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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 12, 2014

Title 32Subtitle AChapter VIISubchapter D → Part 845


Title 32: National Defense


PART 845—COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS


Contents
§845.1   Purpose.
§845.2   Statutory authority.
§845.3   Responsibility.
§845.4   Criteria for the provision of counsel and payment of expenses in criminal cases.
§845.5   Provision of bail in criminal cases.
§845.6   Criteria for the provision of counsel and payment of expenses in civil cases.
§845.7   Procedures for hiring counsel and obligating funds.
§845.8   Payment of counsel fees and other expenses.
§845.9   Appropriated funds chargeable.
§845.10   Reimbursement.
§845.11   Correspondence.

Authority: Sec. 8012, 70A Stat. 488, sec. 1037, 72 Stat. 1445; 10 U.S.C. 8012, 1037.

Source: 44 FR 75633, Dec. 21, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

Note: This part is derived from chapter 2 of Air Force Regulation 110-12, December 1, 1978.

Part 806 of this chapter states the basic policies and instructions governing the disclosure of records and tells members of the public what they must do to inspect or obtain copies of the material referenced herein.

§845.1   Purpose.

This part establishes criteria and assigns responsibility for the provision of counsel, for the provision of bail, and for the payment of court costs and other necessary and reasonable expenses incident to representation in civil and criminal proceedings, including appellate proceedings, before foreign courts and foreign administrative agencies, which involve members of the Armed Forces, civilian personnel and dependents. Payment of fines is not authorized hereunder.

§845.2   Statutory authority.

10 U.S.C. 1037 provides authority for employment of counsel, and payment of counsel fees, court costs, bail, and other expenses incident to representation of persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice before foreign tribunals. For personnel not subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, funds for similar expenses may be made available in cases of exceptional interest to the service concerned, upon prior application through the Judge Advocate General of the service concerned, to the appropriate service secretary.

§845.3   Responsibility.

(a) Requests for provision of counsel, provision of bail, or payment of expenses will ordinarily be made by the defendant or accused through appropriate channels to the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over him. This officer shall determine whether the request meets the criteria prescribed herein and, based upon such determination, shall take final action approving or disapproving the request. Within their geographical areas of responsibility, major commands in the interest of obtaining prompt and effective legal service may appoint as approval authority, instead of the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction, any subordinate officer having responsibility in a particular country for personnel subject to foreign criminal jurisdiction.

(b) Notwithstanding the criteria prescribed below, an officer exercising approved authority may, in his discretion, deny a request for the provision of counsel, provision of bail or payment of expenses, where the otherwise eligible requestor is in an absent without leave or deserter status at the time of the request, or otherwise is not then subject to United States military control, and there is no reasonable basis for the belief that the requestor will return to United States military control at the conclusion of the proceedings of service of an adjudged sentence, if any.

§845.4   Criteria for the provision of counsel and payment of expenses in criminal cases.

Requests for the provision of counsel and payment of expenses in criminal cases may be approved in pretrial, trial, appellate and posttrial proceedings in any one of the following criminal cases:

(a) Where the act complained of occurred in the performance of official duty; or

(b) Where the sentence which is normally imposed includes confinement, whether or not such sentence is suspended; or

(c) Where capital punishment might be imposed; or

(d) Where an appeal is made from any proceeding in which there appears to have been a denial of the substantial rights of the accused; or

(e) Where conviction of the offense alleged could later form the basis for administrative discharge proceedings for misconduct as a result of civil court disposition; or

(f) Where the case, although not within the criteria established in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section, is considered to have significant impact upon the relations of US forces with the host country or is considered to involve any other particular US interest.

§845.5   Provision of bail in criminal cases.

Funds for the posting of bail or bond to secure the release of personnel from confinement by foreign authorities before, during, or after trial may be furnished in all criminal cases. Safeguards should be imposed to assure that at the conclusion of the proceedings or on the appearance of the defendant in court, the bail or bond will be refunded to the military authorities. Bail will be provided only to guarantee the presence of the defendant and will not be provided to guarantee the payment of fines or civil damages. Local US military authorities are expected to provide bail, in any case, only after other reasonable efforts have been made to secure release of pretrial custody to the US.

§845.6   Criteria for the provision of counsel and payment of expenses in civil cases.

Requests for provision of counsel and payment of expenses in civil cases may be granted in trial and appellate proceedings in either of the following civil cases:

(a) Where the act complained of occurred in the performance of official duty; or

(b) Where the case is considered to have a significant impact upon the relations of US forces with the host country or is considered to involve any other particular US interest. No funds shall be provided under this part in cases where the United States of America is in legal effect the defendant, without prior authorization of the Judge Advocate General.

§845.7   Procedures for hiring counsel and obligating funds.

(a) The selection of individual trial or appellate counsel will be made by the defendant. Such counsel shall represent the individual defendant and not the US Government. Selection shall be made from approved lists of attorneys who are qualified, competent and experienced in trial practice, and admitted for full practice, on their own account, before the courts of the foreign country involved. Normally, these lists will be coordinated with the local court or bar association, if any, and the appropriate US Diplomatic or Consular Mission and should include only those attorneys who are known or reputed, to comply with local attorney fee schedules or guides approved or suggested by local bar associations and should not exceed amounts paid under similar circumstances by nationals of the country where the trial is held. No fee may include any amount in payment for services other than those incident to representation before judicial and administrative agencies of the foreign country in the particular case for which the contract is made, and in no event may any contract include fees for representation in habeas corpus or related proceedings before tribunals of the United States. When appropriate and reasonable in the case, the payment of expenses, in addition to counsel fees, may include court costs, bail costs, charges for obtaining copies of records, printing and filing fees, interpreter fees, witness fees, and other necessary and reasonable expenses. Expenses will not include the payment of fines or civil damages, directly or indirectly.

(b) Whenever possible, the officer responsible under §845.3 (or his designee), acting on behalf of the United States of America, shall enter into a written contract with the selected counsel. The contract will cover counsel fees, and, when appropriate, may cover other costs arising in defense of the case only in the court of first instance and will not include fees for representation on appeal. If the case is appealed to higher tribunals, supplemental agreements shall be executed for each appeal. A copy of the contractual agreement shall serve as the obligating document.

(c) If, for example, because of unusual circumstances or local customs, it is not practicable to enter into a written contract as in paragraph (b) of this section, action will be taken to record the agreement reached between the officer responsible under §845.3 (or his designee) and the selected counsel. This requirement may be met by a letter of commission or letter of understanding, executed between the officer responsible under §845.3 (or his designee) and the selected counsel, or by a written request for legal services expressly or impliedly accepted by the selected counsel. Any such document shall contain, if possible, an agreed estimate of counsel fees and reasonable expenses and a statement that both fees and expenses will conform to those paid by local nationals under similar circumstances and will not exceed local fee schedules, if any. If this document does not include an agreed estimate of counsel fees and other reasonable expenses, an estimate will be provided by the contracting officer. A copy of the document, together with the estimate, will be furnished the accounting component and will serve as the commitment document for the reservation of funds.

(d) The provision of counsel and payment of expenses under this part is not subject to the provisions of the Defense Acquisition Regulation (subchapter A, chapter I of this title). However, the contract clauses set forth in part 5, section VII, Defense Acquisition Regulation, may be used as a guide in contracting.

(e) Because of the desirability of timely procedural action, it is suggested that there be designated, from among the judge advocates on the staffs of officers responsible under §845.3, contracting officers with contracting authority limited to agreements described in this section. The effect of this designation would be to combine within one office the duties of contracting officer and judge advocate.

(f) Nothing in this part shall be construed as prohibiting the selection of qualified local counsel employed by the United States Government, if the serviceman freely selects such counsel.

§845.8   Payment of counsel fees and other expenses.

Payment of bills submitted by the selected counsel and other costs shall be made in accordance with the general provision of AFM 177-102 (Commercial Transactions at Base Level), relating to payment of contractual obligations and pertinent disbursing regulations. All payments under these procedures will be in local currency. Acceptance of services procured under these procedures shall be certified to by the officer responsible under §845.3 (or his designee). Payments of bail may be made when authorized by such officers. Such authorization shall be in the form of a directing letter or message citing 10 U.S.C. 1037.

§845.9   Appropriated funds chargeable.

Authorized expenses incurred incident to implementation of the policies set forth in this part, including transportation and per diem expenses of trial observers, interpreters, and local counsel employees, shall be paid from appropriated funds of the service to which the defendant belongs. Payments shall be made from the appropriation current at time of payment, unless obligations for authorized costs have previously been established. Refunds shall be processed as appropriation refund. Such funds are chargeable to the base for operation and maintenance purposes (O&M or R&D, as applicable).

§845.10   Reimbursement.

No reimbursement will ordinarily be required from individuals with respect to payments made in their behalf under this part. However, prior to the posting of bail on behalf of a defendant, a signed agreement shall be secured from him wherein he agrees to remit the amount of such bail or permit the application of so much of his pay as may be necessary to reimburse the Government in the event that he willfully causes forfeiture of bail. In the event of such forfeiture, bail provided under this part shall be recovered from the defendant in accordance with that agreement. The agreement should include a statement that it does not prejudice the defendant's right to appeal to the Comptroller General of the United States and the courts after such payment or deduction has been made, if he considers the amount erroneous.

§845.11   Correspondence.

Judge advocates who advise officers responsible under §845.3 are authorized to correspond directly with each other and with the Judge Advocate General of the service concerned for advice with regard to payment of counsel fees and other expenses.



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