation, service or mileage accumulation, preconditioning, repairs, emission test cycles, and maintenance; and to verify calibration of test equipment;

(3) To inspect and make copies of any records or documents related to the assembly, storage, selection and testing of an engine or vehicle; and

(4) To inspect and photograph any part or aspect of any engine or vehicle and any component used in the assembly thereof that is reasonably related to the purpose of the entry.

(c) EPA Enforcement Officers are authorized to obtain reasonable assistance without cost from those in charge of a facility to help them perform any function listed in this subpart and are authorized to request the manufacturer conducting the PCA to make arrangement with those in charge of a facility operated for its benefit to furnish reasonable assistance without cost to EPA, whether or not the manufacturer controls the facility.

(d) EPA Enforcement Officers are authorized to seek a warrant or court order authorizing the EPA Enforcement Officers to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section, as appropriate, to execute the functions specified in this section. EPA Enforcement Officers may proceed ex parte to obtain a warrant whether or not the Enforcement Officers first attempted to seek permission of the manufacturer conducting the PCA or the party in charge of the facilities in question to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section.

(e) A manufacturer that conducts a PCA shall permit EPA Enforcement Officers who present a warrant or court order as described in paragraph (d) of this section to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section and as described in the warrant or court order. The manufacturer shall cause those in charge of its facility or a facility operated for its benefit to permit EPA Enforcement Officers to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section pursuant to a warrant or court order whether or not the manufacturer controls the facility. In the absence of such a warrant or court order, EPA Enforcement Officers may conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section only upon the consent of the manufacturer or the party in charge of the facilities in question.

(f) It is not a violation of this part or the Clean Air Act for any person to refuse to permit EPA Enforcement Officers to conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section without a warrant or court order.

(g) A manufacturer is responsible for locating its foreign testing and manufacturing facilities in jurisdictions in which local foreign law does not prohibit EPA Enforcement Officers from conducting the entry and access activities specified in this section. EPA will not attempt to make any inspections which it has been informed that local foreign law prohibits.

(h) For purposes of this section, the following definitions are applicable:

(1) Presentation of Credentials means display of the document designating a person as an EPA Enforcement Officer.

(2) Where engine or vehicle storage areas or facilities are concerned, operating hours means all times during which personnel other than custodial personnel are at work in the vicinity of the area or facility and have access to it.

(3) Where facilities or areas other than those covered by paragraph (h)(2) of this section are concerned, operating hours means all times during which an assembly line is in operation, engine or vehicle assembly is taking place, testing repair, service accumulation, preparation or compilation of records is taking place, or any other procedure or activity related to engine or vehicle manufacture, assembly or testing is being carried out in a facility.

(4) Reasonable assistance includes, but is not limited to, clerical, copying, interpreting and translating services, and making personnel of the facility being inspected available during their working hours on an EPA Enforcement Officer's request to inform the EPA Enforcement Officer of how the facility operates and to answer his or her questions. Any employee whom an EPA Enforcement Officer requests the manufacturer to cause to appear for questioning will be entitled to be accompanied, represented and advised by counsel.

§86.1110-87   Sample selection.

(a) Engines or vehicles comprising a test sample which are required to be tested pursuant to a PCA in accordance with this subpart will be selected at the location and in the manner specified by EPA. If a manufacturer determines that the test engines or vehicles cannot be selected in the manner specified by EPA, an alternative selection procedure may be employed, provided that the manufacturer requests approval of the alternative procedure in advance of the start of test sample selection and that the Administrator approves the procedure.

(b) The manufacturer shall have assembled the test engines or vehicles of the configuration selected for testing using its normal mass production processes for engines or vehicles to be distributed into commerce. In the case of heavy-duty engines, if the test engines are selected at a location where they do not have their operational and emission control systems installed, EPA will specify the manner and location for selection of components to complete assembly of the engines. The manufacturer shall assemble these components onto the test engines using normal assembly and quality control procedures as documented by the manufacturer.

(c) No quality control, testing, or assembly procedures will be used on the completed test engine or vehicle or any portion thereof, including parts and subassemblies, that will not be used during the production and assembly of all other engines or vehicles of that configuration.

(d) The EPA Enforcement Officers may specify that they, rather than the manufacturer, will select the test engines or vehicles.

(e) The order in which test engines or vehicles are selected determines the order in which test results are to be used in applying the PCA testing plan in accordance with §86.1112-87.

(f) The manufacturer shall keep on hand all engines or vehicles comprising the test sample until such time as a compliance level is determined in accordance with §86.1112-87(a) except that the manufacturer may ship any tested engine or vehicle which has not failed in accordance with §86.1112-87(f)(1). However, once the manufacturer ships any test engine or vehicle, it relinquishes the prerogative to conduct retests as provided in §86.1111-87(i).

§86.1111-87   Test procedures for PCA testing.

(a)(1) For heavy-duty engines, the prescribed test procedure for PCA testing is the Federal Test Procedure as described in subparts N, I, and P of this part.

(2) For heavy-duty vehicles, the prescribed test procedure for PCA testing is described in subpart M of this part.

(3) For light-duty trucks, the prescribed test procedure for PCA testing is the Federal Test Procedure as described in subparts B and P of this part.

(4) During the testing of heavy-duty diesel engines, the manufacturer shall decide for each engine, prior to the start of the initial cold cycle, whether the measurement of background particulate is required for the cold and hot cycles to be valid. The manufacturer may choose to have different requirements for the cold and hot cycles. If a manufacturer chooses to require the measurement of background particulate, failure to measure background particulate shall void the test cycle regardless of the test results. If a test cycle is void, the manufacturer shall retest using the same validity requirements of the initial test.

(5) When testing light-duty trucks, the following exceptions to the test procedures in subpart B are applicable:

(i) The manufacturer may use gasoline test fuel meeting the specifications of paragraph (a) of §86.113 for mileage accumulation. Otherwise, the manufacturer may use fuels other than those specified in this section only with advance approval of the Administrator.

(ii) The manufacturer may measure the temperature of the test fuel at other than the approximate midvolume of the fuel tank, as specified in paragraph (a) of §86.131, and may drain the test fuel from other than the lowest point of the fuel tank, as specified in paragraph (b) of §86.131, with the advance approval of the Administrator.

(iii) The manufacturer may perform additional preconditioning on PCA test vehicles other than the preconditioning specified in §86.132 only if the additional preconditioning has been performed on certification test vehicles of the same configuration.

(iv) The manufacturer shall perform the heat build procedure 11 to 34 hours following vehicle preconditioning rather than according to the time period specified in paragraph (a) of §86.133.

(v) The manufacturer may substitute slave tires for the drive wheel tires on the vehicle as specified in paragraph (e) of §86.135, provided that the slave tires are the same size as the drive wheel tires.

(vi) The cold start exhaust emission test described in §86.137 shall follow the heat build procedure described in §86.133 by not more than one hour.

(vii) In performing exhaust sample analysis under §86.140:

(A) When testing diesel vehicles, the manufacturer shall allow a minimum of 20 minutes warm-up for the HC analyzer, and a minimum of 2 hours warm-up for the CO, CO2 and NOX analyzers. [Power is normally left on for infrared and chemiluminescent analyzers. When not in use, the chopper motors of the infrared analyzers are turned off and the phototube high voltage supply to the chemiluminescent analyzers is placed in the standby position.]

(B) The manufacturer shall exercise care to prevent moisture from condensing in the sample collection bags.

(viii) The manufacturer need not comply with §86.142, since the records required therein are provided under other provisions of this subpart.

(ix) In addition to the requirements of subpart B of this part, the manufacturer shall prepare gasoline-fueled vehicles as follows prior to exhaust emission testing:

(A) The manufacturer shall inspect the fuel system to insure the absence of any leaks of liquid or vapor to the atmosphere by applying a pressure of 14.5 ±0.5 inches of water to the fuel system, allowing the pressure to stabilize, and isolating the fuel system from the pressure source. Following isolation of the fuel system, pressure must not drop more than 2.0 inches of water in 5 minutes. If required, the manufacturer shall perform corrective action in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(B) When performing this pressure check, the manufacturer shall exercise care to neither purge nor load the evaporative emission control system.

(C) The manufacturer shall not modify the test vehicle's evaporative emission control system by component addition, deletion, or substitution, except to comply with paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b)(1) The manufacturer shall not adjust, repair, prepare, or modify the engines or vehicles selected for testing and shall not perform any emission tests on engines or vehicles selected for testing pursuant to a PCA request unless the adjustment, repair, preparation, modification, or tests are documented in the manufacturer's engine or vehicle assembly and inspection procedures and are actually performed on all engines or vehicles produced or unless these adjustments or tests are required or permitted under this subpart or are approved in advance by the Administrator.

(2) For 1984 and later model years the Administrator may adjust or cause to be adjusted any engine parameter which the Administrator has determined to be subject to adjustment for certification, Selective Enforcement Audit and Production. Compliance Audit testing in accordance with §86.084-22(e)(1), to any setting within the physically adjustable range of that parameter, as determined by the Administrator in accordance with §86.084-2(e)(3)(ii), prior to the performance of any tests. However, if the idle speed parameter is one which the Administrator has determined to be subject to adjustment, the Administrator shall not adjust it to any setting which causes a lower engine idle speed than would have been possible within the physically adjustable range of the idle speed parameter if the manufacturer had accumulated 125 hours of service on the engine or 4,000 miles on the vehicle under paragraph (c) of this section, all other parameters being identically adjusted for the purpose of the comparison. The manufacturer may be requested to supply information to establish such an alternative minimum idle speed. The Administrator, in making or specifying these adjustments, may consider the effect of the deviation from the manufacturer's recommended setting on emissions performance characteristics as well as the likelihood that similar settings will occur on in-use heavy-duty engines or light-duty trucks. In determining likelihood, the Administrator may consider factors such as, but not limited to, the effect of the adjustment on engine or vehicle performance characteristics and surveillance information from similar in-use engines or vehicles.

(c) Prior to performing emission testing on a PCA test engine, the manufacturer may accumulate on each engine a number of hours of service equal to the greater of 125 hours or the number of hours the manufacturer accumulated during certification on the emission-data engine corresponding to the configuration tested during PCA. Prior to performing emission testing on a PCA test vehicle, the manufacturer may accumulate a number of miles equal to the greater of 4,000 miles or the number of miles the manufacturer accumulated during certification on the emission-data vehicle corresponding to the configuration tested during PCA. Service or mileage accumulation may be performed in any manner the manufacturer desires.

(d) No maintenance shall be performed on test engines or vehicles after selection for testing nor will any test engine or vehicle substitution or replacement be allowed, unless requested of and approved by the Administrator in advance of the performance of any maintenance or engine or vehicle substitution.

(e) The manufacturer shall expeditiously ship test engines or vehicles from the point of selection to the test facility or other location to meet any other requirements of this subpart. If the test facility is not located at or in close proximity to the point of selection, the manufacturer shall assure that test engines or vehicles arrive at the test facility within 24 hours of selection, except that the Administrator may approve more time based upon a request by the manufacturer accompanied by a satisfactory justification.

(f) If an engine or vehicle cannot complete the service or mileage accumulation or emission tests because of engine or vehicle malfunction, the manufacturer may request that the Administrator authorize the repair of the engine or vehicle. If the engine or vehicle cannot be repaired expeditiously, EPA may delete it from the test sequence.

(g)(1) Heavy-duty engine manufacturers with projected sales bound for the United States market for that year of 30,000 or greater, as made in their respective Applications for Certification, shall complete emission testing at their testing facility on a minimum of two engines per 24 hour period, including voided tests.

(2) Heavy-duty engine manufacturers with projected sales bound for the United States market for that year of less than 30,000, as made in their respective Applications for Certification, Shall complete emission testing at one engine per 24 hour period, including voided tests.

(3) Light-duty truck manufacturers shall complete emission testing on a minimum of four vehicles per 24 hour period, including voided tests.

(4) The Administrator may approve a longer period of time for conducting emission tests based upon a request by a manufacturer accompanied by a satisfactory justification.

(h) The manufacturer shall perform test engine or vehicle selection, shipping, preparation, service or mileage accumulation, and testing in such a manner as to insure that the audit is performed in an expeditious manner.

(i) The manufacturer may retest any engines or vehicles tested during a Production Compliance Audit once a compliance level has been established in accordance with §86.1112-87 based on the first test on each engine or vehicle. The Administrator may approve retesting at other times based upon a request by the manufacturer accompanied by a satisfactory justification. The manufacturer may test each engine or vehicle a total of three times. The manufacturer shall test each engine or vehicle the same number of times. The manufacturer may accumulate additional service or mileage before conducting a retest, subject to the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section.

[50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, as amended at 62 FR 47123, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1112-87   Determining the compliance level and reporting of test results.

(a) A manufacturer that has elected to conduct a PCA in accordance with §86.1106-87 may establish the compliance level for a pollutant for any engine or vehicle configuration by using the primary PCA sampling plan or either of two optional reduced PCA sampling plans (the fixed reduced sampling plan or the sequential reduced sampling plan) described below. A manufacturer that uses either of the two optional reduced PCA sampling plans may elect to continue testing and establish a compliance level under the primary PCA sampling plan.

(1) A manufacturer that elects to conduct a PCA for a pollutant using the primary PCA sampling plan shall:

(i) Conduct emission tests on 24 engines or vehicles in accordance with §86.1111-87 for the pollutants for which the PCA was initiated. If the PCA follows an SEA failure, the number of additional tests conducted shall be the difference between 24 and the number of engines or vehicles tested in the SEA. If 24 or more engines or vehicles were tested in the SEA, no additional tests shall be conducted; and

(ii) Rank the final deteriorated test results, as defined by paragraph (e) of this section, obtained for that pollutant in order from the lowest to the highest value. If the PCA follows an SEA failure, all SEA test results for that pollutant shall be included in this ranking.

(iii) The compliance level for that pollutant is the final deteriorated test result in the sequence determined from table 1 of appendix XII of these regulations.

(2) A manufacturer that elects to conduct a PCA for a pollutant using the fixed reduced PCA sampling plan shall:

(i) Select a sample size between 3 and 23 engines or vehicles. If the PCA follows an SEA failure, the sample size selected cannot be less than the number of engines or vehicles tested during the SEA; and

(ii) Conduct emission tests on the selected sample in accordance with §86.1111-87 for the pollutants for which the PCA was initiated.

(iii) The compliance level for the pollutant is the result of the following equation, using the test results obtained in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section and all SEA test results for that pollutant if the PCA follows an SEA failure:

CL=X̅ + Ks

where:

CL=The compliance level.

X̅=The mean of the final deteriorated test results, as defined by paragraph (e) of this section.

K=A value that depends on the size of the test sample. See table 2 of appendix XII of this part for the value of K that corresponds to the size of the test sample.

s=The sample standard deviation.

The compliance level is rounded to the same number of significant figures contained in the applicable standard in accordance with ASTM E29-67.

(3) A manufacturer that elects to conduct a PCA for a pollutant using the sequential reduced PCA sampling plan shall perform the following:

(i) Select a sample size of 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 engines or vehicles. If the PCA follows an SEA failure, the sample size selected cannot be less than the number of engines or vehicles tested during the SEA.

(ii) Conduct emission tests on the selected sample in accordance with §86.1111-87 for the pollutants for which the PCA was initiated.

(iii) The compliance level for the pollutant is the result of the following equation, using the test results obtained in (a)(3)(ii) and all SEA test results for that pollutant if the PCA follows an SEA failure:

CL=X̅ + Ks

where:

CL=The compliance level.

X̅=The mean of the final deteriorated test results, as defined by paragraph (e) of this section.

K=A value that depends on the size of the test sample. See table 3 of appendix XII of this part for the value of K that corresponds to the size of the test sample.

s=The sample standard deviation.

The compliance level is rounded to the same number of significant figures contained in the applicable standard in accordance with ASTM E29-67.

(iv) After calculating a compliance level in accordance with paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, a manufacturer may elect to increase the sample size by 4 engines or vehicles, or a multiple thereof, up to the maximum, including SEA engines or vehicles if any, of 20. Upon that election, the manufacturer shall add the additional engines or vehicles to the sample and perform paragraphs (a)(3)(ii) and (a)(3)(iii) of this section. This election may be repeated if appropriate. A compliance level determined under this election shall replace a previously determined compliance level.

(b) A fail decision is reached with respect to the upper limit when the compliance level determined in paragraph (a) of this section exceeds the applicable upper limit.

(c) Initial test results are calculated following the Federal Test Procedure specified in §86.1111-87(a).

(d) Final test results are calculated by summing the initial test results derived in paragraph (c) of this section for each test engine or vehicle, dividing by the number of tests conducted on the engine or vehicle, and rounding in accordance with ASTM E29-67 to the same number of decimal places contained in the applicable standard expressed to one additional significant figure.

(e) Final deteriorated test results. (1) The final deteriorated test results for each heavy-duty engine or light-duty truck tested according to subpart B, I, N, or P of this part are calculated by applying the final test results by the appropriate deterioration factor, derived from the certification process for the engine family control system combination and model year for the selected configuration to which the test engine or vehicle belongs. If the deterioration factor computed during the certification process is multiplicative and it is less than one, that deterioration factor will be one. If the deterioration factor computed during the certification process is additive and it is less than zero, that deterioration factor will be zero.

(2) The final deteriorated test results are rounded to the same number of significant figures contained in the applicable standard in accordance with ASTM E29-67.

(f) A failed engine or vehicle is one whose final deteriorated test results, for one or more of the applicable exhaust pollutants, exceed:

(1) The applicable emission standard, or

(2) The compliance level established in paragraph (b) of this section.

(g) Within five working days after completion of PCA testing of all engines or vehicles, the manufacturer shall submit to the Administrator a report which includes the following information:

(1) The location and description of the manufacturer's emission test facilities which were utilized to conduct testing reported pursuant to this section;

(2) The applicable standards against which the engines or vehicles were tested;

(3) Deterioration factors for the engine family to which the selected configuration belongs;

(4) A description of the engine or vehicle and any emission-related component selection method used;

(5) For each test conducted:

(i) Test engine or vehicle description, including;

(A) Configuration and engine family identification,

(B) Year, make and build date,

(C) Engine or vehicle identification number, and

(D) Number of hours of service accumulated on engine or number of miles on vehicle prior to testing;

(ii) Location where service or mileage accumulation was conducted and description of accumulation procedure and schedule;

(iii) Test number, date, initial test results before and after rounding, final test results and final deteriorated test results for all emission tests, whether valid or invalid, and the reason for invalidation, if applicable;

(iv) A complete description of any modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, and/or testing which was performed on the test engine or vehicle and has not been reported pursuant to any other paragraph of this subpart and will not be performed on all other production engines or vehicles; and

(v) Any other information the Administrator may request relevant to the determination as to whether the new heavy-duty engines or heavy-duty vehicles being manufactured by the manufacturer do in fact conform with the regulations of this subpart; and

(6) The following statement and endorsement:

This report is submitted pursuant to section 206 of the Clean Air Act. This Production Compliance Audit was conducted in complete conformance with all applicable regulations under 40 CFR part 86 et seq. All data and information reported herein is, to the best of

(Company Name)__________'s

knowledge, true and accurate. I am aware of the penalties associated with violations of the Clean Air Act and the regulations thereunder.

 

(Authorized Company Representative)

§86.1113-87   Calculation and payment of penalty.

(a) The NCP for each engine or vehicle for which a compliance level has been determined under §86.1112-87 is calculated according to the formula in paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section depending on the value of the compliance level. Each formula contains an annual adjustment factor (AAFi) which is defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Other terms in the formulas are defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(1) If the compliance level (CL) is greater than the standard and less than or equal to X (e.g., point CL1 in figure 1), then:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.111.gif

View or download PDF

where:

PR1 = (F) (MC50)

(2) If the compliance level is greater than X and less than or equal to the upper limit as determined by §86.1104-87 (e.g., point CL2 in figure 1), then:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.112.gif

View or download PDF

where:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.113.gif

View or download PDF

(3) AAFi has the following values:

(i) If fraci−1 = 0, then AAFi = 1 + Ii−1

(ii) If fraci−1 >0, then:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.114.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er06oc93.183.gif

View or download PDF

If fraci−1 >0.50, then fraci−1 will be set equal to 0.50.

(iii) AAF1=1

(iv) In calculating the NCP for year n, the value fraci−1 for i=n will include actual NCP usage through March 31 of model year n-1 and EPA's estimate of additional usage for the remainder of model year n-1 using manufacturer input. All manufacturers using NCPs must report by subclass actual NCP and non-NCP production numbers through March 31, an estimate of NCP and non-NCP production for the remainder of the model year, and the previous year's actual NCP and non-NCP production to EPA no later than April 30 of the model year. If EPA is unable to obtain similar information from manufacturers not using NCPs, EPA will use projected sales data from the manufacturers' application for certification in computing the total production of the subclass and the fraci−1. The value of fraci−1 will be corrected to reflect actual year-end usage of NCPs and a corrected AAF will be used to establish NCPs in future years. The correction of previous year's AAF will not affect the previous year's penalty.

(4) The terms in the above formulas have the following meanings and values, which may be determined separately for each subclass and pollutant for which an NCP is offered. The production of Federal and California designated engines or vehicles shall be combined for the purpose of this section in calculating the NCP for each engine or vehicle.

NCPn=NCP for year n for each applicable engine or vehicle

CL=Compliance level for year n for applicable engines or vehicles

S=Emission standard

UL=Upper limit as determined by section 86.1104-87, except that, if the upper limit is determined by section 86.1104-87(c), the value of UL in paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall be the prior emission standard for that pollutant.

UL′=Upper limit as determined by section 86.1104-87(c). This value is not used in the above formulas.

X=Compliance level above the standard at which NCP1 equals COC50

eCFR graphic er06oc93.115.gif

View or download PDF

PR1=Penalty rate when CL ≤X

PR2=Penalty rate when X <CL ≤applicable upper limit

eCFR graphic er06oc93.116.gif

View or download PDF

i=An index representing a year. It represents the same year for both Federal and California designated engines or vehicles of the same production model year.

n=Index representing the number of model years for which the NCP has been available for an engine or vehicle subclass (i.e., n=1 for the first year that the NCP is available, and so on until n=n for the nth year that the NCP is available). The factor “n” is based on the model year the NCP is first available, as specified in section 86.1105-87 for the engine or vehicle subclass and pollutant for both Federal and California designated engines and vehicles.

COC50=Estimate of the average total incremental cost to comply with the standard relative to complying with the upper limit.

COC90=Estimate of the 90th percentile total incremental cost to comply with the standard relative to complying with the upper limit.

MC50=Estimate of the average marginal cost of compliance (dollars per emission unit) with the standard.

F=Factor used to estimate the 90th percentile marginal cost based on the average marginal cost (the minimum value of F is 1.1, the maximum value of F is 1.3).

AAFi=Annual adjustment factor for year i, fraci-1=Fraction of engines or vehicles of a subclass using NCPs in previous year (year i-1).

Ai=Usage adjustment factor in year i: Ai=0.10 for i=2; Ai=0.08 for i<2.

Ii=Percentage increase in overall consumer price index in year i.

(5) The values of COC50, COC90, MC50 and F will be determined for each applicable subclass by EPA based on the cost data used by EPA in setting the applicable emission standard. However, where the rulemaking to establish a specific NCP occurs after the rulemaking to establish the standard, EPA may augment the data base used to establish the standard by including the best cost and emission performance data available to EPA during the specific NCP rulemaking.

(6) In calculating the NCP, appropriate values of the following predefined terms should be used: CL, S, UL, F, and Ai. For all other terms, unrounded values of at least five figures beyond the decimal point should be used in calculations leading up to the penalty amount. Any NCP calculated under paragraph (a) of this section will be rounded to the nearest dollar in accordance with ASTM E29-67.

(b) The NCP determined in paragraph (a) of this section is assessed against all those engines or vehicles of the nonconforming configuration or engine family produced at all assembly plants and distributed into commerce—

(1) Since the beginning of the model year in the case of a certification failure described by §86.1106-87(a).

(2) Beginning ten days after an SEA failure described by §86.1106-87 (b) or (c).

(3) Following implementation of a production running change described by §86.1106-87(d).

(c) The NCP will continue to be assessed during the model year, until such time, if any, that the configuration or engine family is brought into conformance with applicable emission standards.

(d) A manufacturer may carry over an NCP from a model year to the next model year. There is no limit to the number of years that carryover can continue. The amount of the penalty will increase each year according to paragraph (a) of this section.

(e) The Administrator shall notify the manufacturer in writing of the nonconformance penalty established under paragraph (a) of this section after the completion of the PCA under §86.1112-87.

(f) A manufacturer may request a hearing under §86.1115-87 as to whether the compliance level (including a compliance level in excess of the upper limit) was determined in accordance with the procedures in §86.1112-87(a) or whether the nonconformance penalty was calculated in accordance with the procedures in §86.1113-87(a). If a nonconformance penalty has been established, such hearing must be requested within fifteen (15) days or such other period as may be allowed by the Administrator after the notification of the nonconformance penalty. If a manufacturer wishes to challenge a compliance level in excess of the upper limit, he must request a hearing within fifteen (15) days or such other period as may be allowed by the Administrator after the completion of the Production Compliance Audit.

(g)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, the nonconformance penalty or penalties assessed under this subpart must be paid as follows:

(i) By the quarterly due dates, i.e., within 30 days of the end of each calendar quarter (March 31, June 30, September 30 and December 31), or according to such other payment schedule as the Administrator may approve pursuant to a manufacturer's request, for all nonconforming engines or vehicles produced by a manufacturer in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section and distributed into commerce for that quarter.

(ii) The penalty shall be payable to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NCP Fund, Motor Vehicle and Engine Compliance Program, P.O. Box 979032 St. Louis, MO 63197-9000. Note on the check and supporting information that this is an NCP payment.

(2) When a manufacturer has requested a hearing under §86.1115-87, it must pay the nonconformance penalty, and any interest, within ten days after the Presiding Officer renders his decision, unless the manufacturer first files a notice of intention to appeal to the Administrator pursuant to §86.1115-87(t)(1), or, if an appeal of the Presiding Officer's decision is taken, within ten days after the Administrator renders his decision, unless the manufacturer first files a petition for judicial review.

(3) A manufacturer making payment under paragraph (g)(1) or (g)(2) of this section shall submit the following information by each quarterly due date to: Director, Manufacturers Operations Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. This information shall be submitted even if a manufacturer has no NCP production in a given quarter.

(i) Corporate identification, identification and quantity of engines or vehicles subject to the NCP, certificate identification (number and date), NCP payment calculations and interest payment calculations, if applicable.

(ii) The following statement and endorsement:

This information is submitted pursuant to section 206 of the Clean Air Act. All information reported herein is, to the best of

_____________________'s

(Company name)

knowledge, true and accurate. I am aware of the penalties associated with violations of the Clean Air Act and the regulations thereunder.

 

(Authorized Company Representative)

(4) The Administrator may verify the production figures or other documentation submitted under paragraph (g)(3) of this section.

(5)(i) Interest shall be assessed on any nonconformance penalty for which payment has been withheld under §86.113-87(g) (1) or (2). Interest shall be calculated from the due date for the first quarterly NCP payment, as determined under §86.1113-87(g)(1), until either the date on which the Presiding Officer or the Administrator renders the final decision of the Agency under §86.1115-87 or the date when an alternate payment schedule (approved pursuant to §86.1113-87(g)(1)) ends.

(ii) The combined principal plus interest on each quarterly NCP payment withheld pursuant to §86.1113-87(g) (1) or (2) shall be calculated according to the formula:

QNCP(1 + R).25n

where:

QNCP=the quarterly NCP payment

R=the interest rate applicable to that quarter

n=the number of quarters for which the quarterly NCP payment is outstanding.

(iii) The number of quarters for which payment is outstanding for purposes of this paragraph shall be the number of quarterly NCP payment due dates, as determined under §86.1113-87(g)(1), which have elapsed throughout the duration of a hearing request, or alternate payment schedule.

(iv) The interest rate applicable to a quarter for purposes of this paragraph shall be the rate published by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to the Debt Collection Act of 1982 and effective on the date on which the NCP payment was originally due.

(6) A manufacturer will be refunded an overpayment, or be permitted to offset an overpayment by withholding a future payment, if approved in advance by the Administrator. The government shall pay no interest on overpayments.

(h) A manufacturer that certifies as a replacement for the nonconforming configuration, a configuration that is in conformance with applicable standards, and that performs a production compliance audit (PCA) in accordance with §86.1112-87(a) that results in a compliance level below the applicable standard, will be eligible to receive a refund of a portion of the engineering and development component of the penalty. The engineering and development component will be determined by multiplying the base penalty amount by the engineering and development factor for the appropriate subclass and pollutant in §86.1105-87. The amount refunded will depend on the model year in which the certification and PCA take place. In cases where payment of penalties have been waived by EPA in accordance with paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section, EPA will refund a portion of the engineering and development component. The proportionate refund to be paid by EPA will be based on the proportion of vehicles or engines of the nonconforming configuration for which NCPs were paid to EPA. The refund is calculated as follows:

Rtot=Dn × FE&D × NCP1 × Prodtot

RCal=(ProdCal/Prodtot) × (Rtot)

REPA=Rtot−RCal

Where:

n=index representing the number of model years for which the NCP has been available for an engine or vehicle subclass (i.e., n=1 for the first year that NCPs are available, .  .  .  , n=n for the nth year the NCPs are available; same as “n” in paragraph (a)(4)).

Dn=discount factor depending on the number of model years (n) for which NCPs were available at the time of certification and PCA of the replacement configuration, and its value is as follows:

D1=0.90

D2=0.79

D3=0.67

D4=0.54

D5=0.39

D6=0.23

D7=0.05

Dn=0.00 for n=8 or larger

FE&D=the engineering and development factor specified in section 86.1105-87 for the appropriate subclass and pollutant

NCP1=the penalty for each engine or vehicle during the first (base) year the NCP is available as calculated in paragraph (a)

Prodtot=total number of engines or vehicles produced in the subclass for which NCPs were paid to EPA or to the State of California

ProdCal=number of engines or vehicles in the subclass demonstrated to have been titled, registered or principally used in the State of California and for which NCPs were paid to the State of California under paragraph (g)(1)

Rtot=Total refund due to the manufacturer for the engineering and development component of the NCP

RCal=Refund due to the manufacturer from the State of California for the engineering and development component of the NCP

REPA=Refund due to the manufacturer from EPA for the engineering and development component of the NCP.

[50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, as amended at 50 FR 53467, Dec. 31, 1985; 53 FR 19134, May 26, 1988; 55 FR 46629, Nov. 5, 1990; 61 FR 51366, Oct. 2, 1996; 77 FR 54402, Sept. 5, 2012]

§86.1114-87   Suspension and voiding of certificates of conformity.

(a) The certificate of conformity is suspended with respect to any engine or vehicle failing pursuant to paragraph (f) of §86.1112-87 effective from the time that a fail decision is made for that engine or vehicle.

(b) Once a certificate has been suspended for a failed engine or vehicle as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section, the manufacturer shall take the following actions:

(1) Before the certificate is reinstated for that failed engine or vehicle,

(i) Remedy the nonconformity, and

(ii) Demonstrate that the engine or vehicle conforms to the applicable standards or compliance levels by retesting the engine or vehicle in accordance with these regulations; and

(2) Submit a written report to the Administrator within five working days after successful completion of testing on the failed engine or vehicle, which contains a description of the remedy and test results for each engine or vehicle in addition to other information that may be required by this regulation.

(c) The Administrator may suspend the certificate of conformity if the manufacturer, after electing to conduct a PCA, fails to adhere to the requirements stated in §86.1106-87(b)(3), (b)(6)(iii), (c)(2), or (c)(5)(iii).

(d) The Administrator may suspend the qualified certificate of conformity issued under the conditions specified in §86.1106-87 if the manufacturer fails to adhere to the requirements stated in §86.1106-87(a)(3), (a)(4)(iii), (d)(2)(iii), or (d)(3).

(e) The Administrator may suspend the certificate of conformity or the qualified certificate of conformity if the compliance level as determined in §86.1112-87(a) is in excess of the upper limit.

(f) The Administrator may void the certificate of conformity if the compliance level as determined in §86.1112-87(a) is in excess of the upper limit and the manufacturer fails to recall any engines or vehicles introduced into commerce pursuant to §86.1106-87(a)(4)(ii), (b)(6)(ii), (c)(5)(ii) or (d)(2)(ii).

(g) The Administrator may void the certificate of conformity for those engines or vehicles for which the manufacturer fails to meet the requirements of §86.1106-87(a)(4)(i), (b)(6)(i), (c)(5)(i), or (d)(2)(i).

(h) The Administrator shall notify the manufacturer in writing of any suspension or voiding of a certificate of conformity in whole or in part, except as provided for in paragraph (a) of this section.

(i) A certificate of conformity suspended or voided under paragaph (c), (d), (e), (f) or (g) of this section may be reinstated after a written request by the manufacturer and under such terms and conditions as the Administrator may require and after the manufacturer demonstrates compliance with applicable requirements.

(j) After the Administrator suspends or voids a certificate of conformity pursuant to this section or notifies a manufacturer of his intent to suspend or void a certificate of conformity under §86.087-30(e), and prior to the commencement of a hearing, if any, under §86.1115-87, if the manufacturer demonstrates to the Administrator's satisfaction that the decision to suspend or void the certificate was based on erroneous information, the Administrator shall reinstate the certificate.

§86.1115-87   Hearing procedures for nonconformance determinations and penalties.

(a) Applicability. The procedures prescribed by this section shall apply whenever a manufacturer requests a hearing pursuant to §86.087-30(e)(6)(i), §86.087-30(e)(7), or §86.1113-87(f).

(b) Definitions. The following definitions shall be applicable to this section:

(1) Hearing Clerk shall mean the Hearing Clerk of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(2) Manufacturer means a manufacturer contesting a compliance level or penalty determination sent to the manufacturer.

(3) Party means the Agency and the manufacturer.

(4) Presiding Officer shall mean an Administrative Law Judge appointed pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3105 (see also 5 CFR part 930 as amended).

(5) Environmental Appeals Board shall mean the Board within the Agency described in §1.25 of this title. The Administrator delegates authority to the Environmental Appeals Board to issue final decisions in appeals filed under this subpart. Appeals directed to the Administrator, rather than to the Environmental Appeals Board, will not be considered. This delegation of authority to the Environmental Appeals Board does not preclude the Environmental Appeals Board from referring an appeal or a motion filed under this subpart to the Administrator for decision when the Environmental Appeals Board, in its discretion, deems it appropriate to do so. When an appeal or motion is referred to the Administrator, all parties shall be so notified and the rules in this part referring to the Environmental Appeals Board shall be interpreted as referring to the Administrator.

(c) Request for public hearing. (1) A manufacturer may request a hearing pursuant to §86.1113-87(f) if it disagrees with the Administrator's determination of compliance level or penalty calculation or both, or pursuant to §86.085-30(e)(6)(i) or §86.085-30(e)(7) if it disagrees with the Administrator's proposed suspension or voiding of a certificate of conformity. Requests for such a hearing shall be filed no later than 15 days:

(i) After receipt of the Administrator's notification of NCP, if the compliance level is in the allowable range of non-conformity, or

(ii) After completion of the Production Compliance Audit, if the compliance level exceeds the upper limit, or

(iii) After receipt of the Administrator's notification of a proposed suspension or voiding of a certificate of conformity if the hearing is requested pursuant to §§86.085-30(e)(6)(i) or 86.085-30(e)(7), unless otherwise specified by the Administrator. The manufacturer shall simultaneously serve two copies of this request upon the Director of the Manufacturers Operations Division and file two copies with the Hearing Clerk. Failure of the manufacturer to request a hearing within the time provided constitutes a waiver of the right to a hearing. Subsequent to the expiration of the period for requesting a hearing as of right, the Administrator may, in his discretion and for good cause shown, grant the manufacturer a hearing to contest the compliance level or penalty calculation.

(2) The request for a public hearing shall contain:

(i) A statement as to which vehicle or engine subclasses or configurations are to be the subject of the hearing;

(ii) A concise statement of the issues to be raised by the manufacturer at the hearing for each vehicle or engine subclass or configuration for which the manufacturer has requested the hearing. Provided, however, That in the case of a hearing requested under §86.1113-87(f), the hearing shall be restricted to the following issues:

(A) Whether the compliance level was determined in accordance with the procedures in §86.1112-87(a); or

(B) Whether the penalty was calculated in accordance with the procedures in §86.1113-87(a).

(iii) A statement specifying reasons why the manufacturer believes it will prevail on the merits on each of the issues so raised; and

(iv) A summary of the evidence which supports the manufacturer's position on each of the issues so raised.

(3) A copy of all requests for public hearings shall be kept on file in the Office of the Hearing Clerk and shall be made available to the public during Agency business hours.

(d) Summary decision. (1) In the case of a hearing requested under §86.1113-87(f) when it clearly appears from the data and other information contained in the request for a hearing that there is no genuine and substantial question of fact with respect to the issues specified in §86.1115-87(c)(2)(ii), the Administrator will enter an order denying the request for a hearing, and reaffirming the original compliance level determination or penalty calculation.

(2) Any order issued under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall have the force and effect of a final decision of the Administrator, as issued pursuant to paragraph (v)(4) of this section.

(3) If the Administrator determines that a genuine and substantial question of fact does exist with respect to any of the issues referred to in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, he shall grant the request for a hearing and publish a notice of public hearing in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section.

(e) Filing and service. (1) An original and two copies of all documents or papers required or permitted to be filed pursuant to this section shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk. Filing shall be deemed timely if mailed, as determined by the postmark to the Hearing Clerk within the time allowed by this section. If filing is to be accomplished by mailing, the documents shall be sent to the address set forth in the notice of public hearing as described in paragraph (h) of this section.

(2) To the maximum extent possible, testimony shall be presented in written form. Copies of written testimony shall be served upon all parties as soon as practicable prior to the start of the hearing. A certificate of service shall be provided on or accompany each document or paper filed with the Hearing Clerk. Documents to be served upon the Director of the Manufacturers Operations Division shall be sent by registered mail to: Director, Manufacturers Operations Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EN-340F), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Service by registered mail is complete upon mailing.

(f) Time. (1) In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this section, except as otherwise provided, the day of the act or event from which the designated period of time begins to run shall not be included. Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal legal holidays shall be included in computing any such period allowed for the filing of any document or paper, except that when such a period expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal legal holiday, such period shall be extended to include the next following business day.

(2) A prescribed period of time within which a party is required or permitted to do an act shall be computed from the time of service, except that when service is accomplished by mail, three days shall be added to the prescribed period.

(g)(1) Consolidation. The Administrator of the Presiding Officer in his discretion may consolidate two or more proceedings to be held under this section for the purpose of resolving one or more issues whenever it appears that such consolidation will expedite or simplify consideration of such issues. Consolidation shall not affect the right of any party to raise issues that could have been raised if consolidation had not occurred.

(2) If a vehicle or engine is determined to be in nonconformity during certification testing under subpart A of this part, then the manufacturer may wait to challenge the determination until after production compliance auditing and calculation of his penalty and may consolidate challenges to the determination of nonconformity and the compliance level determination or the penalty calculation, without losing any rights he would otherwise have had.

(3) If a vehicle or engine is determined to be in nonconformity during selective enforcement auditing under subpart K of this part, then the manufacturer must wait to challenge the determination until after the compliance level determination and the penalty calculation, and must consolidate challenges to the determination of nonconformity and the compliance level determination or the calculation of the penalty.

(h) Notice of public hearings. (1) Notice of public hearing under this section shall be given by publication in the Federal Register and by such other means as the Administrator finds appropriate to provide notice to the public. To the extent possible, hearings under this section shall be scheduled to commence within 30 days of receipt of the application in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) [Revised]

(i) Amicus curiae. Persons not parties to the proceeding wishing to file briefs may do so by leave of the Presiding Officer granted on motion. A motion for leave shall identify the interest of the applicant and shall state the reasons why the proposed amicus brief is desirable.

(j) Presiding Officer. The Presiding Officer shall have the duty to conduct a fair and impartial hearing in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 554, 556 and 557 and to take all necessary action to avoid delay in the disposition of the proceedings and to maintain order. He shall have all power consistent with Agency rules and with the Administrative Procedure Act necessary to this end, including the following:

(1) To administer oaths and affirmations;

(2) To rule upon offers of proof and exclude irrelevant or repetitious material;

(3) To regulate the course of the hearings and the conduct of the parties and their counsel therein;

(4) To hold conferences for simplification of the issues or any other proper purpose;

(5) To consider and rule upon all procedural and other motions appropriate in such proceedings;

(6) To require the submission of direct testimony in written form with or without affidavit whenever, in the opinion of the Presiding Officer, oral testimony is not necessary for full and true disclosure of the facts;

(7) To enforce agreements and orders requiring access as authorized by law;

(8) To require the filing of briefs on any matter on which he is required to rule;

(9) To require any party or any witness, during the course of the hearing, to state his position on any issue;

(10) To take or cause depositions to be taken whenever the ends of justice would be served thereby;

(11) To make decisions or recommend decisions to resolve the disputed issues on the record of the hearing;

(12) To issue, upon good cause shown, protective orders as described in paragraph (n) of this section.

(k) Conferences. (1) At the discretion of the Presiding Officer, conferences may be held prior to or during any hearing. The Presiding Officer shall direct the Hearing Clerk to notify all parties of the time and location of such conference. At the discretion of the Presiding Officer, persons other than parties may attend. At a conference the Presiding Officer may:

(i) Obtain stipulations and admissions, receive requests and order depositions to be taken, identify disputed issues of fact and law, and require or allow the submission of written testimony from any witness or party;

(ii) Set a hearing schedule for as many of the following as are deemed necessary by the Presiding Officer:

(A) Oral and written statements;

(B) Submission of written direct testimony as required or authorized by the Presiding Officer;

(C) Oral direct and cross-examination of a witness where necessary as prescribed in paragraph (p) of this section; and

(D) Oral argument, if appropriate.

(iii) Identify matters of which official notice may be taken;

(iv) Consider limitation of the number of expert and other witnesses;

(v) Consider the procedure to be followed at the hearing; and

(vi) Consider any other matter that may expedite the hearing or aid in the disposition of the issue.

(2) The results of any conference including all stipulations shall, if not transcribed, be summarized in writing by the Presiding Officer and made part of the record.

(l) Primary discovery (exchange of witness lists and documents). (1) At a prehearing conference or within some reasonable time set by the Presiding Officer prior to the hearing, each party shall make available to the other parties the names of the expert and other witnesses the party expects to call, together with a brief summary of their expected testimony and list of all documents and exhibits which the party expects to introduce into evidence. Thereafter, witnesses, documents, or exhibits may be added and summaries of expected testimony amended upon motion by a party.

(2) The Presiding Officer may upon motion by a party or other person, and for good cause shown, by order

(i) Restrict or defer disclosure by a party of the name of a witness or a narrative summary of the expected testimony of a witness, and

(ii) Prescribe other appropriate measures to protect a witness. Any party affected by any such action shall have an adequate opportunity, once he learns the name of a witness and obtains the narrative summary of this expected testimony, to prepare for the presentation of this case.

(m) Other discovery. (1) Except as provided by paragraph (m)(1) of this section, further discovery under this paragraph shall be permitted only upon determination by the Presiding Officer:

(i) That such discovery will not in any way unreasonably delay the proceeding;

(ii) That the information to be obtained is not obtainable voluntarily; and

(iii) That such information has significant probative value. The Presiding Officer shall be guided by the procedures set forth in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, where practicable, and the precedents thereunder, except that no discovery shall be undertaken except upon order of the Presiding Officer or upon agreement of the parties.

(2) The Presiding Officer shall order depositions upon oral questions only upon a showing of good cause and upon a finding that:

(i) The information sought cannot be obtained by alternative methods; or

(ii) There is a substantial reason to believe that relevant and probative evidence may otherwise not be preserved for presentation by a witness at the hearing.

(3) Any party to the proceeding desiring an order of discovery shall make a motion or motions therefor. Such a motion shall set forth:

(i) The circumstances warranting the taking of the discovery;

(ii) The nature of the information expected to be discovered; and

(iii) The proposed time and place where it will be taken. If the Presiding Officer determines the motion should be granted, he shall issue an order for the taking of such discovery together with the conditions and terms thereof.

(4) Failure to comply with an order issued pursuant to this paragraph may lead to the inference that the information to be discovered would be adverse to the person or party from whom the information was sought.

(n) Protective orders, in camera proceedings. (1) Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought, and upon a showing by the movant that the disclosure of the information to be discovered, or a particular part thereof (other than emission data), would result in methods or processes entitled to protection as trade secrets of the person being divulged, the Presiding Officer may enter a protective order with respect to such material. Any protective order shall contain such terms governing the treatment of the information as may be appropriate under the circumstances to prevent disclosure outside the hearing, provided that the order shall state that the material shall be filed separately from other evidence and exhibits in the hearing. Disclosure shall be limited to parties to the hearing, their counsel and relevant technical consultants, and authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out the Act. Except in the case of the government, disclosure may be limited to counsel for parties who shall not disclose such information to the parties themselves. Except in the case of the government, disclosure to a party or his counsel shall be conditioned on execution of a sworn statement that no disclosure of the information will be made to persons not entitled to receive it under the terms of the protective order. (No such provision is necessary where government employees are concerned because disclosure by them is subject to the terms of 18 U.S.C. 1905.)

(2)(i) A party or person seeking a protective order may be permitted to make all or part of the required showing in camera. A record shall be made of such in camera proceedings. If the Presiding Officer enters a protective order following a showing in camera, the record of such showing shall be sealed and preserved and made available to the Agency or court in the event of appeal.

(ii) Attendance at any in camera proceeding may be limited to the Presiding Officer, representatives of the Agency, and the person or party seeking the protective order.

(3) Any party, subject to the terms and conditions of any protective order issued pursuant to paragraph (n)(1) of this section, that desires to make use of any in camera documents or testimony in the presentation of his case shall apply to the Presiding Officer by motion for permission to do so, and shall state the justification for the motion. The Presiding Officer, in granting any such motion, shall enter an order protecting the rights of the affected persons and parties as far as is practicable, and preventing unnecessary disclosure of such information and testimony concerning such information.

(4) In the submittal of proposed findings, briefs, or other papers, counsel for all parties shall make a good faith attempt to refrain from disclosing the specific details of in camera documents and testimony. This shall not preclude references in such proposed findings, briefs, or other papers to such documents or testimony. This shall not preclude references in such proposed findings, briefs, or other papers marked “confidential,” which shall become part of the in camera record.

(o) Motions. (1) All motions, except those made orally during the course of the hearing, shall be in writing and shall state with particularity the grounds therefore, shall set forth the relief or order sought, and shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk and served upon all parties.

(2) Within such time as may be fixed by the Environmental Appeals Board or the Presiding Officer, as appropriate, any party may serve and file an answer to the motion. The movant shall, if requested by the Environmental Appeals Board or the Presiding Officer, as appropriate, serve and file reply papers, within the time set by the request.

(3) The Presiding Officer shall rule upon all motions filed or made prior to the filing of his decision or accelerated decision, as appropriate. The Environmental Appeals Board shall rule upon all motions filed prior to the appointment of a Presiding Officer and all motions filed after the filing of the decision of the Presiding Officer or accelerated decision. Oral argument of motions will be permitted only if the Presiding Officer or the Environmental Appeals Board, as appropriate, deems it necessary.

(p) Evidence. (1) The official transcripts and exhibits, together with all papers and requests filed in the proceeding, shall constitute the record. Immaterial or irrelevent parts of an admissible document shall be segregated and excluded so far as practicable. Documents or parts thereof subject to a protective order under paragraph (n) of this section shall be segregated. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to judicial proceedings. The weight to be given evidence shall be determined by its reliability and probative value.

(2) The Presiding Officer shall allow the parties to examine and cross-examine a witness to the extent that such examination and cross-examination is necessary for a full and true disclosure of the facts.

(3) Rulings of the Presiding Officer on the admissibility of evidence, the propriety of examination and cross-examination and other procedural matters shall appear in the record.

(4) Parties shall automatically be presumed to have taken exception to an adverse ruling.

(q) Record. (1) Hearings shall be stenographically reported and transcribed and the original transcripts shall be part of the record. Copies of the records shall be filed with the Hearing Clerk and made available during Agency business hours for public inspection. Any person who wants a copy of the record of the hearing or any part thereof, except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, shall be entitled to the same upon payment of the cost thereof.

(2) The official transcripts and exhibits, together with all papers and requests filed in the proceeding, shall constitute the record.

(r) Proposed findings, conclusions. (1) Within 30 days of the close of the reception of evidence, or within such longer time as may be fixed by the Presiding Officer, any party may submit for the consideration of the Presiding Officer proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed order, together with reasons therefore and briefs in support thereof. Such proposals shall be in writing, shall be served upon all parties, and shall contain adequate references to the record and authorities relied upon.

(2) The record shall show the Presiding Officer's ruling on the proposed findings and conclusions except when his order disposing of the proceeding otherwise informs the parties of the action taken by him.

(s) Decision of the Presiding Officer. (1) Unless extended by the Environmental Appeals Board, the Presiding Officer shall issue and file with the Hearing Clerk his decision within 30 days after the period for filing proposed findings has expired, as provided for in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) The Presiding Officer's decision shall become the decision of the Environmental Appeals Board (i) 10 days after issuance thereof, if no notice of intention to appeal as described in paragraph (t) of this section is filed, unless in the interim the Environmental Appeals Board shall have taken action to review or stay the effective date of the decision; or (ii) 5 days after expiration of the period allowed by paragraph (t)(1) of this section for perfection of an appeal, if a notice of intention to appeal is filed but the appeal is not perfected, unless within that 5 day period the Environmental Appeals Board shall have taken action to review or stay the effective date of the decision;

(3) The Presiding Officer's decision shall include a statement of findings and conclusions, as well as the reasons or basis therefore, upon all the material issues of fact or law presented on the record and an appropriate rule or order. Such decision shall be supported by substantial evidence and based upon a consideration of the whole record.

(4) At any time prior to the issuance of his decision, the Presiding Officer may reopen the proceeding for the reception of further evidence. Except for the correction of clerical errors, the jurisdiction of the Presiding Officer is terminated upon the issuance of his decision.

(t) Appeal from the decision of the Presiding Officer. (1) Any party to a proceeding may appeal the Presiding Officer's decision to the Environmental Appeals Board, Provided, That within 10 days after issuance of the Presiding Officer's decision such party files a notice of intention to appeal and an appeal brief within 20 days of such decision.

(2) When an appeal is taken from the decision of the Presiding Officer, any party may file a brief with respect to such appeal. The brief shall be filed within the same time limits as the appellant's brief.

(3) Any brief filed pursuant to this paragraph shall contain in the order indicated, the following:

(i) A subject index of the matter in the brief, with page references, and a table of cases (alphabetically arranged), textbooks, statutes, and other material cited, with page references thereto;

(ii) A specification of the issues intended to be appealed;

(iii) The argument, presenting clearly the points of fact and law relied upon in support of the position taken on each issue, with specific page references to the record and legal or other material relied upon; and

(iv) A proposed order for the Environmental Appeals Board's consideration if different from the order contained in the Presiding Officer's decision.

(4) No brief in excess of 15 pages shall be filed without leave of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(5) Oral argument will be allowed only in the discretion of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(u) Review of the Presiding Officer's decision in absence of appeal. (1) If, after the expiration of the period for taking an appeal as provided for by paragraph (t) of this section, no notice of intention to appeal the decision of the Presiding Officer has been filed, or if filed, not perfected, the Hearing Clerk shall so notify the Environmental Appeals Board.

(2) The Environmental Appeals Board, upon receipt of notice from the Hearing Clerk that no notice of intention to appeal has been filed, or if filed, not perfected pursuant to paragraph (t)(1) of this section, may, on its own motion, within 14 days after notice from the Hearing Clerk, review the decision of the Presiding Officer. Notice of the intention of the Environmental Appeals Board to review the decision of the Presiding Officer shall be given to all parties and shall set forth the scope of such review and the issues which shall be considered and shall make provisions for filing of briefs.

(v) Decision of appeal or review. (1) Upon appeal from or review of the Presiding Officer's the Environmental Appeals Board shall consider such parts of the record as are cited or as may be necessary to resolve the issues presented and in addition shall, to the extent necessary or desirable, exercise all the powers which it could have exercised if it had presided at the hearing.

(2) In rendering its decision, the Environmental Appeals Board shall adopt, modify, or set aside the findings, conclusions, and order contained in the decision of the Presiding Officer and shall set forth in its decision a statement of the reasons or bases for this action.

(3) In those cases where the Environmental Appeals Board determines that it should have further information or additional views of the parties as to the form and content of the rule or order to be issued, the Environmental Appeals Board, in its discretion, may without final action pending the receipt of such additional information or views, or may remand the case to the Presiding Officer.

(4) Any decision rendered under this paragraph which completed disposition of a case shall be a final decision of the Environmental Appeals Board.

(w) Reconsideration. Any party may file with the Environmental Appeals Board a petition for reconsideration of such decision setting forth the relief desired and the grounds in support thereof. This petition must be filed within 20 days of the issuance of the Environmental Appeals Board's decision, and must be confined to new questions raised by the decision or final order and which the petitioner had no opportunity to argue before the Presiding Officer or the Environmental Appeals Board, unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Appeals Board. Subsequent to the expiration of the period for petitioning for reconsideration, the Environmental Appeals Board may, in its discretion and for good cause shown, grant the manufacturer a hearing to contest the compliance level or the penalty calculation even though such issues may have been raised in the previous proceeding. Any party desiring to oppose such a petition, shall file an answer thereto within 10 days after the filing of the petition. The filing of a petition for reconsideration shall not operate to stay the effective date of the decision or order or to toll the running of any statutory time period affecting such decision or order unless specifically so ordered by the Environmental Appeals Board.

(x) Accelerated decision, dismissal. (1) The Presiding Officer, upon motion of any party or sua sponte, may at any time render an accelerated decision in favor of the Agency or the manufacturer as to all or any part of the proceeding, without further hearing or upon such limited additional evidence such as affidavits as he may require, or dismiss any party with prejudice, for any of the following reasons:

(i) Failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or direct or collateral estoppel;

(ii) The lack of any genuine issue of material fact, causing a party to be entitled to judgment as a matter of law; or

(iii) Such other and further reasons as are just, including specifically, failure to obey a procedural order of the Presiding Officer.

(2) If under this paragraph an accelerated decision is issued as to all the issues and claims joined in the proceeding, the decision shall be treated for the purposes of these procedures as the decision of the Presiding Officer, as provided in paragraph (s) of this section.

(3) If under this paragraph, judgment is rendered on less than all issues or claims in the proceeding, the Presiding Officer shall determine what material facts exist without substantial controversy and what material facts are actually and in good faith controverted. He shall thereupon issue an order specifying the facts which appear without substantial controversy, and the issues and claims upon which the hearing will proceed.

(y) Conclusion of hearing. (1) If, after the expiration of the period for taking an appeal as provided by paragraph (t) of this section, no appeal has been taken from the Presiding Officer's decision, and after the expiration of the period for review by the Environmental Appeals Board on its own motion as provided for by paragraph (u) of this section, the Environmental Appeals Board does not move to review such decision, the hearing will be deemed to have ended at the expiration of all periods allowed for such appeal and review.

(2) If an appeal of the Presiding Officer's decision is taken pursuant to paragraph (t) of this section, or if, in the absence of such appeal the Environmental Appeals Board moves to review the decision of the Presiding Officer pursuant to paragraph (u) of this section, the hearing will be deemed to have ended upon issuance of a final decision by the Environmental Appeals Board.

(z) Judicial review. (1) The Administrator hereby designates the General Counsel of the Environmental Protection Agency as the officer upon whom any copies for judicial review shall be served. Such officer shall be responsible for filing in the court the record on which the order of the Environmental Appeals Board is based.

(2) [Reserved]

[50 FR 35388, Aug. 30, 1985, as amended at 50 FR 53467, Dec. 31, 1985; 55 FR 46630, Nov. 5, 1990; 57 FR 5333, Feb. 13, 1992]

§86.1116-87   Treatment of confidential information.

(a) Any manufacturer may assert that some or all of the information submitted pursuant to this subpart is entitled to confidential treatment as provided by 40 CFR part 2, subpart B.

(b) Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information at the time it is submitted to EPA.

(c) To assert that information submitted pursuant to this subpart is confidential, a manufacturer must indicate clearly the items of information claimed confidential by marking, circling, bracketing, stamping, or otherwise specifying the confidential information. Furthermore, EPA requests, but does not require, that the submitter also provide a second copy of its submittal from which all confidential information has been deleted. If a need arises to publicly release nonconfidential information, EPA will assume that the submitter has accurately deleted the confidential information from this second copy.

(d) If a claim is made that some or all of the information submitted pursuant to this subpart is entitled to confidential treatment, the information covered by that confidentiality claim will be disclosed by the Environmental Appeals Board only to the extent and by means of the procedures set forth in part 2, subpart B, of this chapter.

(e) Information provided without a claim of confidentiality at the time of submission may be made available to the public by EPA without further notice to the submitter, in accordance with 40 CFR 2.204(c)(2)(i)(A).

[50 FR 34798, Aug. 27, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 5334, Feb. 13, 1992]

Subpart M—Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authority: Secs. 202, 206, 301, Clean Air Act as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7521, 7525, 7601.

Source: 48 FR 1456, Jan. 12, 1983, unless otherwise noted.

§86.1201-90   Applicability.

(a) The provisions of this subpart are applicable to new gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled and methanol-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

(b) Provisions of this subpart apply to tests performed by both the Administrator and motor vehicle manufacturers.

(c) Test procedures and equipment other than those described in this subpart may be used by the vehicle manufacturer if shown to yield results which correlate with results yielded by those described in this subpart (with the reference driving schedule described in §86.1215-85(a)) and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

[54 FR 14562, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.1202-85   Definitions.

Applicable definitions in §§86.077-2, 86.078-2, 86.079-2, 86.080-2, 86.081-2, 86.082-2 and 86.085-2 apply to this subpart.

§86.1203-85   Abbreviations.

The abbreviations in §86.079-3 apply to this subpart.

§86.1204   Section numbering.

The section numbering system set forth in §86.104 applies to this subpart.

[59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.1205-90   Introduction; structure of subpart.

(a) This subpart describes the equipment required and the procedures to follow in order to determine evaporative emission levels from gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled and methanol-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

(b) Three topics are addressed in this subpart. Sections 86.1206 through 86.1215 set forth specifications and equipment requirements; §§86.1216 through 86.1226 discuss calibration methods and frequency; test procedures and data requirements are listed in §§86.1227 through 86.1246.

[54 FR 14562, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 58 FR 16047, Mar. 24, 1993; 59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.1206-96   Equipment required; overview.

This subpart specifies procedures for testing of gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled and methanol-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Equipment required and specifications are as follows:

(a) Evaporative emission tests. Section 86.1207 specifies the necessary equipment.

(b) Fuel, analytical gas, and driving schedule specifications. Fuel specifications for emission testing and for service accumulation are specified in §86.1213. Analytical gases are specified in §86.1214. Evaporative testing requires vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer. The driving cycle is specified in §86.1215.

[58 FR 16047, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994; 65 FR 59957, Oct. 6, 2000]

§86.1207-96   Sampling and analytical systems; evaporative emissions.

(a) Testing enclosures—(1) Diurnal emission test. The enclosure shall be readily sealable, rectangular in shape, with space for personnel access to all sides of the vehicle. When sealed, the enclosure shall be gas tight in accordance with §86.1217-96. Interior surfaces must be impermeable and nonreactive to hydrocarbons (and to methanol, if the enclosure is used for methanol-fueled vehicles). The temperature conditioning system shall be capable of controlling the internal enclosure air temperature to follow the prescribed temperature versus time cycle as specified in §86.1233-96 and appendix II of this part, within an instantaneous tolerance of ±3.0 °F of the nominal temperature versus time profile throughout the test, and an average tolerance of 2.0 °F over the duration of the test (where the average is calculated using the absolute value of each measured deviation). The control system shall be tuned to provide a smooth temperature pattern that has a minimum of overshoot, hunting, and instability about the desired long-term ambient temperature profile. Interior surface temperatures shall not be less than 40 °F at any time during the diurnal emission test. To accommodate the volume changes due to enclosure temperature changes, either a variable-volume or fixed-volume enclosure may be used for diurnal emission testing:

(i) Variable-volume enclosure. The variable-volume enclosure expands and contracts in response to the temperature change of the air mass in the enclosure. Two potential means of accommodating the internal volume changes are moveable panel(s), or a bellows design, in which impermeable bag(s) inside the enclosure expand and contract in response to internal pressure changes by exchanging air from outside the enclosure. Any design for volume accommodation must maintain the integrity of the enclosure as specified in §86.1217-96 over the specified temperature range. Any method of volume accommodation shall limit the differential between the enclosure internal pressure and the barometric pressure to a maximum value of ±2.0 inches of water. The enclosure shall be capable of latching to a fixed volume. A variable-volume enclosure must be capable of accommodating a ±7 percent change from its “nominal volume” (see §86.1217-96(b)), accounting for temperature and barometric pressure variation during testing.

(ii) Fixed-volume enclosure. The fixed-volume enclosure shall be constructed with rigid panels that maintain a fixed enclosure volume, and meet the following requirements.

(A) The enclosure shall be equipped with a mechanism to maintain a fixed internal air volume. This may be accomplished either by withdrawing air at a constant rate and providing makeup air as needed, or by reversing the flow of air into and out of the enclosure in response to rising or falling temperatures. If inlet air is added continuously throughout the test, it should be filtered with activated carbon to provide a relatively low and constant hydrocarbon level. Any method of volume accommodation shall maintain the differential between the enclosure internal pressure and the barometric pressure to a maximum value of ±2.0 inches of water.

(B) The equipment shall be capable of measuring the mass of hydrocarbon and methanol (if the enclosure is used for methanol-fueled vehicles) in the inlet and outlet flow streams with a resolution of 0.01 gram per hour. A bag sampling system may be used to collect a proportional sample of the air withdrawn from and admitted to the enclosure. Alternatively, the inlet and outlet flow streams may be continuously analyzed using an on-line FID analyzer and integrated with the flow measurements to provide a continuous record of the mass hydrocarbon and methanol removal.

(2) Running loss test. The enclosure shall be readily sealable, rectangular in shape, with space for personnel access to all sides of the vehicle. When sealed, the enclosure shall be gas tight in accordance with §86.1217-96. The enclosure may be equipped with a personnel door, provided that the enclosure can still meet the requirements of §86.1217-96 with the door installed. Interior surfaces must be impermeable and nonreactive to hydrocarbons and to methanol (if the enclosure is used for methanol-fueled vehicles). Interior surface temperatures shall not be less than 40 °F. If a running loss enclosure meets all the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, it may be used as a diurnal evaporative emission enclosure. The enclosure must contain a dynamometer that meets the requirements of §86.1208. Provisions shall be made to remove exhaust gases from the enclosure. During the running loss test, ambient temperatures must be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average). An air or oxygen cylinder with an attached self-contained breathing apparatus may be provided for the vehicle operator. The air required for vehicle operation shall be provided by one of the following methods:

(i) The running loss enclosure may be equipped to supply air to the vehicle, at a temperature of 95±5 °F, from sources outside of the running loss enclosure directly into the operating engine's air intake system. Supplemental air requirements (e.g., for an air pump) shall be supplied by drawing air from the engine intake source.

(ii) If it is shown to yield equivalent or superior results, the running loss enclosure may be designed with an air makeup system that brings outside air into the enclosure to accommodate the aspiration needs of the engine and any auxiliary devices. The makeup air shall be monitored to establish the background hydrocarbon levels (or hydrocarbon and methanol, levels, if applicable) of the makeup air. A filter may be used to provide dry air with a stable concentration of background hydrocarbon. The makeup-air vent shall be readily sealable for calibration of the enclosure and other purposes. For calculation of running loss emissions, it may be assumed that the hydrocarbon and methanol concentration in the air consumed by the vehicle is the same as that of the rest of the air in the enclosure.

(3) Hot soak test. The hot soak test may be conducted by holding the vehicle in an enclosure that meets the requirements for either diurnal emission or running loss tests. The enclosure shall be configured to provide an internal enclosure ambient temperature of 95±10 °F for the first 5 minutes, and 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average) for the remainder of the hot soak test.

(i) If the hot soak test is conducted in the same enclosure as the immediately preceding running loss test, interior surface temperatures shall not be below 70 °F for the last 55 minutes of the hot soak test.

(ii) If the hot soak test is not conducted in the same enclosure as the immediately preceding running loss test, interior surface temperatures shall not be below 70 °F for the duration of the hot soak test.

(b) Evaporative emission hydrocarbon and methanol analyzers. (1) For gasoline-, liquefied petroleum gas-, natural gas- and methanol-fueled vehicles a hydrocarbon analyzer utilizing the hydrogen flame ionization principle (FID) shall be used to monitor the atmosphere within the enclosure (a heated FID (HFID)(235°±15 °F (113±8 °C)) is recommended for methanol-fueled vehicles). Provided evaporative emission results are not affected, a probe may be used to detect or verify hydrocarbon sources during a running loss test. Instrument bypass flow may be returned to the enclosure. The FID shall have a response time to 90 percent of final reading of less than 1.5 seconds.

(2) For methanol-fueled vehicles, a methanol sampling and analyzing system is required in addition to the FID analyzer. The methanol sampling equipment shall consist of impingers for collecting the methanol sample and appropriate equipment for drawing the sample through the impingers. The analytical equipment shall consist of a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector.

(3) The methanol sampling system described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall be designed such that, if a test vehicle emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) during any phase of the test, the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer, and such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. The provisions of this paragraph apply to the design of sampling systems, not to individual tests.

(c) Evaporative emission hydrocarbon and methanol data recording system. (1) The electrical output of the FID used for measuring hydrocarbons (or hydrocarbons plus methanol, as appropriate) shall be recorded at least at the initiation and termination of each running loss and hot soak test, and at least at the initiation and termination of the enclosure sampling period(s) for the diurnal emission test, as described in §86.1233. The recording may be taken by means of a strip chart potentiometric recorder, by use of an on-line computer system or other suitable means. In any case, the recording system must have operational characteristics (signal-to-noise ratio, speed of response, etc.) equivalent to or better than those of the signal source being recorded, and must provide a permanent record of results. The record shall show a positive indication of the initiation and completion of each hot soak, running loss, or diurnal emission test (including initiation and completion of sampling period(s)), along with the time elapsed during each soak.

(2) For the methanol sample, permanent records shall be made of the following: the volumes of deionized water introduced into each impinger, the rate and time of sample collection and the chromatogram of the analyzed sample.

(d) Fuel temperature control system. Fuel temperatures of the test vehicle shall be controlled, as specified in §86.1234(g)(1)(xv), with the following combination of fans. The control system shall be tuned and operated to provide a smooth and continuous fuel temperature profile that is representative of the on-road temperature profile. The running loss test configuration should be designed to avoid heating or cooling the fuel tank's vapor space in a way that would cause vapor temperature behavior to be unrepresentative of the vehicle's on-road profile.

(1) A vehicle cooling fan shall discharge air to the front of the vehicle. The fan shall be a road-speed modulated fan that is controlled to a discharge velocity that follows the dynamometer roll speed, at least up to speeds of 30 mph, throughout the driving cycle. If a warning light or gauge indicates that the vehicle's engine coolant has overheated, subsequent test runs on the that vehicle must include a vehicle cooling fan that follows the dynamometer roll speed at all speeds throughout the test cycle. The fan may direct airflow to both the vehicle radiator air inlet(s) and the vehicle underbody.

(2) An additional fan may be used to discharge airflow from the front of the vehicle directly to the vehicle underbody to control fuel temperatures. Such a fan shall provide a total discharge airflow not to exceed 8,000 cfm.

(3) Additional fans may be used to route heating or cooling air directly at the bottom of the vehicle's fuel tank. The air supplied to the tank shall be between 85° and 160 °F, with a total discharge airflow not to exceed 4,000 cfm. For exceptional circumstances, manufacturers may direct up to 6,000 cfm at the bottom of the fuel tank with the advance approval of the Administrator.

(4) Direct fuel heating may be needed for canister preconditioning, as specified in §86.1232(j)(2). Also, under exceptional circumstances in which airflow alone is insufficient to control fuel temperatures during the running loss test, direct fuel tank heating may be used (see §86.1234-96(g)(1)(xv)). The heating system must not cause hot spots on the tank wetted surface that could cause local overheating of the fuel. Heat must not be applied directly to the tank's vapor space, nor to the liquid-vapor interface.

(e) Temperature recording system. A strip chart potentiometric recorder, an on-line computer system, or other suitable means shall be used to record enclosure ambient temperature during all evaporative emission test segments, as well as vehicle fuel tank temperature during the running loss test. The recording system shall record each temperature at least once every minute. The recording system shall be capable of resolving time to ±15 s and capable of resolving temperature to ±0.75 °F (±0.42 °C). The temperature recording system (recorder and sensor) shall have an accuracy of ±3 °F (±1.7 °C). The recorder (data processor) shall have a time accuracy of ±15 s and a precision of ±15 s. Enclosures shall be equipped with two ambient temperature sensors, connected to provide one average output, located 3 feet above the floor at the approximate mid-length of each side wall of the enclosure and within 3 to 12 inches of each side wall. For diurnal emission testing, an additional temperature sensor shall be located underneath the vehicle to provide a temperature measurement representative of the air temperature under the fuel tank. For running loss testing, an ambient temperature sensor shall be located at the inlet to the fan that provides engine cooling. Manufacturers shall arrange that vehicles furnished for testing at federal certification facilities be equipped with temperature sensors for measurement of fuel tank temperatures. Vehicles shall be equipped with two temperature sensors installed to provide an average liquid fuel temperature. The temperature sensors shall be placed to measure the temperature at the mid-volume of the liquid fuel at a fill level of 40 percent of nominal tank capacity. An additional temperature sensor may be placed to measure vapor temperatures approximately at the mid-volume of the vapor space, though measurement of vapor temperatures is optional during the running loss test. In-tank temperature sensors are not required for the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence specified in §86.1230-96.

(f) Pressure recording system. A strip chart potentiometric recorder, an on-line computer system, or other suitable means, shall be used to record the enclosure gage pressure for any testing in an enclosure, as well as the vehicle's fuel tank pressure during the running loss test and the outdoor driving procedure specified in §86.1229-85(d). Fuel tank pressure measurement and recording equipment are optional during the running loss test. The recording system shall record each pressure at least once every minute. The recording system shall be capable of resolving time to ±15 s and capable of resolving pressure to ±0.1 inches of water. The pressure recording system (recorder and sensor) shall have an accuracy of ±1.0 inch of water. The recorder (data processor) shall have a time accuracy of ±15 s and a precision of ±15 s. The pressure transducer shall be installed to measure the pressure in the vapor space of the fuel tank.

(g) Purge blower. One or more portable or fixed blowers shall be used to purge the enclosure. The blowers shall have sufficient flow capacity to reduce the enclosure hydrocarbon and/or methanol concentration from the test level to the ambient level between tests. Actual flow capacity will depend upon the time available between tests.

(h) Mixing blower. Blowers or fans shall be used to mix the enclosure contents during evaporative emission testing. The inlets and outlets of the air circulation blower(s) shall be configured to provide a well dispersed air circulation pattern that produces effective internal mixing and avoids significant temperature or hydrocarbon stratification. Maintenance of uniform concentrations throughout the enclosure is important to the accuracy of testing.

(1) Diurnal emission test. Blowers or fans shall have a capacity of 0.8±0.2 cfm per cubic foot of the nominal enclosure volume for mixing in the enclosure. Additional fans may be used to maintain a minimum wind speed of 5 mph (8 km/h) under the fuel tank of the test vehicle.

(2) Running loss test. Blowers or fans shall have a total capacity of at least 1.0 cfm per cubic foot of the nominal enclosure volume.

(3) Hot soak test. Blowers or fans must have a capacity of 0.8±0.2 cfm per cubic foot of the nominal enclosure volume. Circulated air shall not be aimed directly at the vehicle.

(i) Point-source running loss measurement facility. Some system requirements pertain specifically to running loss testing by the point-source method, in which emissions from potential sources are collected and routed to a sampling system. Emissions are sampled with the same equipment and techniques as for exhaust emission measurement. The test environment must contain a dynamometer that meets the requirements of §86.108. During the running loss test, ambient temperatures must be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average). An air or oxygen cylinder with an attached self-contained breathing apparatus may be provided for the vehicle operator.

(1) The running loss vapor vent collection system shall be configured to collect all running loss emissions from each of the discrete point sources that function as vehicle fuel system vapor vents, and transport the collected vapor emissions to a CFV- or PDP-based dilution and measurement system. The collection system shall consist of a collector at each vehicle vapor vent, lengths of heated sample line connecting each collector to the inlet of the heated sample pump, and lengths of heated sample line connecting the outlet of the heated sample pump to the inlet of the running loss fuel vapor sampling system. Up to 3 feet of unheated line connecting each of the vapor collectors to the heated sample lines shall be allowed. Each heated sample pump and its associated sample lines shall be maintained at a temperature between 175 °F and 200 °F to prevent condensation of fuel vapor in the sample lines. The heated sample pump(s) and its associated flow controls shall be configured and operated to draw a flow of ambient air into each collector at a flow rate of at least 0.67 cfm. The flow controls on each heated sampling system shall include an indicating flow meter that provides an alarm output to the data recording system if the flow rate drops below 0.67 cfm by more than 5 percent. The collector inlet for each discrete vapor vent shall be placed in proximity to the vent as necessary to capture any fuel vapor emissions without significantly affecting flow or pressure of the normal action of the vent. The collector inlets shall be designed to interface with the configuration and orientation of each specific vapor vent. For vapor vents that terminate in a tube or hose barb, a short length of tubing of an inside diameter larger throughout its length than the inside diameter of the vent outlet may be used to extend the vent into the mouth of the collector. For those vapor vent designs that are not compatible with such collector configurations, the vehicle manufacturer shall supply a collector that is configured to interface with the vapor vent design and that terminates in a fitting that is capable of capturing all vapor emitted from the vent. The Administrator may test for running losses by the point-source method without heating sample lines or pumps.

(2) The running loss fuel vapor sampling system shall be a CFV- or PDP-based dilution and measurement system that further dilutes the running loss fuel vapors collected by the vapor vent collection system(s) with ambient air, collects continuously proportional samples of the diluted running loss vapors and dilution air in sample bags, and measures the total dilute flow through the sampling system over each test interval. In practice, the system shall be configured and operated in a manner that is directly analogous to an exhaust emissions constant volume sampling system, except that the input flow to the system is the flow from the running loss vapor vent collection system(s) instead of vehicle exhaust flow. The system shall be configured and operated to meet the following requirements:

(i) The running loss fuel vapor sampling system shall be designed to measure the true mass of fuel vapor emissions collected by the running loss vapor vent collection system from the specified fuel vapor vents. The total volume of the mixture of running loss emissions and dilution air shall be measured and a continuously proportioned sample of volume shall be collected for analysis. Mass emissions shall be determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period.

(ii) The PDP-CVS shall consist of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly, heat exchanger, positive-displacement pump, sampling system, and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the following requirements:

(A) The gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the positive-displacement pump, shall be within ±10 °F of the designed operating temperature at the start of the test. The gas mixture temperature variation from its value at the start of the test shall be limited to ±10 °F during the entire test. The temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F.

(B) The pressure gauges shall have an accuracy and precision of ±1.6 inches of water (±0.4 kPa).

(C) The flow capacity of the CVS shall not exceed 350 cfm.

(D) Sample collection bags for dilution air and running loss fuel vapor samples shall be sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow.

(iii) The CFV sample system shall consist of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly, a sampling venturi, a critical flow venturi, a sampling system and assorted valves, and pressure and temperature sensors. The CFV sample system shall conform to the following requirements:

(A) The temperature measuring system shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °F and a response time of 0.100 seconds of 62.5 percent of a temperature change (as measured in hot silicone oil).

(B) The pressure measuring system shall have an accuracy and precision of ±1.6 inches of water (0.4 kPa).

(C) The flow capacity of the CVS shall not exceed 350 cfm.

(D) Sample collection bags for dilution air and running loss fuel vapor samples shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow.

(3) An on-line computer system or strip-chart recorder shall be used to record the following additional parameters during the running loss test sequence:

(i) CFV (if used) inlet temperature and pressure.

(ii) PDP (if used) inlet temperature, pressure, and differential pressure.

[58 FR 16047, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48521, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34358, June 30, 1995; 60 FR 43898, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1213-08   Fuel specifications.

The test fuels listed in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used for evaporative emission testing.

[70 FR 40437, July 13, 2005]

§86.1213-94   Fuel specifications.

Use the fuels specified in subpart N of this part for evaporative emission testing.

[71 FR 51487, Aug. 30, 2006]

§86.1214-85   Analytical gases.

(a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be:

(i) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent; and

(ii) Optionally, for response factor determination, single blends of methanol using air as the diluent.

(2) Fuel for the evaporative emission enclosure FID (or HFID for methanol-fueled vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture shall contain less than 1 ppm equivalent carbon response. 98 to 100 percent hydrogen fuel may be used with advance approval by the Administrator.

(3) The allowable zero air impurity concentration shall not exceed 1 ppm equivalent carbon response.

(4) “Zero grade air” includes artificial “air” consisting of a blend of nitrogen and oxygen with oxygen concentrations between 18 and 21 mole percent.

(5) The use of proportioning and precision blending devices to obtain the required analyzer gas concentrations is allowable provided their use has been approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b) Calibration gases (not including methanol) shall be traceable to within one percent of NIST (formerly NBS) gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator.

(c) Span gases (not including methanol) shall be accurate to within two percent of true concentration, where true concentration refers to NIST (formerly NBS) gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator.

(d) Methanol in air gases used for response factor determination shall:

(1) Be traceable to within ±2 percent of NIST (formerly NBS) gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator; and

(2) Remain within ±2 percent of the labeled concentration. Demonstration of stability shall be based on a quarterly measurement procedure with a precision of ±2 percent (two standard deviations), or other method approved by the Administrator. The measurement procedure may incorporate multiple measurements. If the true concentration of the gas changes by more than two percent, but less than ten percent, the gas may be relabeled with the new concentration.

[48 FR 1456, Jan. 12, 1983, as amended at 60 FR 34359, June 30, 1995]

§86.1215-85   EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

(a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty vehicles is a 1060 second transient speed versus time cycle which is designed to simulate gasoline-fueled HDV operation in urban areas. A second by second listing of this schedule is given in appendix I(d) of this part. Thirty-three percent of the cycle is idle operation, and the average vehicle speed is 18.9 mph (30.4 km/hr). The Administrator will use this driving schedule when conducting evaporative emission tests, as described in §86.1230-96.

(2) For evaporative emission testing of heavy-duty vehicles a manufacturer may optionally use the dynamometer driving schedule for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks specified in appendix I(a) of this part. This driving schedule may not be used for exhaust emissions testing of heavy-duty vehicles. If the manufacturer chooses to use this option, the Administrator will use this driving schedule when conducting evaporative emission tests, as described in §86.1230-96.

(b) The driver should attempt to follow the target schedule as closely as possible. The speed tolerance at any given time for these schedules, or for a driver's aid chart approved by the Administrator, are as follows:

(1) The upper limit is 4 mph (6.4 km/h) higher than the highest point on the trace within 1 second of the given time.

(2) The lower limit is 4 mph (6.4 km/h) lower than the lowest point on the trace within 1 second of the given time.

(3)(i) Speed variations greater than the tolerances (such as may occur during gear changes or braking spikes) are acceptable, provided they occur for less than 2 seconds on any occasion and are clearly documented as to the time and speed at that point of the driving schedule.

(ii) When conducted to meet the requirements of §86.1229, up to three additional occurrences of speed variations greater than the tolerance are acceptable, provided they occur for less than 15 seconds on any occasion, and are clearly documented as to the time and speed at that point of the driving schedule.

(4) Speeds lower than those prescribed are acceptable, provided the vehicle is operated at maximum available power during such occurrences.

[48 FR 1456, Jan. 12, 1983, as amended at 58 FR 16050, Mar. 24, 1993; 65 FR 59957, Oct. 6, 2000]

§86.1216-90   Calibrations; frequency and overview.

(a) Calibrations shall be performed as specified in §§86.1217 through 86.1226.

(b) At least yearly or after any maintenance which could alter background emission levels, enclosure background emission measurements shall be performed.

(c) At least monthly or after any maintenance which could alter calibration, the following calibrations and checks shall be performed:

(1) Calibrate the hydrocarbon analyzer (see §86.1221). Certain analyzers may require more frequent calibration depending on particular equipment and uses.

(2) Calibrate the dynamometer. If the dynamometer receives a weekly performance check (and remains within calibration) the monthly calibration need not be performed (see §86.1218).

(3) Perform a hydrocarbon retention check and calibration on the evaporative emission enclosure (see §86.1217).

(d) At least twice annually or after any maintenance perform a methanol retention check and calibration on the evaporative emission enclosure (see §86.1217).

(e) Calibrate the methanol analyzer as often as required by the manufacturer or as necessary according to good practice.

[54 FR 14564, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 60 FR 34359, June 30, 1995]

§86.1217-96   Evaporative emission enclosure calibrations.

The calibration of evaporative emission enclosures consists of three parts: initial and periodic determination of enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons and methanol); initial determination of enclosure internal volume; and periodic hydrocarbon and methanol retention check and calibration. Methanol measurements may be omitted if methanol-fueled vehicles will not be tested in the evaporative enclosure. Alternate calibration methods may be used if shown to yield equivalent or superior results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator; specifically, more extreme temperatures may be used for determining calibration without affecting the validity of test results.

(a) Initial and periodic determination of enclosure background emissions. Prior to its introduction into service, annually thereafter, and after any repair that can affect the enclosure background emissions, the enclosure shall be checked to determine that it does not contain materials that will themselves emit hydrocarbons or methanol. When methanol as well as hydrocarbons are present in the evaporative enclosure, the HFID hydrocarbon concentration measurement includes the partial response of the HFID to methanol plus the hydrocarbons. Determination of the HFID response to methanol, §86.1221, prior to its being placed in service is required for the determination of hydrocarbons. Proceed as follows:

(1) Prepare the enclosure. (i) Variable-volume enclosures may be operated in either latched or unlatched volume configuration, as described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Ambient temperatures shall be maintained at 96±3 °F throughout the 4-hour period.

(ii) Fixed-volume enclosures may be operated with inlet and outlet flow streams either closed or open; if inlet and outlet flow streams are open, the air flowing into and out of the enclosure must be monitored in accordance with §86.107-96(a)(1)(ii)(B). Ambient temperatures shall be maintained at 96±3 °F throughout the 4-hour period.

(iii) For running loss enclosures ambient temperatures shall be maintained at 95±3 °F throughout the 4-hour period. For running loss enclosures designed with a vent for makeup air, the enclosure shall be operated with the vent closed.

(2) The enclosure may be sealed and the mixing fan operated for a period of up to 12 hours before the 4-hour background sampling period begins.

(3) Zero and span (calibrate if required) the hydrocarbon analyzer.

(4) Prior to the background determination, purge the enclosure until a stable background hydrocarbon reading is obtained.

(5) Turn on the mixing blower (if not already on).

(6) Seal enclosure and measure background hydrocarbon concentration, background methanol, temperature, and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH3OHi, and PBi, Ti for the enclosure background determination.

(7) Allow the enclosure to stand undisturbed for four hours.

(8) Measure the hydrocarbon concentration on the same FID and the methanol level. These are the final concentrations, CHCf and CCH3OHf. Also measure final temperature and barometric pressure.

(9) Calculate the mass change of methanol, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbons plus methanol in the enclosure according to the equations in paragraph (d) of this section.

(i) Diurnal enclosures. The enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons plus methanol) shall not be greater than 0.05g for the 4 hours.

(ii) Running loss enclosures. The enclosure background emissions (hydrocarbons plus methanol) shall not be greater than 0.2 grams for the 4 hours.

(b) Initial determination of enclosure internal volume. Prior to its introduction into service the enclosure internal volume shall be determined by the following procedure:

(1) Carefully measure the internal length, width and height of the enclosure, accounting for irregularities (such as braces) and calculate the internal volume. For variable-volume enclosures, latch the enclosure to a fixed volume when the enclosure is held at a constant temperature; this nominal volume shall be repeatable within ±0.5 percent of the reported value.

(2)-(3) [Reserved]

(c) Hydrocarbon and methanol (organic gas) retention check and calibration. The hydrocarbon and methanol (if the enclosure is used for methanol-fueled vehicles) retention check provides a check upon the calculated volume and also measures the leak rate. The enclosure leak rate shall be determined prior to its introduction into service, following any modifications or repairs to the enclosure that may affect the integrity of the enclosure, and at least monthly thereafter. If six consecutive monthly retention checks are successfully completed without corrective action, the enclosure leak rate may be determined quarterly thereafter as long as no corrective action is required.

(1) An enclosure to be used for the diurnal emission test (see §86.1233-96) shall be calibrated according to the following procedure. Calibration for hydrocarbon and methanol may be conducted simultaneously or in sequential test runs.

(i) Zero and span (calibrate if required) the hydrocarbon analyzer.

(ii) Purge the enclosure until a stable background hydrocarbon reading is obtained.

(iii) Turn on the mixing blowers (if not already on).

(iv) [Reserved]

(v) Turn on the ambient temperature control system (if not already on) and adjust it for an initial temperature of 96 °F (36 °C). On variable-volume enclosures, latch the enclosure to the appropriate volume position for the set temperature. On fixed-volume enclosures close the outlet and inlet flow streams.

(vi) When the enclosure stabilizes at 96±3 °F (36±2 °C), seal the enclosure and measure background hydrocarbon concentration, background methanol, temperature, and barometric pressure. These are the initial readings CHCi, CCH3OHi, Ti, and PBi for the enclosure calibration.

(vii) Inject into the enclosure 2 to 6 grams of pure methanol at a temperature of at least 150 °F (65 °C) and/or 2 to 6 grams of pure propane. The injected quantity may be measured by volume flow or by mass measurement. The method used to measure the quantity of methanol and propane shall have an accuracy of ±0.2 percent of the measured value (less accurate methods may be used with the advance approval of the Administrator).

(viii) After a minimum of 5 minutes of mixing, analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbon and methanol content, also record temperature and pressure. These measurements are the final readings for the enclosure calibration as well as the initial readings for the retention check.

(ix) To verify the enclosure calibration, calculate the mass of propane and the mass of methanol using the measurements taken in paragraphs (c)(1)(vi) and (viii) of this section. See paragraph (d) of this section. This quantity must be within ±2 percent of that measured in paragraph (c)(1)(vii) of this section. (For calendar years through 1995, the difference may exceed ±2 percent for methanol, provided it does not exceed ±6 percent.)

(x) For variable-volume enclosures, unlatch the enclosure from the nominal volume configuration. For fixed-volume enclosures, open the outlet and inlet flow streams.

(xi) Start cycling the ambient temperature from 96 °F to 72 °F and back to 96 °F over a 24-hour period, according to the profile specified in §86.1233-96 and appendix II of this part, within 15 minutes of sealing the enclosure.

(xii) At the completion of the 24-hour cycling period, analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbon and methanol content; determine the net withdrawn methanol (in the case of diurnal emission testing with fixed-volume enclosures); record temperature and barometric pressure. These are the final readings for the hydrocarbon and methanol retention check. The final hydrocarbon and methanol mass, calculated in paragraph (d) of this section, shall be within 3 percent of that determined in paragraph (c)(1)(viii) of this section. (For calendar years through 1995, the difference may exceed ±3 percent for methanol, provided it does not exceed ±6 percent.)

(2) An enclosure to be used for the running loss test (see §86.1234-96) shall meet the calibration and retention requirements of §86.1217-90(c).

(3) Enclosures calibrated according to the procedures specified in either paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section may be used for hot soak testing (see §86.1238).

(4) The Administrator, upon request, may waive the requirement to comply with ±2 percent methanol recovery tolerance, and/or the ±3 percent retention tolerance and instead require compliance with higher tolerances (not to exceed ±6 percent for recoveries and ±8 for retention), provided that:

(i) The Administrator determines that compliance with these specified tolerances is not practically feasible; and

(ii) The manufacturer makes information available to the Administrator which indicates that the calibration tests and their results are consistent with good laboratory practice, and that the results are consistent with the results of calibration testing conducted by the Administrator.

(d) Calculations. (1) The calculation of net methanol and hydrocarbon mass change is used to determine enclosure background and leak rate. It is also used to check the enclosure volume measurements. The methanol mass change is calculated from the initial and final methanol samples, the net withdrawn methanol (in the case of diurnal emission testing with fixed-volume enclosures), and initial and final temperature and pressure according to the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.120.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(i) MCH3OH=Methanol mass change, µg.

(ii) V=Enclosure volume, ft3, as measured in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) [Reserved]

(v) VE=Volume of sample withdrawn, ft3. Sample volumes must be corrected for differences in temperature to be consistent with determination of Vn, prior to being used in the equation.

(vi) PB=Barometric pressure at time of sampling, in. Hg.

(vii) CMS=GC concentration of test sample.

(viii) AV=Volume of absorbing reagent in impinger.

(ix) i=Initial sample.

(x) f=Final sample.

(xi) 1=First impinger.

(xii) 2=Second impinger.

(xiii) MCH3OH,out=mass of methanol exiting the enclosure, in the case of fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, µg.

(xiv) MCH3OH,in=mass of methanol entering the enclosure, in the case of fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, µg.

(2) The hydrocarbon mass change is calculated from the initial and final FID readings of hydrocarbon concentration, methanol concentration with FID response to methanol, temperature, and pressure according to the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.121.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(i) MHC=Hydrocarbon mass change, g.

(ii) CHC=FID hydrocarbon concentration as ppm carbon including FID response to methanol in the sample.

(iii) CCH3OH=Methanol concentration as ppm carbon

eCFR graphic er06oc93.122.gif

View or download PDF

(iv) V=Enclosure volume ft3 (m3), as measured in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(v) r=FID response factor to methanol.

(vi) PB=Barometric pressure, in. Hg. (kPa).

(vii) T=Enclosure ambient temperature, R(K).

(viii) i=Indicates initial reading.

(ix) f=Indicates final reading.

(x)(A) k=3.05.

(B) For SI units, k=17.60.

(xi) MHC,out=mass of hydrocarbon exiting the enclosure, in the case of fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, g.

(xii) MHC,in=mass of hydrocarbon entering the enclosure, in the case of fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, g.

(3) For variable-volume enclosures, defined in §86.1207(a)(1)(i), the following simplified form of the hydrocarbon mass change equation may be used:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.123.gif

View or download PDF

(e) Calibration of equipment for point-source testing of running losses. For the point-source method, the running loss fuel vapor sampling system shall be calibrated as a CVS system, as specified in §86.119, with the additional specification that the vapor sampling system verification be conducted as follows:

(1) The following “gravimetric” technique can be used to verify that the vapor sampling system and analytical instruments can accurately measure a mass of gas that has been injected into the system. If the vapor sampling system will be used only in the testing of petroleum-fueled engines, system verification may be performed using propane. If the vapor sampling system will be used with methanol-fueled vehicles as well as petroleum-fueled vehicles, the system verification performance check must include a methanol check in addition to the propane check. (Verification can also be accomplished by constant flow metering using critical flow orifice devices.)

(i) Obtain a small cylinder that has been charged with pure propane gas. Obtain another small cylinder that has been charged with pure methanol if the system will be used for methanol-fueled vehicle testing. Since this cylinder will be heated to 150-155 °F, care must be taken to ensure that the liquid volume of methanol placed in the cylinder does not exceed approximately one-half of the total volume of the cylinder.

(ii) Determine a reference cylinder weight to the nearest 0.01 grams.

(iii) Operate the vapor sampling system in the normal manner and release a known quantity of pure propane into the most frequently used fuel vapor collector during the sampling period (approximately 5 minutes).

(iv) Continue to operate the vapor sampling system in the normal manner and release a known quantity of pure methanol into the system during the sampling period (approximately 5 minutes).

(v) The calculations of §86.1244 are performed in the normal way, except in the case of propane. The density of propane (17.30 g/ft3/carbon atom (0.6109 kg/m3/carbon atom)) is used in place of the density of exhaust hydrocarbons. In the case of methanol, the density of 37.71 g/ft3 (1.332 kg/m3) is used.

(vi) The gravimetric mass is subtracted from the vapor sampling system measured mass and then divided by the gravimetric mass to determine the percent accuracy of the system.

(vii) The cause for any discrepancy greater than ±2 percent must be found and corrected.

(2) This procedure shall be conducted in the point-source running loss test environment with the collector installed in a vehicle in the normal test configuration. The fuel of the test vehicle shall either be diesel, or it shall be kept under 100 °F (38 °C). Two to six grams of pure propane and two to six grams of pure methanol shall be injected into the collector while the vehicle is operated over one Heavy-Duty Vehicle Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, as described in §86.1215 and appendix I of this part. The propane and methanol injections shall be conducted at the ambient temperature of 95±5 °F (35±3 °C).

[58 FR 16050, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 60 FR 34360, June 30, 1995; 60 FR 43900, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1218-85   Dynamometer calibration.

(a) The dynamometer shall be calibrated at least once each month or performance verified at least once each week and then calibrated as required. The calibration shall consist of the manufacturer's recommended calibration procedure plus a determination of the dynamometer frictional power absorption. If the dynamometer is to be used for driving only the reference (transient) schedule, the frictional power absorption needs to be determined only at 50.0 mph (80.5 km/hr). If the dynamometer is to be used for driving the steady-state cycle, the frictional power absorption needs to be determined through the range of 15 to 50 mph. One method for determining dynamometer frictional power absorption at 50.0 mph (80.5 km/hr) is described below. The same general method can be used at other speeds. Other methods may be used if shown to yield equivalent results. The measured absorbed road power includes the dynamometer friction as well as the power absorbed by the power absorption unit. The dynamometer is driven above the test speed range. The device used to drive the dynamometer is then disengaged from the dynamometer and the roll(s) is (are) allowed to coastdown. The kinetic energy of the system is dissipated by the dynamometer. This method neglects the variations in roll bearing friction due to the drive axle weight of the vehicle. In the case of dynamometers with paired rolls, the inertia and power absorption of the free (rear) roll may be neglected if its inertia is less than 3.0 percent of the total equivalent inertia required for vehicle testing.

(1) Devise a method to determine the speed of the roll(s) to be measured for power absorption. A fifth wheel, revolution pickup, or other suitable means may be used.

(2) Place a vehicle on the dynamometer or devise another method of driving the dynamometer.

(3) If the dynamometer is capable of simulating more than a single inertia mass, engage the inertial flywheel or other inertial simulation system for the most common vehicle mass category for which the dynamometer is used. In addition, other vehicle mass categories may be calibrated, if desired.

(4) Drive the dynamometer up to 50 mph (80.5 km/hr).

(5) Record indicated road power.

(6) Drive the dynamometer up to 60 mph (96.9 km/hr).

(7) Disengage the device used to drive the dynamometer.

(8) Record the time for the dynamometer roll(s) to coastdown from 55.0 mph (88.5 km/hr) to 45.0 mph (72.4 km/hr).

(9) Adjust the power absorption unit to a different level.

(10) Repeat steps (4) to (8) above sufficient times to cover the range of road power used.

(11) Calculate absorbed road power (HPd). (See paragraph (c) of this section.)

(12) Plot indicated road load power at 50 mph (80.5 km/hr) versus road load power at 50 mph (80.5 km/hr).

(b) The performance check consists of conducting a dynamometer coastdown and comparing the coastdown time to that recorded during the last calibration. If the coastdown times differ by more than 1 second or by 5 percent of the time recorded during the last calibration, whichever is greater, a new calibration is required.

(c) Calculations. The road load power actually absorbed by each roll assembly (or roll-inertia weight assembly) of the dynamometer is calculated from the following equation:

HPd = ( 12 ) (W/32.2) (V12—V22)/550t

Where:

HPd = Power, horsepower (kilowatts)

W = Equivalent inertia, lb (kg)

V1 = Initial velocity, ft/s (m/s) (55 mph = 88.5 km/h = 80.67 ft/s = 24.58 m/s)

V2 = Final velocity, ft/s (m/s) (45 mph = 72.4 km/h = 66 ft/s = 20.11 m/s)

t = Elapsed time for rolls to coast from 55 mph to 45 mph (88.5 to 72.4 km/hr).

(Expressions in parenthesis are for SI units). When the coastdown is from 55 to 45 mph (88.5 to 72.4 km/hr) the above equation reduces to:

HPd = 0.06073 (W/t)

For SI units:

HPd = 0.09984 (W/t)

The total road load power actually absorbed by the dynamometer is the sum of the absorbed road load power of each roll assembly.

§86.1221-90   Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations.

(a) Initial and periodic optimization of detector response. Prior to its introduction into service and at least annually thereafter, the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response. (The HFID used with methanol-fueled vehicles shall be operated at 235° ±15 °F (113° ±8 °C)). Analyzers used with gasoline-fuel and liquefied petroleum gas-fuel shall be optimized using propane. Analyzers used with natural gas-fuel may be optimized using methane, or if calibrated using propane the FID response to methane shall be determined and applied to the FID hydrocarbon reading. Alternate methods yielding equivalent results may be used, if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(1) Follow the manufacturer's instructions or good engineering practice for instrument startup and basic operating adjustment using the appropriate FID fuel and zero-grade air.

(2) Optimize on the most common operating range. Introduce into the analyzer a propane (or methane as appropriate) in air mixture with a propane (or methane as appropriate) concentration equal to approximately 90 percent of the most common operating range.

(3) Select an operating FID fuel flow rate that will give near maximum response and least variation in response with minor fuel flow variations.

(4) To determine the optimum air flow, use the FID fuel flow setting determined above and vary air flow.

(5) After the optimum flow rates have been determined, record them for future reference.

(b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges, and, if applicable, the methanol response factor shall be determined (paragraph (c) of this section). Use the same flow rate as when analyzing sample.

(1) Adjust analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the hydrocarbon analyzer with zero-grade air.

(3) Calibrate on each normally used operating range with propane in air (or methane in air as appropriate) calibration gases having nominal concentrations of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 percent of that range. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least squares best-fit straight line is two percent or less of the value at each data point, concentration values may be calculated by use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds two percent at any point, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of each test point shall be used to determine concentration.

(c) FID response factor to methanol. When the FID analyzer is to be used for the analysis of hydrocarbon samples containing methanol, the methanol response factor of the analyzer shall be established. The methanol response factor shall be determined at several concentrations in the range of concentrations in the exhaust sample, using either bag samples or gas bottles meeting the requirements of §86.114.

(1) The bag sample of methanol for analysis in the FID, if used, shall be prepared using the apparatus shown in Figure M90-1. A known volume of methanol is injected, using a microliter syringe, into the heated mixing zone (250 °F (121 °C) of the apparatus. The methanol is vaporized and swept into the sample bag with a known volume of zero grade air measured by a gas flow meter with an accuracy of ±2 percent.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.184.gif

View or download PDF

(2) The bag sample is analyzed using the FID.

(3) The FID response factor, r, is calculated as follows:

r = FIDppm/SAMppm

Where:

(i) r = FID response factor.

(ii) FIDppm = FID reading in ppmC.

(iii) SAMppm=methanol concentration in the sample bag, or gas bottle, in ppmC. SAMppm for sample bags:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.124.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(iv) 0.02406 = Volume of one mole at 29.92 in Hg and 68 °F, m3.

(v) Fuel injected = Volume of methanol injected, ml.

(vi) Fuel density = Density of methanol, 0.7914 g/ml.

(vii) Air volume = Volume of zero grade air, m3.

(viii) Mol. Wt. CH3OH = 32.04.

(d) The gas chromatograph used in the analysis of methanol samples shall be calibrated at least monthly following manufacturers' recommended procedures (certain equipment may require more frequent calibration based on use and good engineering judgment).

(e) FID response factor to methane. When the FID analyzer to be used for the analysis of natural gas-fueled vehicle hydrocarbon samples has been calibrated using propane, the methane response factor of the analyzer shall be established. To determine the total hydrocarbon FID response to methane, known methane in air concentrations traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) shall be analyzed by the FID. Several methane concentrations shall be analyzed by the FID in the range of concentrations in the exhaust sample. The total hydrocarbon FID response to methane is calculated as follows:

rCH4 = FIDppm/SAMppm

Where:

(1) rCH4 = FID response factor to methane.

(2) FIDppm = FID reading in ppmC.

(3) SAMppm = the known methane concentration in ppmC.

[54 FR 14566, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48523, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34361, June 30, 1995]

§86.1226-85   Calibration of other equipment.

Other test equipment used for testing shall be calibrated as often as required by the manufacturer or as necessary according to good practice.

§86.1227-96   Test procedures; overview.

(a) The overall test consists of prescribed sequences of fueling, parking, and operating conditions. Vehicles are tested only for evaporative emissions.

(b) The evaporative emission test (gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled, and methanol-fueled vehicles) is designed to determine hydrocarbon and/or methanol evaporative emissions as a consequence of diurnal temperature fluctuation urban driving and hot soaks during engine-off periods. It is associated with a series of events representative of heavy-duty vehicle operation, which result in hydrocarbon and/or methanol vapor losses. The test procedure is designed to measure:

(1) Diurnal emissions resulting from daily temperature changes (as well as relatively constant resting losses), measured by the enclosure technique (see §86.1233);

(2) Running losses resulting from a simulated trip on a chassis dynamometer, measured by the enclosure or point-source technique (see §86.1234; this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles); and

(3) Hot soak losses, which result when the vehicle is parked and the hot engine is turned off, measured by the enclosure technique (see §86.1238).

(c) Background concentrations are measured for all species for which emissions measurements are made. For evaporative testing, this requires measuring initial concentrations. (When testing methanol-fueled vehicles, manufacturers may choose not to measure background concentrations of methanol, and then assume that the concentrations are zero during calculations.)

[58 FR 16052, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48523, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34363, June 30, 1995]

§86.1228-85   Transmissions.

(a) All test conditions, except as noted, shall be run in a manner representative of in-use operation, and where appropriate, according to the manufacturer's recommendation to the ultimate purchaser.

(b) Except for the first idle mode, idle modes less than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with the clutch disengaged, except first idle. The first idle mode and idle modes longer than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Neutral,” and manual transmissions shall be in “Neutral” with the clutch engaged (clutch may be disengaged for engine start-up).

(c) The vehicle shall be driven with minimum accelerator pedal movement to maintain the desired operation.

(d) Accelerations shall be driven smoothly according to the manufacturer's recommendation to the ultimate purchaser. For manual transmissions, the operator shall accomplish each shift with minimum time. If the vehicle cannot accelerate at the specified rate, the vehicle shall be operated at maximum available power until the vehicle speed reaches the value prescribed for that time in the driving schedule.

(e) For those deceleration modes which decelerate to zero, manual transmission clutches shall be depressed when the speed drops below 15 mph (24.1 km/hr), when engine roughness is evident, or when engine stalling is imminent.

§86.1229-85   Dynamometer load determination and fuel temperature profile.

(a) Flywheels, electrical or other means of simulating inertia shall be used. The value of equivalent inertia weight shall be within 250 pounds of the loaded vehicle weight (LVW). Loaded vehicle weight is defined as follows:

(1) For test vehicles which have an actual weight less than 0.5 × (GVWR),

LVW = 0.5 × (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating)

(2) For test vehicles which have an actual weight (As tested) greater than 0.5 × (GVWR),

LVW = Actual Weight of Test Vehicle,

(b) Power absorption unit adjustment. (1) The power absorption unit shall be adjusted to reproduce road load power at 50 mph true speed. The indicated road load power setting shall take into account the dynamometer friction. The relationship between road load (absorbed) power and indicated road load power for a particular dynamometer shall be determined by the procedure outlined in §86.1218-85 or other suitable means.

(2) The road load power used shall be determined from the following equation:

RLP = 0.67(H − 0.75)W = 0.00125[LVW − (N × DW)]

Where:

RLP = Road Load Power at 50 mph (horsepower).

H = Vehicle overall maximum height (feet).

W = Vehicle overall maximum width (feet).

LVW = Loaded vehicle weight (pounds).

DW = Vehicle weight supported by the dynamometer (pounds).

N = Number of dynamometer rolls supporting a tire.

or the manufacturer may determine the road load power by an alternate procedure (including coastdown). Such alternate procedures shall exhibit good engineering judgement and shall be subject to review upon request by the Administrator. For vehicles which the manufacturer chooses to certify by the optional light-duty truck certification provision (§86.082-1(b)), the evaporative emission test procedure (and standard) will be that specified by the light-duty truck regulations.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) Fuel temperature profile—(1) General requirements. (i) To be tested for running losses, as specified in §86.1234, a vehicle must have a fuel temperature profile. The following procedure is used to generate the fuel temperature profile, which serves as a target for controlling fuel temperatures during the running loss test. This profile represents the fuel temperature change that occurs during on-road driving. If a vehicle has more than one fuel tank, a profile shall be established for each tank. Manufacturers may also simultaneously generate a profile for vapor temperatures.

(ii) If a manufacturer uses a vehicle model to develop a profile to represent multiple models, the vehicle model selected must have the greatest expected fuel temperature increase during driving of all those models it represents. Also, manufacturers must select test vehicles with any available vehicle options that increase fuel temperatures during driving (for example, any feature that limits underbody airflow).

(iii) Manufacturers may conduct testing to develop fuel temperature profiles in a laboratory setting, subject to approval by the Administrator. The laboratory facility should simulate outdoor testing to reproduce fuel and vapor temperature behavior over the specified driving schedule. The design of the laboratory facility should include consideration of any parameters that may affect fuel temperatures, such as solar loading, pavement heat, and relative wind velocities around and underneath the test vehicle. Indoor testing to develop the fuel temperature profiles must be conducted with little or no vehicle-specific adjustment of laboratory parameters. Manufacturers would need to maintain an ongoing demonstration of correlation between laboratory and outdoor measurement of fuel temperatures. Specifically, fuel temperatures and pressures from indoor driving should be at least as high as measured when driving outdoors according to the procedures described in this section.

(iv) Small-volume manufacturers, as defined in §86.094-14(b)(1), may use an alternate method for generating fuel temperature profiles, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

(v) The Administrator may conduct testing to establish any vehicle's temperature profiles or to verify compliance with fuel tank pressure requirements.

(2) Vehicle instrumentation. (i) The vehicle must be equipped with temperature sensors and pressure transducers, as described in §86.1207-96(e) and (f), and a driver's aid, which shall be configured to provide the test driver with the desired vehicle speed vs. time trace and the actual vehicle speed.

(ii) A computer, data logger, or strip chart data recorder shall record the following parameters at a minimum during the test run:

(A) Desired speed;

(B) Actual speed;

(C) Instantaneous average liquid fuel temperature (Tliq); and

(D) Vapor space pressure (the Administrator may omit measurement of fuel tank pressure).

(iii) The data recording system described in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section shall be capable of resolving time to ±1 s, capable of resolving temperature to ±2 °F, capable of resolving pressure to ±1.0 inch of water, and capable of resolving speed to ±1 mph. The temperature and pressure signals shall be recorded at intervals of up to 1 minute; speed signals shall be recorded at intervals of up to 1 second.

(3) Ambient conditions. The procedure shall be run under the following ambient conditions. Conditions should be representative of sunny summer days.

(i) Starting ambient temperature (Tamb,o) shall be at least 95 °F, steady or increasing (no more than 2 °F drop) during the procedure. Ambient temperature shall be measured and recorded in regular intervals of at least once every 5 minutes. Measure ambient temperature with the following requirements (based on Federal Standard for Siting Meteorological Sensors at Airports, FCM-S4-1987). The sensors shall be mounted 5±1 feet (1.5±0.3 meters) above ground level. The sensors shall be protected from radiation from the sun, sky, earth, and any other surrounding objects, but at the same time be adequately ventilated. The sensors shall be installed in such a position as to ensure that measurements are representative of the free air circulation in the locality and not influenced by artificial conditions such as large buildings, cooling towers, and expanses of concrete and tarmac. Keep any grass and vegetation within 100 feet (30 meters) of the sensor clipped to a height of about 10 inches (25 centimeters) or less.

(ii) Wind conditions shall be calm to light with maximum wind speed of 15 mph. In the case of temporary gusting, wind speeds between 15 and 25 mph may occur for up to 5 percent of the total driving time without invalidating the data collection. Wind speed shall be measured and recorded in regular intervals of at least once per minute. Measure wind speed with the following requirements (based on Federal Standard for Siting Meteorological Sensors at Airports, FCM-S4-1987). The site should be relatively level, but small gradual slopes are acceptable. The sensor shall be mounted 30 to 33 feet (9 to 10 meters) above the average ground height within a radius of 500 feet (150 meters). The sensor height shall not exceed 33 feet, except as necessary to be at least 15 feet (5 meters) above the height of any obstruction (e.g. vegetation, buildings, etc.) within a 500 foot (150 meter) radius. An object is considered to be an obstruction if the included lateral angle from the sensor to the ends of the object is 10 degrees or more.

(iii) Road surface temperature shall be at least 125 °F throughout the driving period. Pavement temperature shall be measured and recorded in regular intervals of at least once per minute. The track temperature may be measured with an embedded sensor, a portable temperature probe, or an infrared pyrometer that can provide an accuracy of ±2 °F. Temperatures must be measured on a surface representative of the surface where the vehicle is driven.

(iv) Conditions shall be sunny or mostly sunny with a maximum cloud cover of 25 percent.

(v) Reported cloud cover, wind speed, and ambient temperature should be consistent with that reported by the nearest weather station; the Administrator may request justification of any discrepancy.

(4) Profile determination procedure. (i) Drain the fuel tank(s) and fill with test fuel to the “tank fuel volume” defined in §86.082-2. The test fuel should meet the specifications of §86.1213, except that fuel with a lower volatility may be used, subject to Administrator approval. Manufacturers using a lower volatility fuel must generate a vapor temperature profile for demonstrating compliance with the limit on fuel tank pressure during the running loss test (see §86.1234-96).

(ii) The vehicle shall be moved to the location where the data is to be collected. It may be driven a maximum distance of 5 miles and may also be transported by other means. The vehicle shall be stabilized by one of the following methods:

(A) The vehicle shall be parked for a minimum of 12 hours in an open area on a surface that is representative of the test road, without any artificial heating or cooling of the fuel. The orientation of the front of the vehicle during parking (e.g., N, SW, etc.) shall be documented.

(B) The vehicle may be soaked in a temperature-controlled environment to stabilize fuel temperatures. Before starting the drive, the vehicle shall be stabilized with fuel temperatures 95±3 °F for at least one hour. The fuel temperature may not exceed 98 °F at any time before the beginning of the driving schedule, during which only whole-vehicle heating and cooling may be used to control fuel temperatures. If a manufacturer uses the provisions of paragraph (d)(7)(v) of this section to establish a lower initial fuel temperature for the running loss test, the fuel in the test vehicle may not be stabilized at a temperature higher than the newly established initial fuel temperature.

(iii) Once the ambient conditions specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section are met and the vehicle has been stabilized according to paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section, the vehicle's engine may be started. The vehicle's air conditioning system (if so equipped) shall be set to the “normal” air conditioning mode and adjusted to the minimum discharge air temperature and high fan speed. Vehicles equipped with automatic temperature controlled air conditioning systems shall be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72 °F.

(iv) The vehicle may be operated at minimum throttle for a period up to 60 seconds prior to the start of the driving schedule, as necessary to move from the parking location onto the road surface. The driver's aid shall be started and the vehicle operated over the driving cycle specified in §86.1234-96(b) with the transmission operated in the same manner as specified in §86.128-79. The data recording system shall provide a record of the required parameters over the entire period of driving.

(5) Records required. In addition to the vehicle data recording, the following parameters shall be documented for the determination of the fuel temperature profile:

(i) Date and time of vehicle fueling;

(ii) Odometer reading at vehicle fueling;

(iii) Date and time vehicle was parked, parking location and orientation;

(iv) Odometer reading at parking;

(v) Date and time engine was started;

(vi) Time of initiation of the first driving cycle;

(vii) Time of completion of the driving cycle;

(viii) Ambient temperatures throughout the period of driving (Tamb);

(ix) Wind speed throughout the period of driving;

(x) Track surface temperatures throughout the period of driving cycle (Tsur);

(xi) Percent cloud cover during the period of driving; and

(xii) Ambient temperature, wind speed, and percent cloud cover reported by the nearest weather station for the time corresponding most closely to the period of driving.

(6) Fuel tank pressure. Tank pressure shall not exceed 10 inches of water at any time during the temperature profile determination unless a pressurized system is used and the manufacturer demonstrates that vapor would not be vented to the atmosphere upon fuel cap removal.

(7) Calculation of temperature profiles. (i) The traces from the driving schedule shall be verified to meet the speed tolerance requirements of §86.1215. The following conditions shall be verified:

(A) Tamb,i ≥Tamb,o −2 °F.

Where,

(1) i=instantaneous measurement throughout the drive; and

(2) o=initial measurement at the start of the specified driving schedule.

(B) Tamb,o≥95 °F.

(C) Tsur,i−Tamb,i≥30 °F.

(D) Wmax≤15 mph.

(ii) Failure to comply with any of these requirements shall result in invalidation of the data and require that the procedure be repeated, beginning with the fuel drain at paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.

(iii) If all these requirements are met, the following calculations shall be performed to determine a profile for liquid fuel temperatures and, if applicable, for vapor temperatures: Ti,profile=Ti-To.

Where:

(A) Ti,profile=the series of temperatures that comprise the relative temperature profile.

(B) Ti=the series of observed liquid fuel or vapor temperatures during the drive.

(C) To=the liquid fuel or vapor temperature observed at the start of the specified driving schedule.

(iv) The relative temperature profile consists of the set of temperatures at each 1-minute interval. If temperatures are sampled more frequently than once per minute, the temperature data points may represent a rolling average of temperatures sampled for up to one-minute intervals. If multiple valid test runs are conducted for any model, then all the collected data shall be used to calculate a composite profile, based on the average temperatures at each point. The absolute temperature profile is determined by adding 95 °F (35 °C) to each point of the relative profile. Other methodologies for developing corrected liquid fuel and vapor space temperature profiles may be used if demonstrated to yield equivalent results and approved in advance by the Administrator.

(v) Manufacturers may use a lower initial fuel temperature for the running loss test, if approved in advance by the Administrator. To demonstrate the need for such an adjustment, manufacturers would be expected to determine the maximum fuel temperature experienced by a vehicle during an extended park or after driving one UDDS cycle when exposed to the ambient conditions described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. To use this provision, manufacturers would have to show maximum fuel temperatures no greater than 92 °F.

[48 FR 1456, Jan. 12, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983; 58 FR 16053, Mar. 24, 1993; 60 FR 43901, Aug. 23, 1995; 65 FR 59957, Oct. 6, 2000]

§86.1230-96   Test sequence; general requirements.

(a)(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles. The test sequence shown in figure M96-1 of this section shows the steps encountered as the test vehicle undergoes the procedures subsequently described to determine conformity with the standards set forth. The full three-diurnal sequence depicted in figure M96-1 tests vehicles for all sources of evaporative emissions. The supplemental two-diurnal test sequence is designed to verify that vehicles sufficiently purge their evaporative canisters during the dynamometer run. Sections 86.1232-96, 86.1233-96 and 86.1238-96 describe the separate specifications of the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence.

(2) Gaseous-fueled vehicles. The test sequence shown in figure M96-1 of this section shows the steps encountered as the test vehicle undergoes the procedures subsequently described to determine conformity with the standards set forth, with the exception that the fuel drain and fill and precondition canister steps are not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles. In addition, the supplemental two-diurnal test and the running loss test are not required.

(b) The vehicle test for fuel spitback during fuel dispensing is conducted as a stand-alone test (see §86.1246). This test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles.

(c) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test vehicle shall be not less than 68 °F nor more than 86 °F, unless otherwise specified. If a different ambient temperature is specified for soaking the vehicle, the soak period may be interrupted once for up to 10 minutes to transport the vehicle from one soak area to another, provided the ambient temperature experienced by the vehicle is never below 68 °F. The temperatures monitored during testing must be representative of those experienced by the test vehicle.

(d) The vehicle shall be approximately level during all phases of the test sequence to prevent abnormal fuel distribution.

(e) If tests are invalidated after collection of emission data from previous test segments, the test may be repeated to collect only those data points needed to complete emission measurements. Compliance with emission standards may be determined by combining emission measurements from different test runs. If any emission measurements are repeated, the new measurements supersede previous values.

eCFR graphic er23au95.009.gif

View or download PDF

[58 FR 16054, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48524, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 43902, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1231-90   Vehicle preparation.

(a) Prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel at the approximate mid-volume of the fuel when the tank is 40 percent full.

(b) Provide additional fittings and adapters, as required, to accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tank(s) as installed on the vehicle.

(c)(1) Any vapor storage device which absorbs HC vapors and/or CH3OH vapors and subsequently releases them to the engine induction system during vehicle operation shall be subjected to a minimum of 30 load-purge cycles or the equivalent thereof (4,000 miles or more of actual in-use vehicle service accumulation shall be considered equivalent). One load-purge cycle shall be accomplished by conducting one of the following procedures:

(i) Vehicle procedure. Park a fully-warm vehicle (a vehicle that has been driven for at least 15 minutes) for a time period of at least 3 hours. Fill the fuel tank(s) to the prescribed “tank fuel volume” with specified test fuel (§86.1213) at room temperature. Then drive the vehicle through at least one cycle of the HDV reference (transient) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

(ii) Laboratory procedure. Flow vapors (gasoline or methanol, as appropriate) into a pre-purged vapor storage device until at least 10 percent of the input HC or CH3OH mass flow rate is passing through the device. Purge the device with a volume of air which is at least as great as, and which has a temperature no higher than that which would be drawn through the device if it were installed on the test vehicle and the vehicle was operated according to the HDV reference (transient) urban dynamometer driving schedule. The vapor flow rate, the method used to generate the vapors, the air flow rate, and the air temperature shall be recorded. If pre-blended gas is used, then the composition and characteristics of the gas shall be recorded.

(2) Ten load-purge cycles accumulated immediately prior to testing shall be conducted according to the method in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. The preceding 20 cycles (minimum) shall be conducted according to either of the methods in paragraph (c)(1) (i) or (ii) of this section.

[54 FR 14568, Apr. 11, 1989]

§86.1231-96   Vehicle preparation.

(a) For gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles prepare the fuel tank(s) for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel, as described in §86.1207-96(e).

(b) Provide additional fittings and adapters, as required, to accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tank(s) as installed on the vehicle.

(c) For preconditioning that involves loading the evaporative emission canister(s) with butane, provide valving or other means as necessary to allow purging and loading of the canister(s).

(d) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the fuel tank(s) for measuring and recording the temperature and pressure of the fuel tank as specified in §86.1207-96 (e) and (f). Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test. If vapor temperature is not measured, fuel tank pressure need not be measured.

(e) For vehicles to be tested for running loss emissions, prepare the exhaust system by sealing or plugging all detectable sources of exhaust gas leaks. The exhaust system shall be tested or inspected to ensure that detectable exhaust hydrocarbons are not emitted into the running loss enclosure during the running loss test.

[58 FR 16056, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 60 FR 43904, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1232-96   Vehicle preconditioning.

(a) Fuel tank cap(s) of gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles shall be removed during any period that the vehicle is parked outdoors awaiting testing, to prevent unusual loading of the canisters. During this time care must be taken to prevent entry of water or other contaminants into the fuel tank. During storage in the test area while awaiting testing, the fuel tank cap(s) may be in place. The vehicle shall be moved into the test area and the following operations performed.

(b)(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles. Drain the fuel tank(s) and fill with test fuel, as specified in §86.1213, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in §86.082-2. The fuel cap(s) shall be installed within one minute after refueling.

(2) Gaseous-fueled vehicles. Vehicle fuel tanks are to be filled with fuel that meets the specifications in §86.113. Fuel tanks shall be filled to a minimum of 75% of service pressure for natural gas-fueled vehicles or a minimum of 75% of available fill volume for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Prior draining of the fuel tanks is not called for if the fuel in the tanks already meets the specifications in §86.113.

(c) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles shall be soaked for at least 6 hours after being refueled. Gaseous-fueled vehicles shall be soaked for at least 1 hour after being refueled. Following this soak period, the test vehicle shall be placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and operated through one driving schedule, specified in §86.1215 and appendix I of this part. Once a test vehicle has completed the refueling and vehicle soak steps specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, these steps may be omitted in subsequent testing with the same vehicle and the same fuel specifications, provided the vehicle remains under laboratory ambient temperature conditions for at least 6 hours before starting the next test. In such cases, each subsequent test shall begin with the preconditioning drive specified in this paragraph. The test vehicle may not be used to set dynamometer horsepower.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) The Administrator may choose to conduct additional preconditioning to ensure that the evaporative emissions control system is stabilized. The additional preconditioning shall consist of an initial one hour minimum soak and one, two or three driving cycles of the dynamometer driving schedule, as described in paragraph (c) of this section, each followed by a soak of at least one hour with engine off, engine compartment cover closed and cooling fan off. The vehicle may be driven off the dynamometer for the soak period that follows each driving cycle.

(f)(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles. After completion of the preconditioning drive, the vehicle shall be driven off the dynamometer. The vehicle's fuel tank(s) shall be drained and then filled with test fuel, as specified in §86.1213, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in §86.082-2. The vehicle shall be refueled within 1 hour after completion of the preconditioning drive. The fuel cap(s) shall be installed within 1 minute after refueling. The vehicle shall be parked within five minutes after refueling.

(2) Gaseous-fueled vehicles. After completion of the preconditioning drive, the vehicle shall be driven off the dynamometer. Vehicle fuel tanks shall be refilled with fuel that meets the specifications in §86.1213. Fuel tanks shall be filled to a minimum of 75% of service pressure for natural gas-fueled vehicles or a minimum of 75% of available fill volume for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Prior draining of the fuel tanks is not called for if the fuel in the tanks already meets the specifications in §86.1213. The vehicle shall be parked within five minutes after refueling, or, in the absence of refueling, within five minutes after completion of the preconditioning drive.

(g) The vehicle shall be soaked for not less than 12 hours nor more than 36 hours between the end of the refueling event and the beginning of the cold start exhaust emission test.

(h) During the soak period for the three-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, evaporative canisters, if the vehicle is so equipped, shall be preconditioned according to the following procedure. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a series configuration, the set of canisters must be preconditioned as a unit. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a parallel configuration, each canister must be preconditioned separately. If production evaporative canisters are equipped with a functional service port designed for vapor load or purge steps, the service port shall be used during testing to precondition the canister. In addition, for model year 1998 and later vehicles equipped with refueling canisters, these canisters shall be preconditioned for the three-diurnal test sequence according to the procedure in paragraph (j)(1) of this section. If a vehicle is designed to actively control evaporative or refueling emissions without a canister, the manufacturer shall devise an appropriate preconditioning procedure, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

(1)(i) Prepare the evaporative emission canister for the canister purging and loading operation. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle, unless access to the canister in its normal location is so restricted that purging and loading can only reasonably be accomplished by removing the canister from the vehicle. Special care shall be taken during this step to avoid damage to the components and the integrity of the fuel system. A replacement canister may be temporarily installed during the soak period while the canister from the test vehicle is preconditioned.

(ii) The canister purge shall be performed with ambient air of humidity controlled to 50±25 grains per pound of dry air. This may be accomplished by purging the canister in a room that is conditioned to this level of absolute humidity. The flow rate of the purge air shall be maintained at a nominal flow rate of 0.8 cfm and the duration shall be determined to provide a total purge volume flow through the canister equivalent to 300 canister bed volume exchanges. The bed volume is based on the volume of adsorbing material in the canister.

(iii) The evaporative emission canister shall then be loaded by sending to the canister an amount of commercial grade butane vapors equivalent to 1.5 times its nominal working capacity. The canister shall be loaded with a mixture composed of 50 percent butane and 50 percent nitrogen by volume at a rate of 15±2 grams butane per hour. If the canister loading at that rate takes longer than 12 hours, a manufacturer may determine a new rate, based on completing the canister loading in no less than 12 hours. The new rate may be used for all subsequent canister loading according to paragraph (h) of this section. The time of initiation and completion of the canister loading shall be recorded.

(iv) The determination of a canister's nominal working capacity shall be based on the average capacity of no less than five canisters that are in a stabilized condition.

(A) For stabilization, each canister must be loaded no less than 10 times and no more than 100 times to 2-gram breakthrough with a 50/50 mixture by volume of butane and nitrogen, at a rate of 15 grams butane per hour. Each canister loading step must be preceded by canister purging with 300 canister bed volume exchanges at 0.8 cfm.

(B) For determining working capacity, each canister must first be purged with 300 canister bed volume exchanges at 0.8 cfm. The working capacity of each canister shall be established by determining the mass of butane required to load the canister from the purged state so that it emits 2 grams of hydrocarbon vapor; the canister must be loaded with a 50/50 mixture by volume of butane and nitrogen, at a rate of 15 grams butane per hour.

(2) For methanol-fueled and flexible-fueled vehicles, canister preconditioning shall be performed with a fuel vapor composition representative of that which the vehicle would generate with the fuel mixture used for the current test. Manufacturers shall develop a procedure to precondition the evaporative canister, if the vehicle is so equipped, for the different fuel. The procedure shall represent a canister loading equivalent to that specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section and shall be approved in advance by the Administrator.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, one of the following methods shall be used to precondition evaporative canisters during the soak period specified in paragraph (g) of this section. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a series configuration, the set of canisters must be preconditioned as a unit. For vehicles with multiple canisters in a parallel configuration, each canister must be preconditioned separately. In addition, for model year 1998 and later vehicles equipped with refueling canisters, these canisters shall be preconditioned for the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence according to the procedure in paragraph (j)(1) of this section. Canister emissions are measured to determine breakthrough. Breakthrough is here defined as the point at which the cumulative quantity of hydrocarbons emitted is equal to 2 grams.

(1) Butane loading to breakthrough. The following procedure provides for emission measurement in an enclosure. Breakthrough may also be determined by measuring the weight gain of an auxiliary evaporative canister connected downstream of the vehicle's canister, in which case, the following references to the enclosure can be ignored. The auxiliary canister shall be well purged prior to loading. If production evaporative canisters are equipped with a functional service port designed for vapor load or purge steps, the service port shall be used during testing to precondition the canister.

(i) Prepare the evaporative/refueling emission canister for the canister loading operation. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle, unless access to the canister in its normal location is so restricted that purging and loading can only reasonably be accomplished by removing the canister from the vehicle. Special care shall be taken during this step to avoid damage to the components and the integrity of the fuel system. A replacement canister may be temporarily installed during the soak period while the canister from the test vehicle is preconditioned.

(ii) The evaporative emission enclosure shall be purged for several minutes. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.

(iii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the canister loading procedure.

(iv) If not already on, the evaporative enclosure mixing fan shall be turned on at this time.

(v) Place the vehicle in a sealed enclosure and measure emissions with a FID.

(vi)(A) For gasoline-fueled vehicles, load the canister with a mixture composed of 50 percent butane and 50 percent nitrogen by volume at a rate of 40 grams butane per hour.

(B) For methanol-fueled and flexible-fueled vehicles, canister preconditioning shall be performed with a fuel vapor composition representative of that which the vehicle would generate with the fuel mixture used for the current test. Manufacturers shall develop a procedure to precondition the evaporative canister, if the vehicle is so equipped, for the different fuel.

(vii) As soon as the canister reaches breakthrough, the vapor source shall be shut off.

(viii) Reconnect the evaporative emission canister and restore the vehicle to its normal operating condition.

(2) Load with repeated diurnal heat builds to breakthrough. The following procedure provides for emission measurement in an enclosure. Breakthrough may also be determined by measuring the weight gain of an auxiliary evaporative canister connected downstream of the vehicle's canister, in which case, the following references to the enclosure can be ignored. The auxiliary canister shall be well purged with dry air prior to loading.

(i) The evaporative emission enclosure shall be purged for several minutes. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.

(ii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the diurnal heat builds.

(iii) If not already on, the evaporative enclosure mixing fan shall be turned on at this time.

(iv) The fuel tank(s) of the prepared vehicle shall be drained and filled with test fuel, as specified in §86.1213, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in §86.082-2. The average temperature of the dispensed fuel shall be 60±12 °F (16±7 °C). The fuel tank cap(s) shall be installed within 1 minute after refueling.

(v) Within one hour of being refueled, the vehicle shall be placed, with the engine shut off, in the evaporative emission enclosure. The fuel tank temperature sensor shall be connected to the temperature recording system. A heat source, specified in §86.1207-90(d), shall be properly positioned with respect to the fuel tank(s) and connected to the temperature controller.

(vi) The temperature recording system shall be started.

(vii) The fuel may be artificially heated to the starting diurnal temperature.

(viii) When the fuel temperature reaches at least 69 °F (21 °C), immediately turn off purge blower (if not already off); close and seal enclosure doors; and initiate measurement of the hydrocarbon level in the enclosure.

(ix) When the fuel temperature reaches 72±2 °F (22±1 °C), start the diurnal heat build.

(x) The fuel shall be heated in such a way that its temperature change conforms to the following function to within ±4 °F (±3 °C):

F= To+0.4t; or

for SI units,

C=To+(2/9)t.

Where,

F=fuel temperature, °F;

C=fuel temperature, °C;

t=time since beginning of test, minutes; and

To=initial temperature in °F (°C for SI units).

(xi) As soon as breakthrough occurs or when the fuel temperature reaches 96 °F (36 °C), whichever occurs first, the heat source shall be turned off, the enclosure doors shall be unsealed and opened, and the vehicle fuel tank cap(s) shall be removed. If breakthrough has not occurred by the time the fuel temperature reaches 96 °F (36 °C), the heat source shall be removed from the vehicle, the vehicle shall be removed (with engine still off) from the evaporative emission enclosure and the entire procedure outlined in paragraph (j)(2) of this section shall be repeated until breakthrough occurs.

(xii) After breakthrough occurs, the fuel tank(s) of the prepared vehicle shall be drained and filled with test fuel, as specified in §86.1213, to the “tank fuel volume” defined in §86.082-2. The fuel shall be stabilized to a temperature within 3 °F of the lab ambient before beginning the driving cycle for the dynamometer run.

(k) The Administrator may conduct the vehicle preparation and preconditioning for measurement of fuel economy or exhaust emissions according to the procedures specified in §§86.1232-90 and 86.1233-90, in lieu of the procedures specified in this section.

(l) Vehicles to be tested for exhaust emissions only shall be processed according to §§86.1235 through 86.1237. Vehicles to be tested for evaporative emissions shall be processed in accordance with the procedures in §§86.1233 through 86.1238, starting with §86.1235.

(m) Vehicles to be tested for evaporative emissions with the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, shall proceed according to §§86.1235 through 86.1237, followed by the supplemental hot soak test (see §86.1238-96(k)) and the supplemental diurnal emission test (see §86.1233-96(p)).

(n) With prior approval of the Administrator, manufacturers may use an alternative canister loading method in lieu of the applicable canister loading method described in the provisions of §§86.1232-96(h), 86.1232-96 (j)(1) and 86.1232-96 (j)(2), provided the alternative method is shown to be equivalent or result in a more fully loaded canister (a canister that has adsorbed an equal or greater amount of hydrocarbon vapors) than the applicable canister loading method required by the provisions of paragraphs (h), (j)(1), and (j)(2) of this section. Additionally, the Administrator may conduct confirmatory certification testing and in-use testing using the alternative canister loading method used by the manufacturer to test applicable certification and/or in-use vehicles or one of the methods outlined in the provisions of paragraphs (h), (j)(1), and (j)(2) of this section.

[58 FR 16056, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48524, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 43904, Aug. 23, 1995; 65 FR 59958, Oct. 6, 2000; 70 FR 72928, Dec. 8, 2005]

§86.1233-96   Diurnal emission test.

(a)(1) The diurnal emission test for gasoline-, methanol- and gaseous-fueled vehicles consists of three 24-hour test cycles following the hot soak test. Emissions are measured for each 24-hour cycle, with the highest emission level used to determine compliance with the standards specified in subpart A of this part. The Administrator may truncate a test after any 24-hour cycle without affecting the validity of the collected data. Sampling of emissions from the running loss and hot soak tests is not required as preparation for the diurnal emission test. The diurnal emission test may be conducted as part of either the three-diurnal test sequence or the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence, as described in §86.1230-96.

(2) For the full three-diurnal test sequence, the diurnal emission test outlined in paragraphs (b) through (o) of this section follows the high-temperature hot soak test concluded in §86.1238-96(j).

(3) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence, the diurnal emission test outlined in paragraph (p) of this section follows the alternate hot soak test specified in §86.1238-96(k). This test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles.

(b) The test vehicle shall be soaked for not less than 6 hours nor more than 36 hours between the end of the hot soak test and the start of the diurnal emission test. For at least the last 6 hours of this period, the vehicle shall be soaked at 72±3 °F. The temperature tolerance may be waived for up to 10 minutes to allow purging of the enclosure or transporting the vehicle into the enclosure at the beginning of the diurnal emission test.

(c) The test vehicle shall be exposed to ambient temperatures cycled according to the profile specified in §86.1233 and appendix II of this part.

(1) Temperatures measured with the underbody temperature sensor shall follow the profile with a maximum deviation of 3 °F at any time and an average temperature deviation not to exceed 2 °F, where the average deviation is calculated using the absolute value of each measured deviation. In addition, the temperature from the sidewall temperature sensors shall follow the profile with a maximum deviation of 5 °F at any time.

(2) Ambient temperatures shall be measured at least every minute. Temperature cycling shall begin when time=0 minutes, as specified in paragraph (i)(5) of this section.

(d) The diurnal enclosure shall be purged for several minutes prior to the test. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.

(e) The test vehicle, with the engine shut off and the test vehicle windows and luggage compartment(s) opened, shall be moved into the diurnal enclosure.

(f)-(g) [Reserved]

(h) Prior to sampling for emissions and throughout the period of cycled ambient temperatures, the mixing fan(s) shall circulate the air at a rate of 0.8±0.2 cfm per cubic foot of ambient volume. The mixing fan(s), plus any additional fans if needed, shall also maintain a minimum wind speed of 5 mph (8 km/hr) under the fuel tank of the test vehicle. The Administrator may adjust fan speed and location to ensure sufficient air circulation around the fuel tank. The wind speed requirement may be satisfied by consistently using a fan configuration that has been demonstrated to maintain a broad 5-mph air flow in the vicinity of the vehicle's fuel tank, subject to verification by the Administrator.

(i) Emission sampling may begin as follows:

(1) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the sampling.

(2) Impingers charged with known volumes of pure deionized water shall be placed in the methanol sampling system (methanol-fueled vehicles only).

(3) Turn off purge blowers (if not already off).

(4) Close and seal enclosure doors (if not already closed and sealed).

(5) Within 10 minutes of closing and sealing the doors, analyze enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the initial (time=0 minutes) hydrocarbon concentration, CHCi, required in §86.1243. Hydrocarbon emissions may be sampled continuously during the test period.

(6) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start simultaneously with the initiation of the hydrocarbon analysis and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. This is the initial methanol concentration, CCH3OHi, required in §86.1243. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. If the test is conducted in a fixed-volume enclosure that allows airflow into and out of the enclosure, the effect of makeup air dilution must be factored into the analysis.

(j) If testing indicates that a vehicle design may result in fuel temperature responses during enclosure testing that are not representative of in-use summertime conditions, the Administrator may adjust air circulation and temperature during the test as needed to ensure that the test sufficiently duplicates the vehicle's in-use experience.

(k) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the end of each emission sampling period.

(l) Fresh impingers shall be installed in the methanol collection system immediately prior to the end of each emission measurement, if applicable.

(m) The end of the first, second, and third emission sampling period shall occur 1440±6, 2880±6, 4320±6 minutes, respectively, after the beginning of the initial sampling, as specified in paragraph (i)(5) of this section.

(1) At the end of each emission sampling period, analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the final hydrocarbon concentration, CHCf, required in §86.1243. The emission measurement at the end of each period becomes the initial hydrocarbon concentration, CHCi, of the next emission sampling period.

(2) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start simultaneously with the initiation of the hydrocarbon analysis and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. This is the final (time=1440 minutes) methanol concentration, CCH3OHf, required in §86.1243. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses. If the test is conducted in a fixed-volume enclosure that allows airflow into and out of the enclosure, the effect of makeup air dilution must be factored into the analysis.

(n) At the end of the temperature cycling period the enclosure doors shall be unsealed and opened, the test vehicle windows and luggage compartments may be closed and the test vehicle, with the engine shut off, shall be removed from the enclosure.

(o) This completes the full three-diurnal evaporative emission test sequence described in §86.1230-96.

(p) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, the following steps shall be performed in lieu of the steps described in paragraphs (b) through (n) of this section.

(1) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence, the test vehicle shall be soaked for not less than 6 hours nor more than 36 hours between the end of the hot soak test described in §86.1238-96(k), and the start of the two-diurnal emission test. For at least the last 6 hours of this period, the vehicle shall be soaked at 72±3 °F.

(2) The vehicle shall be tested for diurnal emissions according to the procedures specified in paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section, except that the test includes only two 24-hour periods. Therefore the end of the first and second emission sampling periods shall occur 1440±6 and 2880±6 minutes, respectively, after the initial sampling.

(3) This completes the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence for evaporative emission measurement.

[58 FR 16057, Mar. 24, 1993; 59 FR 48524, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 43905, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1234-96   Running loss test.

(a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature urban driving; this test is not required for gaseous-fueled vehicles. During operation, tank temperatures are controlled according to a prescribed profile to simulate in-use conditions. If the vehicle is determined to have exceeded the standard before the end of the running loss test, the test may be terminated without invalidating the data. The test can be run either in a sealed enclosure or with the point-source method, as specified in paragraph (g) of this section. Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test; however, if testing by the Administrator shows that a vehicle has exceeded an emission standard without measurement of vapor temperatures, the manufacturer may, utilizing its own resources, conduct subsequent testing on that vehicle to determine if the exceedance is attributable to inadequate control of vapor temperatures.

(b) Driving schedule. Conduct the running loss test by operating the test vehicle through three driving schedules (see §86.1215 and appendix I of this part). Fifteen seconds after the engine starts, place the transmission in gear. Twenty seconds after the engine starts, begin the initial vehicle acceleration of the driving schedule. The transmission shall be operated according to the specifications of §86.1228 during the driving cycles.

(c) Dynamometer operation. (1) The exhaust from the vehicle must be routed outside the test cell or enclosure. Exhaust gases may, but need not, be collected and sampled.

(2) Provisions of §86.1235-85(c) shall apply.

(3) Practice runs over the prescribed driving schedule may not be performed at test point.

(4) Provisions of §86.1235-85 (e) and (f) shall apply.

(5) If the dynamometer horsepower must be adjusted manually, it shall be set within 1 hour prior to the running loss test phase. The test vehicle shall not be used to make this adjustment. Dynamometers using automatic control of preselectable power settings may be set any time prior to the beginning of the emissions test.

(6) Dynamometer roll or shaft revolutions shall be used to determine the actual driving distance for the running loss test, DRL, required in §86.1243. The revolutions shall be measured on the same roll or shaft used for measuring the vehicle's speed.

(7) Provisions of §86.1235-85(i) shall apply.

(8) The test run may be stopped if a warning light or gauge indicates that the vehicle's engine coolant has overheated.

(d) Engine starting and restarting. (1) Provisions of §86.1236-85(a) shall apply.

(2) If the vehicle does not start after the manufacturer's recommended cranking time (or 10 continuous seconds in the absence of a manufacturer's recommendation), cranking shall cease for the period recommended by the manufacturer (or 10 seconds in the absence of a manufacturer's recommendation). This may be repeated for up to three start attempts. If the vehicle does not start after three attempts, the reason for failure to start shall be determined. If failure to start is an operational error, the vehicle shall be rescheduled for testing, starting with the soak period immediately preceding the running loss test.

(3) If failure to start is caused by a vehicle malfunction, corrective action of less than 30 minutes duration may be taken (according to §86.090-25), and the test continued, provided that the ambient conditions to which the vehicle is exposed are maintained at 95±5 °F (35±3 °C). When the engine starts, the timing sequence of the driving schedule shall begin. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction and the vehicle cannot be started, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, and corrective action may be taken according to §86.090-25. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be reported to the Administrator.

(4) Provisions of §86.1236-85(b) shall apply.

(e) Pressure checks. No pressure checks of the evaporative system shall be allowed. Under no circumstances will any changes/repairs to the evaporative emissions control system be allowed.

(f) Temperature stabilization. Immediately after the hot transient exhaust emission test, the vehicle shall be soaked in a temperature controlled area for a maximum of 6 hours until the fuel temperature is stabilized. The fuel may be heated or cooled to stabilize fuel temperatures, but the fuel heating rate must not exceed 5 °F in any 1-hour interval during the soak period. A manufacturer may use a faster heating rate or a longer period for stabilizing fuel temperatures if the needed heating cannot be easily accomplished in the 6-hour period, subject to Administrator approval.

(1) Fuel temperatures must be held at 95±3 °F for at least one hour before the start of the running loss test.

(2) If a vehicle's fuel temperature profile has an initial temperature lower than 95 °F, as described in §86.1229-85(d)(7)(v), the fuel in the test vehicle must be stabilized to within 3 °F of that temperature for at least one hour before the start of the running loss test.

(g) Running loss test. The running loss test may be conducted either by the enclosure method, or by the point-source method.

(1) Enclosure method. (i) The running loss enclosure shall be purged for several minutes immediately prior to the test. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.

(ii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the test.

(iii) If not already on, the running loss enclosure mixing fan(s) shall be turned on at this time. Throughout the test, the mixing fan(s) shall circulate the air at a rate of at least 1.0 cfm per cubic foot of ambient volume.

(iv) The test vehicle, with the engine off, shall be moved onto the dynamometer in the running loss enclosure. The vehicle engine compartment cover shall be unlatched, but closed as much as possible, allowing for the air intake equipment specified in paragraph (g)(1)(vii) of this section. The vehicle engine compartment cover may be closed if alternate routing is found for the air intake equipment. Any windows, doors, and luggage compartments shall be closed. A window may be opened to direct cooling air into the passenger compartment of the vehicle, if the vehicle is not equipped with its own air conditioning.

(v) Fans shall be positioned as described in §§86.1207-96 (d) and (h).

(vi) The vehicle air conditioning system (if so equipped) shall be set to the “normal” air conditioning mode and adjusted to the minimum discharge air temperature and high fan speed. Vehicles equipped with automatic temperature controlled air conditioning systems shall be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72 °F.

(vii) Connect the air intake equipment to the vehicle, if applicable. This connection shall be made to minimize leakage.

(viii) The temperature and pressure recording systems shall be started. Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test. If vapor temperature is not measured, fuel tank pressure need not be measured.

(ix) Turn off purge blowers (if not already off).

(x) The temperature of the liquid fuel shall be monitored and recorded at least every 15 seconds with the temperature recording system specified in §86.1207-96(e).

(xi) Close and seal the enclosure doors.

(xii) When the ambient temperature is 95±5 °F (35±3 °C) and the fuel has been stabilized according to paragraph (f) of this section, the running loss test may begin. Measure the initial ambient temperature and pressure.

(A) Analyze enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the initial (time=0 minutes) hydrocarbon concentration, CHCi, required in §86.1243. Hydrocarbon emissions may be sampled continuously during the test period.

(B) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start simultaneously with the initiation of the hydrocarbon analysis and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. This is the initial (time=0 minutes) methanol concentration, CCH3OHi, required in §86.1243. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses.

(xiii) Start the engine and begin operation of the vehicle over the drive cycle specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(xiv) The ambient temperature shall be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the vehicle; it shall be recorded at least every 60 seconds.

(xv) The fuel temperature during the dynamometer drive shall be controlled to match the fuel tank temperature profile determined in §86.1229. Measured fuel temperatures must be within ±3 °F of the target profile throughout the test run. Vapor temperatures, if measured, must be within ±5 °F of the target profile during the first 4186 seconds of the running loss test, and within ±3 °F for the remaining 120 seconds of the test run. For any vehicle complying with the test standards, vapor temperatures may be higher than the specified tolerances without invalidating test results. For testing by the Administrator, vapor temperatures may be lower than the specified tolerances without invalidating test results. If the test vehicle has more than one fuel tank, the temperatures for both fuel tanks shall follow the target profiles determined in §86.1229. The control system shall be tuned and operated to provide smooth and continuous tank temperature profiles that are representative of the on-road profiles.

(xvi) Tank pressure shall not exceed 10 inches of water at any time during the running loss test unless a pressurized system is used and the manufacturer demonstrates that vapor would not be vented to the atmosphere upon fuel cap removal. A vehicle may exceed the pressure limit for temporary periods during the running loss test, up to 10 percent of the total driving time, provided that the vehicle has demonstrated conformance with the pressure limit during the entire outdoor driving period specified in §86.1229. Measurement of fuel tank pressures will be considered valid only if vapor temperatures are measured and controlled to the tolerances specified in paragraph (g)(1)(xv) of this section.

(xvii) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior the end of the test.

(xviii) Fresh impingers shall be installed in the methanol collection system immediately prior to the end of the test, if applicable.

(xix) The running loss test ends with the completion of the third 2-minute idle period.

(xx) At the end of the running loss test:

(A) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the final hydrocarbon concentration, CHCf, required in §86.1243.

(B) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start prior to the end of the test and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. The methanol sampling must be completed within 2 minutes after the end of the running loss test. This is the final methanol concentration, CCH3OHf, required in §86.1243. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses.

(C) Turn off all the fans specified in §86.1207-96(d). Also, the time that the vehicle's engine compartment cover is open for removal of air intake equipment, if applicable, shall be minimized to avoid loss of heat from the engine compartment.

(xxi) Turn off any CVS apparatus (if not already turned off).

(2) Point-source method. (i) The test vehicle, with the engine off, shall be moved onto the dynamometer. The vehicle engine compartment cover and any windows, doors, and luggage compartments shall be closed.

(ii) Fans shall be positioned as described in §§86.1235-85(b) and 86.1207-96(d).

(iii) The running loss vapor vent collection system shall be properly positioned at the potential fuel vapor vents or leaks of the vehicle's fuel system. Typical vapor vents for current fuel systems are the ports of the evaporative emission canister and the pressure relief vent of the fuel tank (typically integrated into the fuel tank cap).

(iv) The running loss vapor vent collection system may be connected to a PDP-CVS or CFV-CVS bag collection system. Otherwise, running loss vapors shall be sampled continuously with analyzers meeting the requirements of §86.1207-96(b).

(v) Fans shall be positioned as described in §86.1207-96(d).

(vi) The vehicle air conditioning system (if so equipped) shall be set to the “normal” air conditioning mode and adjusted to the minimum discharge air temperature and high fan speed. Vehicles equipped with automatic temperature controlled air conditioning systems shall be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72 °F.

(vii) The temperature and pressure recording systems shall be started. Measurement of vapor temperature is optional during the running loss test. If vapor temperature is not measured, fuel tank pressure need not be measured.

(viii) The temperature of the liquid fuel shall be monitored and recorded at least every 15 seconds with the temperature recording system specified in §86.1207-96(e).

(ix) When the ambient temperature is 95±5 °F (35±3 °C) and the fuel tank temperature is 95±3 °F the running loss test may begin.

(x) The ambient temperature shall be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average) during the running loss test, measured at the inlet to the cooling fan in front of the vehicle; it shall be recorded at least every 60 seconds.

(xi) Fuel temperatures shall be controlled according to the specifications of paragraph (g)(1)(xv) of this section.

(xii) The tank pressure requirements described in paragraph (g)(1)(xvi) of this section apply also to running loss testing by the point source method.

(xiii) The running loss test ends with completion of the third 2-minute idle period.

(xiv) If emissions are collected in bags, the sample bags must be analyzed within 20 minutes of their respective sample collection phases, as described in §86.137-94(b)(15). The results of the analysis are used in §86.1243 to calculate the mass of hydrocarbons emitted.

(xv) At the end of the running loss test, turn off all the fans specified in §86.1207-96(d).

(3) With prior approval of the Administrator, manufacturers may use an alternative running loss test procedure, provided the alternative test procedure is shown to yield equivalent or superior emission results (in terms of quality control, accuracy and repeatability) for the running loss, hot soak and diurnal portions of the three diurnal-plus-hot-soak test sequence. Additionally, the Administrator may conduct certification and in-use testing using the test procedures outlined in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, paragraph (g)(2) of this section or the alternative running loss test procedure as approved for a specific vehicle.

(h) Following the completion of the running loss drive, the vehicle may be tested for hot soak emissions as specified in §86.1238-96.

[58 FR 16059, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48524, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 43905, Aug. 23, 1995; 65 FR 59958, Oct. 6, 2000; 70 FR 72928, Dec. 8, 2005]

§86.1235-96   Dynamometer procedure.

Section 86.1235-96 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.1235-85. Where a paragraph in §86.1235-85 is identical and applicable to §86.1235-96, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1235-85.”

(a) The dynamometer run consists of one dynamometer driving schedule cycle (see §86.1215 and appendix I of this part) starting not less than 12 nor more than 36 hours after completion of the drive specified in §86.1232-96. This run includes engine startup (with all accessories turned off) and operation over the driving schedule.

(b) through (i) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1235-85.

[58 FR 16060, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 65 FR 59958, Oct. 6, 2000]

§86.1236-85   Engine starting and restarting.

(a) Starting. (1) The engine shall be started (including choke operation) according to the manufacturers recommended starting procedures in the owner's manual. The initial idle period shall begin when the engine starts.

(2) The operator may use the choke, accelerator pedal, etc., where necessary to keep the engine running.

(3) If the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual do not specify a warm engine starting procedure, the engine shall be started by depressing the accelerator pedal about half way and cranking the engine until it starts.

(4) If the vehicle does not start after the manufacturer's recommended cranking time (or 10 continuous seconds in the absence of a manufacturer's recommendation), cranking shall cease for the period recommended by the manufacturer (or 10 seconds in the absence of a manufacturer's recommendation). This may be repeated for up to three start attempts. If the vehicle does not start after three attempts, the reason for failure to start shall be determined. If failure to start is an operational error, the vehicle shall be rescheduled for the dynamometer run. If failure to start is caused by a vehicle malfunction, corrective action of less than 30 minutes duration may be taken, and the test continued. When the engine starts, the driving schedule timing sequence shall begin. If failure to start is caused by vehicle malfunction and the vehicle cannot be started, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, and corrective action may be taken. The reasons for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be recorded.

(b) Stalling. (1) If the engine stalls during an idle period, the engine shall be restarted immediately and the driving schedule continued. If the engine cannot be started soon enough to allow the vehicle to follow the next acceleration as prescribed, the driving schedule indicator shall be stopped. When the vehicle restarts, the driving schedule indicator shall be reactivated.

(2) If the engine stalls during some operating mode other than idle, the driving schedule indicator shall be stopped, the vehicle shall then be restarted and accelerated to the speed required at that point in the driving schedule and the driving schedule continued. During acceleration to this point, shifting shall be performed in accordance with §86.1228-85.

(3) If the vehicle will not restart within one minute, the test shall be voided, the vehicle removed from the dynamometer, corrective action taken, and the vehicle rescheduled for testing. The reason for the malfunction (if determined) and the corrective action taken shall be recorded.

[48 FR 1456, Jan. 12, 1983, as amended at 58 FR 16060, Mar. 24, 1993]

§86.1237-85   Dynamometer runs.

(a) The vehicle shall be either driven or pushed onto the dynamometer; however, if driven, the period of engine operation between the end of the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes, and the vehicle shall be driven at minimum throttle. The dynamometer run shall follow the diurnal heat build by not more than one hour. The vehicle shall be stored prior to dynamometer operation in such a manner that it is not exposed to precipitation (e.g., rain or dew).

(b) The following steps shall be taken for the dynamometer run:

(1) Place drive wheels of vehicle on the dynamometer.

(2) Position the cooling fan(s).

(3) Attach an exhaust tube to the vehicle tailpipe(s).

(4) Start the engine.

(5) Turn on the cooling fan(s).

(6) Operate the vehicle according to the dynamometer driving schedule (§86.1215-85).

(7) At the end of the last deceleration, disconnect the exhaust tube from the vehicle tailpipe(s) and drive vehicle from the dynamometer.

§86.1237-96   Dynamometer runs.

Section 86.1237-96 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.1237-85. Where a paragraph in §86.1237-85 is identical and applicable to §86.1237-96, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1237-85.”

(a) The vehicle shall be either driven or pushed onto the dynamometer; however, if driven, the total time of engine operation during the 12 to 36 hour soak period shall not exceed 3 minutes, and the vehicle shall be driven at minimum throttle. The vehicle shall be stored prior to dynamometer operation in such a manner that it is not exposed to precipitation (e.g., rain or dew).

(b) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1235-85.

[58 FR 16061, Mar. 24, 1993]

§86.1238-96   Hot soak test.

(a)(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles. For gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles, the hot soak test shall be conducted immediately following the running loss test. However, sampling of emissions from the running loss test is not required as preparation for the hot soak test.

(2) Gaseous-fueled vehicles. Since gaseous-fueled vehicles are not required to perform a running loss test, the hot soak test shall be conducted within seven minutes after completion of the hot start exhaust test.

(b) The hot soak test may be conducted in the running loss enclosure as a continuation of that test or in a separate enclosure.

(1) If the hot soak test is conducted in the running loss enclosure, the driver may exit the enclosure after the running loss test. If exiting, the driver should use the personnel door described in §86.1207-96(a)(2), exiting as quickly as possible with a minimum disturbance to the system. The final hydrocarbon and methanol concentration for the running loss test, measured in §86.1234-96(g)(1)(xx), shall be the initial hydrocarbon and methanol concentration (time=0 minutes) CHCi and CCH3OHi, for the hot soak test.

(2) If the vehicle must be moved to a different enclosure, the following steps must be taken:

(i) The enclosure for the hot soak test shall be purged for several minutes prior to completion of the running loss test. Warning: If at any time the concentration of hydrocarbons, of methanol, or of methanol and hydrocarbons exceeds 15,000 ppm C the enclosure should be immediately purged. This concentration provides at least a 4:1 safety factor against the lean flammability limit.

(ii) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the test.

(iii) Fresh impingers shall be installed in the methanol sample collection system immediately prior to the start of the test, if applicable.

(iv) If not already on, the mixing fan(s) shall be turned on at this time. Throughout the hot soak test, the mixing fan(s) shall circulate the air at a rate of 0.8±0.2 cfm per cubic foot of the nominal enclosure volume.

(v) Begin sampling as follows:

(A) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the initial (time = 0 minutes) hydrocarbon concentration, CHCi, required in §86.1243. Hydrocarbon emissions may be sampled continuously during the test period.

(B) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol, if applicable, and record. The methanol sampling must start simultaneously with the initiation of the hydrocarbon analysis and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. This is the initial (time=0 minutes) methanol concentration, CCH3OHi, required in §86.1243. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses.

(vi) The vehicle engine compartment cover shall be closed (if not already closed), the cooling fan shall be moved, the vehicle shall be disconnected from the dynamometer and any sampling system, and then driven at minimum throttle to the enclosure for the hot soak test. These steps should be done as quickly as possible to minimize the time needed to start the hot soak test.

(vii) The vehicle's engine must be stopped before any part of the vehicle enters the enclosure.

(viii) The vehicle shall enter the enclosure; the enclosure doors shall be closed and sealed within 2 minutes of engine shutdown and within seven minutes after the end of the running loss test.

(ix) The test vehicle windows and any luggage compartments shall be opened (if not already open). The vehicle engine compartment cover shall be closed (if not already closed).

(c) [Reserved]

(d) The temperature recording system shall be started and the time of engine shutoff shall be noted on the evaporative emission hydrocarbon data recording system.

(e) For the first 5 minutes of the hot soak test, the ambient temperature shall be maintained at 95±10 °F. For the remainder of the hot soak test, the ambient temperature shall be maintained at 95±5 °F (95±2 °F on average).

(f) The 60±0.5 minute hot soak begins when the enclosure doors are sealed (or when the running loss test ends, if the hot soak test is conducted in the running loss enclosure).

(g) The FID (or HFID) hydrocarbon analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the end of the test.

(h) Fresh impingers shall be installed in the methanol collection system immediately prior to the end of the test, if applicable.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) At the end of the 60±0.5 minute test period:

(1) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for hydrocarbons and record. This is the final (time=60 minutes) hydrocarbon concentration, CHCf, required in §86.1243.

(2) Analyze the enclosure atmosphere for methanol and record, if applicable. The methanol sampling must start simultaneously with the initiation of the hydrocarbon analysis and continue for 4.0±0.5 minutes. This is the final (time=60 minutes) methanol concentration, CCH3OHf, required in §86.1243. Record the time elapsed during this analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to allow accurate GC analysis, rapidly collect the methanol sample in a bag and then bubble the bag sample through the impingers at the specified flow rate. The time elapsed between collection of the bag sample and flow through the impingers should be minimized to prevent any losses.

(k) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence (see §86.1230-96), the hot soak test described in §86.1238-90 shall be conducted immediately following the dynamometer run. This test requires ambient temperatures between 68° and 86 °F at all times. The equipment and calibration specifications of §§86.1207-90 and 86.1207-90 may apply for this testing. Enclosures meeting the requirements of §§86.1207-96 and 86.1217-96 may also be used. This hot soak test is followed by two consecutive diurnal heat builds, described in §86.1233-96(p).

(l) If the vehicle is to be tested for diurnal emissions, follow the procedure outlined in §86.1233-96.

[58 FR 16061, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48524, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 43906, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1242-90   Records required.

The following information shall be recorded with respect to each test:

(a) Test number.

(b) System or device tested (brief description).

(c) Date and time of day for each part of the test schedule.

(d) Instrument operator.

(e) Driver or operator.

(f) Vehicle: ID number; Manufacturer; Model Year; Engine family; Evaporative emissions family; Basic engine description (including displacement, number of cylinders, and catalyst usage); Engine maximum power rating and rated speed; Fuel system (including number of carburetors, number of carburetor barrels, fuel injection type, fuel tank(s) capacity and location, and number and size (volume and working capacity)) of evaporative control canisters, Engine code; Gross vehicle weight rating; Actual curb weight at zero miles; Actual road load at 50 mph; Transmission configuration; Axle ratio; Vehicle line; Odometer reading; Idle rpm; and Drive wheel tire pressure, as applicable.

(g) Indicated road load power absorption at 50 mph (80 km/hr) and dynamometer serial number. As an alternative to recording the dynamometer serial number, a reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, provided the test cell records show the pertinent information.

(h) All pertinent instrument information such as tuning, gain, serial number, detector number and range. As an alternative, a reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administrator, provided test cell calibration records show the pertinent instrument information.

(i) Recorder charts: Identify zero, span and enclosure gas sample traces.

(j) Test cell barometric pressure and ambient temperature.

Note: A central laboratory barometer may be used: Provided, That individual test cell barometric pressures are shown to be within ±0.1 percent of the barometric pressure at the central barometer location.

(k) Fuel temperatures as prescribed.

(l) For methanol-fueled vehicles: (1) Volume of sample passed through the methanol sampling system and the volume of deionized water in each impinger.

(2) The concentration of the GC analyses of the test samples (methanol).

(m) For natural gas-fueled vehicles. Composition, including all carbon containing compounds; e.g. CO2. of the natural gas-fuel used during the test. C1 and C2 compounds shall be individually reported. C3 and heavier hydrocarbons, and C6 and heavier hydrocarbons may be reported as a group.

(n) For liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. Composition of the liquefied petroleum gas-fuel used during the test. Each hydrocarbon compound present, through C4 compounds, shall be individually reported. C5 and heavier hydrocarbons may be reported as a group.

[54 FR 14570, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48524, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34363, June 30, 1995]

§86.1243-96   Calculations; evaporative emissions.

(a) The following equations are used to calculate the evaporative emissions from gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles, and for gaseous-fueled vehicles.

(b) Use the measurements of initial and final concentrations to determine the mass of hydrocarbons and methanol emitted. For testing with pure gasoline, methanol emissions are assumed to be zero.

(1) For enclosure testing of diurnal, hot soak, and running loss emissions:

(i) Methanol emissions:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.129.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(A) MCH23OH=Methanol mass change, µg.

(B) VFn=Net enclosure volume, ft3, as determined by subtracting 50 ft3 (1.42 m3) (volume of vehicle with trunk and windows open) from the enclosure volume. A manufacturer may use the measured volume of the vehicle (instead of the nominal 50 ft3) with advance approval by the Administrator: Provided, the measured volume is determined and used for all vehicles tested by that manufacturer.

(C) [Reserved]

(D) VE=Volume of sample withdrawn, ft3. Sample volumes must be corrected for differences in temperature to be consistent with determination of Vn, prior to being used in the equation.

(E) [Reserved]

(F) ACMS=GC concentration of sample.

(G) AV=Volume of absorbing reagent in impinger.

(H) PB=Barometric pressure at time of sampling, in. Hg.

(I) i=Initial sample.

(J) f=Final sample.

(K) 1=First impinger.

(L) 2=Second impinger.

(M) MCH3OH,out=mass of methanol exiting the enclosure, in the case of fixed volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, µg,

(N) MCH3OH,in=mass of methanol entering the enclosure, in the case of fixed volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, µg,

(ii) Hydrocarbon emissions:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.130.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

(A) MHC=Hydrocarbon mass change, g.

(B) CHC=FID hydrocarbon concentration as ppm carbon including FID response to methanol (or methane, as applicable) in the sample.

(C) CCH3OH=Methanol concentration as ppm carbon.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.131.gif

View or download PDF

(D) Vn=Net enclosure volume ft3 (m3) as determined by subtracting 50 ft3 (1.42 m3) (volume of vehicle with trunk and windows open) from the enclosure volume. A manufacturer may use the measured volume of the vehicle (instead of the nominal 50 ft3) with advance approval by the Administrator, provided the measured volume is determined and used for all vehicles tested by that manufacturer.

(E) r=FID response factor to methanol.

(F) PB=Barometric pressure, in Hg (Kpa).

(G) T=Enclosure temperature, °R(°K).

(H) i=initial reading.

(I) f=final reading.

(J) 1=First impinger.

(K) 2=Second impinger.

(L) Assuming a hydrogen to carbon ratio of 2.3:

(1) k=2.97; and

(2) For SI units, k=17.16.

(M) MHC,out=mass of hydrocarbons exiting the enclosure, in the case of fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, g.

(N) MHC,in=mass of hydrocarbons entering the enclosure, in the case of fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing, g.

(iii) For variable-volume enclosures, defined in §86.1207(a)(1)(i), the following simplified form of the hydrocarbon mass change equation may be used:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.132.gif

View or download PDF

(2) For running loss testing by the point-source method, the mass emissions of each test phase are calculated below, then summed for a total mass emission for the running loss test. If emissions are continuously sampled, the following equations can be used in integral form.

(i) Methanol emissions:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.133.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

(A) MCH3OH=methanol mass change, µg.

(B) ρCH3OH= 37.71 g/ft3, density of pure vapor at 68 °F.

(C) Vmix=total dilute sample volume, in ft3, calculated as appropriate for the collection technique used.

(D) CCH3OH,rl=methanol concentration of diluted running loss sample, in ppm carbon equivalent.

(E) CCH3OH,d=methanol concentration of dilution air, in ppm carbon equivalent.

(ii) Hydrocarbon emissions:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.134.gif

View or download PDF

Where,

(A) MHC=hydrocarbon mass change, g.

(B) ρHC= 16.88 g/ft3, density of pure vapor at 68 °F (for hydrogen to carbon ratio of 2.3).

(C) Vmix=total dilute sample volume, in ft3, calculated as appropriate for the collection technique used.

(D) CHC,rl=hydrocarbon concentration of diluted running loss sample, in ppm carbon equivalent.

(E) CHC,d=hydrocarbon concentration of dilution air, in ppm carbon equivalent.

(c) Calculate the adjusted total mass emissions for each test segment.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.136.gif

View or download PDF

where MDI=mass emissions from the diurnal emission test (see §86.1233), g.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.135.gif

View or download PDF

where MHS=mass emissions from the hot soak test (see §86.1238), g.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.137.gif

View or download PDF

where MRL=mass emissions from the running loss test (see §86.1234), g.

(d)(1) For the full three-diurnal test sequence, there are two final results to report:

(i) The sum of the adjusted total mass emissions for the diurnal and hot soak tests (MDI+MHS); and

(ii) The adjusted total mass emissions for the running loss test, on a grams per mile basis=MRL/DRL, where DRL=miles driven for the running loss test (see §86.1234-96(c)(6)).

(2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence, there is one final result to report: the sum of the adjusted total mass emissions for the diurnal and hot soak tests (MDI+MHS), described in §§86.1233-96(p) and 86.1238-96(k), respectively.

[58 FR 16062, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48525, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34364, June 30, 1995; 60 FR 43906, Aug. 23, 1995]

§86.1246-96   Fuel dispensing spitback procedure.

(a) The vehicle is fueled at a rate of 10 gal/min to test for fuel spitback emissions. All liquid fuel spitback emissions that occur during the test are collected in a bag made of a material impermeable to hydrocarbons or methanol. The bag shall be designed and used so that liquid fuel does not spit back onto the vehicle body, adjacent floor, etc., and it must not impede the free flow of displaced gasoline vapor from the orifice of the filler pipe. The bag must be designed to permit passage of the dispensing nozzle through the bag. If the bag has been used for previous testing, sufficient time shall be allowed for the bag to dry out. The dispensing nozzle shall be a commercial model, not equipped with vapor recovery hardware.

(b) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test vehicle shall be not less than 68 °F nor more than 86 °F. The temperatures monitored during testing must be representative of those experienced by the test vehicle. The vehicle shall be approximately level during all phases of the test sequence to prevent abnormal fuel distribution.

(c) Measure and record the mass of the bag to be used for collecting spitback emissions to the nearest 0.01 gram.

(d) Drain the fuel tank(s) and fill with test fuel, as specified in §86.1213, to 10 percent of the reported nominal fuel tank capacity. The fuel cap(s) shall be installed immediately after refueling.

(e) The vehicle shall be soaked at 80±6 °F (27±3 °C) for a minimum of six hours, then placed, either by being driven or pushed, on a dynamometer and operated through one dynamometer driving schedule (specified in §86.1215 and appendix I of this part). The test vehicle may not be used to set the dynamometer horsepower.

(f) Following the preconditioning drive, the vehicle shall be moved or driven at minimum throttle to the refueling area.

(g) All areas in proximity to the vehicle fuel fill orifice and the dispenser nozzle itself shall be completely dry of liquid fuel.

(h) The fuel filler neck shall be snugly fitted with the vented bag to capture any fuel emissions. The fuel nozzle shall be inserted through the bag into the filler neck of the test vehicle to its maximum penetration. The plane of the nozzle's handle shall be perpendicular to the floor of the laboratory.

(i) The fueling procedure consists of dispensing fuel through a nozzle, interrupted by a series of automatic shutoffs. A minimum of 3 seconds shall elapse between any automatic shutoff and subsequent resumption of dispensing. Dispensing may not be manually terminated, unless the test vehicle has already clearly failed the test. The vehicle shall be fueled according to the following procedure:

(1) The fueling operation shall be started within 4 minutes after the vehicle is turned off and within 8 minutes after completion of the preconditioning drive. The average temperature of the dispensed fuel shall be 65±5 °F (18±3 °C).

(2) The fuel shall be dispensed at a rate of 9.8±0.3 gallons/minute (37.1±1.1 l/min) until the automatic shutoff is activated.

(3) If the automatic shutoff is activated before the nozzle has dispensed an amount of fuel equal to 70 percent of the tank's nominal capacity, the dispensing may be resumed at a reduced rate. Repeat as necessary until the nozzle has dispensed an amount of fuel equal to at least 70 percent of the tank's nominal capacity.

(4) Once the automatic shutoff is activated after the nozzle has dispensed an amount of fuel equal to 70 percent of the tank's nominal capacity, the fuel shall be dispensed at a rate of 5±1 gallons/minute (19±4 l/min) for all subsequent dispensing. Dispensing shall be restarted two additional times.

(5) If the nozzle has dispensed an amount of fuel less than 85 percent of the tank's nominal capacity after the two additional dispensing restarts, dispensing shall be resumed, and shall continue through as many automatic shutoffs as necessary to achieve this level. This completes the fueling procedure.

(j) Withdraw the nozzle from the vehicle and the bag, holding the tip of the nozzle upward to avoid any dripping into the bag.

(k) Within 1 minute after completion of the fueling event, the bag shall be folded to minimize the vapor volume inside the bag. The bag shall be folded as quickly as possible to prevent evaporation of collected emissions.

(l) Within 5 minutes after completion of the fueling event, the mass of the bag and its contents shall be measured and recorded (consistent with paragraph (c) of this section). The bag shall be weighed as quickly as possible to prevent evaporation of collected emissions.

[58 FR 16063, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 60 FR 43906, Aug. 23, 1995; 65 FR 59958, Oct. 6, 2000]

Subpart N—Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures

Authority: Secs. 202, 206, 207, 208, 301(a), Clean Air Act as amended 42 U.S.C. 7521, 7524, 7541, 7542, and 7601.

Source: 48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, unless otherwise noted.

§86.1301   Scope; applicability.

This subpart specifies gaseous emission test procedures for Otto-cycle and diesel heavy-duty engines, and particulate emission test procedures for diesel heavy-duty engines, as follows:

(a) For model years 1990 through 2003, manufacturers must use the test procedures specified in §86.1305-90.

(b) For model years 2004 through 2009, manufacturers may use the test procedures specified in §86.1305-2004 or §86.1305-2010. For any EPA testing before the 2010 model year, EPA will use the manufacturer's selected procedures for mapping engines, generating duty cycles, and applying cycle-validation criteria. For any other parameters, EPA may conduct testing using either of the specified procedures.

(c) For model years 2010 and later, manufacturers must use the test procedures specified in §86.1305-2010.

(d) As allowed under subpart A of this part, manufacturers may use carryover data from previous model years to demonstrate compliance with emission standards, without regard to the provisions of this section.

[70 FR 40438, July 13, 2005]

§86.1302-84   Definitions.

The definitions in §86.084-2 apply to this subpart.

§86.1303-84   Abbreviations.

The abbreviations in §86.084-3 apply to this subpart.

§86.1304   Section numbering; construction.

(a) Section numbering. The model year of initial applicability is indicated by the section number. The digits following the hyphen designate the first model year for which a section is applicable. The section continues to apply to subsequent model years unless a later model year section is adopted. (Example: §86.13xx-2004 applies to the 2004 and subsequent model years. If a §86.13xx-2007 is promulgated it would apply beginning with the 2007 model year; §86.13xx-2004 would apply to model years 2004 through 2006.)

(b) A section reference without a model year suffix refers to the section applicable for the appropriate model year.

[65 FR 59958, Oct. 6, 2000. Redesignated and amended at 70 FR 40438, July 13, 2005]

§86.1305-90   Introduction; structure of subpart.

(a) This subpart describes the equipment required and the procedures to follow in order to perform exhaust emission tests on Otto-cycle and diesel heavy-duty engines. Subpart A sets forth the testing requirements and test intervals necessary to comply with EPA certification procedures.

(b) Four topics are addressed in this subpart. Sections 86.1306 through 86.1315 set forth specifications and equipment requirements; §§86.1316 through 86.1326 discuss calibration methods and frequency; test procedures are listed in §§86.1327 through 86.1341; calculation formula are found in §86.1342; and data requirements are found in §86.1344.

[54 FR 14571, Apr. 11, 1989]

§86.1305-2004   Introduction; structure of subpart.

(a) This subpart describes the equipment required and the procedures to follow in order to perform exhaust emissions tests on Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle heavy duty engines. Subpart A of this part sets forth the emission standards and general testing requirements to comply with EPA certification procedures.

(b) This subpart contains five key sets of requirements, as follows: specifications and equipment needs (§§86.1306 through 86.1314); calibration methods and frequencies (§§86.1316 through 86.1326); test procedures (§§86.1327 through 86.1341 and §§86.1360 through 86.1380); calculation formulas (§§86.1342 and 86.1343); and data requirements (§86.1344).

[65 FR 59958, Oct. 6, 2000]

§86.1305-2010   Introduction; structure of subpart.

(a) This subpart specifies the equipment and procedures for performing exhaust-emission tests on Otto-cycle and diesel-cycle heavy-duty engines. Subpart A of this part sets forth the emission standards and general testing requirements to comply with EPA certification procedures.

(b) Use the applicable equipment and procedures for spark-ignition or compression-ignition engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether engines meet the duty-cycle emission standards in subpart A of this part. Measure the emissions of all regulated pollutants as specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Use the duty cycles and procedures specified in §§86.1333-2010, 86.1360-2007, and 86.1362-2010. Adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events as described in §86.004-28.

(c) The provisions in §§86.1370-2007 and §§86.1372-2007 apply for determining whether an engine meets the applicable not-to-exceed emission standards.

(d) Measure smoke using the procedures in subpart I of this part for evaluating whether engines meet the smoke standards in subpart A of this part.

(e) Use the fuels specified in 40 CFR part 1065 to perform valid tests, as follows:

(1) For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use engines will use.

(2) For diesel-fueled engines, use the ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for emission testing.

(f) You may use special or alternate procedures to the extent we allow them under 40 CFR 1065.10.

(g) This subpart applies to you as a manufacturer, and to anyone who does testing for you.

(h) This paragraph (h) describes how testing performed prior to July 1, 2010 may be conducted using the test procedures of this subpart N rather than the corresponding provisions of 40 CFR part 1065 otherwise required by this section. You must use good engineering judgment when testing under this paragraph (h), and must comply with the following provisions of 40 CFR part 1065:

(1) Generate a map of your engine according to 40 CFR 1065.510(b)(5)(ii) and generate test cycles according to 40 CFR 1065.610. Validate your cycle according to 40 CFR 1065.514.

(2) Follow the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.342 to verify the performance of any sample dryers in your system. Correct your measurements according to 40 CFR 1065.659, except use the value of Kw in §86.1342-90(i) as the value of (1−xH2Oexh) in Equation 1065.659-1.

(3) Verify your NO2-to-NO converter according to 40 CFR 1065.378.

(4) For diesel engine testing, correct NOX emissions for intake-air humidity according to 40 CFR 1065.670.

(5) You must comply with the provisions related to analyzer range and drift in 40 CFR 1065.550. If drift correction is required, correct your measurements according to 40 CFR 1065.672, but use the emission calculations specified in this subpart N rather than those specified in 40 CFR 1065.650.

(6) You must comply with 40 CFR 1065.125, 1065.127, and 1065.130, except for references to 40 CFR 1065.530(a)(1)(i), 1065.640, and 1065.655.

(7) Follow the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.370 to verify the performance of your CLD analyzer with respect to CO2 and H2O quench. You are not required to follow 40 CFR 1065.145(d)(2), 1065.248, or 1065.750, which are referenced in 40 CFR 1065.370.

(i) You may disable any AECDs that have been approved solely for emergency vehicle applications under paragraph (4) of the definition of “defeat device” in §86.004-2. The emission standards do not apply when any of these AECDs are active.

[70 FR 40438, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37192, June 30, 2008; 73 FR 59178, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 22981, Apr. 30, 2010; 76 FR 57377, Sept. 15, 2011; 77 FR 34146, June 8, 2012]

§86.1306-07   Equipment required and specifications; overview.

Section 86.1306-07 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.1306-96. Where a paragraph in §86.1306-96 is identical and applicable to §86.1306-07, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1306-96.”.

(a) and (b) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1306-96.

(c)(1) Upon request, the Administrator may allow a manufacturer to use some of the test equipment allowed for model year 2006 and earlier engines instead of the test equipment required for model year 2007 and later engines, provided that good engineering judgment indicates that it would not adversely affect determination of compliance with the applicable emission standards of this part.

(2) A manufacturer may use the test equipment required for model year 2007 and later engines for earlier model year engines, provided that good engineering judgment indicates that it would not adversely affect determination of compliance with the applicable emission standards of this part.

(d) Approval of alternate test system. (1) If on the basis of the information described in paragraph (d)(5) of this section, the Administrator determines that an alternate test system would consistently and reliably produce emission test results that are at least equivalent to the results produced using the test systems described in this subpart, he/she shall approve the alternate system for optional use instead of the test systems described in this subpart.

(2) Any person may submit an application for approval of an alternate test system.

(3) In approving an alternate test system, the Administrator may approve it for general use, or may approve it conditionally.

(4) The Administrator may revoke the approval on the basis of new information that indicates that the alternate test system is not equivalent. However, revocation of approval must allow manufacturers sufficient lead-time to change the test system to an approved system. In determining the amount of lead-time that is required, the Administrator will consider relevant factors such as:

(i) The ease with which the test system can be converted to an approved system.

(ii) The degree to which the alternate system affects the measured emission rates.

(iii) Any relevant conditions included in the approval.

(5) The application for approval must include:

(i) An explanation of the theoretical basis of the alternate system. This technical description should explain why the detection principle of the alternate system would provide equivalent results to the detection principle of the prescribed system for the full range of emission properties being measured. This description may include equations, figures, and references. For example, a NOX measurement application should theoretically relate the alternate detection principle to the chemiluminescent detection principle of detecting nitric oxide for a typical range of NO to NO2 ratios. A PM measurement application should explain the principle(s) by which the alternate system quantifies PM mass independent of PM composition, and how it is impacted by semi-volatile and volatile species= phase distributions. For any proportioning or integrating system, the application should compare the alternate system's theoretical response to the prescribed system's response.

(ii) A technical description of the alternate system. This section shall detail all of the hardware and software included in the alternate system. Dimensioned drawings, flow-charts, schematics, and component specifications shall be included. Any data manipulation (i.e. calculations) that the system performs shall be presented in this section.

(iii) A description of the procedures used to operate the system including the level of training that an operator must have to achieve acceptable results. This section of the application shall describe all of the installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures in a step-by-step format. Note that empirical calibration with respect to another prescribed or approved measurement system is not acceptable. Calibration should be performed with NIST traceable standards, or equivalent national standards. Diagrams, schematics, and other graphics may be used to enhance the description.

(iv) A comparison of results from the alternate system and from the prescribed system (or other system approved by the Administrator). The two systems must be calibrated independently to NIST traceable standards or equivalent national standards for this comparison. While other statistical analyses may be acceptable, it is recommended that the comparison be based on a minimum of 7 collocated and simultaneous tests. This comparison shall be performed over the “hot-start” portion of the FTP test cycle. If the comparison is paired, it must demonstrate that the alternate system passes a two-sided, paired t-test described in this paragraph. If the test is unpaired, it must demonstrate that the alternate system passes a two-sided, unpaired t-test described in this paragraph. Other statistical criteria may be set by the Administrator. The average of these tests for the reference system must return results less than or equal to the applicable emissions standard. The t-test is performed as follows, where “n” equals the number of tests:

(A) Calculate the average of the alternate system results; this is Aavg.

(B) Calculate the average of the results of the system to which the alternate system was referenced; this is Ravg.

(C) For an unpaired comparison, calculate the “n−1” standard deviation for the alternate and reference averages; these are Asd and Rsd respectively. Asd must be less than or equal to Rsd. If Asd is greater than Rsd, the Administrator will not approve the application.

(D) For an unpaired comparison, calculate the t-value:

tunpaired = (Aavg − Ravg) / ((Asd2 + Rsd2) / n)1/2

(E) For a paired comparison, calculate the “n−1” standard deviation (squared) of the differences, di, between the paired results, where “i” represents the ith test of n number of tests:

SD2 = (Sdi2 − ((Sdi)2 / n)) / (n − 1)

(F)(1) For a paired comparison, calculate the t-value:

tpaired = (Aavg − Ravg) / (SD2 / n)1/2

(2) The absolute value of t must be less than the critical t value, tcrit at a 90% confidence interval for “n−1” degrees of freedom. The following table lists 90% confidence interval tcrit values for n−1 degrees of freedom:

90% Confidence interval critical t values vs. n − 1 degrees of freedom for a two-sided, paired t − test
n − 1 tcrit
61.94
71.89
81.86
91.83
101.81
111.80
121.78
131.77
141.76
151.75
161.75
171.74
181.73
191.73
201.72

[66 FR 5168, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1306-96   Equipment required and specifications; overview.

(a) Exhaust emission tests. All engines subject to this subpart are tested for exhaust emissions. Petroleum-, natural gas-, liquefied petroleum gas-, and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle and diesel engines are tested identically with two exceptions. First, the systems used to measure hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxide, methanol, formaldehyde and particulate depend on the type of engine being tested; petroleum-fueled diesel engines require a heated, continuous hydrocarbon detector and a heated, continuous nitrogen oxide detector (see §86.1310); methanol-fueled engines require a heated hydrocarbon detector, a methanol detector and a formaldehyde detector; either a heated or non-heated continuous hydrocarbon detector may be used with natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel engines; gasoline-fueled, natural gas- fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle engines are not tested for particulate emissions (see §86.1309). Second, if a gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled engine is to be used in a vehicle equipped with an evaporative canister, the test engine must have a loaded evaporative canister attached for the exhaust emission test. Necessary equipment and specifications appear in §§86.1308, 86.1309, 86.1310 and 86.1311.

(b) Fuel, analytical gas, and engine cycle specifications. Fuel specifications for exhaust emission testing are specified in §86.1313. Analytical gases are specified in §86.1314. The EPA heavy-duty transient engine cycles for use in exhaust testing are described in §86.1333 and specified in appendix I to this part.

[58 FR 16064, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48525, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.1308-84   Dynamometer and engine equipment specifications.

(a) Engine dynamometer. The engine dynamometer system must be capable of controlling engine torque and rpm simultaneously over transient cycles. The transient torque and rpm schedules described in §86.1333-84 and specified in appendix I ((f)(i), (2), and (3)) must be followed within the accuracy requirements specified in §86.1341-84. In addition to these general requirements, the engine or dynamometer readout signals for speed and torque shall meet the following accuracy specifications:

(1) Engine speed readout shall be accurate to within ±2 percent of the absolute standard value, as defined in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Engine flywheel torque readout shall be accurate to either within ±3 percent of the NBS “true” value torque (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section), or the following accuracies:

(i) ±2.5 ft-lbs. of the NBS “true” value if the full scale value is 550 ft-lbs. or less.

(ii) ±5 ft-lbs. of the NBS “true” value if the full scale value is 1050 ft-lbs. or less.

(iii) ±10 ft.-lbs., of the NBS “true” value if the full scale value is greater than 1050 ft.-lbs.

(3) Option. Internal dynamometer signals (i.e., armature current, etc.) may be used for torque measurement provided that it can be shown that the engine flywheel torque during the test cycle conforms to the accuracy specifications in paragraph (a) of this section. Such a measurement system must include compensation for increased or decreased flywheel torque due to the armature inertia during accelerations and decelerations in the test cycle.

(b) Cycle verification equipment. In order to verify that the test engine has followed the test cycle correctly, the dynamometer or engine readout signals for speed and torque must be collected in a manner that allows a statistical correlation between the actual engine performance and the test cycle (See §86.1341-84). Normally this collection process would involve conversion of analog dynamometer or engine signals into digital values for storage in a computer. The conversion of dynamometer or engine values (computer or other) that are used to evaluate the validity of engine performance in relation to the test cycle shall be performed in a manner such that:

(1) Speed values used for cycle evaluation are accurate to within 2 percent of the dynamometer or engine flywheel torque readout value.

(2) Engine flywheel torque values used for cycle evaluation are accurate to within 2 percent of the dynamometer or engine flywheel torque readout value.

(c) Option. For some systems it may be more convenient to combine the tolerances in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. This is permitted if the root mean square method (RMS) is used. The RMS values would then refer to accuracy in relationship to absolute standard or to NBS “true” values.

(1) Speed values used for cycle evaluation shall be accurate to within ±2.8 percent of the absolute standard values, as defined in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Engine flywheel torque values used for cycle evaluation shall be accurate to within ±3.6 percent of NBS “true” values, as determined in paragraph (e) of this section.

(d) Speed calibration equipment. A 60-tooth (or greater) wheel in combination with a common mode rejection frequency counter is considered an absolute standard for engine or dynamometer speed.

(e) Torque calibration equipment. Two techniques are allowed for torque calibration. Alternate techniques may be used if shown to yield equivalent accuracies. The NBS “true” value torque is defined as the torque calculated by taking the product of an NBS traceable weight or force and a sufficiently accurate horizontal lever arm distance, corrected for the hanging torque of the lever arm.

(1) The lever-arm dead-weight technique involves the placement of known weights at a known horizontal distance from the center of rotation of the torque measuring device. The equipment required is:

(i) Calibration weights. A minimum of six calibration weights for each range of torque measuring device used are required. The weights must be approximately equally spaced and each must be traceable to NBS weights. Laboratories located in foreign countries may certify calibration weights to local government bureau standards. Certification of weight by state government Bureau of Weights and Measures is acceptable. Effects of changes in gravitational constant at the test site may be accounted for if desired.

(ii) Lever arm. A lever arm with a minimum length of 24 inches is required. The horizontal distance from the centerline of the engine torque measurement device to the point of weight application shall be accurate to within ±0.10 inches. The arm must be balanced, or the hanging torque of the arm must be known to within ±0.1 ft-lbs.

(2) The transfer technique involves the calibration of a master load cell (i.e., dynamometer case load cell). This calibration can be done with known calibration weights at known horizontal distances, or by using a hydraulically actuated precalibrated master load cell. This calibration is then transferred to the flywheel torque measuring device. The technique involves the following steps:

(i) A master load cell shall be either precalibrated or be calibrated per paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section with known weights traceable to NBS, and used with the lever arm(s) specified in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section. The dynamometer should be either running or vibrated during this calibration to minimize static hysteresis.

(ii) A lever arm(s) with a minimum length of 24 inches is (are) required. The horizontal distances from the centerline of the master load cell, to the centerline of the dynamometer, and to the point of weight or force application shall be accurate to within ±0.10 inches. The arm(s) must be balanced or the net hanging torque of the arm(s) must be known to within ±0.1 ft.-lbs.

(iii) Transfer of calibration from the case or master load cell to the flywheel torque measuring device shall be performed with the dynamometer operating at a constant speed. The flywheel torque measurement device readout shall be calibrated to the master load cell torque readout at a minimum of six loads approximately equally spaced across the full useful ranges of both measurement devices. (Note that good engineering practice requires that both devices have approximately equal useful ranges of torque measurement.) The transfer calibration shall be performed in a manner such that the accuracy requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section for the flywheel torque measurement device readout be met or exceeded.

(3) Other techniques may be used if shown to yield equivalent accuracy.

(f) Diesel engines only. If direct measurement of mass fuel consumption is chosen as an option in lieu of dilute exhaust CO2 measurement, the fuel measurement device shall be accurate to within ±2 percent of actual mass fuel flow.

[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48142, Dec. 10, 1984; 52 FR 47870, Dec. 16, 1987]

§86.1309-90   Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

(a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this paragraph is designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of either gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS concept of measuring mass emissions, two conditions must be satisfied; the total volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air must be measured, and a continuously proportioned volume of sample must be collected for analysis. Mass emissions are determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period.

(2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust gases in the exhaust duct connected to the dilution tunnel (for the purposes of this paragraph, the exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized. This may be accomplished by:

(i) Using a duct of unrestricted length maintained at a temperature below 599 °F (315 °C). (Cooling capabilities as required); or

(ii) Using a smooth wall duct less than five feet long with no required heating (a maximum of two short flexible connectors are allowed under this option); or

(iii) Omitting the duct and performing the exhaust gas dilution function at the engine exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or

(iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the dilution tunnel, which lowers the duct temperature below 599 °F (315 °C).

(3) Positive displacement pump. The Positive Displacement Pump Constant Volume Sampler (PDP-CVS), Figure N90-1 satisfies the first condition by metering at a constant temperature and pressure through the pump. The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions made by the calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional samples for the bag sample, the methanol sample (Figure N90-2), and the formaldehyde sample (Figure N90-3), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the sample lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation. (Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled engines, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the bag sample (hydrocarbons and methanol) is analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol.)

eCFR graphic er06oc93.187.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er06oc93.188.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er06oc93.189.gif

View or download PDF

(4) Critical flow venturi. The operation of the Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume Sampler (CFV-CVS), Figure N90-4 is based upon the principles of fluid dynamics associated with critical flow. The CFV system is commonly called a constant volume system (CVS) even though the flow varies. It would be more proper to call the critical flow venturi (CFV) system a constant proportion sampling system since proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions is maintained by use of a small CFVs in the sample lines. For engines requiring measurement of methanol and/or formaldehyde, one line supplies sample for the bag sample, another line supplies sample for the methanol sample, and a third line supplies sample for the formaldehyde sample. The lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation with care being taken to ensure that the CFVs of the sample probes are not heated. (Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled engines, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the bag sample (hydrocarbons and methanol) is analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol. The variable mixture flow rate is maintained at choked flow, which is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas temperature, and is computed continuously. Since the pressure and temperature are the same at all venturi inlets, the sample volume is proportional to the total volume.)

eCFR graphic er06oc93.190.gif

View or download PDF

(5) Electronic Flow Control. The Electronic Flow Control Critical Flow Venturi Constant Volume Sampler (EFC-CFV-CVS) is identical to the CFV-CVS system, except that it uses electronic mass flow meters to maintain proportional sampling for methanol and formaldehyde. The flow rate of the exhaust plus dilution air and the sample flow rate are measured electronically. Proportionality is maintained by electronically controlled metering valves in the methanol and formaldehyde sample lines. Control of the valves is based on the electronic response of the flow meters. It is recommended that total flow sample volumes be measured by separate flow meters. For methanol-fueled engines, one line supplies sample for the bag sample, another line supplies sample for the methanol sample, and a third line supplies sample for the formaldehyde sample. The sample lines for methanol and for formaldehyde may both draw samples from a single static probe. The lines for the methanol and formaldehyde samples are heated to prevent condensation.

(6) Other systems. Other sampling and/or analytical systems including the systems described in §86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown to yield equivalent results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(7) Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with these drawings is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(b) Component description, PDP-CVS. The PDP-CVS, Figure N90-1, consists of a dilution air filter and mixing assembly, heat exchanger, positive displacement pump, sampling systems (see Figure N90-2 for methanol sampling system and Figure N90-3 for formaldehyde sampling system) including sampling lines which are heated to prevent condensation in the case of the methanol-fueled engine, and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5 °F (3 °C) above the maximum dew point of the mixture and less than 250 °F (121 °C). (It is recommended the they be maintained at 235 ±15 °F (113 ±8 °C)). Heating of the sample lines may be omitted, provided the methanol and formaldehyde sample collection systems are close coupled to the probes thereby preventing loss of sample due to cooling and resulting condensation in the sample lines. The PDP-CVS shall conform to the following requirements:

(1) Exhaust system backpressure must not be artificially lowered by the CVS or dilution air inlet system. Measurements to verify this should be made in the raw exhaust immediately upstream of the inlet to the CVS. (For diesel engines, this measurement should be made immediately upstream of the backpressure set device.) This verification requires the continuous measurement and comparison of raw exhaust static pressure observed during a transient cycle, both with and without the operating CVS. Static pressure measured with the operating CVS system shall remain within ±5 inches of water (1.2 kPa) of the static pressure measured without connection to the CVS, at identical moments in the test cycle. (Sampling systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±1 inch of water (0.25 kPa) will be used by the Administrator if a written request substantiates the need for this closer tolerance.) This requirement is essentially a design specification for the CVS/dilution air inlet system, and should be performed as often as good engineering practice dictates (e.g., after installation of an uncharacterized CVS, addition of an unknown inlet restriction on the dilution air, etc.).

(2) The gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the positive displacement pump and after the heat exchanger, shall be maintained within ±10 °F (±5.6 °C) of the average operating temperature observed during the test. (The average operating temperature may be estimated from the average operating temperature from similar tests.) The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3.4 °F (1.9 °C).

(3) The pressure gauges shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3 mm Hg (0.4 kPa).

(4) The flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to eliminate water condensation in the system. This is especially critical for methanol-fueled engines and may also be of concern with natural gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines; see “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels,” EPA 460/3-83-009. Dehumidifying the dilution air before entering the CVS is allowed. Heating is also allowed, provided:

(i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does not exceed 250 °F, or 125 °F if particulate emissions are measured;

(ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water condensation is based on the lowest temperature encountered in the CVS prior to sampling. (It is recommended that the CVS system be insulated when heated dilution air is used.);

(iii) The dilution ratio is sufficiently high to prevent condensation in bag samples as they cool to room temperature.

(5) Sample collection bags for dilution air and exhaust samples shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow. A single dilution air sample, covering the total test period, may be collected for the determination of methanol and formaldehyde background (where applicable).

(6) The methanol sample collection system and the formaldehyde sample collection system shall each be of sufficient capacity so as to collect samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on the volume of dilute exhaust passing through the PDP. The systems shall also comply with the following requirements that apply to the design of the systems, not to individual tests:

(i) The methanol system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) during the first phase of the test, the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer.

(ii) The formaldehyde system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted formaldehyde at a rate equal to twenty percent of the maximum allowable level of THCE (i.e., 0.2 g/Bhp-hr for a 1.1 g/Bhp-hr THCE standard), or the maximum formaldehyde level allowed by a specific formaldehyde standard, whichever is less, during the first phase of the test, the concentration of formaldehyde in the DNPH solution of the primary impinger, or solution resulting from the extraction of the DNPH cartridge, shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer.

(iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be designed such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. Sampling systems shall be identical for all phases.

(c) Component description, CFV. The CFV sample system, Figure N90-4, consists of a dilution air filter (optional) and mixing assembly, cyclone particulate separator (optional), unheated sampling venturies for the bag, methanol and formaldehyde samples, as applicable, heated sample lines to prevent condensation in the case of the methanol-fueled engine, critical flow venturi, and associated valves, pressure and temperature sensors. The temperature of the sample lines shall be more than 5 °F (3 °C) above the maximum dew point of the mixture and less than 250 °F (121 °C). (It is recommended the they be maintained at 235 ±15 °F (113 ±8 °C)). Heating of the sample lines may be omitted, provided the methanol and formaldehyde sample collection systems are close coupled to the probes thereby preventing loss of sample due to cooling and resulting condensation in the sample lines. The CFV sample system shall conform to the following requirements:

(1) Static pressure variations in the raw exhaust shall conform to the specifications detailed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(2) The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3.4 °F (±1.9 °C). The temperature measuring system used in a CVS without a heat exchanger shall have a response time of 1.50 seconds to 62.5 percent of a temperature change (as measured in hot silicone oil). There is no response time requirement for a CVS equipped with a heat exchanger.

(3) The pressure measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3 mm Hg (0.4 kPa).

(4) The flow capacity of the CVS shall be large enough to eliminate water condensation in the system. This is especially critical for methanol-fueled engines and may also be of concern with natural gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines; see “Calculation of Emissions and Fuel Economy When Using Alternative Fuels,” EPA 460/3-83-009. Dehumidifying the dilution air before entering the CVS is allowed. Heating is also allowed, provided:

(i) The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature does not exceed 250 °F, or 125 °F if particulate emissions are measured.

(ii) Calculation of the CVS flow rate necessary to prevent water condensation is based on the lowest temperature encountered in the CVS prior to sampling. (It is recommended that the CVS system be insulated when heated dilution air is used.)

(iii) The dilution ratio is sufficiently high to prevent condensation in bag samples as they cool to room temperature.

(5) Sample collection bags for dilution air and exhaust samples shall be of sufficient size so as not to impede sample flow. A single dilution air sample, covering the total test period, may be collected for the determination of methanol and formaldehyde background (where applicable).

(6) The methanol sample collection system and the formaldehyde sample collection system shall each be of sufficient capacity so as to collect samples of adequate size for analysis without significant impact on the volume of dilute exhaust passing through the CFV. The systems shall also comply with the following requirements that apply to the design of the systems, not to individual tests:

(i) The methanol system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted the maximum allowable level of methanol (based on all applicable standards) during the first phase of the test, the measured concentration in the primary impinger would exceed either 25 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the GC analyzer.

(ii) The formaldehyde system shall be designed such that, if a test engine emitted formaldehyde at a rate equal to twenty percent of the maximum allowable level of THCE (i.e., 0.2 g/Bhp-hr for a 1.1 g/Bhp-hr THCE standard), or the maximum formaldehyde level allowed by a specific formaldehyde standard, whichever is less, during the first phase of the test, the concentration of formaldehyde in the DNPH solution of the primary impinger, or solution resulting from the extraction of the DNPH cartridge, shall exceed either 2.5 mg/l or a concentration equal to 25 times the limit of detection for the HPLC analyzer.

(iii) The methanol and formaldehyde systems shall be designed such that the primary impinger collects at least 90 percent of the analyte in the samples. The remaining analyte shall be collected by the secondary impinger. Sampling systems shall be identical for all phases of the test.

(d) Component description, EFC-CFV. The EFC-CFV sample system, is identical to the CFV system described in paragraph (c) of this section, with the addition of electronic flow controllers, metering valves, separate flow meters to totalize sample flow volumes (optional), for methanol and formaldehyde samples. Both samples may be drawn from a single static probe. The EFC sample system shall conform to the following requirements:

(1) All of the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) The ratio of sample flow to CVS flow must not vary by more ±5 percent from the setpoint of the test.

(3) The sample flow totalizers shall meet the accuracy specifications of §86.1320. Total sample flow volumes may be obtained from the flow controllers, with advance approval of the Administrator, provided that they can be shown to meet the accuracy specifications of §86.1320.

[54 FR 14572, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48525, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34364, June 30, 1995; 66 FR 5169, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1310-90   Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

(a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this paragraph is designed to measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled and methanol-fueled heavy-duty diesel engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in §86.1309) of measuring the combined mass emissions of HC, CH3OH and HCHO from methanol-fueled engines and CO, CO2 and particulate from all fuel types. A continuously integrated system is required for THC (petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled, and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines) and NOX (all engines) measurement, and is allowed for all CO and CO2 measurements plus the combined emissions of CH3OH, HCHO, and HC from methanol-fueled engines. Where applicable, separate sampling systems are required for methanol and for formaldehyde. The mass of gaseous emissions is determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. The mass of particulate emissions is determined from a proportional mass sample collected on a filter and from the sample flow and total flow over the test period. As an option, the measurement of total fuel mass consumed over a cycle may be substituted for the exhaust measurement of CO2. General requirements are as follows:

(1) This sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger, a CFV-CVS (or an EFC-CFV-CVS) with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure N90-5 is a schematic drawing of the PDP system. Figure N90-6 is a schematic drawing of the CFV-CVS system.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.191.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er06oc93.192.gif

View or download PDF

(2) The HC analytical system for petroleum-fueled diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) and heated sample system (375 ±20 °F (191 ±11 °C)). For natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel engines either a heated flame ionization detector and heated sample system as required for petroleum fuel or a non-heated flame ionization detector may be used.

(3) Methanol-fueled engines require the use of a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) (235°±15 °F (113°±8 °C)) for hydrocarbon analysis. With a heated FID, the hydrocarbon analysis can be made on the bag sample and the methanol and formaldehyde analyses are performed on the samples collected for these purposes (Figures N90-2 and N90-3).

Note: For 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled engines, methanol and formaldehyde sampling may be omitted provided the hydrocarbon plus methanol analyses are performed using a FID calibrated on methanol.

(4) For methanol-fueled engines, cooling or reaction of the exhaust gases in the exhaust duct connected to the dilution tunnel (for the purposes of this paragraph, the exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized. This may be accomplished by:

(i) Using a duct of unrestricted length maintained at a temperature below 599 °F (315 °C). (Heating and possibly cooling capabilities as required); or

(ii) Using a smooth wall duct less than five feet long with no required heating (a maximum of two short flexible connectors are allowed under this option); or

(iii) Omitting the duct and performing the exhaust gas dilution function at the engine exhaust manifold or immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or

(iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the dilution tunnel, which lowers the duct temperature below 599 °F (315 °C).

(5) Heated sample lines are required for the methanol and formaldehyde samples (care must be taken to prevent heating of the sample probes unless compensation for varying flow rate is made). The sample collection lines shall be heated to a temperature more than 5 °F (3 °C) above the maximum dew point of the mixture, but below 250 °F (121 °C).

(6) The CO and CO2 analytical system requires:

(i) Bag sampling (§86.1309) and analytical (§86.1311) capabilities, as shown in Figure N90-5 (or Figure N90-6), or

(ii) Continuously integrated measurement of diluted CO and CO2 meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a representative sample.

(7) The NOX analytical system requires a continuously integrated measurement of diluted NOX meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a representative sample.

(8) The mass of particulate in the exhaust is determined via filtration. The particulate sampling system requires dilution of the exhaust in either one or two steps to a temperature never greater than 125 °F (51.7 °C) at the primary sample filter. A backup filter provides a confirmation of sufficient filtering efficiency.

(9) Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with these drawings is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components, such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(10) Other sampling and/or analytical systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b) Component description. The components necessary for exhaust sampling shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Exhaust dilution system. The PDP-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in §86.1309(b). The CFV-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas CFV-CVS in §86.1309(c). The EFC-CFV-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas EFC-CVS in §86.1309(d). In addition, the CFV-CVS and EFC-CFV-CVS must conform to the following requirements:

(i) The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream at or below the temperatures required for the measurement of particulate and hydrocarbon emission noted below and at, or above, the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This may be achieved by either of the following two methods:

(A) Single-dilution method. The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream at a temperature of 125 °F (51.7 °C) or less, at the sampling zone in the primary dilution tunnel and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the dilution tunnel. Direct sampling of the particulate material may then take place (Figure N90-5).

(B) Double-dilution method. The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream in the primary dilution tunnel at a temperature of 375 °F (191 °C) (250 °F (121 °C) for methanol fueled engines) or less at the sampling zone and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the dilution tunnel. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this sampling point. An exhaust sample must then be taken at this point to be diluted a second time for use in determining particulate emissions. The secondary dilution system must provide sufficient secondary dilution air to maintain the double-diluted exhaust stream at a temperature of 125 °F (51.7 °C) or less immediately before the primary particulate filter in the secondary dilution tunnel.

(ii) For the CFV-CVS or EFC-CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation (which also includes the particulate sample flows) is required (see Figure N90-6).

(iii) For the CFV-CVS or EFC-CFV-CVS when a heat exchanger is used, the gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the critical flow venturi, shall be within ±20 °F (±11 °C) of the average operating temperature observed during the test with the simultaneous requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system(sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±3.4 °F (1.9 °C). For systems utilizing a flow compensator to maintain proportional sampling, the requirement for maintaining constant temperature is not necessary.

(iv) The primary dilution air and secondary dilution air (if applicable):

(A) Shall have a temperature of 77°±9 °F (25°±5 °C). For the first l0 seconds this specification is 77°±20 °F (25°±11 °C).

(B) May be filtered at the dilution air inlet.

(C) Primary dilution air may be sampled to determine background particulate levels, which can then be subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust stream. The primary dilution air shall be sampled at the inlet to the primary dilution tunnel, if unfiltered, or downstream of any primary dilution air conditioning devices, if used.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) Continuous HC measurement system. (i) The continuous HC sample system (as shown in Figure N90-7 or N90-8) uses an “overflow” zero and span system. In this type of system, excess zero or span gas spills out of the probe when zero and span checks of the analyzer are made. The “overflow” system may also be used to calibrate the HC analyzer per §86.1321(b), although this is not required.

eCFR graphic er06oc93.193.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er06oc93.194.gif

View or download PDF

(ii) No other analyzers may draw a sample from the continuous HC sample probe, line or system, unless a common sample pump is used for all analyzers and the sample line system design reflects good engineering practice.

(iii) The overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105 percent of the sample system flow rate.

(iv) The overflow gases shall enter the heated sample line as close as practicable to the outside surface of the CVS duct or dilution tunnel.

(v) The continuous HC sampling system shall consist of a probe (which must raise the sample to the specified temperature) and, where used, a sample transfer system (which must maintain the specified temperature). The continuous hydrocarbon sampling system (exclusive of the probe) shall:

(A) Maintain a wall temperature of 464K ±11K (191 °C ±11 °C) as measured at every separately controlled heated component (i.e., filters, heated line sections), using permanent thermocouples located at each of the separate components.

(B) Have a wall temperature of 464K ±11K (191 °C ±11 °C) over its entire length. The temperature of the system shall be demonstrated by profiling the thermal characteristics of the system at initial installation and after any major maintenance performed on the system. The temperature profile of the HC sampling system shall be demonstrated by inserting thermocouple wires (typically Teflon® coated for ease of insertion) into the sampling system assembled in-situ where possible, using good engineering judgement. The wire should be inserted up to the HFID inlet. Stabilize the sampling system heaters at normal operating temperatures. Withdraw the wires in increments of 5 cm to 10 cm (2 inches to 4 inches) including all fittings. Record the stabilized temperature at each position. The system temperature will be monitored during testing at the locations and temperature described in §86.1310-90(b)(v)(A). Comment: It is understood that profiling of the sample line can be done under flowing conditions also as required with the probe.

(C) Maintain a gas temperature of 464K ±11K (191 °C ±11 °C) immediately before the heated filter and HFID. These gas temperatures will be determined by a temperature sensor located immediately upstream of each component.

(vi) The continuous hydrocarbon sampling probe shall:

(A) Be defined as the first 25.4 cm (10 in) to 76.2 cm (30 in) of the continuous hydrocarbon sampling system.

(B) Have a 0.483 cm (0.19 in) minimum inside diameter.

(C) Be installed in the primary dilution tunnel at a point where the dilution air and exhaust are well mixed (i.e., approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel).

(D) Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies.

(E) Increase the gas stream temperature to 464K ±11K (191 °C ±11 °C) by the exit of the probe. The ability of the probe to accomplish this shall be demonstrated at typical sample flow rates using the insertion thermocouple technique at initial installation and after any major maintenance. Compliance with the temperature specification shall be demonstrated by monitoring during each test the temperature of either the gas stream or the wall of the sample probe at its terminus.

(vii) The response time of the continuous measurement system shall be no greater than:

(A) 1.5 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the port entrance to the analyzer to within 90 percent of the step change.

(B) 20 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the entrance to the sample probe or overflow span gas port to within 90 percent of the step change. Analysis system response time shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets if necessary.

(C) For the purpose of verification of response times, the step change shall be at least 60 percent of full-scale chart deflection.

(4) Primary-dilution tunnel. (i) The primary dilution tunnel shall be:

(A) Small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds Number greater than 4000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;

(B) At least 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter with a single-dilution system or at least 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter with a double-dilution system;

(C) Constructed of electrically conductive material which does not react with the exhaust components; and

(D) Electrically grounded.

(ii) The temperature of the diluted exhaust stream inside of the primary dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation.

(iii) The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the primary dilution tunnel.

(5) Continuously integrated NOX, CO, and CO2 measurement systems. (i) The sample probe shall:

(A) Be in the same plane as the continuous HC probe, but shall be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influences of any wakes or eddies.

(B) Heated and insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of 131 °F (55 °C). Sample gas temperature immediately before the first filter in the system shall be at least 131 °F (55 °C).

(ii) The continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system shall conform to the specifications of 40 CFR part 86, subpart D, with the following exceptions and revisions:

(A) The system components required to be heated by subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature shall be 131 °F (55 °C).

(B) The system response defined in §86.329-79 shall be no greater than 20 seconds. Analysis system response time shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary.

(C) Alternative NOX measurement techniques outlined in §86.346-79 are not permitted for NOX measurement in this subpart.

(D) All analytical gases shall conform to the specifications of §86.1314.

(E) Any range on a linear analyzer below 155 ppm shall have and use a calibration curve conforming to §86.330-79.

(F) The measurement accuracy requirements specified in §86.338-79 are superseded by those specified in §86.1338.

(iii) The chart deflections or voltage output of analyzers with non-linear calibration curves shall be converted to concentration values by the calibration curve(s) specified in subpart D (§86.330-79) before flow correction (if used) and subsequent integration takes place.

(6) Particulate sampling system. The particulate collection system must be configured in either of two ways. The single-dilution method collects a proportional sample from the primary tunnel, and then passes this sample through the collection filter. The double-dilution method collects a proportional sample from the primary tunnel, and then transfers this sample to a secondary dilution tunnel where the sample is further diluted; the double-diluted sample is then passed through the collection filter. Proportionality (i.e., mass flow ratio) between the primary tunnel flow rate and the sample flow rate must be maintained within ±5 percent. The requirements for these two systems are:

(i) Single dilution method. (A) The particulate sample probe shall be:

(1) Installed facing upstream at a point where the dilution air and exhaust air are well mixed (i.e., on the primary tunnel centerline, approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the primary dilution tunnel).

(2) Sufficiently distant (radially) from other sampling probes so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies produced by the other probes.

(3) 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) minimum inside diameter.

(4) The distance from the sampling tip to the filter holder shall be at least 5 probe diameters for filters located inside the primary dilution tunnel, and not more than 40 inches (102 cm) for filters located outside the primary dilution tunnel.

(5) Designed to minimize the deposition of particulate in the probe (i.e., bends should be as gradual as possible, protrusions (due to sensors, etc.) should be smooth and not sudden, etc.).

(B) The particulate sample pump(s) shall be located sufficiently distant from the dilution tunnel so that the inlet gas temperature is maintained at a constant temperature (±5 °F (±2.8 °C)) if flow compensation is not used.

(C) The gas meters or flow instrumentation shall be located sufficiently distant from the tunnel so that the inlet gas temperature remains constant (±5 °F (±2.8 °C)) if flow compensation is not used.

(D) Other sample flow handling and/or measurement systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(ii) Double-dilution method. (A) The particulate sample transfer tube shall be configured and installed so that:

(1) The inlet faces upstream in the primary dilution tunnel at a point where the primary dilution air and exhaust are well mixed (i.e., on the primary tunnel centerline, approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the primary dilution tunnel).

(2) The particulate sample exits on the centerline of the secondary tunnel and points downstream.

(B) The particulate sample transfer tube shall be:

(1) Sufficiently distant (radially) from other sampling probes (in the primary dilution tunnel) so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies produced by the other probes.

(2) 0.5 in (1.3 cm) minimum inside diameter.

(3) No longer than 36 in (91 cm) from inlet plane to exit plane.

(4) Designed to minimize the deposition of particulate during transfer (i.e., bends should be as gradual as possible, protrusions (due to sensors, etc.) should be smooth and not sudden, etc.).

(5) Constructed of electrically conductive material which does not react with the exhaust components, and electrically grounded.

(C) The secondary dilution air shall be at a temperature of 77°±9 °F (25°±5 °C). For the first 10 seconds this specification is 77°±20 °F (25°±11 °C).

(D) The secondary-dilution tunnel shall be:

(1) 3.0 inches (7.6 cm) minimum inside diameter.

(2) Of sufficient length so as to provide a residence time of at least 0.25 seconds for the double-diluted sample.

(3) Constructed of electrically conductive material which does not react with the exhaust components, and electrically grounded.

(E) Additional dilution air must be provided so as to maintain a sample temperature of 125 °F (51.7 °C) or less immediately before the primary sample filter.

(F) The primary filter holder shall be located within 12.0 in (30.5 cm) of the exit of the secondary dilution tunnel.

(G) Other sample flow handling and/or measurement systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(7) Particulate sampling filters. (i) Fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber filters or fluorocarbon-based (membrane) filters are required.

(ii) Particulate filters must have a minimum diameter of 70 mm (60 mm stain diameter). Larger diameter filters are acceptable.

(iii) The dilute exhaust will be simultaneously sampled by a pair of filters (one primary and one back-up filter) during the cold-start test and by a second pair of filters during the hot-start test. The back-up filter holder shall be located no more than 4 inches (10 cm) downstream of the primary filter holder. The primary and back-up filters shall not be in contact with each other.

(iv) It is recommended that the filter loading should be maximized consistent with other temperature requirements and the requirement to avoid moisture condensation. A filter pair loading of 1 mg is typically proportional to a 0.1 g/bhp-hr emission level. All particulate filters, reference filters, and background filters shall be handled in pairs during all weighing operations for emissions testing.

(8) Methanol sampling system. The methanol sampling system, shown in Figure N90-2, consists of impingers (or sample collection capsules) containing known volumes of deionized water and sampling pump to draw the proportional sample through the impingers.

(9) Formaldehyde sampling system. The formaldehyde sampling system, Figure N90-3, consists of sample collection impingers and sampling pump to draw the proportional sample through the impingers.

[54 FR 14578, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48525, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34370, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47124, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1310-2007   Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled engines and particulate emissions from all engines.

(a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this paragraph is designed to measure the true mass of both gaseous and particulate emissions in the exhaust of heavy-duty diesel engines, and particulate emissions in the exhaust of all heavy-duty engines. (Gaseous emissions from non-petroleum-fueled diesel engines are measured using the system described in §86.1309.) This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in §86.1309) of measuring the combined mass emissions of THC, NOX, CH4 (if applicable) CO, CO2 and particulate matter. For all emission measurement systems described in this section, multiple or redundant systems may be used during a single test. Statistical averages of data from multiple systems may be used to calculate test results, consistent with good engineering judgment. Weighted averages are allowed, where appropriate Statistical outliers may be discarded, but all results must be reported. If the Administrator determines that the statistical analysis is not consistent with good engineering judgment, he/she may determine compliance from the arithmetic mean of the results. A continuously integrated system may be used for THC, NOX , CO and CO2 measurement. The use of proportional bag sampling for sample integration is allowed for THC, NOX, CO, and CO2 measurement, but requirements specific to bag sampling from diesel exhaust must be met for the THC and NOX emissions measurements. CH4 measurement for calculation of NMHC (if applicable) is measured using GC-FID analysis of a proportional bag sample. The mass of gaseous emissions is determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. The mass of particulate emissions is determined from a proportional mass sample collected on a filter and from the sample flow and total flow over the test period. As an option, the measurement of total fuel mass consumed over a cycle may be substituted for the exhaust measurement of CO2. General requirements are as follows:

(1) This sampling system requires the use of a CVS The CVS system may use a PDP or a CFV. PDP systems must use a heat exchanger. CFV systems may use either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. When electronic flow compensation is used, the CFV may be replaced by a subsonic venturi (SSV) as long as the CVS concept as defined in §86.1309 is maintained (i.e., a constant volumetric flow-rate through the CVS is maintained for the duration of the test). Figure N07-1 is a schematic drawing of the CVS system.

(2) The THC analytical system for diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) and heated sample system (191 ±11 °C) using either:

(i) Continuously integrated measurement of diluted THC meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Unless compensation for varying mass flow is made, a constant mass flow system must be used to ensure a proportional sample; or

(ii) Heated (191 ±11 °C) proportional bag sampling systems for hydrocarbon measurement will be allowed if the bag sampling system meets the performance specifications for outgassing and permeability as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(3) CH4 measurement, if applicable, shall be conducted using a proportional bag sampling system with subsequent analysis using a gas chromatograph and FID. The CH4 measurement shall be done in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice J1151, “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography” (1994 SAE Handbook, Volume 1: Materials, Fuels, Emissions, and Noise, Section 13, Page 13.170), which is incorporated by reference pursuant to §86.1(b)(2). As an alternative, the manufacturer may choose one of the options set forth in §86.004-28(c)(8).

(4)-(5) [Reserved]

(6) The CO and CO2 analytical system requires:

(i) Bag sampling (§86.1309) and analytical (§86.1311) capabilities, as shown in Figure N07-1; or

(ii) Continuously integrated measurement of diluted CO and CO2 meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a proportional sample; and

(7) The NOX analytical system requires:

(i) Continuously integrated measurement of diluted NOX meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a proportional sample.

(ii) Bag sampling (§86.1309) and analytical (§86.1311) capabilities, as shown in Figure N07-1 (or Figure 07-2) will be allowed provided that sample gas temperature is maintained above the sample's aqueous dewpoint at all times during collection and analysis.

(8) The mass of particulate in the exhaust is determined via filtration. The particulate sampling system requires dilution of the exhaust to a temperature of 47 °C ±5 °C, measured upstream of a single high-efficiency sample filter (as close to the filter as practical).

(9) Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with these drawings is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the components of the system. Other components, such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(10) Other sampling and/or analytical systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator (see §86.1306-07).

(b) Component description. The components necessary for exhaust sampling shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Exhaust dilution system. The CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas CVS systems in §86.1309(b), (c), and (d). With respect to PM measurement, the intent of this measurement procedure is to perform the sample cooling primarily via dilution and mixing with air rather than via heat transfer to the surfaces of the sampling system. In addition the CVS must conform to the following requirements:

(i) The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream at the temperatures required for the measurement of particulate and hydrocarbon emission noted below and at, or above, the temperatures where aqueous condensation in the exhaust gases could occur. This is achieved by the following method. The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream in the primary dilution tunnel at a temperature of 191 °C or less at the sampling zone and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the dilution tunnel. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this sampling point. An exhaust sample must then be taken at this point to be diluted a second time for use in determining particulate emissions. The secondary dilution system must provide sufficient secondary dilution air to maintain the double-diluted exhaust stream at a temperature of 47 C ±5 C, measured at a point located between the filter face and 16 cm upstream of the filter face.

(ii) For the CVS , either a heat exchanger (i.e. CFV-CVS) or electronic flow compensation (i.e. EFC-CFV-CVS), which also includes the particulate sample flows is required Refer to Figure N07-1.

(iii) When a heat exchanger is used, the gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the critical flow venturi, shall be within ±11 °C of the average operating temperature observed during the test with the simultaneous requirement that aqueous condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±1.9 °C. For systems utilizing a flow compensator to maintain proportional sampling, the requirement for maintaining constant temperature is not necessary.

(iv) The primary dilution air and secondary dilution air:

(A) Shall have a primary and secondary dilution air temperature equal to or greater than 15 °C.

(B) Primary dilution air shall be filtered at the dilution air inlet. The manufacturer of the primary dilution air filter shall state that the filter design has successfully achieved a minimum particle removal efficiency of 98% (less than 0.02 penetration) as determined using ASTM test method F 1471-93 (incorporated by reference at section 86.1). Secondary dilution air shall be filtered at the dilution air inlet using a high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). The HEPA filter manufacturer shall state the HEPA filter design has successfully achieved a minimum particle removal efficiency of 99.97% (less than 0.0003 penetration) as determined using ASTM test method F 1471-93. It is recommended that the primary dilution air be filtered using a HEPA filter. EPA intends to utilize HEPA filters to condition primary dilution air in its test facilities. It is acceptable to use of a booster blower upstream or downstream of a HEPA filter in the primary dilution tunnel (and upstream of the introduction of engine exhaust into the CVS) to compensate for the additional pressure loss associated with the filter. The design of any booster blower located downstream of the filter should minimize the introduction of additional particulate matter into the CVS.

(C) Primary dilution air may be sampled to determine background particulate levels, which can then be subtracted from the values measured in the diluted exhaust stream. In the case of primary dilution air, the background particulate filter sample shall be taken immediately downstream of the dilution air filter and upstream of the engine exhaust flow (Figure N07-1). The provisions of paragraphs (b)(7) of this section, and of §86.1312-2007 also apply to the measurement of background particulate matter, except that the filter temperature must be maintained below 52 °C.

(2) Heated proportional bag sampling systems. If a heated (191 ±11 °C) proportional bag sampling system is used for THC measurement, sample bags must demonstrate minimal outgassing and permeability by passing the following performance test:

(i) Performance test for sample bag HC outgassing and CO2 permeability. Bring the bag system to its operational temperature. Fill the heated sample bag with a nominal mixture of 1% CO2 in N2. Perform an initial measurement of CO2 and THC from the sample bag, and repeat the measurement after one hour. Acceptable performance criteria are <2% decrease of the initial CO2 reading and <1 ppmC THC.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Continuous HC measurement system. (i) The continuous HC sample system (as shown in Figure N07-1) uses an “overflow” zero and span system. In this type of system, excess zero or span gas spills out of the probe when zero and span checks of the analyzer are made. The “overflow” system may also be used to calibrate the HC analyzer per §86.1321(b), although this is not required.

(ii) No other analyzers may draw a sample from the continuous HC sample probe, line or system, unless a common sample pump is used for all analyzers and the sample line system design reflects good engineering practice.

(iii) The overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105% of the sample system flow rate.

(iv) The overflow gases shall enter the heated sample line as close as practicable to the outside surface of the CVS duct or dilution tunnel.

(v) The continuous HC sampling system shall consist of a probe (which must raise the sample to the specified temperature) and, where used, a sample transfer system (which must maintain the specified temperature). The continuous hydrocarbon sampling system (exclusive of the probe) shall:

(A) Maintain a wall temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C as measured at every separately controlled heated component (i.e., filters, heated line sections), using permanent thermocouples located at each of the separate components.

(B) Have a wall temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C over its entire length. The temperature of the system shall be demonstrated by profiling the thermal characteristics of the system at initial installation and after any major maintenance performed on the system. The temperature profile of the HC sampling system shall be demonstrated by inserting thermocouple wires (typically TeflonTM coated for ease of insertion) into the sampling system assembled in-situ where possible, using good engineering judgment. The wire should be inserted up to the HFID inlet. Stabilize the sampling system heaters at normal operating temperatures. Withdraw the wires in increments of 5 cm to 10 cm (2 inches to 4 inches) including all fittings. Record the stabilized temperature at each position. The system temperature will be monitored during testing at the locations and temperature described in §86.1310-90(b)(3)(v)(A).

Note: It is understood that profiling of the sample line can be done under flowing conditions also as required with the probe. This test may be cumbersome if test facilities utilize long transfer lines and many fittings; therefore it is recommended that transfer lines be kept as short as possible and the use of fittings should be kept minimal.

(C) Maintain a gas temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C immediately before the heated filter and HFID. These gas temperatures will be determined by a temperature sensor located immediately upstream of each component.

(vi) The continuous hydrocarbon sampling probe shall:

(A) Be defined as the first 25.4 cm (10 in) to 76.2 cm (30 in) of the continuous hydrocarbon sampling system;

(B) Have a 0.483 cm (0.19 in) minimum inside diameter;

(C) Be installed in the primary dilution tunnel at a point where the dilution air and exhaust are well mixed (i.e., approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel);

(D) Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies; and

(E) Increase the gas stream temperature to 191 °C ±11 °C by the exit of the probe. The ability of the probe to accomplish this shall be demonstrated at typical sample flow rates using the insertion thermocouple technique at initial installation and after any major maintenance. Compliance with the temperature specification shall be demonstrated by monitoring during each test the temperature of either the gas stream or the wall of the sample probe at its terminus.

(vii) The response time of the continuous measurement system shall be no greater than:

(A) 1.5 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the port entrance to the analyzer to within 90 percent of the step change;

(B) 10 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the entrance to the sample probe or overflow span gas port to within 90 percent of the step change. Analysis system response time shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets if necessary; and

(C) For the purpose of verification of response times, the step change shall be at least 60 percent of full-scale chart deflection.

(4) Primary-dilution tunnel. (i) The primary dilution tunnel shall be:

(A) Small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds Number greater than 4000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air. Good engineering judgment shall dictate the use of mixing plates and mixing orifices to ensure a well-mixed sample. To verify mixing, EPA recommends flowing a tracer gas (i.e. propane or CO2) from the raw exhaust inlet of the dilution tunnel and measuring its concentration at several points along the axial plane at the sample probe. Tracer gas concentrations should remain nearly constant (i.e. within 2%) between all of these points.

(B) At least 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter.

(C) Constructed of electrically conductive material which does not react with the exhaust components.

(D) Electrically grounded.

(E) EPA recommends that the tunnel should have minimal thermal capacitance such that the temperature of the walls tracks with the temperature of the diluted exhaust.

(ii) The temperature of the diluted exhaust stream inside of the primary dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation.

(iii) The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the primary dilution tunnel.

(5) Continuously integrated NOX, CO, and CO2 measurement systems. (i) The sample probe shall:

(A) Be in the same plane as the continuous HC probe, but shall be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influences of any wakes or eddies; and

(B) Heated and insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of 131 °F (55 °C). Sample gas temperature immediately before the first filter in the system shall be at least 131 °F (55 °C).

(ii) The continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system shall conform to the specifications of subpart D of this part, with the following exceptions:

(A) The system components required to be heated by subpart D need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature shall be 131 °F (55 °C);

(B) The system response defined in §86.329-79 shall be no greater than 10 seconds. Analysis system response time shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets, if necessary;

(C) Alternative NOX measurement techniques outlined in §86.346-79 are not permitted for NOX measurement in this subpart;

(D) All analytical gases shall conform to the specifications of §86.1314;

(E) Any range on a linear analyzer below 100 ppm shall have and use a calibration curve conforming to §86.1323-07; and

(F) The measurement accuracy requirements are specified in §86.1338-07.

(iii) The signal output of analyzers with non-linear calibration curves shall be converted to concentration values by the calibration curve(s) specified in subpart D of this part (§86.330-79) before flow correction (if used) and subsequent integration takes place.

(6) Particulate sampling system. This method collects a proportional sample from the primary tunnel, and then transfers this sample to a secondary dilution tunnel where the sample is further diluted. The double-diluted sample is then passed through the collection filter. Proportionality (i.e., mass flow ratio) between the primary tunnel flow rate and the sample flow rate must be maintained within ±5%, excluding the first 10 seconds of the test at start-up. The requirements for this system are:

(i) The particulate sample transfer tube shall be configured and installed so that:

(A) The inlet faces upstream in the primary dilution tunnel at a point where the primary dilution air and exhaust are well mixed.

(B) The particulate sample exits on the centerline of the secondary tunnel.

(ii) The entire particulate sample transfer tube shall be:

(A) Sufficiently distant (radially) from other sampling probes (in the primary dilution tunnel) so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies produced by the other probes.

(B) 0.85 cm minimum inside diameter.

(C) No longer than 36 in (91 cm) from inlet plane to exit plane.

(D) Designed to minimize the diffusional and thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter during transfer (i.e., sample residence time in the transfer tube should be as short as possible, temperature gradients between the flow stream and the transfer tube wall should be minimized). Double-wall, thin-wall, air-gap insulated, or a controlled heated construction for the transfer tube is recommended.

(E) Constructed such that the surfaces exposed to the sample shall be an electrically conductive material, which does not react with the exhaust components, and this surface shall be electrically grounded so as to minimize electrostatic particulate matter deposition.

(iii) The secondary dilution air shall be at a temperature equal to or greater than 15 °C.

(iv) The secondary-dilution tunnel shall be constructed such that the surfaces exposed to the sample shall be an electrically conductive material, which does not react with the exhaust components, and this surface shall be electrically grounded so as to minimize electrostatic particulate deposition.

(v) Additional dilution air must be provided so as to maintain a sample temperature of 47 °C ±5 °C upstream of the sample filter. Temperature shall be measured with a thermocouple with a 316 shank, having thermocouple wires with a gage diameter 24 AWG or smaller, a bare-wire butt-welded junction; or other suitable temperature measurement with an equivalent or faster time constant and an accuracy and precision of ±1.9 °C.

(vi) The filter holder assembly shall be located within 12.0 in (30.5 cm) of the exit of the secondary dilution tunnel.

(vii) The face velocity through the sample filter shall not exceed 100 cm/s (face velocity is defined as the standard volumetric sample flow rate (i.e., scm3/sec) divided by the sample filter stain area (i.e., cm2)).

(7) Particulate sampling—(i) Filter specifications. (A) Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or TeflonTM) coated borosilicate glass fiber high-efficiency filters or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or TeflonTM) high-efficiency membrane filters with an integral support ring of polymethylpentene (PMP) or equivalent inert material are required. Filters shall have a minimum clean filter efficiency of 99% as measured by the ASTM D2986-95a DOP test (incorporated by reference at §86.1).

(B) Particulate filters must have a diameter of 46.50 ±0.6 mm (38 mm minimum stain diameter).

(C) The dilute exhaust is simultaneously sampled by a single high-efficiency filter during the cold-start test and by a second high efficiency filter during the hot-start test.

(D) It is recommended that the filter loading should be maximized consistent with temperature requirements.

(ii) Filter holder assembly. The filter holder assembly shall comply with the specifications set forth for ambient PM measurement in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L 7.3.5, figures L-25 and L-26, with the following exceptions:

(A) The material shall be 302, 303, or 304 stainless steel instead of anodized aluminum.

(B) The 2.84 cm diameter entrance to the filter holder may be adapted, using sound engineering judgment and leak-free construction, to an inside diameter no smaller than 0.85 cm, maintaining the 12.5° angle from the inlet of the top filter holder to the area near the sealing surface of the top of the filter cartridge assembly. Figure N07-2 shows acceptable variation from the design in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L. Similar variations using sound engineering design are also acceptable provided that they provide even flow distribution across the filter media and a similar leak-free seal with the filter cartridge assembly.

(C) If additional or multiple filter cartridges are stored in a particulate sampler as part of an automatic sequential sampling capability, all such filter cartridges, unless they are installed in the sample flow (with or without flow established) shall be covered or sealed to prevent communication of semi-volatile matter from filter to filter; contamination of the filters before and after sampling; or loss of volatile or semi-volatile particulate matter after sampling.

(iii) Filter cartridge assembly. The filter cartridge assembly shall comply with the specifications set forth for ambient PM measurement in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L 7.3.5, figures L-27, L-28, and L-29, with the following exceptions:

(A) In addition to the specified DelrinTM material, 302, 303, or 304 stainless steel, polycarbonate or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) resin, or a combination of these materials may also be used.

(B) A bevel introduced on the inside diameter of the entrance to the filter cartridge, as used by some commercially available automated sequential particulate filter cartridge changers, is also acceptable (see Figure N07-3).

(iv) Particle preclassifier. A particle preclassifier shall be installed immediately upstream of the filter holder assembly (N07-1). The purpose of the preclassifier is to remove coarse, mechanically generated particles (e.g., rust from the engine exhaust system or carbon sheared from the sampling system walls) from the sample flow stream while allowing combustion-generated particles to pass through to the filter. The preclassifier may be either an inertial impactor or a cyclonic separator. The preclassifier manufacturer 50% cutpoint particle diameter shall be between 2.5 µm and 10 µm at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling of particulate matter emissions. Sharpness of cut is not specifically defined, but the preclassifier geometry shall allow at least 99% of the mass concentration of 1 µm particles to pass through the exit of the preclassifier to the filter at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particulate matter emissions. Periodic servicing of the preclassifier will be necessary to prevent a buildup of mechanically separated particles. The particle preclassifier may be made integral with the top of the filter holder assembly. The preclassifier may also be made integral with a mixing-tee for introduction of secondary dilution air, thus replacing the secondary dilution tunnel; provided that the preclassifier provides sufficient mixing.

eCFR graphic er18ja01.008.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er18ja01.009.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er18ja01.010.gif

View or download PDF

[66 FR 5169, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1311-94   Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

(a) Schematic drawings. Figure N94-1 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used for analyzing CVS bag samples from either Otto-cycle or diesel engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate results, exact conformance with the drawing is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy in some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(b) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure N94-1, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated for methanol-fueled (235 ±15 °F (113 ±8 °C)) and for petroleum-fueled diesel (375 ±10 °F (191 ±6 °C) engines) for the measurement of hydrocarbons, a methane analyzer (consisting of a gas chromatograph combined with a FID) for the determination of CH4 (for engines subject to NMHC standards, where applicable), nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence analyzer (CL) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The analytical system for methanol consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), equipped with a flame ionization detector. The analysis for formaldehyde is performed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatives using ultraviolet (UV) detection. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements:

(1) The CL requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(2) The carbon monoxide (NDIR) analyzer may require a sample conditioning column containing CaSO4 or desiccating silica gel to remove water vapor, and containing ascarite to remove carbon dioxide from the CO analysis stream.

(i) If CO instruments are used which are essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted (see §§86.1322 and 86.1342).

(ii) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference if its response to a mixture of three percent CO2 in N2. which has been bubbled through water at room temperature, produces an equivalent CO response, as measured on the most sensitive CO range, which is less than one percent of full scale CO concentration on ranges above 300 ppm full scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale (see §86.1322).

(3)(i) Using a methane analyzer consisting of a gas chromatograph combined with a FID, the measurement of methane shall be done in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice J1151, “Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography.” (Incorporated by reference pursuant to §86.1(b)(2).)

(ii) For natural gas vehicles, the manufacturer has the option of using gas chromatography to measure NMHC through direct quantitation of individual hydrocarbon species. The manufacturer shall conform to standard industry practices and use good engineering judgement.

(c) Alternate analytical systems. Analysis systems meeting the specifications of subpart D of this part may be used for testing required under this subpart, with the exception of §§86.346 and 86.347, provided that the systems in subpart D of this part meet the specifications of this subpart. Heated analyzers may be used in their heated configuration.

(d) Other analyzers and equipment. Other types of analyzers and equipment may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

[59 FR 48525, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 59 FR 50073, Sept. 30, 1994; 61 FR 127, Jan. 3, 1996; 62 FR 54730, Oct. 21, 1997]

§86.1312-88   Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

(a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The ambient temperature of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained at 295 K ±3 K (22 °C ±3 °C) during all filter conditioning and weighing.

(2) Humidity. The humidity of the chamber (or room) in which the particulate filters are conditioned and weighed shall be maintained at a dew point temperature of 282.5 K ±3 K (9.4 °C ±3 °C) and a relative humidity of 45% ±8%. Either the dew point temperature or the relative humidity or both may be averaged over the preceding 10 minute period on a moving average basis.

(3) The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminates (such as dust) that would settle on the particulate filters during their stabilization. It is required that at least two unused reference filter pairs remain in the weighing room at all times in covered (to reduce dust contamination) but unsealed (to permit humidity exchange) petri dishes. These reference filter pairs shall be placed in the same general area as the sample filters. These reference filter pairs shall be weighed within 4 hours of, but preferably at the same time as, the sample filter pair weighings.

(4) If the average weight of the reference filter pairs changes between sample filter weighings by more than 40 micrograms, then all sample filters and background filters in the process of stabilization shall be discarded and the emissions tests repeated.

(5) If the room (or chamber) environmental conditions are not met, then the filters shall remain in the conditioning room for at least one hour after correct conditions are met prior to weighing.

(6) The reference filter pairs shall be changed at least once a month, but never between clean and used weighings of a given sample filter pairs. More than one set of reference filter pair may be used. The reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters.

(b) Weighing balance specifications. The microgram balance used to determine the weights of all filters shall have a precision (standard deviation) of 20 micrograms and readability of 10 micrograms.

(Secs. 202, 203, 206, 207, 208, 301a, Clean Air Act, as amended; 42 U.S.C. 7521, 7522, 7525, 7541, 7542, 7601a)

[50 FR 10702, Mar. 15, 1985, as amended at 52 FR 47871, Dec. 16, 1987; 62 FR 47124, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1312-2007   Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and weighing procedures.

(a) Ambient conditions for filter stabilization and weighing—(1) Temperature and humidity. (i) The filter stabilization environment shall be maintained at 22 °C ±3 °C and a dewpoint of 9.5 °C ±1 °C. Dewpoint shall be measured with an instrument that exhibits an accuracy of at least ±0.25 °C NIST traceable as stated by the instrument manufacturer. Temperature shall be measured with an instrument that exhibits an accuracy of at least ±0.2 °C or better.

(ii) The immediate microbalance workstation environment shall be maintained at 22 °C ±1 °C and a dewpoint of 9.5 °C ±1 °C. If the microbalance workstation environment freely circulates with the filter stabilization environment, and this entire environment meets 22 °C ±1 °C and a dewpoint of 9.5 °C ±1 °C , then there is no requirement to measure temperature and dewpoint at the microbalance separate from the filter stabilization location. Otherwise, temperature at the microbalance workstation shall be measured with an instrument that exhibits an accuracy of at least ±0.2 °C or better, and dewpoint shall be measured with an instrument that exhibits an accuracy of at least ±0.25 °C NIST traceable as stated by the instrument manufacturer.

(2) Cleanliness. (i) The microbalance and filter stabilization environments shall be free of ambient contaminants (such as dust or other aerosols) that could settle on the particulate filters. It is recommended that these environments be built to conform with the Class 1000 specification (or cleaner) as determined by Federal Standard 209D or 209E for clean room classification (Available from the Institute of Environmental Standards and Technology website at www.iest.org or phone (847) 255-1561). An alternative recommendation would be to equilibrate and/or weigh the filters within a separate, smaller, particle-free, temperature and humidity-controlled chamber (i.e., “glove box”).

(ii) Reference filters shall be used to monitor for gross particle contamination. It is required that at least two unused reference filters remain in the filter stabilization environment at all times in partially covered glass petri dishes, as in paragraph (c) (1) of this section. These reference filters shall be placed in the filter stabilization environment. The reference filters shall be weighed within 2 hours of, but preferably at the same time as, the sample filters. The reference filters shall be changed at least once a month, but never while any sample filters are between their tare weight (pre-sampling) and gross weight (post-sampling) measurements. The reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters.

(3) Quality control of ambient conditions. (i) If, before the start of a weighing session, the temperature or dewpoint of the filter stabilization environment are not within specifications, then filters must remain in the environment for at least 30 minutes after conditions are corrected. If the filter stabilization environment changes during a weighing session such that the specifications are no longer met, the weighing session shall be suspended until the environment has returned to within specifications for at least 30 minutes. Once the environment has returned to within specifications for at least 30 minutes, the reference filters shall be reweighed and the criteria in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section shall apply. Note that temperature and dewpoint shall be sampled once per second, and an unweighted 5-minute moving average of this data shall be calculated once per second. This moving average shall be used to determine the environment temperature and dewpoint for the purpose of determining whether or not the environment is within specifications.

(ii) If the average change in weight of the reference filters is more than 10 micrograms (after correcting for buoyancy as described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section), then all filters in the process of stabilization shall be discarded and all data collected with respect to the discarded filters shall be considered void. Note that more than 2 reference filters may be used to achieve a more robust average of the change in weight of the reference filters.

(b) Microbalance specifications. The microbalance used to determine the weights of all filters shall have a precision (standard deviation) of at least ±0.25 micrograms or better for repeated weighing of a calibration weight, a precision of at least ±2.5 micrograms or better for repeated weighing of a clean filter, and a readability equal to or less than 0.1 micrograms. It is recommended that the microbalance be installed on a vibration isolation platform to isolate the microbalance's load cell from external vibration. It is also recommended that the microbalance should be shielded from convective airflow by means of an electrically grounded static dissipative draft shield. Microbalance manufacturer specifications for all preventive maintenance, periodic certification, calibration, and re-zeroing shall be followed. All certification and calibration procedures shall be NIST traceable, or traceable to an equivalent national standard.

(c) Particulate matter filter handling and weighing. Care should be taken to prevent contamination of the sample filters and to prevent a buildup of static charge on the filters that could interfere with filter weighing. Static neutralizers, such as Po-210 sources, shall be used to neutralize charge on a filter prior to each weighing. A static neutralizer should be replaced at the interval recommended by its manufacturer, or when it is no longer able to reduce static charge on a filter to less than ±2 VDC as measured with an electrostatic monitor at the microbalance workstation. The person weighing filters shall be grounded with respect to the microbalance to prevent imparting a static charge on the filters. This can be accomplished safely by using a grounding strap such as the wrist straps that are commonly used in the microelectronics industry, or by connecting a similar grounding strap to the tweezers. To prevent electrical shock, a 1-megohm resistor should be installed in series between the person weighing filters and ground.

(1) Within the filter stabilization environment, a pair of clean and electrically conductive tweezers shall be used to place a filter in the lower half of a filter cassette and the cassette shall be placed in a partially open glass petri dish. The petri dish lid should extend over the filter to prevent gross contamination, but it should be left slightly open on one edge to permit stabilization with the environment for at least 30 minutes.

(2) After at least 30 minutes of stabilization, each filter shall be weighed using the specified microbalance. The process of weighing a filter may be repeated and a statistical mean weight of a single filter may be calculated. Sound engineering judgment shall dictate the use of statistics to discard outliers and the weighting of averages. For a clean filter its single weight or statistical mean weight shall be considered the uncorrected tare weight of the filter.

(3) All filter weights shall be corrected for filter buoyancy in air. For the uncorrected tare weight of a filter, this calculated value is the corrected tare weight of the filter, and it must be recorded (see §86.1344(e)(18)). Barometric pressure of the microbalance environment shall be measured with an instrument that exhibits ±0.01% full-scale accuracy and 0.01% per-year full scale stability, and the full-scale value used for such a specification shall not exceed 200 kPa.

(i) Buoyancy correction calculation. (A) Calculate vapor pressure of liquid water using the dewpoint temperature in the Magnus formula:

Pw=0.6113×10+((7.5×Tdp)/(237.3+Tdp))

Where:

Pw=vapor pressure of liquid water, kPa.

Tdp=dewpoint temperature, °C.

(B) Calculate air density using the ideal gas relationship and molecular weights of standard air and water:

A=(3.484×P−1.317×Pw)/(T+273.15)

Where:

A=air density, kg/m3.

P=barometric pressure, kPa.

Pw=vapor pressure of liquid water, kPa.

T=temperature, °C.

(C) Buoyancy correction:

M=R×(1−(A/ρw))/(1−(A/ρs)).

Where:

M=corrected mass in units of the balance display.

R=uncorrected filter weight in units of the balance display.

A=calculated air density, kg/m3.

ρw=density of calibration weight used to calibrate the balance, kg/m3.

ρs=density of filter material used to sample PM emissions, kg/m3.

(ii) For determining ρs note that PTFE (TeflonTM) and borosilicate glass both have densities in the range of 2,200 to 2,400 kg/m3. Therefore, for PTFE-coated borosilicate glass fiber filters, an acceptable ρs is 2,300 kg/m3. Note also that polymethylpentene has a density of 850 kg/m3. Because Teflon PTFE membrane filters have an integral polymethylpentene support ring that accounts for 95% of the filter mass, an acceptable ρs for these filters is 920 kg/m3. Other ρs values for other filters may be obtained similarly. Information about “ρs should be available from the calibration weight manufacturer.

(iii) This paragraph (c)(3)(iii) shows an example of the buoyancy correction. This example assumes the following inputs: Barometric pressure (P)=101.325 kPa, temperature (T)=22.0 °C, dewpoint temperature (Tdp)=9.5 °C, balance display (R)=100.0000 mg, calibration weight density (ρw)=8,000 kg/m3, and filter material density (ρs)=2,300 kg/m3. Then:

(A) The water vapor pressure (Pw) is calculated as:

Pw = 0.6113 × 10 ((7.5 × 9.5)/(237.3 + 9.5)) = 1.186 kPa.

(B) The air density (A) is calculated as:

A = (3.484 ×101.325 − 1.317 × 1.186)/(22.0 + 273.15) = 1.191 kg/m3.

(C) The corrected mass (M) is calculated as:

M=100.0000 × (1 − (1.191/8000))/(1 − (1.191/2300)) = 100.0369 mg.

(4) The uncorrected weight, corrected weight, barometric pressure, temperature and humidity, of the filter shall be recorded. Afterward the filter shall be returned to the lower half of the filter cassette, and the upper half of the cassette shall be set in place. The cassette-with filter-shall then be stored in a covered glass petri dish or a sealed (i.e., ends plugged) filter holder assembly, either of which shall remain in the filter stabilization environment until needed for testing. It is recommended that the filter be transported between the filter stabilization environment and the location of the emissions test within a sealed filter holder assembly.

(5) After the emissions test, the filter cassette shall be removed from the filter holder assembly. If this removal is performed in the filter stabilization environment, the upper half of the cassette shall be removed using a properly designed separator tool, the lower half of the cassette-with filter-shall be placed in a partially covered petri dish, and allowed to stabilize for at least 30 minutes. Otherwise, the cassette and filter shall be placed in a closed petri dish until it can be returned to the filter stabilization environment. Once the closed petri dish is returned to the filter stabilization environment, the petri dish shall be opened, the upper half of the cassette shall be removed using a properly designed separator tool, the lower half of the cassette-with filter-shall be placed in a partially covered petri dish, and allowed to stabilize for at least one hour.

(6) After at least 30 minutes, but no more than 60 hours of stabilization, each filter may be weighed using the specified microbalance. The process of weighing a filter may be repeated and a statistical mean may be calculated. Sound engineering judgment shall dictate the use of statistics to discard outliers and the weighting of averages. For a used filter, its single weight or statistical mean weight shall be identified as the uncorrected gross weight of the filter. The uncorrected gross weight shall be corrected for filter buoyancy using the procedure in (c)(3) of this section. The uncorrected gross filter weight, corrected gross filter weight, barometric pressure, temperature, and dewpoint shall be recorded.

(7) The net particulate matter weight (Pf) of each filter shall be equal to the corrected gross filter weight minus the corrected tare filter weight.

(8) Should the particulate matter on the filters contact the petri dish, tweezers, microbalance or any other surface, the data with respect to that filter is void.

[66 FR 5177, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1313-94   Fuel specifications.

(a) Gasoline fuel. (1) Gasoline having the specifications listed in table N94-1 will be used by the Administrator in exhaust emission testing. Gasoline having these specifications or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used by the manufacturer in exhaust emission testing, except that the octane specification does not apply.

Table N94-1

ItemASTMValue
Octane, research, minD269993
Sensitivity, min7.5
Lead (organic), g/U.S. gal. (g/liter)D32371(0.050)
1(0.013)
Distillation range:
IBP, °F (°C)D8675-95
(23.9-35)
10 pct. point, °F (°C)D86120-135
(48.9-57.2)
50 pct. point, °F (°C)D86200-230
(93.3-110)
90 pct. point, °F (°C)D86300-325
(148.9-162.8)
EP, max. °F (°C)D86415
(212.8)
Sulphur, Max., wt. pctD12660.10
Phosphorus, max., g/U.S. gal. (g/liter)D32310.005
(0.0013)
RVP, psi (kPa)D3238.0-9.2
(60.0-63.4)
Hydrocarbon composition:
Olefins, max. pctD131910
Aromatics, max. pctD131935
SaturatesD1319(2)

1Maximum.

2Remainder.

(2)(i) Unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline which will be generally available through retail outlets shall be used in service accumulation.

(ii) The octane rating of the gasoline used shall not be higher than one Research octane number above the minimum recommended by the manufacturer and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as the Research octane number minus the Motor octane number.

(iii) The Reid Vapor Pressure of the gasoline used shall be characteristic of the motor fuel used during the season in which the service accumulation takes place.

(3) The specification range of the gasoline to be used under paragraph (a) of this section shall be reported in accordance with §86.094-21(b)(3).

(b) Petroleum diesel test fuel. (1) The petroleum fuels for testing diesel engines employed for testing shall be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The petroleum diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: Cetane improver, metal deactivator, antioxidant, dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant and biocide. Fuels specified for emissions testing are intended to be representative of commercially available in-use fuels.

(2) Petroleum fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in Table N94-2, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used in exhaust emissions testing. The grade of petroleum fuel used shall be commercially designated as “Type 2-D” grade diesel fuel except that fuel commercially designated at “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel may be substituted provided that the manufacturer has submitted evidence to the Administrator demonstrating to the Administrator's satisfaction that this fuel will be the predominant in-use fuel. Such evidence could include such things as copies of signed contracts from customers indicating the intent to purchase and use “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel as the primary fuel for use in the engines or other evidence acceptable to the Administrator.

Table N94-2

ItemASTMType 1-DType 2-D
Cetane NumberD61340-5440-48
Cetane IndexD97640-5440-48
Distillation range:
IBP °FD86330-390340-400
(°C)(165.6-198.9)(171.1-204.4)
10 percent point, °FD86370-430400-460
(°C)(187.8-221.1)(204.4-237.8)
50 percent point, °FD86410-480470-540
(°C)(210-248.9)(243.3-282.2)
90 percent point, °FD86460-520560-630
(°C)(237.8-271.1)(293.3-332.2)
EP, °FD86500-560610-690
(°C)(260.0-293.3)(321.1-365.6)
Gravity, °APID28740-4432-37
Total Sulfur, percentD26220.03-0.050.03-0.05
Hydrocarbon composition:
Aromatics, pctD1319 or D518618127
Paraffins, Naphthenes, OlefinsD1319(2)(2)
Flashpoint, °FD93120130
(°C)(48.9)(54.4)
(minimum)
Viscosity, CentistokesD4451.6-2.02.0-3.2

1Minimum.

2Remainder.

(3) Petroleum diesel fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in table N94-3, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used in service accumulation. The grade of petroleum diesel fuel used shall be commercially designated as “Type 2-D” grade diesel fuel except that fuel commercially designated as “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel may be substituted provided that the manufacturer has submitted evidence to the Administrator demonstrating to the Administrator's satisfaction that this fuel will be the predominant in-use fuel. Such evidence could include such things as copies of signed contracts from customers indicating the intent to purchase and use “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel as the primary fuel for use in the engines or other evidence acceptable to the Administrator.

Table N94-3

ItemASTMType 1-DType 2-D
Cetane NumberD61340-5630-58
Cetane IndexD976Min. 40Min. 40
Distillation range:
90 pct. point °F (°C)D86440-530
(226.7-276.7)
540-630
(282.2-332.2)
Gravity °APID28739-4530-42
Total sulfur, min. pctD26220.03-0.050.03-0.05
Flashpoint, min. °F (°C)D93120
(48.9)
130
54.4
Viscosity, centistokesD4451.2-2.21.5-4.5

(4) Other petroleum distillate fuels may be used for testing and service accumulation provided:

(i) They are commercially available; and

(ii) Information, acceptable to the Administrator, is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in customer service; and

(iii) Use of a fuel listed under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section would have a detrimental effect on emissions or durability; and

(iv) Written approval from the Administrator of the fuel specifications must be provided prior to the start of testing.

(5) The specification range of the fuels to be used under paragraph (b) of this section shall be reported in accordance with §86.094-21(b)(3).

(c) Methanol-fuel. (1) Methanol fuel used for exhaust and evaporative emission testing and in service accumulation of methanol-fueled engines shall be representative of commercially available methanol fuel and shall consist of at least 50 percent methanol by volume.

(i) Manufacturers shall recommend the methanol fuel to be used for testing and service accumulation.

(ii) The Administrator shall determine the methanol fuel to be used for testing and service accumulation.

(2) Other methanol fuels may be used for testing and service accumulation provided:

(i) They are commercially available; and

(ii) Information, acceptable to the Administrator, is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in customer service; and

(iii) Use of a fuel listed under paragraph (b)(4)(c)(1) of this section would have a detrimental effect on emissions or durability; and

(iv) Written approval from the Administrator of the fuel specifications must be provided prior to the start of testing.

(3) The specification range of the fuels to be used under paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section shall be reported in accordance with §86.094-21(b)(3).

(d) Mixtures of petroleum and methanol fuels for flexible fuel vehicles. (1) Mixtures of petroleum and methanol fuels used for exhaust emission testing and service accumulation for flexible fuel vehicles shall consist of the methanol and petroleum fuels listed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, and shall be within the range of fuel mixtures for which the vehicle was designed, as reported in accordance with §86.94-21. The Administrator may use any fuel mixture within this range for testing.

(2) The fuel mixtures used by the manufacturers shall be sufficient to demonstrate compliance over the full design range, and shall include:

(i) For emission testing:

(A) A petroleum fuel specified in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this section;

(B) A methanol fuel representative of the methanol fuel expected to the found in use.

(ii) For service accumulation, an alternating combination of the fuels specified in paragraphs (a) or (b), and (c) of this section that, based on good engineering judgement, demonstrates the durability of the emissions control system. The combination shall be selected such that the cumulative volumes of both the methanol fuel and the petroleum fuel used shall be at least 25 percent of the total fuel volume. The fuels shall be or alternated at intervals not to exceed 500 hours.

(iii) Or, other combinations for testing and/or service accumulation which demonstrate compliance with the standards over the entire design range of the vehicle, provided that written approval is obtained from the Administrator prior to the start of testing.

(3) The specification range of the fuels to be used under this paragraph (d) shall be reported in accordance with §86.094-21.

(e) Natural gas-fuel. (1) Natural gas-fuel having the following specifications will be used by the Administrator for exhaust and evaporative emission testing of natural gas-fueled engines:

Natural Gas Certification Fuel Specifications

Item  ASTM test method No.Value
Methanemin. mole pct.D194589.0
Ethanemax. mole pct.D19454.5
C3 and highermax. mole pct.D19452.3
C6 and highermax. mole pct.D19450.2
Oxygenmax. mole pct.D19450.6
Inert gases:
Sum of CO2 and N2max. mole pct.D19454.0
Odorant1

1The natural gas at ambient conditions must have a distinctive odor potent enough for its presence to be detected down to a concentration in air of not over 1/5 (one-fifth) of the lower limit of flammability.

(2) Natural gas-fuel representative of commercial natural gas-fuel and which will be generally available through retail outlets shall be used in service accumulation.

(3) Other natural gas-fuels may be used for testing and service accumulation provided:

(i) They are commercially available;

(ii) Information, acceptable to the Administrator, is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in customer service; and

(iii) Written approval from the Administrator of the fuel specifications must be provided prior to the start of testing.

(4) The specification range of the fuels to be used under paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2) of this section shall be reported in accordance with §86.094-21(b)(3).

(f) Liquified petroleum gas-fuel. (1) Liquified petroleum gas-fuel used for exhaust and evaporative emission testing and in service accumulation shall be commercially available liquefied petroleum gas-fuel.

(i) Manufacturers shall recommend the liquefied petroleum gas-fuel to be used for testing and service accumulation.

(ii) The Administrator shall determine the liquefied petroleum gas-fuel to be used for testing and service accumulation.

(2) Other liquefied petroleum gas-fuels may be used for testing and service accumulation provided:

(i) They are commercially available;

(ii) Information, acceptable to the Administrator, is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in customer service; and

(iii) Written approval from the Administrator of the fuel specifications must be provided prior to the start of testing.

(3) The specification range of the fuels to be used under paragraphs (f)(1) and (f)(2) of this section shall be measured in accordance with ASTM D2163-91 and reported in accordance with §86.094-21(b)(3).

(g) Fuels not meeting the specifications set forth in this section may be used only with the advance approval of the Administrator.

[59 FR 48528, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 34371, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47125, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1313-98   Fuel specifications.

Section 86.1313-98 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.1313-94. Where a paragraph in §86.1313-94 is identical and applicable to §86.1313-98, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94”.

(a) through (b)(1) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.

(b)(2) Petroleum fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in Table N98-2, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used in exhaust emissions testing. The grade of petroleum fuel used shall be commercially designated as “Type 2-D” grade diesel fuel except that fuel commercially designated at “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel may be substituted provided that the manufacturer has submitted evidence to the Administrator demonstrating to the Administrator's satisfaction that this fuel will be the predominant in-use fuel. Such evidence could include such things as copies of signed contracts from customers indicating the intent to purchase and use “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel as the primary fuel for use in the engines or other evidence acceptable to the Administrator.

Table N98-2

Item  ASTM test method No.Type 1-DType 2-D
Cetane NumberD 61340-5440-50
Cetane IndexD 97640-5440-50
Distillation range:
IBP°FD 86330-390340-400
   (°C)(165.6-198.9)(171.1-204.4)
10 pct. point°FD 86370-430400-460
   (°C)(187.8-221.1)(204.4-237.8)
50 pct. point°FD 86410-480470-540
   (°C)(210.0-248.9)(243.3-282.2)
90 pct. point°FD 86460-520560-630
   (°C)(237.8-271-1)(293.3-332.2)
EP°FD 86500-560610-690
   (°C)(260.0-293.3)(321.1-365.6)
Gravity°APID 28740-4432-37
Total sulfurpct.D 26220.03-0.050.03-0.05
Hydrocarbon composition:
Aromatics, minimumpct.D 5186827
Paraffins, Naphthenes, OlefinsD 131911
Flashpoint, min.°FD 93120130
   (°C)(48.9)(54.4)
ViscositycentistokesD 4451.6-2.02.0-3.2

1Remainder.

(b)(3) through (e) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.

[62 FR 47126, Sept. 5, 1997, as amended at 65 FR 8278, Feb. 18, 2000]

§86.1313-2004   Fuel specifications.

Section 86.1313-04 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §§86.1313-94 and 86.1313-98. Where a paragraph in §86.1313-94 or §86.1313-98 is identical and applicable to §86.1313-04, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.” or “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-98.”.

(a) Gasoline fuel. (1) Gasoline having the following specifications will be used by the Administrator in exhaust and evaporative emission testing of petroleum-fueled Otto-cycle engines, except that the Administrator will not use gasoline having a sulfur specification higher than 0.0045 weight percent. Gasoline having the following specification or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, must be used by the manufacturer in exhaust and evaporative testing except that octane specifications do not apply:

Item ASTM test method No. Value
(i) Octane, Research, Min.D269993
(ii) Sensitivity, Min.7.5
(iii) Lead (organic), maximum: g/U.S. gal. (g/liter)D32370.050 (0.013)
(iv) Distillation Range:D86
(A) IBP1: °F (°C)75-95 (23.9-35)
(B) 10 pct. point: °F (°C)120-135 (48.9-57.2)
(C) 50 pct. point: °F (°C)200-230 (93.3-110)
(D) 90 pct. point: °F (°C)300-325 (148.9-162.8)
(E) EP, max: °F (°C)415 (212.8)
(v) Sulfur, weight pct.D12660.0015-0.008
(vi) Phosphorous, max. g/U.S. gal (g/liter)D32310.005 (0.0013)
(vii) RVP2 3D32318.7-9.2 (60.0-63.4)
(viii) Hydrocarbon composition:D1319
(A) Olefins, max. pct.10
(B) Aromatics, max, pct.35
(C) SaturatesRemainder

1For testing at altitudes above 1,219 m (4000 feet), the specified range is 75-105 deg. F (23.9-40.6 deg. C).

2For testing which is unrelated to evaporative emission control, the specified range is 8.0-9.2 psi (55.2-63.4 kPa).

3For testing at altitudes above 1,219 m (4000 feet), the specified range is 7.6-8.0 psi (52-55 kPa).

(2) For engines certified for sale in the 50 United States, “California Phase 2” gasoline having the specifications listed in the table in this section may be used in exhaust emission testing as an option to the specifications in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. If a manufacturer elects to utilize this option, the manufacturer must conduct exhaust emission testing with gasoline having the specifications listed in the table in this paragraph (a)(2). However, the Administrator may use or require the use of test fuel meeting the specifications in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for certification confirmatory testing, selective enforcement auditing and in-use testing. All fuel property test methods for this fuel are contained in Chapter 4 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996). These requirements are incorporated by reference (see §86.1). The table follows:

Fuel property Limit
(i) Octane, (R+M)/2 (min)91
(ii) Sensitivity (min)7.5
(iii) Lead, g/gal (max) (No lead added)0-0.01
(iv) Distillation Range, °F:
(A) 10 pct. point,130-150
(B) 50 pct. point,200-210
(C) 90 pct. point,290-300
(D) EP, maximum390
(v) Residue, vol % (max)2.0
(vi) Sulfur, ppm by wt.15-40, except that Administrator may use and approve for use, lower ranges where such ranges are consistent with current California requirements.
(vii) Phosphorous, g/gal (max)0.005
(viii) RVP, psi6.7-7.0
(ix) Olefins, vol %4.0-6.0
(x) Total Aromatic Hydrocarbons (vol %)22-25
(xi) Benzene, vol %0.8-1.0
(xii) Multi-Substituted Alkyl Aromatic Hydrocarbons, vol %12-14
(xiii) MTBE, vol %10.8-11.2
(xiv) AdditivesSee Chapter 4 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996). These procedures are incorporated by reference (see §86.1).
(xv) Copper CorrosionNo. 1
(xvi) Gum, Washed, mg/100 ml (max)3.0
(xvii) Oxidation Stability, minutes (min)1000
(xviii) Specific GravityNo limit; report to purchaser required
(xix) Heat of CombustionNo limit; report to purchaser required
(xx) Carbon, wt %No limit; report to purchaser required
(xxi) Hydrogen, wt %No limit; report to purchaser required

(3)(i) Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, unleaded gasoline representative of commercial gasoline that will be generally available through retail outlets must be used in service accumulation. Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, this gasoline must have a minimum sulfur content of 15 ppm. Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, fuel used for evaporative emission durability demonstration must contain ethanol as required by §86.1824-01(a)(2)(iii). Leaded gasoline must not be used in service accumulation.

(ii) Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator, the octane rating of the gasoline used must be no higher than 1.0 Retail octane number above the lowest octane rating that meets the fuel grade the manufacturer will recommend to the ultimate purchaser for the relevant production vehicles. If the manufacturer recommends a Retail octane number rather than a fuel grade, then the octane rating of the service accumulation gasoline can be no higher than 1.0 Retail octane number above the recommended Retail octane number. The service accumulation gasoline must also have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as the Research octane number minus the Motor octane number.

(iii) The Reid Vapor Pressure of the gasoline used must be characteristic of the motor fuel used during the season in which the service accumulation takes place.

(4) The specification range of the gasoline to be used under paragraph (a) of this section must be reported in accordance with §86.094-21(b)(3).

(b) heading and (b)(1) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.

(b)(2) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-98.

(b)(3) through (g) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.

[66 FR 5178, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1313-2007   Fuel specifications.

Section 86.1313-2007 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §§86.1313-94 and 86.1313-2004. Where a paragraph in §86.1313-94 or §86.1313-2004 is identical and applicable to §86.1313-2007, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.” or “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-04.”.

(a) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-2004.

(b) heading and (b)(1) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.

(b)(2) Petroleum fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in Table N07-2, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used in exhaust emissions testing. The grade of petroleum fuel used shall be commercially designated as “Type 2-D” grade diesel fuel except that fuel commercially designated as “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel may be substituted provided that the manufacturer has submitted evidence to the Administrator demonstrating to the Administrator's satisfaction that this fuel will be the predominant in-use fuel. Such evidence could include such things as copies of signed contracts from customers indicating the intent to purchase and use “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel as the primary fuel for use in the engines or other evidence acceptable to the Administrator. (Note: Vehicles certified under §86.007-11(f) must be tested using the test fuel specified in §86.1313-2004, unless otherwise allowed by the Administrator.) Table N07-2 follows:

Table N07-2

Item   ASTM test method No. Type 1-D Type 2-D
(i) Cetane NumberD61340-5440-50
(ii) Cetane IndexD97640-5440-50
(iii) Distillation range:
(A) IBP°FD86330-390340-400
   (°C)(165.6-198.9)(171.1-204.4)
(B) 10 pct. point°FD86370-430400-460
   (°C)(187.8-221.1)(204.4-237.8)
(C) 50 pct. point°FD86410-480470-540
   (°C)(210.0-248.9)(243.3-282.2)
(D) 90 pct. point°FD86460-520560-630
(°C)(237.8-271-1)(293.3-332.2)
(E) EP°FD86500-560610-690
   (°C)(260.0-293.3)(321.1-365.6)
(iv) Gravity°APID28740-4432-37
(v) Total sulfurppmD26227-157-15
(vi) Hydrocarbon composition:
(A) Aromatics, minimum (Remainder shall be paraffins, naphthenes, and olefins)pct.D5186827
(vii) Flashpoint, min°FD93120130
   (°C)(48.9)(54.4)
(viii) ViscositycentistokesD4451.6-2.02.0-3.2

(3) Petroleum Diesel fuel for diesel engines meeting the specifications in table N07-3, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used in service accumulation. The grade of petroleum diesel fuel used shall be commercially designated as Type 2-D” grade diesel fuel except that fuel commercially designated as “Type 1-D” grade Diesel fuel may be substituted provided that the manufacturer has submitted evidence to the Administrator demonstrating to the Administrator's satisfaction that this fuel will be the predominant in-use fuel. Such evidence could include such things as copies of signed contracts from customers indicating the intent to purchase and use “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel as the primary fuel for use in the engines or other evidence acceptable to the Administrator. Table N07-03 follows:

Table N07-3

Item   ASTM test method No. Type 1-D Type 2-D
(i) Cetane NumberD61340-5638-58
(ii) Cetane IndexD976min. 40min. 40
(iii) Distillation range:
90 pct. point°FD86440-530540-630
   (°C)(226.7-276-7)(293.3-332.2)
(iv) Gravity°APID28739-4530-39
(v) Total sulfurppmD26227-157-15
(vi) Flashpoint, min°FD93130130
   (°C)(54.4)(54.4)
(vii) ViscositycentistokesD4451.2-2.21.5-4.5

(b)(4) through (g) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1313-94.

[66 FR 5180, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1314-94   Analytical gases.

(a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2. respectively, using nitrogen as the diluent.

(b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be:

(1) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent; and

(2) Optionally, for response factor determination, single blends of methanol using air as the diluent.

(c) Gases for the methane analyzer shall be single blends of methane using air as the diluent.

(d) Gases for the NOX analyzer shall be single blends of NO named as NOX with a maximum NO2 concentration of five percent of the nominal value using nitrogen as the diluent.

(e) Fuel for FIDs and HFIDs and methane analyzers shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The mixture shall contain less than 1 ppm equivalent carbon response. 98 to 100 percent hydrogen fuel may be used with advance approval by the Administrator.

(f) The allowable zero gas (air or nitrogen) impurity concentrations shall not exceed 1 ppm equivalent carbon response, 1 ppm carbon monoxide, 0.04 percent (400 ppm) carbon dioxide and 0.1 ppm nitric oxide.

(g)(1) “Zero-grade air” includes artificial “air” consisting of a blend of nitrogen and oxygen with oxygen concentrations between 18 and 21 mole percent.

(2) Calibration gases (not including methanol) shall be traceable to within one percent of NIST (formerly NBS) gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator.

(3) Span gases (not including methanol) shall be accurate to within two percent of true concentration, where true concentration refers to NIST (formerly NBS) gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator.

(4) Methanol in air gases used for response factor determination shall:

(i) Be traceable to within ±2 percent of NIST (formerly NBS) gas standards, or other standards which have been approved by the Administrator; and

(ii) Remain within ±2 percent of the labeled concentration. Demonstration of stability shall be based on a quarterly measurement procedure with a precision of ±2 percent (two standard deviations), or other method approved by the Administrator. The measurement procedure may incorporate multiple measurements. If the true concentration of the gas changes by more than two percent, but less than ten percent, the gas may be relabeled with the new concentration.

(h) The use of precision blending devices (gas dividers) to obtain the required calibration gas concentrations is acceptable, provided that the blended gases are accurate to within ±1.5 percent of NBS gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator. This accuracy implies that primary gases used for blending must be “named” to an accuracy of at least ±1 percent, traceable to NBS or other approved gas standards.

[59 FR 48530, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 34371, June 30, 1995]

§86.1316-94   Calibrations; frequency and overview.

(a) Calibrations shall be performed as specified in §§86.1318 through 86.1326.

(b) At least monthly or after any maintenance which could alter calibration, the following calibrations and checks shall be performed:

(1) Calibrate the hydrocarbon analyzer, carbon dioxide analyzer, carbon monoxide analyzer, and oxides of nitrogen analyzer (certain analyzers may require more frequent calibration depending on the equipment and use). New calibration curves need not be generated each month if the existing curve meets the requirements of §§86.1321 through 86.1324.

(2) Calibrate the engine dynamometer flywheel torque and speed measurement transducers, and calculate the feedback signals to the cycle verification equipment.

(3) Check the oxides of nitrogen converter efficiency.

(c) At least weekly or after any maintenance which could alter calibration, the following checks shall be performed:

(1) Perform a CVS system verification.

(2) Check the shaft torque feedback signal at steady-state conditions by comparing:

(i) Shaft torque feedback to dynamometer beam load; or

(ii) By comparing in-line torque to armature current; or

(iii) By checking the in-line torque meter with a dead weight per §86.1308(e).

(d) The CVS positive displacement pump or critical flow venturi shall be calibrated following initial installation, major maintenance or as necessary when indicated by the CVS system verification (described in §86.1319).

(e) Sample conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency consistent with observed column life or when the indicator of the column packing begins to show deterioration.

(f) For diesel fuel testing only. The carbon monoxide analyzer shall be calibrated at least every two months or after any maintenance which could alter calibration.

[59 FR 48530, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 34371, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47126, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1318-84   Engine dynamometer system calibrations.

(a) The engine flywheel torque and engine speed measurement transducers shall be calibrated at least once each month with the calibration equipment described in §86.1308-84.

(b) The engine flywheel torque feedback signals to the cycle verification equipment shall be electronically checked before each test, and adjusted as necessary.

(c) Other engine dynamometer system calibrations shall be performed as dictated by good engineering practice.

(d) When calibrating the engine flywheel torque transducer, any lever arm used to convert a weight or a force through a distance into a torque shall be used in a horizontal position (±5 degrees).

(e) Calibrated resistors may not be used for engine flywheel torque transducer calibration, but may be used to span the transducer prior to engine testing.

§86.1319-90   CVS calibration.

(a) The CVS is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor valve. The flowmeter calibration shall be traceable to the NBS, and will serve as the reference value (NBS “true” value) for the CVS calibration. (Note: In no case should an upstream screen or other restriction which can affect the flow be used ahead of the flowmeter unless calibrated throughout the flow range with such a device.) The CVS calibration procedures are designed for use of a “metering venturi” type flowmeter. Large radius or ASME flow nozzles are considered equivalent if traceable to NBS measurements. Other measurement systems may be used if shown to be equivalent under the test conditions in this section and traceable to NBS measurements. Measurements of the various flowmeter parameters are recorded and related to flow through the CVS. Procedures used by EPA for both PDP-CVS and CFV-CVS are outlined below. Other procedures yielding equivalent results may be used if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b) After the calibration curve has been obtained, verification of the entire system may be performed by injecting a known mass of gas into the system and comparing the mass indicated by the system to the true mass injected. An indicated error does not necessarily mean that the calibration is wrong, since other factors can influence the accuracy of the system (e.g., analyzer calibration, leaks, or HC hangup). A verification procedure is found in paragraph (e) of this section.

(c) PDP calibration. (1) The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration, and the various parameters which must be measured to establish the flow rate of the CVS pump.

(i) All the parameters related to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters related to a flowmeter which is connected in series with the pump.

(ii) The calculated flow rate, ft3/min, (at pump inlet absolute pressure and temperature) can then be plotted versus a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters.

(iii) The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function is then determined.

(iv) In the event that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a calibration for each range used must be performed.

(2) This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the pump and flowmeter parameters that relate the flow rate at each point. Two conditions must be maintained to assure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration curve:

(i) The temperature stability must be maintained during calibration. (Flowmeters are sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations; this can cause the data points to be scattered. Gradual changes in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of several minutes.)

(ii) All connections and ducting between the flowmeter and the CVS pump must be absolutely void of leakage.

(3) During an exhaust emission test the measurement of these same pump parameters enables the user to calculate the flow rate from the calibration equation.

(4) Connect a system as shown in Figure N84-6. Although particular types of equipment are shown, other configurations that yield equivalent results may be used if approved in advance by the Administrator. For the system indicated, the following measurements and accuracies are required:

Calibration Data Measurements

ParameterSymbolUnitsSensor-readout tolerances
Barometric pressure (corrected)PBin. Hg (kPa)±0.10 in. Hg (±0.340 kPa).
Ambient temperatureTA°F (°C)±0.5 °F (±0.28 °C).
Air temperature into metering venturiETI°F (°C)±2.0 °F (±1.1 °C).
Pressure drop between the inlet and throat of metering venturiEDPin. H20 (kPa)±0.05 in H2O (±0.012 kPa).
Air flowQSft3/min (m3/min)±0.5% of NBS “true” value.
Air temperature at CVS pump inletPTI°F (°C)±2.0 °F (±1.1 °C).
Pressure depression at CVS pump inletPPIin. Fluid (kPa)±0.13 in. Fluid (±0.055 kPa).
Specific gravity of manometer fluid (1.75 oil)Sp.Gr..
Pressure head at CVS pump outletPPOin. Fluid (kPa)±0.13 in. Fluid (±0.055 kPa).
Air temperature at CVS pump outlet (optional)PTO°F (°C)±2.0 °F (±1.1 °C).
Pump revolutions during test periodNRevs±1 Rev.
Elapsed time for test periodtsec.±0.5 sec.

(5) After the system has been connected as shown in Figure N84-6, set the variable restrictor in the wide open position and run the CVS pump for 20 minutes. Record the calibration data.

(6) Reset the restrictor valve to a more restricted condition in an increment of pump inlet depression that will yield a minimum of six data points for the total calibration. Allow the system to stabilize for 3 minutes and repeat the data acquisition.

(7) Data analysis:

(i) The air flow rate, Qs, at each test point is calculated in standard cubic feet per minute (68°, 29.92 in. Hg.) from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.

(ii) The air flow rate is then converted to pump flow, Vo, in cubic feet per revolution at absolute pump inlet temperature and pressure:

Vo = (Qs/n) × (Tp/528) × (29.92/Pp)

Where:

(A) Vo = Pump flow, ft3/rev (m3/rev) at Tp, Pp.

(B) Qs = Meter air flow rate in standard cubic feet per minute, standard conditions are 68 °F, 29.92 in. Hg (20 °C, 101.3 kPa).

(C) n = Pump speed in revolutions per minute.

(D) Tp = Pump inlet temperature °R(°K) = PTI + 460 (°R), or = PTI + 273 (°K).

(E) Pp = Absolute pump inlet pressure, in. Hg. (kPa)

= PB − PPI(Sp.Gr./13.5955) and

= PB − PPI for SI units.

Where:

(F) PB = barometric pressure, in. Hg. (kPa).

(G) PPI = Pump inlet depression, in. fluid (kPa).

(H) Sp.Gr. = Specific gravity of manometer fluid.

(iii) The correlation function at each test point is then calculated from the calibration data:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.209.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(A) Xo = correlation function.

(B) Dp = The pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, in. Hg. (kPa).

= Pe−Pp.

(C) Pe = Absolute pump outlet pressure, in. Hg. (kPa)

= PB + PPO (Sp.Gr./13.5955) and

= PB + PPO for SI units.

Where:

(D) PPO = Pressure head at pump outlet, in. fluid (kPa).

(iv) A linear least squares fit is performed to generate the calibration equation which has the form:

Vo = Do − M(Xo)

Do and M are the intercept and slope constants, respectively, describing the regression line.

(8) A CVS system that has multiple speeds should be calibrated on each speed used. The calibration curves generated for the ranges will be approximately parallel and the intercept values, Do, will increase as the pump flow range decreases.

(9) If the calibration has been performed carefully, the calculated values from the equation will be within ±0.50 percent of the measured value of Vo. Values of M will vary from one pump to another, but values of Do for pumps of the same make, model and range should agree within ±3 percent of each other. Particulate influx over time will cause the pump slip to decrease, as reflected by lower values for M. Calibrations should be performed at pump start-up and after major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will also reflect pump slip stability.

(d) CFV calibration. (1) Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi. Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.210.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(i) Qs = flow.

(ii) Kv = calibration coefficient.

(iii) P = absolute pressure.

(iv) T = absolute temperature.

The calibration procedure described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section establishes the value of the calibration coefficient at measured values of pressure, temperature and air flow.

(2) The manufacturer's recommended procedure shall be followed for calibrating electronic portions of the CFV.

(3) Measurements necessary for flow calibration are as follows:

Calibration Data Measurements

ParameterSymbolUnitsSensor-readout tolerances
Barometric pressure (corrected)Pbin Hg (kPa)±.01 in Hg (±.034 kPa).
Air temperature, into flowmeterETI°F (°C)±0.5 °F (±.28 °C).
Pressure drop between the inlet and throat of metering venturiEDPInches H2O (kPa)±0.05 in H2O (±.012 kPa).
Air flowQsFt3/min. (m3/min)±.5 % of NBS “true” value.
CFV inlet depressionPPIInches fluid (kPa)±.13 in fluid (±.055 kPa).
CFV outlet pressurePPOInches Hg (kPa)±.05 in Hg (±.17 kPa)1.
Temperature at venturi inletTv°F (°C)±4.0 °F (±2.22 °C).
Specific gravity of manometer fluid (1.75 oil)Sp. Gr

1Requirement begins August 20, 2001.

(4) Set up equipment as shown in Figure N84-7 and eliminate leaks. (Leaks between the flow measuring devices and the critical flow venturi will seriously affect the accuracy of the calibration.)

(5) Set the variable flow restrictor to the open position, start the blower, and allow the system to stabilize. Record data from all instruments.

(6) Vary the flow restrictor and make at least eight readings across the critical flow range of the venturi.

(7) Data analysis. The data recorded during the calibration are to be used in the following calculations:

(i) The air flow rate, Qs, at each test point is calculated in standard cubic feet per minute from the flow meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.

(ii) Calculate values of the calibration coefficient for each test point:

eCFR graphic ec07ja94.021.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(A) Qs = Flow rate in standard cubic feet per minute, at the standard conditions of 68 °F, 29.92 in Hg (20 °C, 101.3 kPa).

(B) Tv = Temperature at venturi inlet, °R(°K).

(C) Pv = Pressure at venturi inlet, in. Hg. (kPA)

      = PB − PPI (Sp.GR./13.5955), and

      = PB − PPI for SI units.

Where:

(D) PPI = Venturi inlet pressure depression, in. fluid (kPa).

(E) Sp.Gr. = Specific gravity of manometer fluid.

(iii) Plot Kv as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For choked flow, Kv will have a relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and Kv decreases. (See Figure N84-8.)

(iv) For a minimum of 8 points in the critical region calculate an average Kv and the standard deviation.

(v) If the standard deviation exceeds 0.3 percent of the average Kv, take corrective action.

(8) Calculation of a parameter for monitoring sonic flow in the CFV during exhaust emissions tests:

(i) Option 1. (A) CFV pressure ratio. Based upon the calibration data selected to meet the criteria for paragraphs (d)(7)(iv) and (v) of this section, in which Kv is constant, select the data values associated with the calibration point with the lowest absolute venturi inlet pressure. With this set of calibration data, calculated the following CFV pressure ratio limit, Prratio-lim:

eCFR graphic er18fe00.024.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Pin-cal = Venturi inlet pressure (PPI in absolute pressure units), and

Pout-cal = Venturi outlet pressure (PPO in absolute pressure units), measured at the exit of the venturi diffuser outlet.

(B) The venturi pressure ratio (Prratio-i) during all emissions tests must be less than, or equal to, the calibration pressure ratio limit (Prratio-lim) derived from the CFV calibration data, such that:

eCFR graphic er18fe00.025.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Pin-i and Pout-i are the venturi inlet and outlet pressures, in absolute pressure units, at each i-th interval during the emissions test.

(ii) Option 2. Other methods: With prior Administrator approval, any other method may be used that assure that the venturi operates at sonic conditions during emissions tests, provided the method is based upon sound engineering principles.

(e) SSV calibration. (1) The calibration of the SSV located in the tunnel shall be conducted in a similar manner as the CFV or PDP calibration. Gas flow within the SSV is a function of inlet pressure, P1, the inlet temperature, T1, and the pressure drop between the throat and the inlet, DP. Note that the following procedure is consistent with SAE J244. The calibration procedure described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section establishes the values of the coefficients at measured values of pressure, temperature and airflow.

(i) The flow rate for a subsonic venturi is calculated as a volumetric flow rate (Qs) or a mass flow rate (Qm) as follows: or

eCFR graphic er18ja01.011.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er18ja01.012.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Kq = 0.0021074 (SI units).

Qs = Air Volume Flow, SCFM (m3/min).

Qm = Air Mass Flow, lbm/min (kg/min).

ρs = Density at Standard Conditions, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3) as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(v) of this section.

ρs = Density at inlet conditions, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3), as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this section.

Cd = Coefficient of Discharge = Actual Air Flow/Theoretical Air Flow.

Y = Expansion factor, as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

d = Throat diameter, inch (mm).

β = Ratio of venturi throat diameter to approach pipe diameter.

ΔP = Pressure drop between inlet and throat, in. H2O (kPa).

(ii) The expansion factor (Y) is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.013.gif

View or download PDF

(iii) The inlet density (ρ1) is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.068.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Pabs = P1+PB

Tabs = T1 + 2731

Rmix = Ru/|MWmix

Ru = 8.3144 kJ/kg-mole-K

MWmix = the molecular weight of the mix, as calculated in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section.

(iv) The molecular weight of the mix, is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.014.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

PV = Vapor pressure, in Hg (kPa)

MWAIR = 28.964 kg/kg-mole

MWH20 = 18.015 kg/kg-mole

(v) The density at standard conditions of 101.33 kPa and 20 °C is calculated as follows:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.015.gif

View or download PDF

(2) The venturi manufacturer's recommended procedure shall be followed for calibrating electronic portions of the SSV.

(3) Measurements necessary for flow calibration of the SSV are as follows:

Calibration Data Measurement

Parameter Sym Units Tolerance
(i) Barometric pressure (corrected to 32 °F)PBin. Hg (kPa)±.01in. Hg (±.034kPa)
(ii) Air temperature, into calibration venturiETI°F (°C)±.5 °F (.28 °C)
(iii) Pressure drop between the inlet and throat of calibration venturi (corrected to 68 °F).EDPin. H2O (kPA)±.05 in. H2O (±.012kPa)
(iv) Air FlowQSStd ft3/min (m3/min)±5% of NIST “true” value
(v) SSV inlet depressionP1in. H2O (kPa)±.23 in. H2O (±.057kPa)
(vi) Pressure drop between the inlet and throat of SSVDPin. H2O (kPa)±.05 in. H2O (±.012kPa)
(vii) Water vapor pressure of inlet airPVin. Hg (kPa)±.10 in. Hg (±.34kPa)
(vii) Temperature at SSV inletT1°F (°C)±4.0 °F (2.2 °C)

(4) Set up equipment similar to CFV or PDP calibration except the variable flow restrictor valve can be deleted or set in the open position, and the pressure drop reading device must be added. The calibration test must be conducted with the test subsonic venturi in place in its permanent position. Any subsequent changes in upstream or downstream configuration could cause a shift in calibration. Leaks between the calibration metering device and the SSV must be eliminated.

(5) Adjust the variable flow blower or restrictor valve to its maximum in-use flow rate. Allow the system to stabilize and record data from all instruments. Be sure to avoid choke condition.

(6) Vary the flow through a minimum of eight steps covering the intended in-use operating range of the SSV.

(7) Data analyses. If the calibration venturi is used at the tunnel inlet (free standing), then assume a value of β=0. If the SSV installed in the CVS tunnel, use the actual inside tunnel diameter and the throat diameter to compute β.

(i) Assume an initial value for Cd = 0.98 to calculate Qm for the calculation of Reynolds number, Re,:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.016.gif

View or download PDF

Where: μ = viscosity of air, centipoise

eCFR graphic er18ja01.017.gif

View or download PDF

Kμ=1.458E-3

TK=(T1 °C+273.16)

(ii) From the initial calibration of the venturi, establish an equation of Cd as a function of Re. The following functional forms should be reviewed, but a power series, least-squares fit polynomial equation may result in the best fit. Many factors involved in the installation of SSV and the operating range of the Reynolds number can affect the functional relationship of the Cd with Re. Calculate Cd based on this initial equation of Re. Compute a final Qm based on this calculated Cd for both the calibration nozzle and the inline SSV.

(8)(i) Compute the percent difference in air flow between the calibration venturi and the inline SSV. If the difference in percent of point is greater than 1%, compute a new Cd and Re for the in-tunnel venturi as follows:

Cdnew=Actual Air Flow/Theoretical Air Flow=Qmact /Qmtheo

eCFR graphic er18ja01.018.gif

View or download PDF

(ii) Qmact is flow measured by the calibration venturi and Qmtheo is the theoretical calculated flow based on the in-tunnel SSV conditions with Cd set equal to 1. Renew is based on the calibrated venturi flow, but the in-tunnel SSV properties. Recalculate a new curve fit of Cdnew for the inline venturi as a function of Renew following the guidelines in paragraph (e)(7) of this section. Agreement of the fit should be within 1.0% of point. Install the new Cd curve fit in the test cell flow computing device and conduct the propane injection, flow verification test.

(f) CVS system verification. The following “gravimetric” technique can be used to verify that the CVS and analytical instruments can accurately measure a mass of gas that has been injected into the system. (Verification can also be accomplished by constant flow metering using critical flow orifice devices.)

(1) Obtain a small cylinder that has been charged with pure propane or carbon monoxide gas (CAUTION—carbon monoxide is poisonous).

(2) Determine a reference cylinder weight to the nearest 0.01 grams.

(3) Operate the CVS in the normal manner and release a quantity of pure propane into the system during the sampling period (approximately 5 minutes).

(4) Following completion of step (3) above (if methanol injection is required), continue to operate the CVS in the normal manner and release a known quantity of pure methanol (in gaseous form) into the system during the sampling period (approximately five minutes). This step does not need to be performed with each verification, provided that it is performed at least twice annually.

(5) The calculations of §86.1342 are performed in the normal way except in the case of propane. The density of propane (17.30 g/ft3/carbon atom (0.6109 kg/m3/carbon atom)) is used in place of the density of exhaust hydrocarbons. In the case of methanol, the density of 37.71 g/ft3 (1.332 kg/m3) is used.

(6) The gravimetric mass is subtracted from the CVS measured mass and then divided by the gravimetric mass to determine the percent accuracy of the system.

(7) The cause for any discrepancy greater than ±2 percent must be found and corrected. (For 1991-1995 calendar years, discrepancies greater than ±2 percent are allowed for the methanol test, provided that they do not exceed ±6 percent.)

(8) The Administrator, upon request, may waive the requirement to comply with ±2 percent methanol recovery tolerance, and instead require compliance with a higher tolerance (not to exceed ±6 percent), provided that:

(i) The Administrator determines that compliance with these specified tolerances is not practically feasible; and

(ii) The manufacturer makes information available to the Administrator which indicates that the calibration tests and their results are consistent with good laboratory practice, and that the results are consistent with the results of calibration testing conducted by the Administrator.

[54 FR 14591, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 60 FR 34371, June 30, 1995; 63 FR 24449, May 4, 1998; 65 FR 8279, Feb. 18, 2000; 66 FR 5181, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1320-90   Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

(a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to determine flow through the particulate filters, methanol impingers and formaldehyde impingers. These instruments shall receive initial and periodic calibrations as follows:

(1)(i) Install a calibration device in series with the instrument. A critical flow orifice, a bellmouth nozzle, or a laminar flow element or an NBS traceable flow calibration device is required as the standard device.

(ii) The flow system should be checked for leaks between the calibration and sampling meters, including any pumps that may be part of the system, using good engineering practice.

(2) Flow air through the calibration system at the sample flow rate used for particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde testing and at the backpressure which occurs during the sample test.

(3) When the temperature and pressure in the system have stabilized, measure the indicated gas volume over a time period of at least five minutes or until a gas volume of at least ±1 percent accuracy can be determined by the standard device. Record the stabilized air temperature and pressure upstream of the instrument and as required for the standard device.

(4) Calculate air flow at standard conditions as measured by both the standard device and the instrument(s). (Standard conditions are defined as 68 °F (20 °C) and 29.92 in Hg (101.3 kPa).)

(5) Repeat the procedures of paragraphs (a) (2) through (4) of this section using at least two flow rates which bracket the typical operating range.

(6) If the air flow at standard conditions measured by the instrument differs by ±1.0 percent of the maximum operating range or ±2.0 percent of the point (whichever is smaller), then a correction shall be made by either of the following two methods:

(i) Mechanically adjust the instrument so that it agrees with the calibration measurement at the specified flow rates using the criteria of paragraph (a)(6) of this section, or

(ii) Develop a continuous best fit calibration curve for the instrument (as a function of the calibration device flow measurement) from the calibration points to determine corrected flow. The points on the calibration curve relative to the calibration device measurements must be within ±1.0 percent of the maximum operating range of ±2.0 percent of the point (whichever is smaller).

(7) For double dilution systems, the accuracy of the secondary dilution flow measurement device should be within ±1.0 percent of the total flow through the filter.

(b) Other systems. A bell prover may be used to calibrate the instrument if the procedure outlined in ANSI B109.1-1973 is used. Prior approval by the Administrator is not required to use the bell prover.

[54 FR 14593, Apr. 11, 1989]

§86.1321-94   Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibration. The HFID used with petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel engines shall be operated to a set point ±10 °F (±5.5 °C) between 365 and 385 °F (185 and 197 °C). The HFID used with methanol-fueled engines shall be operated at 235 ±15 °F (113 ±8 °C).

(a) Initial and periodic optimization of detector response. Prior to introduction into service and at least annually thereafter, the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response.

(1) Follow good engineering practices for initial instrument start-up and basic operating adjustment using the appropriate fuel (see §86.1314) and zero-grade air.

(2) Optimize the FID's response on the most common operating range. The response is to be optimized with respect to fuel pressure or flow while meeting the analyzer response time given in §86.1310(b)(3)(vii)(A) for continuous HC measurement. Efforts shall be made to minimize response variations to different hydrocarbon species that are expected to be in the exhaust. Good engineering judgement is to be used to trade off optimal FID response to propane-in-air against reductions in relative responses to other hydrocarbons. A good example of trading off response on propane for relative responses to other hydrocarbon species is given in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Paper No. 770141, “Optimization of Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of Hydrocarbon in Diluted Automotive Exhausts”; author Glenn D. Reschke. It is also required that the response be set to optimum condition with respect to air flow and sample flow. Heated Flame Ionization Detectors (HFIDs) must be at their specified operating temperature.

(3) One of the following procedures is to be used for FID or HFID optimization:

(i) Use the procedures outlined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) paper number 770141, “Optimization of Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of Hydrocarbons in Diluted Automobile Exhaust”; author, Glenn D. Reschke, as an example. Available from Society of Automotive Engineers International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001.

(ii) The procedure listed in §86.331-79(c).

(iii) The procedures specified by the manufacturer of the FID or HFID.

(iv) Alternative procedures may be used if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(4) After the optimum fuel, air and sample pressures or flow rates have been determined, they shall be recorded for future reference.

(b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the FID or HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. Use the same flow rate and pressures as when analyzing samples. Calibration gases shall be introduced directly at the analyzer, unless the “overflow” calibration option of §86.1310(b)(3)(i) for the HFID is taken.

(1) Adjust analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the hydrocarbon analyzer with zero-grade air.

(3) Calibrate on each used operating range with a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, propane-in-air calibration gases (e.g., 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of that range). For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line is within ±2 percent of the value at each non-zero data point and within ±0.3 percent of full scale on the zero data point, then concentration values may be calculated by using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, then the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data within these limits shall be used to determine concentration values.

(c) FID response factor to methanol. When the FID analyzer is to be used for the analysis of hydrocarbon samples containing methanol, the methanol response factor of the analyzer shall be established. The methanol response factor shall be determined at several concentrations in the range of concentrations in the exhaust sample, using either bag samples or gas bottles meeting the requirements of §86.1314.

(1) The bag sample of methanol for analysis in the FID, if used, shall be prepared using the apparatus shown in Figure N94-10. A known volume of methanol is injected, using a microliter syringe, into the heated mixing zone (250 °F (121 °C)) of the apparatus. The methanol is vaporized and swept into the sample bag with a known volume of zero grade air measured by a gas flow meter meeting the specifications of §86.1320.

eCFR graphic er30jn95.051.gif

View or download PDF

(2) The bag sample is analyzed using the FID.

(3) The FID response factor, r, is calculated as follows:

r=FIDppm/SAMppm

Where:

(i) r=FID response factor.

(ii) FIDppm=FID reading in ppmC.

(iii) SAMppm=methanol concentration in the sample bag, or gas bottle, in ppmC. SAMppm for sample bags:

eCFR graphic er30jn95.038.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

(iv) 0.02406=volume of one mole at 29.92 in Hg and 68 °F, m3.

(v) Fuel injected = volume of methanol injected, ml.

(vi) Fuel density=density of methanol, 0.7914 g/ml.

(vii) Air volume=volume of zero-grade air, m3.

(viii) Mol. Wt. CH3OH=32.04.

(d) FID response factor to methane. When the FID analyzer is to be used for the analysis of natural gas-fueled vehicle hydrocarbon samples, the methane response factor of the analyzer shall be established. To determine the total hydrocarbon FID response to methane, known methane in air concentrations traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) shall be analyzed by the FID. Several methane concentrations shall be analyzed by the FID in the range of concentrations in the exhaust sample. The total hydrocarbon FID response to methane is calculated as follows:

rCH4=FIDppm/SAMppm

Where:

(1) rCH4=FID response factor to methane.

(2) FIDppm=FID reading in ppmC.

(3) SAMppm=the known methane concentration in ppmC.

[59 FR 48531, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 60 FR 34371, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47128, Sept. 5, 1997; 70 FR 40438, July 13, 2005]

§86.1322-84   Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibration.

(a) Initial and periodic interference check. Prior to its introduction into service and annually thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2:

(1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance on the most sensitive range to be used.

(2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen.

(3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response.

(4) An analyzer response of more than 1 percent of full scale for ranges above 300 ppm full scale or more than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale requires corrective action. (Use of conditioning columns is one form of corrective action which may be taken.)

(b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be calibrated.

(1) Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen.

(3) Calibrate on each used operating range with a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases (e.g., 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of that range). For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line is within ±2 percent of the value at each non-zero data point and within ±0.3 percent of full scale on the zero data point, then concentration values may be calculated by using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, then the best-fit not-linear equation which represents the data within these limits shall be used to determine concentration values.

(c) The initial and periodic interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section.

[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 62 FR 47128, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1323-84   Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

The chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibration.

(a) Prior to introduction into service and at least monthly thereafter, the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer must be checked for NO2 to NO converter efficiency. Figure N84-9 is a reference for paragraphs (a) (1) through (11) of this section.

(1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the oxides of nitrogen analyzer with zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen.

(3) Connect the outlet of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer which has been set to the most common operating range.

(4) Introduce into the NOX generator analyzer-system an NO-in-nitrogen (N2) mixture with an NO concentration equal to approximately 80 percent of the most common operating range. The NO2 content of the gas mixture shall be less than 5 percent of the NO concentration.

eCFR graphic pt86-823.gif

View or download PDF

(5) With the oxides of nitrogen analyzer in the NO mode, record the concentration of NO indicated by the analyzer.

(6) Turn on the NOX generator O2 (or air) supply and adjust the O2 (or air) flow rate so that the NO indicated by the analyzer is about 10 percent less than indicated in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. Record the concentration of NO in this NO + O2 mixture.

(7) Switch the NOX generator to the generation mode and adjust the generation rate so that the NO measured on the analyzer is 20 percent of that measured in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. There must be at least 10 percent unreacted NO at this point. Record the concentration of residual NO.

(8) Switch the oxides of nitrogen analyzer to the NOX mode and measure total NOX. Record this value.

(9) Switch off the NOX generator but maintain gas flow through the system. The oxides of nitrogen analyzer will indicate the NOX in the NO + O2 mixture. Record this value.

(10) Turn off the NOX generator O2 (or air) supply. The analyzer will now indicate the NOX in the original NO-in-N2 mixture. This value should be no more than 5 percent above the value indicated in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(11) Calculate the efficiency of the NOX converter by substituting the concentrations obtained into the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.212.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

a = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(8),

b = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(9),

c = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(6),

d = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(7).

If converter efficiency is not greater than 90 percent corrective action will be required.

(b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. Use the same flow rate as when analyzing samples. Proceed as follows:

(1) Adjust analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the oxides of nitrogen analyzer with zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen.

(3) Calibrate on each used operating range with a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, NO-in-N2 calibration gases (e.g., 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of that range). For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line is within ±2 percent of the value at each non-zero data point and within ±0.3 percent of full scale on the zero data point, then concentration values may be calculated using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, then the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data within these limits shall be used to determine concentration values.

(c) The initial and periodic interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D, may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section.

(d) When testing methanol-fueled engines it may be necessary to clean the analyzer frequently to prevent interference with NOX measurements (see EPA/60/S3-88/040).

[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48144, Dec. 10, 1984; 58 FR 58426, Nov. 1, 1993; 60 FR 34374, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47129, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1323-2007   Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

This section describes the initial and periodic calibration of the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer.

(a) Prior to introduction into service and at least monthly thereafter, the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer must be checked for NO2 to NO converter efficiency. The Administrator may approve less frequent checks of the converter efficiency. Figure N84-9 is a reference for paragraphs (a) (1) through (11) of this section.

(1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the oxides of nitrogen analyzer with zero-grade nitrogen.

(3) Connect the outlet of the NOX generator to the sample inlet of the oxides of nitrogen analyzer, which has been set to the most common operating range.

(4) Introduce into the NOX generator-analyzer system an NO-in-nitrogen (N2) mixture with an NO concentration equal to approximately 80 percent of the most common operating range. The NO2 content of the gas mixture shall be less than 5 percent of the NO concentration.

(5) With the oxides of nitrogen analyzer in the NO mode, record the concentration of NO indicated by the analyzer.

(6) Turn on the NOX generator O2 supply and adjust the O2 flow rate so that the NO indicated by the analyzer is about 10 percent less than indicated in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. Record the concentration of NO in this NO + O2 mixture.

(7) Switch the NOX generator to the generation mode and adjust the generation rate so that the NO measured by the analyzer is 20 percent of that measured in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. There must be at least 10 percent unreacted NO at this point. Record the concentration of residual NO.

(8) Switch the oxides of nitrogen analyzer to the NOX mode and measure total NOX. Record this value.

(9) Switch off the NOX generator but maintain gas flow through the system. The oxides of nitrogen analyzer will indicate the NOX in the NO + O2 mixture. Record this value.

(10) Turn off the NOX generator O2 supply. The analyzer will now indicate the NOX in the original NO-in-N2 mixture. This value should be no more than 5 percent above the value indicated in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(11) Calculate the efficiency of the NOX converter by substituting the concentrations obtained into the following equation:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.019.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

a = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(8) of this section,

b = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(9) of this section,

c = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(6) of this section,

d = concentration obtained in paragraph (a)(7) of this section.

(12) If converter efficiency is not greater than 90 percent, repair the analyzer. The repaired analyzer must achieve a converter efficiency greater than 90 percent before the analyzer may be used.

(b) Accuracy. The accuracy at the minimum limit of the NOX analyzer is defined in §86.1338-2007. In general the analyzer's minimum limit shall be the lowest concentration within a given range, in which it has an accuracy of ±2 percent of point.

(c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. Use the same flow rate as when analyzing samples. Proceed as follows:

(1) Adjust analyzer to optimize performance.

(2) Zero the oxides of nitrogen analyzer with zero-grade nitrogen (N2).

(3) (i) Calibrate all operating ranges with a minimum of 9 NO-in-N2 calibration gases (e.g., 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 percent of that range) and one zero-grade N2 gas. Sound engineering judgment shall dictate appropriate spacing and weighting of the calibration points.

(ii) For each range calibrated, if all deviations from a least-squares best-fit straight line are within ±2 percent of the value at each non-zero data point and within ±0.3 percent of full scale on the zero data point, then concentration values may be calculated using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the specified deviations are exceeded for ranges that have a minimum limit of 1 ppm or greater, then the best-fit non-linear equation that represents the data within these deviations may be used to determine concentration values. For ranges that have a minimum limit less than 1 ppm, only a linear or second order non-linear equation that represents the data within these deviations, may be used to determine concentration values.

(d) Chemiluminescent NOX analyzer interference check (i.e., quench check). Prior to its introduction into service and at least once per year thereafter, the quench check described in this section shall be performed on CLD NOX analyzers. CO2 and water vapor interfere with the response of a CLD by collisional quenching. The combined quench effect at their highest expected concentrations shall not exceed 2 percent.

(1) CO2 quench check procedure: (i) For the procedure described in this paragraph, variations are acceptable provided that they produce equivalent %CO2quench results. Connect a pressure-regulated CO2 span gas to one of the inlets of a three-way valve. Its CO2 concentration should be approximately twice the maximum CO2 concentration expected during testing. The valve must be leak-free, and its wetted parts must be made of a stainless steel or other inert material. Connect a pressure-regulated zero-grade N2 gas to the other inlet of the three-way valve. Connect the single outlet of the valve to the balance-gas port of a properly operating gas divider. Connect a pressure-regulated NO span gas, which has approximately twice the typical NO concentration expected during testing, to the span-port of the gas divider. Configure the gas divider such that nearly equal amounts of the span gas and balance gas are blended with each other. Viscosity corrections shall be applied appropriately to ensure correct mass flow determinations.

(ii) With the CO2 flowing to the balance port and the NO flowing to the span port, measure a stable CO2 concentration from the gas divider's outlet with a properly calibrated NDIR analyzer. Record this concentration in percent (%); this is “%CO2”. This value will be used in the water vapor quench check calculations that are detailed in the following section. After the %CO2 measurement, measure the NO concentration at the gas divider outlet with the CLD analyzer in the NO mode. Record this concentration in ppm; this is “NOCO2”. Then switch the three-way valve such that 100 percent N2 flows to the balance port inlet. Monitor the CO2 concentration of the gas divider's outlet until its concentration stabilizes at zero. Then measure the stable NO concentration from the gas divider's outlet. Record this value in ppm; this is “NON2”. Calculate %CO2quench as follows:

%CO2quench = (1.00−(NOCO2/NON2)) × 100

(2) Water vapor quench check procedure:

(i) For all dry CLD analyzers it must be demonstrated that for the highest expected water vapor concentration (i.e., “%H2Oexp” as calculated later in this section), the water removal technique maintains CLD humidity at less than or equal to 5 gwater/kgdry air (or about 0.008 percent H2O), which is 100% RH at 3.9 °C and 101.3 kPa. This humidity specification is also equivalent to about 25% RH at 25 °C and 101.3 kPa. This may be demonstrated by measuring the temperature at the outlet of a thermal dehumidifier, or by measuring humidity at a point just upstream of the CLD. Humidity of the CLD exhaust might also be measured as long as the only flow into the CLD is the flow out of the dehumidifier.

(ii) For all “wet” CLD analyzers the following water vapor quench check procedure shall be followed. Measure an NO span gas, which has 90% to 100% of the typical NO expected during testing, using the CLD in the NO mode. Record this concentration in ppm; this is “NOdry”. Then bubble the same NO span gas through distilled water in a sealed vessel at 25 °C ±10 °C. This temperature specification imposed to ensure that the H2Ovol calculation (refer to (iii) of this section) returns an accurate result. To prevent subsequent condensation, this temperature must also be less than any temperature that the wetted sample will experience between the sealed vessel's outlet and the CLD. Record the vessel's water temperature in °C; this is “Tsat”. Record the vessel's absolute pressure in kPa; this is “Psat”. Measure the wetted span gas with the CLD, and record this value in ppm; this is “NOwet”.

(iii) Calculations for water quench must consider dilution of the NO span gas with water vapor and scaling of the water vapor concentration to that expected during testing.

(A) Calculate the volume fraction of water vapor in the wetted span gas, as H2Ovol = (exp(3.69−(81.28/Tsat)) + 1.61)/Psat. This calculation approximates some of the thermodynamic properties of water based on the “1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use”, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). However, this approximation should only be used as prescribed in this section because it is an exponential fit that is accurate for data at 25 °C ±10 °C. Then, assuming a diesel fuel atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of 1.8, and an intake and dilution air humidity of 75 grains (10.71 gwater/kgdry air or 54.13 percent RH at 25 °C and 101.3 kPa),

(B) Calculate the maximum percent water vapor expected during testing; as %H2Oexp = (0.90 × %CO2) + 1.69. %CO2 is the value measured during the %CO2 quench check.

(C) Calculate the expected wet concentration of NO in ppm; as NOexp = NOdry × (1.00−H2Ovol)

(iv) Calculate the percent water vapor quench as:

%H2Oquench = ((NOexp−NOwet)/NOexp) × (%H2Oexp/H2Ovol)

(3) Add the %CO2quench and the %H2Oquench values. Their sum may not exceed the limit set in paragraph (d). If their sum is greater than this limit, then the CLD instrument may not be used to perform testing unless it is repaired. The analyzer must be shown to pass this quench check after the repair before it may be used for testing.

[66 FR 5182, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1324-84   Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated as follows:

(a) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance.

(b) Zero the carbon dioxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen.

(c) Calibrate on each used operating range with a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases (e.g., 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of that range). For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line is within ±2 percent or less of the value at each non-zero data point and within ±0.3 percent of full scale on the zero data point, then concentration values may be calculated by using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, then the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data within these limits shall be used to determine concentration values.

(d) The initial and periodic interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D, may be used in lieu of the procedures in this section.

[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 62 FR 47129, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1325-94   Methane analyzer calibration.

Prior to introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the methane analyzer shall be calibrated:

(a) Follow the manufacturer's instructions for instrument startup and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance.

(b) Zero the methane analyzer with zero-grade air.

(c) Calibrate on each used operating range with a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, CH4 in air calibration gases (e.g., 15, 40, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of that range). For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line is within ±2 percent of the value at each non-zero data point and within ±0.3 percent of full scale on the zero data point, then concentration values may be calculated by using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, then the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data within these limits shall be used to determine concentration values.

[59 FR 48531, Sept. 21, 1994, as amended at 62 FR 47129, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1326-90   Calibration of other equipment.

Other test equipment used for testing shall be calibrated as often as required by the manufacturer or as necessary according to good practice. Specific equipment requiring calibration is the gas chromatograph and flame ionization detector used in measuring methanol and the high pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and ultraviolet detector for measuring formaldehyde.

[54 FR 14596, Apr. 11, 1989]

§86.1327-96   Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.

(a) The engine dynamometer test procedure is designed to determine the brake specific emissions of hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate, methanol and formaldehyde, as applicable. The test procedure consists of a “cold” start test following either natural or forced cool-down periods described in §§86.1334 and 86.1335, respectively. A “hot” start test follows the “cold” start test after a hot soak of 20 minutes. The idle test of subpart P of this part may be run after the “hot” start test. The exhaust emissions are diluted with ambient air and a continuous proportional sample is collected for analysis during both the cold- and hot-start tests. The composite samples collected are analyzed either in bags or continuously for hydrocarbons (HC), methane (CH4) carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOX), or in sample collection impingers for methanol (CH3OH) and sample collection impingers (or cartridges) for formaldehyde (HCHO), as applicable. Measurement of CH3OH and HCHO may be omitted for 1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled engines when a FID calibrated on methanol is used. A bag or continuous sample of the dilution air is similarly analyzed for background levels of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and, if appropriate, methane and/or methanol and/or formaldehyde. In addition, for diesel-cycle engines, particulates are collected on fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber filters or fluorocarbon-based (membrane) filters, and the dilution air may be prefiltered.

(b) Engine torque and rpm command set points shall be issued at 5 (10 Hz recommended) Hz or greater during both the cold and hot start tests. Feedback engine torque and rpm shall be recorded at least once every second during the test.

(c) Using the torque and rpm feedback signals, integrate the brake horsepower with respect to time for the cold and hot cycles. This produces a brake horsepower-hour value that enables the brake-specific emissions to be determined (see §§86.1342 and 86.1343).

(d)(1) When an engine is tested for exhaust emissions or is operated for service accumulation on an engine dynamometer, the complete engine shall be tested, with all emission control devices installed and functioning.

(2) For gasoline- and methanol-fueled engines, evaporative emission canisters must be loaded with fuel vapors and connected to the engine. The canisters used for testing must be of the same design as those used in engine applications.

(3) On air-cooled engines, the fan shall be installed.

(4) Additional accessories (e.g., oil cooler, alternators, air compressors, etc.) may be installed or their loading simulated if typical of the in-use application.

(5) The engine may be equipped with a production-type starter.

(e) Means of engine cooling that will maintain the engine operating temperatures (e.g., temperatures of intake air, oil, water, etc.) at approximately the same temperature as specified by the manufacturer shall be used. An auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain engine cooling during operation on the dynamometer. Rust inhibitors and lubrication additives may be used, up to the levels recommended by the additive manufacturer. Antifreeze mixtures and other coolants typical of those approved for use by the manufacturer may be used.

(f) Exhaust system. The exhaust system term shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Gasoline-fueled and methanol-fueled Otto-cycle engines. A chassis-type exhaust system shall be used. For all catalyst systems, the distance from the exhaust manifold flange(s) to the catalyst shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration unless the manufacturer provides data showing equivalent performance at another location. The catalyst container may be removed during all test sequences prior to the practice cycle, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive catalyst support.

(2) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines. Either a chassis-type or a facility-type exhaust system or both systems simultaneously may be used. If the engine is equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment device, the exhaust pipe must be the same diameter as found in-use for at least 4 pipe diameters upstream to the inlet of the beginning of the expansion section containing the aftertreatment device. The exhaust backpressure or restriction shall follow the same criteria as in §86.1330-90(f) and may be set with a valve (muffler omitted). The catalyst container may be removed during all test sequences prior to the practice cycle, and replaced with an equivalent container having an inactive catalyst support.

(i) The engine exhaust systems shall meet the following requirements:

(A) The total length of the tubing from the exit of the engine exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet or aftertreatment device to the primary dilution tunnel shall not exceed 32 feet (9.8 m).

(B) The initial portion of the exhaust system may consist of a typical in-use (i.e., length, diameter, material, etc.) chassis-type exhaust system.

(C) The distance from the exhaust manifold flange(s) or turbocharger outlet to any exhaust aftertreatment device shall be the same as in the vehicle configuration or within the distance specifications provided by the manufacturer.

(D) For engines which are not equipped with exhaust aftertreatment devices, all tubing in excess of 12 feet (3.7 m) from the exit of the turbocharger or exhaust manifold shall be insulated. For engines equipped with exhaust aftertreatment devices, all tubing after the aftertreatment device which is in excess of 12 feet (3.7 m) shall be insulated.

(E) If the tubing is required to be insulated, the radial thickness of the insulation must be at least 1.0 inch (25 mm). The thermal conductivity of the insulating material must have a value no greater than 0.75 BTU-in/hr/ft2/ °F (0.065 W/m-K) measured at 700 °F (371 °C).

(F) A smoke meter or other instrumentation may be inserted into the exhaust system tubing. If this option is exercised in the insulated portion of the tubing, then a minimal amount of tubing not to exceed 18 inches may be left uninsulated. However, no more than 12 feet (3.66 m) of tubing can be left uninsulated in total, including the length at the smoke meter.

(ii) The facility-type exhaust system shall meet the following requirements:

(A) It must be composed of smooth tubing made of typical in-use steel or stainless steel. This tubing shall have a maximum inside diameter of 6.0 in (15 cm).

(B) Short sections (altogether not to exceed 20 percent of the entire tube length) of flexible tubing at connection points are allowed.

[58 FR 16064, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48533, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34374, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47130, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1327-98   Engine dynamometer test procedures; overview.

Section 86.1327-98 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.1327-96. Where a paragraph in §86.1327-96 is identical and applicable to §86.1327-98, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1327-96”.

(a) through (d)(3) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1327-96.

(d)(4) Additional accessories (e.g., oil cooler, alternators, air compressors, etc.) may be installed or their loading simulated if typical of the in-use application. This loading shall be parasitic in nature and, if used, shall be applied during all engine testing operations, including mapping. The accessory work performed shall not be included in the integrated work used in emissions calculations.

(d)(5) through (f) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.1327-96.

[62 FR 47130, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1330-90   Test sequence; general requirements.

(a) The test sequence shown in Figure N90-10 shows the major steps of the test procedure, as follows:

eCFR graphic er18ja01.020.gif

View or download PDF

(b) Control of air temperature. (1) The temperature of the CVS dilution air shall be maintained at greater than 68 °F (20 °C) for Otto cycle engines and between 68 °F and 86 °F (20 °C and 30 °C) for diesel cycle engines throughout the test sequence, except as permitted by §86.1335-84.

(2) For engines with auxiliary emission control devices which sense or detect ambient air temperature and operate at 68 °F or higher, the test cell ambient air temperature and the temperature of the engine intake air shall be maintained at 77 °F ±9 °F (25 °C ±5 °C) throughout the test sequence. For engines with auxiliary emission control devices which are temperature dependent and operate at 68 °F or higher, the temperature of the engine intake air shall be maintained at 77 °F ±9 °F (25 °C ±5 °C) throughout the test sequence.

(3) For engines which are not equipped with temperature dependent auxiliary emission control devices, the test cell ambient air temperature and the temperature of the engine intake air shall be greater than 68 °F (20 °C). No corrections will be made in test results or measured engine power if 86 °F (30 °C) is exceeded.

(4) The only exceptions to these temperatures are as noted in §86.1335.

(5) For engines equipped with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge air cooling device) between the turbocharger compressor and the intake manifold, the procedure for simulating the device in the transient dynamometer test facilities shall follow the SAE Recommended Practice J1937, “Engine Testing with Low Temperature Charge Air Cooling System in a Dynamometer Test Cell.”

(c) No control of ambient air, engine intake or CVS dilution air humidity is required (dehumidification of the dilution air prior to entering the CVS is allowed).

(d) The idle test of subpart P may be run after completion of the hot start exhaust emission test, if applicable.

(e) The barometric pressure observed during the generation of the maximum torque curve shall not deviate more than 1 in. Hg. from the value measured at the beginning of the map. The average barometric pressure observed during the exhaust emission test must be within 1 in. Hg. of the average observed during the maximum torque curve generation.

(f) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines. (1)(i) Air inlet restriction shall be set to a value midway between a clean filter and the maximum restriction specified by the manufacturer. The exhaust restriction normally shall be set at 80 percent of the manufacturer's recommended maximum specified exhaust restriction. The manufacturer shall be liable for emission compliance from the minimum in-use restrictions to the maximum restrictions specified by the manufacturer for that particular engine.

(ii) Inlet depression and exhaust backpressure shall be set with the engine operating at rated speed and wide open throttle, except for the case of inlet depression for naturally aspirated engines, which shall be set at maximum engine speed and nominal zero load (high idle).

(iii) The location at which the inlet depression and exhaust backpressure is measured shall be specified by the manufacturer.

(iv) The settings shall take place during the final mode of the preconditioning prior to determining the maximum torque curve.

(2)(i) The temperature of the inlet fuel to the engine shall not exceed 110 °F (or 130 °F during the first 10 seconds of the hot start test).

(ii) The pressure of the inlet fuel and the point at which it is measured shall be specified by the manufacturer.

(g) Pre-test engine measurements (e.g., governed petroleum-fueled or methanol-fueled diesel engine high idle speed, petroleum-fueled or methanol-fueled diesel engine fuel flows, etc.), pre-test engine performance checks (e.g., verification of actual rated rpm, etc.) and pre-test system calibrations (e.g., inlet and exhaust restrictions, etc.) shall be made prior to generation of the maximum torque curve. This can be done during engine preconditioning, or at the manufacturer s convenience subject to the requirements of good engineering practice.

[54 FR 14597, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 60 FR 34374, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47131, Sept. 5, 1997; 66 FR 5184, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1332-90   Engine mapping procedures.

(a) Mount test engine on the engine dynamometer.

(b) Determine minimum mapping speed. The minimum speed is defined as the warm engine curb idle rpm.

(c) Determine maximum mapping speed per the following methodologies. (Note paragraph (d)(1) below.)

(1) Otto-cycle engines. (i) For ungoverned engines using the transient operating cycle set forth in paragraph (f)(1) of appendix I to this part, the maximum mapping speed shall be no less than that calculated from the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.213.gif

View or download PDF

or when a 3.0 percent drop in maximum horsepower occurs, whichever of the two is greater

(ii) For ungoverned engines using the transient operating cycle set forth in paragraph (f)(3) of appendix I to this part, the maximum mapping shall be no less than that calculated from the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.214.gif

View or download PDF

or when a 3.0 percent drop in maximum horsepower occurs, whichever of the two is greater

(iii) For governed engines the maximum mapped speed shall be no less than either that speed at which the wide-open throttle torque drops off to zero, or the maximum speed as calculated for ungoverned engines (paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section)

(2) Diesel engines. (i) For ungoverned engines, the maximum mapping speed shall be no less than that calculated from the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.215.gif

View or download PDF

or when a 3.0 drop in horsepower occurs, whichever of the two is greater

(ii) For governed engines, the maximum mapping speed shall be no less than either that speed at which wide-open throttle torque drops off to zero, or the maximum speed as calculated for ungoverned engines (paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section).

(d) Perform an engine power map.

(1) During engine preparation or warm-up, the engine may be operated such that a preliminary estimate of measured rated rpm can be made.

(2) Otto-cycle engines. (i) For a cold engine, start the engine and operate at zero load in accordance with the manufacturer's start-up and warm-up procedures for 1 minute ±30 seconds.

(ii) Operate the engine at a torque equivalent to 10±3 percent of the most recent determination of maximum torque for 4 minutes ±30 seconds at 2000 rpm.

(iii) Operate the engine at a torque equivalent to 55±5 percent of the most recent determination of maximum torque for 35 minutes ±1 minute at 2000 rpm.

(iv) Operate the engine at idle (minimum speed).

(v) Open the throttle fully.

(vi) While maintaining wide-open throttle and full-load, maintain minimum engine speed for at least 15 seconds. Record the average torque during the last 5 seconds.

(vii) In no greater than 100±20 rpm increments, determine the maximum torque curve from minimum speed to maximum speed. Hold each test point for 15 seconds, and record the average torque over the last 5 seconds.

(viii) Alternate mapping technique. In place of paragraphs (d)(2) (vi) and (vii) of this section, a continual sweep of rpm is allowed. While operating at wide-open throttle, the engine speed is increased at an average rate of 8 rpm/sec (±1 rpm/sec) from minimum speed to maximum speed. Speed and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least one point per second.

(ix) Recalculate the maximum speed per paragraph (c)(1) (i) or (ii) of this section using the measured rated speed derived from the new maximum torque curve. If the new maximum speed lies outside the range of speeds encompassed by the actual map, then the map shall be considered void, and another map will need to be run using the newly derived measured rated speed in all calculations.

(x) For warm engines, the entire warm-up procedure specified in paragraphs (d)(2) (i) through (iii) of this section need not be repeated. It is sufficient for an engine already at normal operating temperatures to be operated at the conditions specified in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section until oil and water temperatures are stabilized, after which the procedures of paragraph (d)(2) (iv) through (vii) of this section may be performed. The oil and water temperatures are defined as stabilized if they are maintained within 2 percent of point for 2 minutes.

(3) Diesel engines. (i) If the engine is cold, start and operate at free idle for 2 to 3 minutes.

(ii) Operate the engine at approximately 50 percent power at the peak torque speed for 5 to 7 minutes.

(iii) Operate the engine at rated speed and wide-open throttle for 25 to 30 minutes.

(iv) Option. The engine may be pre-conditioned by operating at rated speed and maximum horsepower until the oil and water temperatures are stabilized. The temperatures are defined as stabilized if they are maintained within 2 percent of point for 2 minutes. This optional procedure may be substituted for paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section.

(v) Unload the engine and operate at the curb idle speed.

(vi) Operate the engine at wide open throttle and minimum engine speed. Increase the engine speed at an average rate of 8 rpm/sec (±1 rpm/sec) from minimum to maximum speed. Engine speed and torque points shall be recorded at a sample rate of at least one point per second.

(vii) Recalculate the maximum speed per paragraph (c)(2) (i) or (ii) of this section using the measured rated speed derived from the new maximum torque curve. If the new maximum speed lies outside the range of speeds encompassed by the actual map, then the map shall be considered void. The entire mapping procedure shall be repeated, using the newly derived measured rated speed in all calculations.

(viii) For warm engines, the entire warm-up procedure specified in paragraphs (d)(3) (i) through (iv) of this section need not be repeated. It is sufficient for an engine already at normal operating temperatures to be operated per the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section, after which the procedures of paragraph (d)(3) (v) through (vi) of this section may be performed.

(e) Mapping curve generation. (1) Otto-cycle engines. (i) Fit all data points recorded under paragraphs (d)(2) (vi) and (vii) of this section (100 rpm increments) with a cubic spline, Akima, or other technique approved in advance by the Administrator. The resultant curve shall be accurate to within ±1.0 ft-lbs of all recorded engine torques.

(ii) All points generated under the continuous rpm sweep by paragraphs (d)(2) (vi) and (viii) of this section shall be connected by linear interpolation between points.

(iii) For governed engines, all points above the maximum speed (see paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section) shall be assigned maximum torque values of zero for purposes of cycle generation.

(iv) For all engines, all speed points below the minimum speed shall be assigned a maximum torque value equal to that observed at minimum speed for purposes of cycle generation.

(v) The torque curve resulting from paragraphs (e)(1) (i) through (iv) of this section is the mapping curve and will be used to convert the normalized torque values in the engine cycle (see paragraph (f)(1) of appendix I to this part) to actual torque values for the test cycle.

(2) Diesel engines. (i) Connect all data points recorded under paragraph (d)(3)(vi) of this section using linear interpolation between points.

(ii) For governed engines, all points above the maximum speed (see paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) shall be assigned maximum torque values of zero for purposes of cycle generation.

(iii) For all engines, all speed points below the minimum speed shall be assigned a maximum torque value equal to that observed at the minimum speed for purposes of cycle generation.

(iv) The torque curve resulting from paragraphs (e)(2) (i) through (iii) of this section is the mapping curve and will be used to convert the normalized torque values in the engine cycle (see paragraph (f)(2) of appendix I to this part) into actual torque values for the test cycle.

(f) Alternate mapping. If a manufacturer believes that the above mapping techniques are unsafe or unrepresentative for any given engine or engine family, alternate mapping techniques may be used. These alternate techniques must satisfy the intent of the specified mapping procedures to determine the maximum available torque at all engine speeds achieved during the test cycles. Deviations from the mapping techniques specified in this section for reasons of safety or representativeness shall be reported per §86.1344(e)(6), along with the justification for their use. In no case, however, shall descending continual sweeps of rpm be used for governed or turbocharged engines.

(g) Replicate Tests. An engine need not be mapped before each and every cold cycle test. An engine shall be remapped prior to a cold cycle test if:

(1) An unreasonable amount of time has transpired since the last map, as determined by engineering judgment, or

(2) The barometric pressure prior to the start of the cold cycle test has changed more than 1 in hg. from the average barometric pressure observed during the map, or

(3) Physical changes or recalibrations have been made to the engine which may potentially affect engine performance.

[54 FR 14597, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 59 FR 48533, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.1333-90   Transient test cycle generation.

(a) The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I ((f) (1), (2) and (3)) to this part. These second-by-second listings represent torque and rpm maneuvers characteristic of heavy-duty engines. Both rpm and torque are normalized (expressed as a percentage of maximum) in these listings.

(1) To unnormalize rpm, use the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.216.gif

View or download PDF

The method of calculating measured rated rpm is detailed in paragraph (g) of this section.

(2) Torque is normalized to the maximum torque at the rpm listed with it. Therefore, to unnormalize the torque values in the cycle, the maximum torque curve for the engine in question must be used. The generation of the maximum torque curve is described in §86.1332.

(3) The EPA Engine Dynamometer Schedule for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines listed in appendix I (f)(2) contains torque points referred to as “closed rack motoring.” For reference cycle calculation torque points shall take on unnormalized values determined in either of the following three ways:

(i) Negative 40 percent of the positive torque available at the associated speed point. The generation of this positive maximum torque curve is described in §86.1332.

(ii) Map the amount of negative torque required to motor the engine between idle and maximum mapping speed and use this map to determine the amount of negative torque required at the associated speed point.

(iii) Determine the amount of negative torque required to motor the engine at idle and rated speeds and linearly interpolate using these two points.

(b) Example of the unnormalization procedure. The following test point shall be unnormalized:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.219.gif

View or download PDF

Given the following values:

Measured Rated rpm = 3800.

Curb Idle rpm = 600.

(1) Calculate actual rpm:

eCFR graphic er06oc93.217.gif

View or download PDF

eCFR graphic er06oc93.218.gif

View or download PDF

(2) Determine actual torque: Determine the maximum observed torque at 1976 rpm from the maximum torque curve. Then multiply this value (e.g., 358 ft-lbs) by 0.82. This results in an actual torque of 294 ft-lbs.

(c) Engine speed and torque shall be recorded at least once every second during the cold start test and hot start test. The torque and rpm feedback signals may be filtered.

(d) Idle Speed Enhancement Devices (e.g. cold idle, alternator idle, etc.). For an engine equipped with an idle speed enhancement device, the zero percent speed specified in the engine dynamometer schedules (appendix I (f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3) to this part) does not apply. The idle speed shall be the speed that results from the proper operation of the engine's idle speed enhancement device.

(1) During idle speed enhancement device operation, a manual transmission engine shall be allowed to idle at whatever speed is required to target a feedback torque equal to zero (using, for example, clutch disengagement, speed to torque control switching, software overrides, etc.) at those points in appendix I(f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3) to this part where both reference speed and reference torque are zero percent values. For each idle segment that is ten seconds or longer, the average feedback torque must be within ±10 ft-lbs of zero. To allow for transition, up to the first four seconds may be deleted from each idle segment calculation.

(2) During idle speed enhancement device operation, an automatic transmission engine shall be allowed to idle at whatever speed is required to target a feedback torque equal to CITT (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section for definition of CITT) at those points in appendix I(f)(1), (f)(2), or (f)(3) to this part where both reference speed and reference torque are zero percent values. For each idle segment that is ten seconds or longer, the average feedback torque must be within ±10 ft-lbs of CITT. To allow for transition, up to the first four seconds may be deleted from each idle segment calculation.

(e) Automatic transmissions. The reference cycles in paragraphs (f) (1) and (2) of appendix I to this part shall be altered for test engines intended primarily for use with automatic transmissions.

(1) Zero percent speed for automatic transmission engines is defined as curb idle rpm (i.e., in-vehicle, coupled with automatic transmission in gear).

(2) All zero-percent speed, zero-percent torque points (idle points) shall be modified to zero percent speed, Curb Idle Transmission Torque (CITT), except as permitted in §86.1337-90(a)(9). Also, all points with speed equal to or less than zero percent and torque less than CITT shall be modified to CITT. Motoring torque shall remain unchanged. In order to provide a smooth torque transition, all consecutive torque points that are between 0 and CITT shall be changed to CITT if the first of these is preceded or the last of these is succeeded by idle points. The manufacturer's specified CITT shall be based upon that value observed in typical applications at the mean of the manufacturers' specified idle speed range at stabilized temperature conditions.

(f) Clutch operation. Manual transmission engines may be tested with a clutch. If used, the clutch shall be disengaged at all zero percent speeds, zero percent torque points, but may be engaged up to two points preceding a non-zero point, and may be engaged for time segments with zero percent speed and torque points of durations less than four seconds. (See §86.1341 for allowances in the cycle validation criteria.)

(g) Measured rated rpm. The measured rated rpm corresponds to the 100 percent rpm values specified in the reference cycles (paragraphs (f) (1) and (2) of appendix I to this part). It is generally intended to represent the rpm at which maximum brake horsepower occurs. For the purposes of this test sequence, it shall either be defined as the manufacturer's specified rated speed, or calculated in the following way, whichever yields the higher speed:

(1) From the maximum torque curve generated per §86.1332, find the maximum observed brake horsepower of the engine.

(2) Calculate 98 percent of the observed maximum brake horsepower, and determine from the maximum torque curve the highest and lowest engine rpms at which this brake horsepower is observed.

(3) The highest and lowest of the 98 percent power rpms represent the endpoints of an rpm range. The midpoint of this range shall be considered the measured rated rpm for cycle generation purposes.

[54 FR 14599, Apr. 11, 1989, as amended at 62 FR 47131, Sept. 5, 1997; 63 FR 24449, May 4, 1998; 65 FR 8279, Feb. 18, 2000]

§86.1333-2010   Transient test cycle generation.

(a) Generating transient test cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix I((f) (1), (2) and (3)) to this part. These second-by-second listings represent torque and rpm maneuvers characteristic of heavy-duty engines. Both rpm and torque are normalized (expressed as a percentage of maximum) in these listings.

(1) To unnormalize rpm, use the following equations:

(i) For diesel engines:

eCFR graphic er13jy05.001.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MaxTestSpeed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40 CFR part 1065.

(ii) For Otto-cycle engines:

eCFR graphic er13jy05.002.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

MaxTestSpeed = the maximum test speed as calculated in 40 CFR part 1065.

(2) Torque is normalized to the maximum torque at the rpm listed with it. Therefore, to unnormalize the torque values in the cycle, the maximum torque curve for the engine in question must be used. The generation of the maximum torque curve is described in 40 CFR part 1065.

(b) Example of the unnormalization procedure. Unnormalize the following test point, given Maximum Test speed = 3800 rpm and Curb Idle Speed = 600 rpm.

eCFR graphic er13jy05.003.gif

View or download PDF

(1) Calculate actual rpm:

eCFR graphic er13jy05.004.gif

View or download PDF

(2) Determine actual torque: Determine the maximum observed torque at 1829 rpm from the maximum torque curve. Then multiply this value (e.g., 358 ft-lbs) by 0.82. This results in an actual torque of 294 ft-lbs.

(c) Clutch operation. Manual transmission engines may be tested with a clutch. If used, the clutch shall be disengaged at all zero percent speeds, zero percent torque points, but may be engaged up to two points preceding a non-zero point, and may be engaged for time segments with zero percent speed and torque points of durations less than four seconds. (See 40 CFR 1065.514 for allowances in the cycle validation criteria.)

(d) Determine idle speeds as specified in §86.1337-2007(a)(9).

[70 FR 40438, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37192, June 30, 2008]

§86.1334-84   Pre-test engine and dynamometer preparation.

(a) Control system calibration. (1) Before the cold soak or cool down:

(i) Final calibration of the dynamometer and throttle control systems may be performed. These calibrations may consist of steady-state operations and/or actual practice cycle runs, and must be completed before sampling system preconditioning (if applicable).

(ii) Conduct sampling system preconditioning for diesel engines (optional for model years prior to 2007) by operating the engine at a condition of rated-speed, 100 percent torque for a minimum of 20 minutes while simultaneously operating the CVS and secondary dilution system and taking particulate matter emissions samples from the secondary dilution tunnel . Particulate sample filters need not be stabilized or weighed, and may be discarded. Filter media may be changed during conditioning as long as the total sampled time through the filters and sampling system exceeds 20 minutes. Flow rates shall be set at the approximate flow rates selected for transient testing. Torque shall be reduced from 100 percent torque while maintaining the rated speed condition as necessary to prevent exceeding the maximum sample zone temperature specifications of §86.1310-2007.

(2) Following sampling system preconditioning cycle, the engine shall be cooled per §86.1335-90.

(b) [Reserved]

[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48145, Dec. 10, 1984; 52 FR 47874, Dec. 16, 1987; 62 FR 47131, Sept. 5, 1997; 66 FR 5186, Jan. 18, 2001]]

§86.1335-90   Cool-down procedure.

(a) This cool-down procedure applies to Otto-cycle and diesel engines.

(b) Engines may be soaked at ambient conditions. No substances or fluids may be applied to the engine's internal or external surfaces except for water and air as prescribed in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(c) For water-cooled engines, two types of cooling are permitted:

(1) Water may be circulated through the engine's water coolant system.

(i) The coolant may be flowed in either direction and at any desired flow rate. The thermostat may be removed or blocked open during the cool-down but must be restored before the exhaust emissions test begins.

(ii) The temperature of the circulated or injected water shall be at least 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the temperature of the cooling water shall not exceed 30 °C (86 °F) during the last 30 minutes of the cool-down.

(iii) Only water, including the use of a building's standard water supply, or the coolant type that is already in the engine (per §86.1327-90(e)) is permitted for cool-down purposes.

(2) Flows of air may be directed at the exterior of the engine.

(i) The air shall be directed essentially uniformly over the exterior surface of the engine at any desired flow rate.

(ii) The temperature of the cooling air shall not exceed 86 °F (30 °C) during the last 30 minutes of the cool-down, but may be less than 68 °F (20 °C) at any time.

(d) For air-cooled engines, only cooling as prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section is permitted.

(e)(1) The cold cycle exhaust emission test may begin after a cool-down only when the engine oil and water temperatures are stabilized between 68 °F and 86 °F (20 °C and 30 °C) for a minimum of fifteen minutes.

(i) These temperature measurements are to be made by temperature measurement devices immersed in the sump oil and in the thermostat housing or cylinder head cooling circuit, the sensor parts of which are not in contact with any engine surface.

(ii) The flow of oil and water shall be shut off during this measurement. Air flow, except as necessary to keep the cell temperature between 68 °F and 86 °F (20 °C and 30 °C), shall be shut off. No engine oil change is permitted during the test sequence.

(2) Direct cooling of engine oil through the use of oil coolers or heat exchangers is permitted. The cold cycle emission test may begin only when the requirements in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) are met.

(3) Any other means for the direct cooling of the engine oil must be approved in advance by the Administrator.

(f)(1) The cold cycle exhaust emission test for engines equipped with exhaust aftertreatment devices may begin after a cool-down only when the aftertreatment device is 77 °F ±9 °F (25 °C ±5 °C), in addition to the temperature restrictions in paragraph (e) of this section. For catalysts, this temperature must be measured at the outlet of the catalyst bed.

(2) Exhaust aftertreatment device cool-down may be accomplished in whatever manner and using whatever coolant deemed appropriate by proper engineering judgment. The aftertreatment device, engine, and exhaust piping configurations shall not be separated, altered, or moved in any way during the cool-down.

(g) For engines with auxiliary emission control devices which are temperature dependent, the cold start shall not begin until the temperature readings of the auxiliary emission control devices are stable at 77 °F ±9 °F (25 °C ±5 °C).

(h) At the completion of the cool-down all of the general requirements specified in §86.1330, the oil temperature specification set forth in paragraph (e) of this section, and the catalyst temperature specifications in paragraph (f) of this section must be met before the cold cycle exhaust emission test may begin.

[62 FR 47131, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1336-84   Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

(a) The engine shall be started according to the manufacturer's recommended starting procedure in the owner's manual, using either a production starter motor or the dynamometer. The speed at which the engine is cranked (motored) with the dynamometer shall be equal to the cranking speed (nominal speed ±10 percent) in the vehicle with a fully charged battery. The time taken to accelerate the engine to cranking speed by the dynamometer shall be equal (nominal ±0.5 seconds) to the time required with a starter motor. Motoring by the dynamometer shall be terminated not more than one second after the engine starts. The 24 ±1-second free idle period, and declutching if applicable, shall begin when the engine is determined to have started.

(1) Engines equipped with automatic chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual, including choke setting and “kick-down” from cold fast idle.

(2) Engines equipped with manual chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual.

(3) The operator may use the choke, throttle, etc. where necessary to keep the engine running.

(4) If the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual do not specify a warm engine starting procedure, the engine (automatic and manual choke engines) shall be started by depressing the throttle half way and cranking the engine until it starts.

(b)(1) If the engine does not start after 15 seconds of cranking, cranking shall cease and the reason for failure to start shall be determined. The gas flow measuring device (or revolution counter) on the constant volume sampler (and the hydrocarbon integrator when testing diesel-fueled engines) shall be turned off during this diagnostic period. In addition, either the CVS should be turned off or the exhaust tube disconnected from the tailpipe during the diagnostic period. If failure to start is an operational error, the engine shall be rescheduled for testing from a cold start.

(2) If longer cranking times are necessary and recommended to the ultimate purchaser, such cranking times may be used in lieu of the 15-second limit, provided the owner's manual and the service repair manual indicate that the longer cranking times are normal.

(3) If a failure to start occurs during the cold portion of the test and is caused by an engine malfunction, corrective action of less than 30 minutes duration may be taken (according to §86.084-25), and the test continued. The sampling system shall be reactivated at the same time cranking begins. When the engine starts, the timing sequence shall begin. If failure to start is caused by engine malfunction and the engine cannot be started, the test shall be voided and corrective action may be taken according to §86.084-25.

(4) If a failure to start occurs during the hot start portion of the test and is caused by engine malfunction, the engine must be started within one minute of key on. The sampling system shall be reactivated at the same time cranking begins. When the engine starts, the transient engine cycle timing sequence shall begin. If the engine cannot be started within one minute of key on, the test shall be voided, corrective action taken (according to §86.084-25), and the engine rescheduled for testing.

(c) Engine stalling. (1) If the engine stalls during the initial idle period of either the cold or hot start test, the engine shall be restarted immediately using the appropriate cold or hot starting procedure and the test continued.

(2) If the engine stalls anywhere in the cold cycle, except in the initial idle period, the test shall be voided.

(3) If the engine stalls on the hot cycle portion of the test at any time other than the initial idle, the engine may be shut off and resoaked for 20 minutes. The hot cycle may then be rerun. Only one hot start resoak and restart is permitted.

(d) Engine shutdown. Engine shutdown shall be performed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

(e) Test equipment malfunction—(1) Gasoline- and methanol-fueled engines. If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the test run, the test shall be voided.

(2) Diesel-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines. (i) If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment during the cold cycle portion of the test, the test shall be voided.

(ii) If a malfunction occurs in any of the required test equipment (computer, gaseous emissions analyzer, etc.) during the hot cycle portion of the test, complete the full engine cycle before engine shut-down then resoak for 20 minutes.

(A) If the test equipment malfunction can be corrected before the resoak period has been completed, the hot cycle portion of the test may be rerun.

(B)(1) If the test equipment malfunction is corrected after the completion of the resoak period, then the preconditioning cycle must be run before the hot cycle. This consists of a full 20 minute transient cycle followed by a 20 minute soak and then the for-record hot cycle.

(2) In no case can the start of the cold cycle and the start of the hot cycle be separated by more than 4 hours.

(Secs. 202, 203, 206, 207, 208, 301a, Clean Air Act, as amended; 42 U.S.C. 7521, 7522, 7525, 7541, 7542, 7601a)

[48 FR 52210, Nov. 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 48145, Dec. 10, 1984; 50 FR 10694, Mar. 15, 1985; 52 FR 47874, Dec. 16, 1987; 58 FR 16065, Mar. 24, 1993; 59 FR 48533, Sept. 21, 1994]

§86.1337-96   Engine dynamometer test run.

(a) The following steps shall be taken for each test:

(1) Prepare for the cold-start test. (i) For gasoline- and methanol-fueled engines only, evaporative emission canisters shall be prepared for use in this testing in accordance with the procedures specified in §86.1232-96 (h) or (j). The size of the canisters used for testing shall correspond with the largest canister capacity expected in the range of vehicle applications for each engine. The Administrator may, at his discretion, use a smaller canister capacity. Attach the evaporative emission canister(s) to the engine, using the canister purge plumbing and controls employed in vehicle applications of the engine being tested. Plug the canister port that is normally connected to the fuel tank.

(ii) Prepare the engine, dynamometer, and sampling system.

(iii) Change filters, etc., and leak check as necessary. For a single dilution particulate system, a propane check will not reveal a pressure side leak (that portion of the system downstream of the pump) since the volume concentration in ppm will not change if a portion of the sample is lost. A separate leak check is needed. A leak check of a filter assembly that has only one seal ring in contact with the filter media will not detect a leak when tested under vacuum. A pressure leak test should be performed.

(2) Connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air sample collection systems.

(3) For methanol-fueled vehicles, install fresh methanol and formaldehyde impingers (or cartridges) in the exhaust and dilution air sample systems for methanol and formaldehyde. A single dilution air sample covering the total test period may be utilized for methanol and formaldehyde background. (Background measurements of methanol and formaldehyde may be omitted and concentrations assumed to be zero for calculations in §86.1344.)

(4) Attach the CVS to the engine exhaust system any time prior to starting the CVS.

(5) Start the CVS (if not already on), the sample pumps (except for the particulate sample pump(s), if applicable), the engine cooling fan(s), and the data collection system. The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler (if used), and the heated components of any continuous sampling system(s) (if applicable) shall be preheated to their designated operating temperatures before the test begins. (See §86.1340(e) for continuous sampling procedures.)

(6) Adjust the sample flow rates to the desired flow rates and set the CVS gas flow measuring devices to zero. CFV-CVS sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design.

(7) For diesel engines tested for particulate emissions, carefully install a clean particulate sample filter into each of the filter holders and install the assembled filter holders in the sample flow line (filter holders may be preassembled).

(8) Follow the manufacturer's choke and throttle instructions for cold starting. Simultaneously start the engine and begin exhaust and dilution air sampling. For petroleum-fueled diesel engines (and natural gas-fueled, liquified petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled diesels, if used) turn on the hydrocarbon and NOX (and CO and CO2. if continuous) analyzer system integrators (if used), and turn on the particulate sample pumps and indicate the start of the test on the data collection medium.

(9) As soon as it is determined that the engine is started, start a “free idle” timer. Allow the engine to idle freely with no-load for 24±1 seconds. This idle period for automatic transmission engines may be interpreted as an idle speed in neutral or park. All other idle conditions shall be interpreted as an idle speed in gear. It is permissible to lug the engine down to curb idle speed during the last 8 seconds of the free idle period for the purpose of engaging dynamometer control loops.

(10) Begin the transient engine cycles such that the first non-idle record of the cycle occurs at 25±1 seconds. The free idle time is included in the 25±1 seconds.

(i) During diesel particulate sampling it must be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not change by more than ±5.0 percent of its set point value (except for the first 10 seconds of sampling). For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate through the sample filters and the secondary dilution air flow rate.

(ii) Record the average temperature and pressure at the gas meter(s) or flow instrumentation inlet, where needed to calculate flow. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be terminated. The test shall be rerun using a lower flow rate and/or a larger diameter filter.

(11) Begin the transient engine cycles such that the first non-idle record of the cycle occurs at 25±1 seconds. The free idle time is included in the 25±1 seconds.

(12) On the last record of the cycle, cease sampling. Immediately turn the engine off and start a hot-soak timer. Also turn off the particulate sample pumps, the gas flow measuring device(s) and any continuous analyzer system integrator and indicate the end of the test on the data collection medium. Sampling systems should continue to sample after the end of the test cycle until system response times have elapsed.

(13) Immediately after the engine is turned off, turn off the engine cooling fan(s) if used, and the CVS blower (or disconnect the exhaust system from the CVS). As soon as possible, transfer the “cold start cycle” exhaust and dilution air bag samples to the analytical system and process the samples according to §86.1340. A stabilized reading of the exhaust sample on all analyzers shall be obtained within 20 minutes of the end of the sample collection phase of the test. Analysis of the methanol and formaldehyde samples shall be obtained within 24 hours of the end of the sample collection period. For petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines, carefully remove the filter holder from the sample flow apparatus, remove each particulate sample filter from its holder and invert the secondary filter and place it stain side to stain side on top of the primary filter. Place the filter pair in a petri dish and cover.

(14) Allow the engine to soak for 20±1 minutes.

(15) Prepare the engine and dynamometer for the hot start test.

(16) Connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air sample collection systems.

(17) Install fresh methanol and formaldehyde impingers (or capsules) in the exhaust and dilution air sample systems for methanol and formaldehyde.

(18) Start the CVS (if not already on) or connect the exhaust system to the CVS (if disconnected). Start the sample pumps (except the particulate sample pump(s), if applicable), the engine cooling fan(s) and the data collection system. The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler (if used) and the heated components of any continuous sampling system(s) (if applicable) shall be preheated to their designated operating temperatures before the test begins. See §86.1340(e) for continuous sampling procedures.

(19) Adjust the sample flow rates to the desired flow rate and set the CVS gas flow measuring devices to zero.

(20) For diesel engines tested for particulate, carefully install a clean particulate filter in each of the filter holders and install assembled filter holders in the sample flow line (filter holders may be preassembled).

(21) Follow the manufacturer's choke and throttle instruction for hot starting. Simultaneously start the engine and begin exhaust and dilution air sampling. For diesel engines, turn on the hydrocarbon and NOX (and CO and CO2. if continuous) analyzer system integrator (if used), indicate the start of the test on the data collection medium, and turn on the particulate sample pump(s).

(22) As soon as it is determined that the engine is started, start a “free idle” timer.

(23) Allow the engine to idle freely with no-load for 24±1 seconds. The provisions and interpretations of paragraph (a)(9) of this section apply.

(24) Begin the transient-engine cycle such that the first non-idle record of the cycle occurs at 25±1 seconds. The free idle is included in the 25±1 seconds.

(25) On the last record of the cycle, allow sampling system response times to elapse and cease sampling. Turn off the particulate sample pump(s) (if appropriate), the gas flow measuring device(s) and any continuous analyzer system integrator and indicate the end of the test on the data collection medium.

(26) As soon as possible, transfer the “hot start cycle” exhaust and dilution air bag samples to the analytical system and process the samples according to §86.1340. A stabilized reading of the exhaust sample on all analyzers shall be obtained within 20 minutes of the end of the sample collection phase of the test. Analyze the methanol and formaldehyde samples within 24 hours. (If it is not possible to perform analysis within 24 hours, the samples should be stored in a cold (approximately 0 °C) dark environment until analysis can be performed). For petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel engines, carefully remove the assembled filter holder from the sample flow lines and remove each particulate sample filter from its holder and invert the secondary filter and place it stain side to stain side on top of the primary filter. Place the filter pairs in a clean petri dish and cover as soon as possible. Within 1 hour after the end of the hot start phase of the test, transfer the particulate filters to the weighing chamber for post-test conditioning.

(27) The CVS and the engine may be turned off, if desired.

(b) The procedure in paragraph (a) of this section is designed for one sample bag for the cold start portion and one for the hot start portion. It is also permissible to use more than one sample bag per test portion.

(c) If a dynamometer test run is determined to be void, corrective action may be taken. The engine may then be allowed to cool (naturally or forced) and the dynamometer test rerun per paragraph (a) or (b) of this section.

[58 FR 16065, Mar. 24, 1993, as amended at 59 FR 48533, Sept. 21, 1994; 60 FR 34375, June 30, 1995; 62 FR 47133, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1337-2007   Engine dynamometer test run.

(a) The following steps shall be taken for each test:

(1) Prepare for the cold-start test.

(i) For gasoline- and methanol-fueled engines only, evaporative emission canisters shall be prepared for use in this testing in accordance with the procedures specified in §86.1232-96 (h) or (j). The size of the canisters used for testing shall correspond with the largest canister capacity expected in the range of vehicle applications for each engine. (The Administrator may, at his/her discretion, use a smaller canister capacity.) Attach the evaporative emission canister(s) to the engine, using the canister purge plumbing and controls employed in vehicle applications of the engine being tested. Plug the canister port that is normally connected to the fuel tank.

(ii) Prepare the engine, dynamometer, and sampling system.

(iii) Change filters, etc., and leak check as necessary.

(2) Connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air sample collection systems if bag sampling is used.

(3) For methanol-fueled vehicles, install fresh methanol and formaldehyde impingers (or cartridges) in the exhaust and dilution air sample systems for methanol and formaldehyde. A single dilution air sample covering the total test period may be utilized for methanol and formaldehyde background. (Background measurements of methanol and formaldehyde may be omitted and concentrations assumed to be zero for calculations in §86.1344.)

(4) Attach the CVS to the engine exhaust system any time prior to starting the CVS.

(5) Start the CVS (if not already on), the sample pumps (except for the particulate sample pump(s), if applicable), the engine cooling fan(s), and the data collection system. The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler (if used), and the heated components of any continuous sampling system(s) (if applicable) shall be preheated to their designated operating temperatures before the test begins. (See §86.1340(e) for continuous sampling procedures.)

(6) Adjust the sample flow rates to the desired flow rates and set the CVS gas flow measuring devices to zero. CFV-CVS sample flow rate is fixed by the venturi design.

(7) For engines tested for particulate emissions, carefully install a clean, loaded particulate sample filter cartridge into the filter holder assembly. It is recommended that this be done within the filter stabilization environment, with both ends of the filter holder assembly plugged during transport to the emissions test facility. Install the assembled filter holder into the sample flow line.

(8) Follow the manufacturer's instructions for cold starting. Simultaneously start the engine and begin exhaust and dilution air sampling. For petroleum-fueled diesel engines (and natural gas-fueled, liquified petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled diesels, if used) Turn on the hydrocarbon and NOX (and CO and CO2. if continuous) analyzer system integrators (if used), and turn on the particulate sample pumps and indicate the start of the test on the data collection medium.

(9) Allow the engine to idle freely with no-load for 24±1 seconds. This idle period for automatic transmission engines may be interpreted as an idle speed in neutral or park. All other idle conditions shall be interpreted as an idle speed in gear. It is permissible to lug the engine down to curb idle speed during the last 8 seconds of the free idle period for the purpose of engaging dynamometer control loops.

(10) Begin the transient engine cycles such that the first non-idle record of the cycle occurs at 25±1 seconds. The free idle time is included in the 25±1 seconds.

(i) During particulate sampling it must be demonstrated that the ratio of main tunnel flow to particulate sample flow does not change by more than ±5.0 percent of its set point value (except for the first 10 seconds of sampling). For double dilution operation, sample flow is the net difference between the flow rate through the sample filters and the secondary dilution air flow rate.

(ii) Record flow. If the set flow rate cannot be maintained because of high particulate loading on the filter, the test shall be terminated. The test shall be rerun using a lower sample flow rate or greater dilution.

(11) Begin the transient engine cycles such that the first non-idle record of the cycle occurs at 25±1 seconds. The free idle time is included in the 25±1 seconds.

(12) On the last record of the cycle, cease sampling. Immediately turn the engine off and start a hot-soak timer. Also turn off the particulate sample pumps, the gas flow measuring device(s) and any continuous analyzer system integrator and indicate the end of the test on the data collection medium. Sampling systems should continue to sample after the end of the test cycle until system response times have elapsed.

(13) Immediately after the engine is turned off, turn off the engine cooling fan(s) if used. As soon as possible, transfer the “cold start cycle” exhaust and dilution air bag samples to the analytical system and process the samples according to §86.1340. A stabilized reading of the exhaust sample on all analyzers shall be obtained within 20 minutes of the end of the sample collection phase of the test. Analysis of the methanol and formaldehyde samples shall be obtained within 24 hours of the end of the sample collection period. For particulate measurements, carefully remove the filter holder from the sample flow apparatus

(14) Allow the engine to soak for 20±1 minutes.

(15) Prepare the engine and dynamometer for the hot start test.

(16) Connect evacuated sample collection bags to the dilute exhaust and dilution air sample collection systems.

(17) Install fresh methanol and formaldehyde impingers (or capsules) in the exhaust and dilution air sample systems for methanol and formaldehyde.

(18) Start the sample pumps (except the particulate sample pump(s), if applicable), the engine cooling fan(s) and the data collection system. The heat exchanger of the constant volume sampler (if used) and the heated components of any continuous sampling system(s) (if applicable) shall be preheated to their designated operating temperatures before the test begins. See §86.1340(e) for continuous sampling procedures.

(19) Adjust the sample flow rates to the desired flow rate and set the CVS gas flow measuring devices to zero.

(20) For diesel engines tested for particulate, carefully install a clean, loaded particulate sample filter cartridge in the filter holder assembly and install the filter holder assembly in the sample flow line.

(21) Follow the manufacturer's choke and throttle instruction for hot starting. Simultaneously start the engine and begin exhaust and dilution air sampling. For diesel engines, turn on the hydrocarbon and NOX (and CO and CO2, if continuous) analyzer system integrator (if used), indicate the start of the test on the data collection medium, and turn on the particulate sample pump(s).

(22) [Reserved]

(23) Allow the engine to idle freely with no-load for 24±1 seconds. The provisions and interpretations of paragraph (a)(9) of this section apply.

(24) Begin the transient-engine cycle such that the first non-idle record of the cycle occurs at 25±1 seconds. The free idle is included in the 25±1 seconds.

(25) On the last record of the cycle, allow sampling system response times to elapse and cease sampling. Turn off the particulate sample pump(s) (if appropriate), the gas flow measuring device(s) and any continuous analyzer system integrator and indicate the end of the test on the data collection medium.

(26) As soon as possible, transfer the “hot start cycle” exhaust and dilution air bag samples to the analytical system and process the samples according to §86.1340. A stabilized reading of the exhaust sample on all analyzers shall be obtained within 20 minutes of the end of the sample collection phase of the test. Analyze the methanol and formaldehyde samples within 24 hours. (If it is not possible to perform analysis within 24 hours, the samples should be stored in a cold (approximately 0 deg.C) dark environment until analysis can be performed). For particulate measurements, carefully remove the filter holder assembly. It is recommended that the filter cartridge be transferred to and from the filter stabilization environment within the filter holder assembly with both ends plugged, and that the cartridge be removed from the filter holder assembly within the stabilization environment. Transfer the particulate filter to the stabilization environment for post-test stabilization. Filters may be stabilized in the petri dishes while still within the filter cartridges, or the cartridge tops may be removed for stabilization, or the filters may be entirely removed from the filter cartridges and stabilized in the petri dishes alone. Removal of the filters from the filter cartridges shall only take place within the stabilization environment.

(27) The CVS and the engine may be turned off, if desired.

(b) The procedure in paragraph (a) of this section is designed for one sample bag for the cold start portion and one for the hot start portion.

(c) If a dynamometer test run is determined to be void, corrective action may be taken. The engine may then be allowed to cool (naturally or forced) and the dynamometer test rerun.

[66 FR 5186, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1338-84   Emission measurement accuracy.

(a) Measurement accuracy—Bag sampling. (1) Good engineering practice dictates that exhaust emission sample analyzer readings below 15 percent of full scale chart deflection should generally not be used.

(2) Some high resolution read-out systems such as computers, data loggers, etc., can provide sufficient accuracy and resolution below 15 percent of full scale. Such systems may be used provided that additional calibrations of at least 4 non-zero nominally equally spaced points, using good engineering judgement, below 15 percent of full scale are made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curves.

(3) The following procedure shall be followed:

(i) Span the analyzer using a calibration gas that meets the accuracy requirements of §86.1314-84(f)(2), is within the operating range of the analyzer and at least 90% of full scale.

(ii) Generate calibration data over the full concentration range at a minimum of 6, approximately equally spaced, points (e.g. 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 percent of the range of concentrations provided by the gas divider). If a gas divider or blender is being used to calibrate the analyzer and the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section are met, verify that a second calibration gas with a concentration between 10 and 20 percent of full scale can be named within 2 percent of its certified concentration. If more calibration points are needed to meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, continue with paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section.

(iii) If a gas divider or blender is being used to calibrate the analyzer, input the value of a second calibration gas (a span gas may be used for calibrating a CO2 analyzer) having a named concentration between 10 and 20 percent of full scale. This gas shall be included on the calibration curve. Continue adding calibration points by dividing this gas until the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section are met.

(iv) Fit a calibration curve per §§86.1321 through 86.1324 for the full scale range of the analyzer using the calibration data obtained with both calibration gases.

(b) Measurement accuracy—Continuous sampling. (1) Analyzers used for continuous analysis must be operated such that the measured concentration falls between 15 and 100 percent of full scale chart deflection. Exceptions to these limits are:

(i) Analyzer response less than 15 percent or more than 100 percent of full scale may be used if automatic range change circuitry is used and the limits for range changes are between 15 and 100 percent of full scale chart deflection;

(ii) Analyzer response less than 15 percent of full scale may be used if one of the following is true:

(A) Alternative (a)(2) of this section is used to ensure that the accuracy of the calibration curve is maintained below 15 percent; or

(B) The full scale value of the range is 155 ppm (C) or less.

(iii) Analyzer response over 100% of full scale may be used if it can be shown that readings in this range are accurate.

(iv) The HC and CO readings are allowed to “spike” above full scale of the analyzer's maximum operating range for a maximum accumulation of 5 seconds. These analyzer readings shall default to the maximum readable value during this time.

(c) If a gas divider is used, the gas divider shall conform to the accuracy requirements specified in §86.1314-84(g), and shall be used according to the procedures contained in (a) and (b) of this section.

[62 FR 47133, Sept. 5, 1997]

§86.1338-2007   Emission measurement accuracy.

(a) Minimum limit. (1) The minimum limit of an analyzer must be equal to or less than one-half of the average diluted concentration for an engine emitting the maximum amount of the applicable pollutant allowed by the applicable standard. For example, if with a given dilution and sampling system, an engine emitting NOX at the level of the standard (e.g., 0.20 g/bhp-hr NOX) would result in an average NOX concentration of 1.0 ppm in the diluted sample, then the minimum limit for the NOX analyzer must be less than or equal to 0.5 ppm.

(2) For the purpose of this section, “minimum limit” means the lowest of the following levels:

(i) The lowest NOX concentration in the calibration curve for which an accuracy of ±2 percent of point has been demonstrated as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section; or

(ii) Any NOX concentration for which the test facility has demonstrated sufficient accuracy to the Administrator's satisfaction prior to the start of testing, such that it will allow a meaningful determination of compliance with respect to the applicable standard.

(3) For determination of the analyzer's minimum limit, a NOX concentration that is less than or equal to one-half of the average NOX concentration determined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be measured by the oxides of nitrogen analyzer following the analyzer's monthly periodic calibration. This measurement must be made to ensure the accuracy of the calibration curve to within ±2 percent of point accuracy of the appropriate least-squares fit, at less than or equal to one half of the average expected diluted NOX concentration determined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) Measurement accuracy—Bag sampling. Analyzers used for bag analysis must be operated such that the measured concentration falls between 15 and 100 percent of full scale, with the following exception: concentrations below 15 percent of full scale may be used if the minimum limit of the analyzer within the range meets the requirement of paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Measurement accuracy—Continuous measurement. (1) Analyzers used for continuous analysis must be operated such that the measured concentration falls between 15 and 100 percent of full scale, with the following exceptions:

(i) Concentrations below 15 percent of full scale may be used if the minimum limit of the analyzer within the range meets the requirement of paragraph (a) of this section.

(ii) Analyzer response over 100% of full scale may be used if it can be shown that readings in this range are accurate.

(2) If the analyzer response exceeds the level allowed by paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the test must be repeated using a higher range and both results must be reported. The Administrator may waive this requirement.

(d) If a gas divider is used, the gas divider shall conform to the accuracy requirements specified in §86.1314-84(g), and shall be used according to the procedures contained in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

[66 FR 5187, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1339-90   Particulate filter handling and weighing.

(a) At least 1 hour before the test, place a filter pair in a closed (to eliminate dust contamination) but unsealed (to permit humidity exchange) petri dish and place in a weighing chamber meeting the specifications of §86.1312 for stabilization.

(b) At the end of the stabilization period, weigh each filter pair on a balance having a precision of 20 micrograms and a readability of 10 micrograms. This reading is the tare weight of the filter pair and must be recorded (see §86.1344(e)(18)).

(c) The filter pair shall then be stored in a covered petri dish or a sealed filter holder, either of which shall remain in the weighing chamber until needed for testing.

(d) If the filter pair is not used within 1 hour of its removal from the weighing chamber, it must be re-weighed before use. This limit of 1 hour may be replaced by an 8-hour limit if either of the following three conditions are met:

(1) A stabilized filter pair is placed and kept in a sealed filter holder assembly with the ends plugged; or

(2) A stabilized filter pair is placed in a sealed filter holder assembly, which is then immediately placed in a sample line through which there is no flow; or

(3) A combination of the conditions specified in paragraphs (d) (1) and (2) of this section.

(e) After the emissions test, remove the filters from the filter holder and place them face to face in a covered but unsealed petri dish. They must then be conditioned in the weighing chamber for at least one hour. The filters are then weighed as a pair. This reading is the gross weight of the filters (Pf) and must be recorded (see §86.1344-90(e)(19)).

(f) The net particulate weight (Pf) on each filter pair is the gross weight minus the tare weight. Should the sample on the filters (exhaust or background) contact the petri dish or any other surface, the test is void and must be rerun.

(g) Static neutralizers shall be used on petri dishes in accordance with good engineering judgement.

(h)This section does not apply for tests conducted according to the provisions of §86.1312-2007.

[62 FR 47134, Sept. 5, 1997, as amended at 66 FR 5187, Jan. 18, 2001]

§86.1340-90   Exhaust sample analysis.

(a) The analyzer response may be read by automatic data collection (ADC) equipment such as computers, data loggers, etc. If ADC equipment is used the following is required:

(1) For bag analysis, the analyzer response must be stable at greater than 99 percent of the final reading for the dilute exhaust sample bag. A single value representing the average chart deflection over a 10-second stabilized period shall be stored. For the background bag, all readings taken during the 10-second interval must be stable at the final value to within ±1 percent of full scale.

(2) For continuous analysis systems, the ADC system must read at least two analyzer readings per second. A single value representing the average integrated concentration over a cycle shall be stored.

(3) The chart deflections or average integrated concentrations required in paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section may be stored on long-term computer storage devices such as computer tapes, storage discs, punch cards, or they may be printed in a listing for storage. In either case a chart recorder is not required and records from a chart recorder, if they exist, need not be stored.

(4) If the data from ADC equipment is used as permanent records, the ADC equipment and the analyzer values as interpreted by the ADC equipment are subject to the calibration specifications in §§86.1316 through 86.1326, as if the ADC equipment were part of the analyzer.

(b) Data records from any one or a combination of analyzers may be stored as chart recorder records.

(c) Software zero and span. (1) The use of “software” zero and span is permitted. The process of software zero and span refers to the technique of initially adjusting the analyzer zero and span responses to the calibration curve values, but for subsequent zero and span checks the analyzer response is simply recorded without adjusting the analyzer gain. The observed analyzer response recorded from the subsequent check is mathematically corrected back to the calibration curve values for zero and span. The same mathematical correction is then applied to the analyzer's response to a sample of exhaust gas in order to compute the true sample concentration.

(2) The maximum amount of software zero and span mathematical correction is ±10 percent of full scale chart deflection.

(3) Software zero and span may be used to switch between ranges without adjusting the gain of the analyzer.

(4) The software zero and span technique may not be used to mask analyzer drift. The observed chart deflection before and after a given time period or event shall be used for computing the drift. Software zero and span may be used after the drift has been computed to mathematically adjust any span drift so that the “after” span check may be transformed into the “before” span check for the next segment.

(d) For bag sample analysis perform the following sequence:

(1) Warm-up and stabilize the analyzers; clean and/or replace filter elements, conditioning columns (if used), etc., as necessary.

(2) Obtain a stable zero reading.

(3) Zero and span the analyzers with zero and span gases. The span gases shall have concentrations between 75 and 100 percent of full-scale chart deflection. The flow rates and system pressures during spanning shall be approximately the same as those encountered during sampling. A sample bag may be used to identify the required analyzer range.

(4) Re-check zero response. If this zero response differs from the zero response recorded in paragraph (d)(3) of this section by more than 1 percent of full scale, then paragraphs (d) (2), (3), and (4) of this section should be repeated.

(5) If a chart recorder is used, identify and record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(6) If ADC equipment is used, electronically record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(7) Measure HC (except diesels), CO, CO2. and NOX sample and background concentrations in the sample bag(s) with approximately the same flow rates and pressures used in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. (Constituents measured continuously do not require bag analysis.)

(8) A post-analysis zero and span check of each range must be performed and the values recorded. The number of events that may occur between the pre and post checks is not specified. However, the difference between pre-analysis zero and span values (recorded in paragraph (d) (5) or (6) of this section) versus those recorded for the post-analysis check may not exceed the zero drift limit or the span drift limit of 2 percent of full scale chart deflection for any range used. Otherwise the test is void.

(e) For continuous sample analysis perform the following sequence:

(1) Warm-up and stabilize the analyzers; clean and/or replace filter elements, conditioning columns (if used), etc., as necessary.

(2) Leak check portions of the sampling system that operate at negative gauge pressures when sampling, and allow heated sample lines, filters, pumps, etc., to stabilize at operating temperature.

(3) Optional: Perform a hang-up check for the HFID sampling system:

(i) Zero the analyzer using zero air introduced at the analyzer port.

(ii) Flow zero air through the overflow sampling system. Check the analyzer response.

(iii) If the overflow zero response exceeds the analyzer zero response by 2 percent or more of the HFID full-scale deflection, hang-up is indicated and corrective action must be taken.

(iv) The complete system hang-up check specified in paragraph (f) of this section is recommended as a periodic check.

(4) Obtain a stable zero reading.

(5) Zero and span each range to be used on each analyzer used prior to the beginning of the cold cycle. The span gases shall have a concentration between 75 and 100 percent of full scale chart deflection. The flow rates and system pressures shall be approximately the same as those encountered during sampling. The HFID analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned through the overflow sampling system.

(6) Re-check zero response. If this zero response differs from the zero response recorded in paragraph (e)(5) of this section by more than 1 percent of full scale, then paragraphs (e) (4), (5), and (6) of this section should be repeated.

(7) If a chart recorder is used, identify and record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(8) If ADC equipment is used, electronically record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(9) Measure the emissions (HC required for diesels; NOX, CO, CO2 optional) continuously during the cold start cycle. Indicate the start of the test, the range(s) used, and the end of the test on the recording medium (chart paper or ADC equipment). Maintain approximately the same flow rates and system pressures used in paragraph (e)(5) of this section.

(10) Collect background HC, CO, CO2. and NOX in a sample bag.

(11) Perform a post-analysis zero and span check for each range used at the conditions specified in paragraph (e)(5) of this section. Record these responses as the post-analysis values.

(12) Neither the zero drift nor the span drift between the pre-analysis and post-analysis checks on any range used may exceed 3 percent for HC, or 2 percent for NOX, CO, and CO2. of full scale chart deflection, or the test is void. (If the HC drift is greater than 3 percent of full-scale chart deflection, hydrocarbon hang-up is likely.)

(13) Determine HC background levels for the cold start cycle by intro