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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of August 29, 2014

Title 29Subtitle A → Part 5


Title 29: Labor


PART 5—LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION (ALSO LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO NONCONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS SUBJECT TO THE CONTRACT WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT)


Contents

Subpart A—Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures

§5.1   Purpose and scope.
§5.2   Definitions.
§§5.3-5.4   [Reserved]
§5.5   Contract provisions and related matters.
§5.6   Enforcement.
§5.7   Reports to the Secretary of Labor.
§5.8   Liquidated damages under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.
§5.9   Suspension of funds.
§5.10   Restitution, criminal action.
§5.11   Disputes concerning payment of wages.
§5.12   Debarment proceedings.
§5.13   Rulings and interpretations.
§5.14   Variations, tolerances, and exemptions from parts 1 and 3 of this subtitle and this part.
§5.15   Limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.
§5.16   Training plans approved or recognized by the Department of Labor prior to August 20, 1975.
§5.17   Withdrawal of approval of a training program.

Subpart B—Interpretation of the Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act

§5.20   Scope and significance of this subpart.
§5.21   [Reserved]
§5.22   Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.
§5.23   The statutory provisions.
§5.24   The basic hourly rate of pay.
§5.25   Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits.
§5.26   “* * * contribution irrevocably made * * * to a trustee or to a third person”.
§5.27   “* * * fund, plan, or program”.
§5.28   Unfunded plans.
§5.29   Specific fringe benefits.
§5.30   Types of wage determinations.
§5.31   Meeting wage determination obligations.
§5.32   Overtime payments.

Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; R.S. 161, 64 Stat. 1267; Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950, 5 U.S.C. appendix; 40 U.S.C. 3141 et seq.; 40 U.S.C. 3145; 40 U.S.C. 3148; 40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.; and the laws listed in 5.1(a) of this part; Secretary's Order 01-2008; and Employment Standards Order No. 2001-01.

Source: 48 FR l9541, Apr. 29, 1983, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures

Source: 48 FR 19540, Apr. 29, 1983, unless otherwise noted.

Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to subpart A of part 5 appear at 61 FR 19984, May 3, 1996.

§5.1   Purpose and scope.

(a) The regulations contained in this part are promulgated under the authority conferred upon the Secretary of Labor by Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 and the Copeland Act in order to coordinate the administration and enforcement of the labor standards provisions of each of the following acts by the Federal agencies responsible for their administration and of such additional statutes as may from time to time confer upon the Secretary of Labor additional duties and responsibilities similar to those conferred upon the Secretary of Labor under Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950:

1. The Davis-Bacon Act (sec. 1-7, 46 Stat. 1949, as amended; Pub. L. 74-403, 40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-7).

2. Copeland Act (40 U.S.C. 276c).

3. The Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-332).

4. National Housing Act (sec. 212 added to c. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, by sec. 14, 53 Stat. 807; 12 U.S.C. 1715c and repeatedly amended).

5. Housing Act of 1950 (college housing) (amended by Housing Act of 1959 to add labor provisions, 73 Stat. 681; 12 U.S.C. 1749a(f)).

6. Housing Act of 1959 (sec. 401(f) of the Housing Act of 1950 as amended by Pub. L. 86-372, 73 Stat. 681; 12 U.S.C. 1701q(c)(3)).

7. Commercial Fisheries Research and Development Act of 1964 (sec. 7, 78 Stat. 199; 16 U.S.C. 779e(b)).

8. Library Services and Construction Act (sec. 7(a), 78 Stat. 13; 20 U.S.C. 355c(a)(4), as amended).

9. National Technical Institute for the Deaf Act (sec. 5(b)(5), 79 Stat. 126; 20 U.S.C. 684(b)(5)).

10. National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965 (sec. 5(k), 79 Stat. 846 as amended; 20 U.S.C. 954(j)).

11. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 as amended by Elementary and Secondary and other Education Amendments of 1969 (sec. 423 as added by Pub. L. 91-230, title IV, sec. 401(a)(10), 84 Stat. 169, and renumbered sec. 433, by Pub. L. 92-318; title III, sec. 301(a)(1), 86 Stat. 326; 20 U.S.C. 1232(b)). Under the amendment coverage is extended to all programs administered by the Commissioner of Education.

12. The Federal-Aid Highway Acts (72 Stat. 895, as amended by 82 Stat. 821; 23 U.S.C. 113, as amended by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97-424).

13. Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (sec. 7, 88 Stat. 2205; 25 U.S.C. 450e).

14. Indian Health Care Improvement Act (sec. 303(b), 90 Stat. 1407; 25 U.S.C. 1633(b)).

15. Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (sec. 306(b)(5) 87 Stat. 384, 29 U.S.C. 776(b)(5)).

16. Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 (sec. 606, 87 Stat. 880, renumbered sec. 706 by 88 Stat. 1845; 29 U.S.C. 986; also sec. 604, 88 Stat. 1846; 29 U.S.C. 964(b)(3)).

17. State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act of 1972 (sec. 123(a)(6), 86 Stat. 933; 31 U.S.C. 1246(a)(6)).

18. Federal Water Pollution Control Act (sec. 513 of sec. 2, 86 Stat. 894; 33 U.S.C. 1372).

19. Veterans Nursing Home Care Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 502, as amended; 38 U.S.C. 5035(a)(8)).

20. Postal Reorganization Act (sec. 410(b)(4)(C); 84 Stat. 726 as amended; 39 U.S.C. 410(b)(4)(C)).

21. National Visitors Center Facilities Act of 1966 (sec. 110, 32 Stat. 45; 40 U.S.C. 808).

22. Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 (sec. 402, 79 Stat. 21; 40 U.S.C. App. 402).

23. Health Services Research, Health Statistics, and Medical Libraries Act of 1974 (sec. 107, see sec. 308(h)(2) thereof, 88 Stat. 370, as amended by 90 Stat. 378; 42 U.S.C. 242m(h)(2)).

24. Hospital Survey and Construction Act, as amended by the Hospital and Medical Facilities Amendments of 1964 (sec. 605(a)(5), 78 Stat. 453; 42 U.S.C. 291e(a)(5)).

25. Health Professions Educational Assistance Act (sec. 303(b), 90 Stat. 2254; 42 U.S.C. 293a(g)(1)(C); also sec. 308a, 90 Stat. 2258, 42 U.S.C. 293a(c)(7)).

26. Nurse Training Act of 1964 (sec. 941(a)(1)(C), 89 Stat. 384; 42 U.S.C. 296a(b)(5)).

27. Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke Amendments of 1965 (sec. 904, as added by sec. 2, 79 Stat. 928; 42 U.S.C. 299d(b)(4)).

28. Safe Drinking Water Act (sec. 2(a) see sec. 1450e thereof, 88 Stat. 1691; 42 U.S.C. 300j-9(e)).

29. National Health Planning and Resources Act (sec. 4, see sec. 1604(b)(1)(H), 88 Stat. 2261, 42 U.S.C. 300o-3(b)(1)(H)).

30. U.S. Housing Act of 1937, as amended and recodified (88 Stat. 667; 42 U.S.C. 1437j).

31. Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 (secs. 110, 311, 503, 1003, 80 Stat. 1259, 1270, 1277, 1284; 42 U.S.C. 3310; 12 U.S.C. 1715c; 42 U.S.C. 1437j).

32. Slum clearance program: Housing Act of 1949 (sec. 109, 63 Stat. 419, as amended; 42 U.S.C. 1459).

33. Farm housing: Housing Act of 1964 (adds sec. 516(f) to Housing Act of 1949 by sec. 503, 78 Stat. 797; 42 U.S.C. 1486(f)).

34. Housing Act of 1961 (sec. 707, added by sec. 907, 79 Stat. 496, as amended; 42 U.S.C. 1500c-3).

35. Defense Housing and Community Facilities and Services Act of 1951 (sec. 310, 65 Stat. 307; 42 U.S.C. 1592i).

36. Special Health Revenue Sharing Act of 1975 (sec. 303, see sec. 222(a)(5) thereof, 89 Stat. 324; 42 U.S.C. 2689j(a)(5)).

37. Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (sec. 607, 78 Stat. 532; 42 U.S.C. 2947).

38. Headstart, Economic Opportunity, and Community Partnership Act of 1974 (sec. 11, see sec. 811 thereof, 88 Stat. 2327; 42 U.S.C. 2992a).

39. Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 (sec. 707, 79 Stat. 492 as amended; 42 U.S.C. 3107).

40. Older Americans Act of 1965 (sec. 502, Pub. L. 89-73, as amended by sec. 501, Pub. L. 93-29; 87 Stat. 50; 42 U.S.C. 3041a(a)(4)).

41. Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 (sec. 712; 79 Stat. 575 as amended; 42 U.S.C. 3222).

42. Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Act (sec. 1, 86 Stat. 536; 42 U.S.C. 3884).

43. New Communities Act of 1968 (sec. 410, 82 Stat. 516; 42 U.S.C. 3909).

44. Urban Growth and New Community Development Act of 1970 (sec. 727(f), 84 Stat. 1803; 42 U.S.C. 4529).

45. Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 (sec. 406, 87 Stat. 410; 42 U.S.C. 5046).

46. Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (secs. 110, 802(g), 88 Stat. 649, 724; 42 U.S.C. 5310, 1440(g)).

47. Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (sec. 126(4), 89 Stat. 488; 42 U.S.C. 6042(4); title I, sec. 111, 89 Stat. 491; 42 U.S.C. 6063(b)(19)).

48. National Energy Conservation Policy Act (sec. 312, 92 Stat. 3254; 42 U.S.C. 6371j).

49. Public Works Employment Act of 1976 (sec. 109, 90 Stat. 1001; 42 U.S.C. 6708; also sec. 208, 90 Stat. 1008; 42 U.S.C. 6728).

50. Energy Conservation and Production Act (sec. 451(h), 90 Stat. 1168; 42 U.S.C. 6881(h)).

51. Solid Waste Disposal Act (sec. 2, 90 Stat. 2823; 42 U.S.C. 6979).

52. Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 (sec. 405d, 84 Stat. 1337; 45 U.S.C. 565(d)).

53. Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 (sec. 10, 78 Stat. 307; renumbered sec. 13 by 88 Stat. 715; 49 U.S.C. 1609).

54. Highway Speed Ground Transportation Study (sec. 6(b), 79 Stat. 893; 49 U.S.C. 1636(b)).

55. Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970 (sec. 22(b), 84 Stat. 231; 49 U.S.C. 1722(b)).

56. Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2281i).

57. National Capital Transportation Act of 1965 (sec. 3(b)(4), 79 Stat. 644; 40 U.S.C. 682(b)(4).

Note. Repealed December 9, 1969, and labor standards incorporated in sec. 1-1431 of the District of Columbia Code).

58. Model Secondary School for the Deaf Act (sec. 4, 80 Stat. 1027, Pub. L. 89-694, but not in the United States Code).

59. Delaware River Basin Compact (sec. 15.1, 75 Stat. 714, Pub. L. 87-328) (considered a statute for purposes of the plan but not in the United States Code).

60. Energy Security Act (sec. 175(c), Pub. L. 96-294, 94 Stat. 611; 42 U.S.C. 8701 note).

(b) Part 1 of this subtitle contains the Department's procedural rules governing requests for wage determinations and the issuance and use of such wage determinations under the Davis-Bacon Act and its related statutes as listed in that part.

§5.2   Definitions.

(a) The term Secretary includes the Secretary of Labor, the Deputy Under Secretary for Employment Standards, and their authorized representatives.

(b) The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, or authorized representative.

(c) The term Federal agency means the agency or instrumentality of the United States which enters into the contract or provides assistance through loan, grant, loan guarantee or insurance, or otherwise, to the project subject to a statute listed in §5.1.

(d) The term Agency Head means the principal official of the Federal agency and includes those persons duly authorized to act in the behalf of the Agency Head.

(e) The term Contracting Officer means the individual, a duly appointed successor, or authorized representative who is designated and authorized to enter into contracts on behalf of the Federal agency.

(f) The term labor standards as used in this part means the requirements of the Davis-Bacon Act, the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (other than those relating to safety and health), the Copeland Act, and the prevailing wage provisions of the other statutes listed in §5.1, and the regulations in parts 1 and 3 of this subtitle and this part.

(g) The term United States or the District of Columbia means the United States, the District of Columbia, and all executive departments, independent establishments, administrative agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States and of the District of Columbia, including corporations, all or substantially all of the stock of which is beneficially owned by the United States, by the foregoing departments, establishments, agencies, instrumentalities, and including nonappropriated fund instrumentalities.

(h) The term contract means any prime contract which is subject wholly or in part to the labor standards provisions of any of the acts listed in §5.1 and any subcontract of any tier thereunder, let under the prime contract. A State or local Government is not regarded as a contractor under statutes providing loans, grants, or other Federal assistance in situations where construction is performed by its own employees. However, under statutes requiring payment of prevailing wages to all laborers and mechanics employed on the assisted project, such as the U.S. Housing Act of 1937, State and local recipients of Federal-aid must pay these employees according to Davis-Bacon labor standards.

(i) The terms building or work generally include construction activity as distinguished from manufacturing, furnishing of materials, or servicing and maintenance work. The terms include without limitation, buildings, structures, and improvements of all types, such as bridges, dams, plants, highways, parkways, streets, subways, tunnels, sewers, mains, power lines, pumping stations, heavy generators, railways, airports, terminals, docks, piers, wharves, ways, lighthouses, buoys, jetties, breakwaters, levees, canals, dredging, shoring, rehabilitation and reactivation of plants, scaffolding, drilling, blasting, excavating, clearing, and landscaping. The manufacture or furnishing of materials, articles, supplies or equipment (whether or not a Federal or State agency acquires title to such materials, articles, supplies, or equipment during the course of the manufacture or furnishing, or owns the materials from which they are manufactured or furnished) is not a building or work within the meaning of the regulations in this part unless conducted in connection with and at the site of such a building or work as is described in the foregoing sentence, or under the United States Housing Act of 1937 and the Housing Act of 1949 in the construction or development of the project.

(j) The terms construction, prosecution, completion, or repair mean the following:

(1) All types of work done on a particular building or work at the site thereof, including work at a facility which is deemed a part of the site of the work within the meaning of (paragraph (l) of this section by laborers and mechanics employed by a construction contractor or construction subcontractor (or, under the United States Housing Act of 1937; the Housing Act of 1949; and the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, all work done in the construction or development of the project), including without limitation—

(i) Altering, remodeling, installation (where appropriate) on the site of the work of items fabricated off-site;

(ii) Painting and decorating;

(iii) Manufacturing or furnishing of materials, articles, supplies or equipment on the site of the building or work (or, under the United States Housing Act of 1937; the Housing Act of 1949; and the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 in the construction or development of the project);

(iv)(A) Transportation between the site of the work within the meaning of paragraph (l)(1) of this section and a facility which is dedicated to the construction of the building or work and deemed a part of the site of the work within the meaning of paragraph (l)(2) of this section; and

(B) Transportation of portion(s) of the building or work between a site where a significant portion of such building or work is constructed, which is a part of the site of the work within the meaning of paragraph (l)(1) of this section, and the physical place or places where the building or work will remain.

(2) Except for laborers and mechanics employed in the construction or development of the project under the United States Housing Act of 1937; the Housing Act of 1949; and the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, and except as provided in paragraph (j)(1)(iv)(A) of this section, the transportation of materials or supplies to or from the site of the work by employees of the construction contractor or a construction subcontractor is not “construction, prosecution, completion, or repair” (see Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO v. United States Department of Labor Wage Appeals Board (Midway Excavators, Inc.), 932 F.2d 985 (D.C. Cir. 1991)).

(k) The term public building or public work includes building or work, the construction, prosecution, completion, or repair of which, as defined above, is carried on directly by authority of or with funds of a Federal agency to serve the interest of the general public regardless of whether title thereof is in a Federal agency.

(l) The term site of the work is defined as follows:

(1) The site of the work is the physical place or places where the building or work called for in the contract will remain; and any other site where a significant portion of the building or work is constructed, provided that such site is established specifically for the performance of the contract or project;

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, job headquarters, tool yards, batch plants, borrow pits, etc., are part of the site of the work, provided they are dedicated exclusively, or nearly so, to performance of the contract or project, and provided they are adjacent or virtually adjacent to the site of the work as defined in paragraph (l)(1) of this section;

(3) Not included in the site of the work are permanent home offices, branch plant establishments, fabrication plants, tool yards, etc., of a contractor or subcontractor whose location and continuance in operation are determined wholly without regard to a particular Federal or federally assisted contract or project. In addition, fabrication plants, batch plants, borrow pits, job headquarters, tool yards, etc., of a commercial or material supplier, which are established by a supplier of materials for the project before opening of bids and not on the site of the work as stated in paragraph (l)(1) of this section, are not included in the site of the work. Such permanent, previously established facilities are not part of the site of the work, even where the operations for a period of time may be dedicated exclusively, or nearly so, to the performance of a contract.

(m) The term laborer or mechanic includes at least those workers whose duties are manual or physical in nature (including those workers who use tools or who are performing the work of a trade), as distinguished from mental or managerial. The term laborer or mechanic includes apprentices, trainees, helpers, and, in the case of contracts subject to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, watchmen or guards. The term does not apply to workers whose duties are primarily administrative, executive, or clerical, rather than manual. Persons employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity as defined in part 541 of this title are not deemed to be laborers or mechanics. Working foremen who devote more than 20 percent of their time during a workweek to mechanic or laborer duties, and who do not meet the criteria of part 541, are laborers and mechanics for the time so spent.

(n) The terms apprentice, trainee, and helper are defined as follows:

(1) Apprentice means (i) a person employed and individually registered in a bona fide apprenticeship program registered with the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer and Labor Services, or with a State Apprenticeship Agency recognized by the Bureau, or (ii) a person in the first 90 days of probationary employment as an apprentice in such an apprenticeship program, who is not individually registered in the program, but who has been certified by the Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer and Labor Services or a State Apprenticeship Agency (where appropriate) to be eligible for probationary employment as an apprentice;

(2) Trainee means a person registered and receiving on-the-job training in a construction occupation under a program which has been approved in advance by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, as meeting its standards for on-the-job training programs and which has been so certified by that Administration.

(3) These provisions do not apply to apprentices and trainees employed on projects subject to 23 U.S.C. 113 who are enrolled in programs which have been certified by the Secretary of Transportation in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 113(c).

(4) A distinct classification of “helper” will be issued in wage determinations applicable to work performed on construction projects covered by the labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts only where:

(i) The duties of the helper are clearly defined and distinct from those of any other classification on the wage determination;

(ii) The use of such helpers is an established prevailing practice in the area; and

(iii) The helper is not employed as a trainee in an informal training program. A “helper” classification will be added to wage determinations pursuant to §5.5(a)(1)(ii)(A) only where, in addition, the work to be performed by the helper is not performed by a classification in the wage determination.

(o) Every person performing the duties of a laborer or mechanic in the construction, prosecution, completion, or repair of a public building or public work, or building or work financed in whole or in part by loans, grants, or guarantees from the United States is employed regardless of any contractual relationship alleged to exist between the contractor and such person.

(p) The term wages means the basic hourly rate of pay; any contribution irrevocably made by a contractor or subcontractor to a trustee or to a third person pursuant to a bona fide fringe benefit fund, plan, or program; and the rate of costs to the contractor or subcontractor which may be reasonably anticipated in providing bona fide fringe benefits to laborers and mechanics pursuant to an enforceable commitment to carry out a financially responsible plan of program, which was communicated in writing to the laborers and mechanics affected. The fringe benefits enumerated in the Davis-Bacon Act include medical or hospital care, pensions on retirement or death, compensation for injuries or illness resulting from occupational activity, or insurance to provide any of the foregoing; unemployment benefits; life insurance, disability insurance, sickness insurance, or accident insurance; vacation or holiday pay; defraying costs of apprenticeship or other similar programs; or other bona fide fringe benefits. Fringe benefits do not include benefits required by other Federal, State, or local law.

(q) The term wage determination includes the original decision and any subsequent decisions modifying, superseding, correcting, or otherwise changing the provisions of the original decision. The application of the wage determination shall be in accordance with the provisions of §1.6 of this title.

[48 FR 19541, Apr. 29, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 50313, Nov. 1, 1983; 55 FR 50149, Dec. 4, 1990; 57 FR 19206, May 4, 1992; 65 FR 69693, Nov. 20, 2000; 65 FR 80278, Dec. 20, 2000]

§§5.3-5.4   [Reserved]

§5.5   Contract provisions and related matters.

(a) The Agency head shall cause or require the contracting officer to insert in full in any contract in excess of $2,000 which is entered into for the actual construction, alteration and/or repair, including painting and decorating, of a public building or public work, or building or work financed in whole or in part from Federal funds or in accordance with guarantees of a Federal agency or financed from funds obtained by pledge of any contract of a Federal agency to make a loan, grant or annual contribution (except where a different meaning is expressly indicated), and which is subject to the labor standards provisions of any of the acts listed in §5.1, the following clauses (or any modifications thereof to meet the particular needs of the agency, Provided, That such modifications are first approved by the Department of Labor):

(1) Minimum wages. (i) All laborers and mechanics employed or working upon the site of the work (or under the United States Housing Act of 1937 or under the Housing Act of 1949 in the construction or development of the project), will be paid unconditionally and not less often than once a week, and without subsequent deduction or rebate on any account (except such payroll deductions as are permitted by regulations issued by the Secretary of Labor under the Copeland Act (29 CFR part 3)), the full amount of wages and bona fide fringe benefits (or cash equivalents thereof) due at time of payment computed at rates not less than those contained in the wage determination of the Secretary of Labor which is attached hereto and made a part hereof, regardless of any contractual relationship which may be alleged to exist between the contractor and such laborers and mechanics.

Contributions made or costs reasonably anticipated for bona fide fringe benefits under section 1(b)(2) of the Davis-Bacon Act on behalf of laborers or mechanics are considered wages paid to such laborers or mechanics, subject to the provisions of paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section; also, regular contributions made or costs incurred for more than a weekly period (but not less often than quarterly) under plans, funds, or programs which cover the particular weekly period, are deemed to be constructively made or incurred during such weekly period. Such laborers and mechanics shall be paid the appropriate wage rate and fringe benefits on the wage determination for the classification of work actually performed, without regard to skill, except as provided in §5.5(a)(4). Laborers or mechanics performing work in more than one classification may be compensated at the rate specified for each classification for the time actually worked therein: Provided, That the employer's payroll records accurately set forth the time spent in each classification in which work is performed. The wage determination (including any additional classification and wage rates conformed under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section) and the Davis-Bacon poster (WH-1321) shall be posted at all times by the contractor and its subcontractors at the site of the work in a prominent and accessible place where it can be easily seen by the workers.

(ii)(A) The contracting officer shall require that any class of laborers or mechanics, including helpers, which is not listed in the wage determination and which is to be employed under the contract shall be classified in conformance with the wage determination. The contracting officer shall approve an additional classification and wage rate and fringe benefits therefore only when the following criteria have been met:

(1) The work to be performed by the classification requested is not performed by a classification in the wage determination; and

(2) The classification is utilized in the area by the construction industry; and

(3) The proposed wage rate, including any bona fide fringe benefits, bears a reasonable relationship to the wage rates contained in the wage determination.

(B) If the contractor and the laborers and mechanics to be employed in the classification (if known), or their representatives, and the contracting officer agree on the classification and wage rate (including the amount designated for fringe benefits where appropriate), a report of the action taken shall be sent by the contracting officer to the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210. The Administrator, or an authorized representative, will approve, modify, or disapprove every additional classification action within 30 days of receipt and so advise the contracting officer or will notify the contracting officer within the 30-day period that additional time is necessary.

(C) In the event the contractor, the laborers or mechanics to be employed in the classification or their representatives, and the contracting officer do not agree on the proposed classification and wage rate (including the amount designated for fringe benefits, where appropriate), the contracting officer shall refer the questions, including the views of all interested parties and the recommendation of the contracting officer, to the Administrator for determination. The Administrator, or an authorized representative, will issue a determination within 30 days of receipt and so advise the contracting officer or will notify the contracting officer within the 30-day period that additional time is necessary.

(D) The wage rate (including fringe benefits where appropriate) determined pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)(ii) (B) or (C) of this section, shall be paid to all workers performing work in the classification under this contract from the first day on which work is performed in the classification.

(iii) Whenever the minimum wage rate prescribed in the contract for a class of laborers or mechanics includes a fringe benefit which is not expressed as an hourly rate, the contractor shall either pay the benefit as stated in the wage determination or shall pay another bona fide fringe benefit or an hourly cash equivalent thereof.

(iv) If the contractor does not make payments to a trustee or other third person, the contractor may consider as part of the wages of any laborer or mechanic the amount of any costs reasonably anticipated in providing bona fide fringe benefits under a plan or program, Provided, That the Secretary of Labor has found, upon the written request of the contractor, that the applicable standards of the Davis-Bacon Act have been met. The Secretary of Labor may require the contractor to set aside in a separate account assets for the meeting of obligations under the plan or program.

(2) Withholding. The (write in name of Federal Agency or the loan or grant recipient) shall upon its own action or upon written request of an authorized representative of the Department of Labor withhold or cause to be withheld from the contractor under this contract or any other Federal contract with the same prime contractor, or any other federally-assisted contract subject to Davis-Bacon prevailing wage requirements, which is held by the same prime contractor, so much of the accrued payments or advances as may be considered necessary to pay laborers and mechanics, including apprentices, trainees, and helpers, employed by the contractor or any subcontractor the full amount of wages required by the contract. In the event of failure to pay any laborer or mechanic, including any apprentice, trainee, or helper, employed or working on the site of the work (or under the United States Housing Act of 1937 or under the Housing Act of 1949 in the construction or development of the project), all or part of the wages required by the contract, the (Agency) may, after written notice to the contractor, sponsor, applicant, or owner, take such action as may be necessary to cause the suspension of any further payment, advance, or guarantee of funds until such violations have ceased.

(3) Payrolls and basic records. (i) Payrolls and basic records relating thereto shall be maintained by the contractor during the course of the work and preserved for a period of three years thereafter for all laborers and mechanics working at the site of the work (or under the United States Housing Act of 1937, or under the Housing Act of 1949, in the construction or development of the project). Such records shall contain the name, address, and social security number of each such worker, his or her correct classification, hourly rates of wages paid (including rates of contributions or costs anticipated for bona fide fringe benefits or cash equivalents thereof of the types described in section 1(b)(2)(B) of the Davis-Bacon Act), daily and weekly number of hours worked, deductions made and actual wages paid. Whenever the Secretary of Labor has found under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(1)(iv) that the wages of any laborer or mechanic include the amount of any costs reasonably anticipated in providing benefits under a plan or program described in section 1(b)(2)(B) of the Davis-Bacon Act, the contractor shall maintain records which show that the commitment to provide such benefits is enforceable, that the plan or program is financially responsible, and that the plan or program has been communicated in writing to the laborers or mechanics affected, and records which show the costs anticipated or the actual cost incurred in providing such benefits. Contractors employing apprentices or trainees under approved programs shall maintain written evidence of the registration of apprenticeship programs and certification of trainee programs, the registration of the apprentices and trainees, and the ratios and wage rates prescribed in the applicable programs.

(ii)(A) The contractor shall submit weekly for each week in which any contract work is performed a copy of all payrolls to the (write in name of appropriate federal agency) if the agency is a party to the contract, but if the agency is not such a party, the contractor will submit the payrolls to the applicant, sponsor, or owner, as the case may be, for transmission to the (write in name of agency). The payrolls submitted shall set out accurately and completely all of the information required to be maintained under 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3)(i), except that full social security numbers and home addresses shall not be included on weekly transmittals. Instead the payrolls shall only need to include an individually identifying number for each employee (e.g., the last four digits of the employee's social security number). The required weekly payroll information may be submitted in any form desired. Optional Form WH-347 is available for this purpose from the Wage and Hour Division Web site at http://www.dol.gov/esa/whd/forms/wh347instr.htm or its successor site. The prime contractor is responsible for the submission of copies of payrolls by all subcontractors. Contractors and subcontractors shall maintain the full social security number and current address of each covered worker, and shall provide them upon request to the (write in name of appropriate federal agency) if the agency is a party to the contract, but if the agency is not such a party, the contractor will submit them to the applicant, sponsor, or owner, as the case may be, for transmission to the (write in name of agency), the contractor, or the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor for purposes of an investigation or audit of compliance with prevailing wage requirements. It is not a violation of this section for a prime contractor to require a subcontractor to provide addresses and social security numbers to the prime contractor for its own records, without weekly submission to the sponsoring government agency (or the applicant, sponsor, or owner).

(B) Each payroll submitted shall be accompanied by a “Statement of Compliance,” signed by the contractor or subcontractor or his or her agent who pays or supervises the payment of the persons employed under the contract and shall certify the following:

(1) That the payroll for the payroll period contains the information required to be provided under §5.5 (a)(3)(ii) of Regulations, 29 CFR part 5, the appropriate information is being maintained under §5.5 (a)(3)(i) of Regulations, 29 CFR part 5, and that such information is correct and complete;

(2) That each laborer or mechanic (including each helper, apprentice, and trainee) employed on the contract during the payroll period has been paid the full weekly wages earned, without rebate, either directly or indirectly, and that no deductions have been made either directly or indirectly from the full wages earned, other than permissible deductions as set forth in Regulations, 29 CFR part 3;

(3) That each laborer or mechanic has been paid not less than the applicable wage rates and fringe benefits or cash equivalents for the classification of work performed, as specified in the applicable wage determination incorporated into the contract.

(C) The weekly submission of a properly executed certification set forth on the reverse side of Optional Form WH-347 shall satisfy the requirement for submission of the “Statement of Compliance” required by paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(B) of this section.

(D) The falsification of any of the above certifications may subject the contractor or subcontractor to civil or criminal prosecution under section 1001 of title 18 and section 231 of title 31 of the United States Code.

(iii) The contractor or subcontractor shall make the records required under paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section available for inspection, copying, or transcription by authorized representatives of the (write the name of the agency) or the Department of Labor, and shall permit such representatives to interview employees during working hours on the job. If the contractor or subcontractor fails to submit the required records or to make them available, the Federal agency may, after written notice to the contractor, sponsor, applicant, or owner, take such action as may be necessary to cause the suspension of any further payment, advance, or guarantee of funds. Furthermore, failure to submit the required records upon request or to make such records available may be grounds for debarment action pursuant to 29 CFR 5.12.

(4) Apprentices and trainees—(i) Apprentices. Apprentices will be permitted to work at less than the predetermined rate for the work they performed when they are employed pursuant to and individually registered in a bona fide apprenticeship program registered with the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer and Labor Services, or with a State Apprenticeship Agency recognized by the Office, or if a person is employed in his or her first 90 days of probationary employment as an apprentice in such an apprenticeship program, who is not individually registered in the program, but who has been certified by the Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer and Labor Services or a State Apprenticeship Agency (where appropriate) to be eligible for probationary employment as an apprentice. The allowable ratio of apprentices to journeymen on the job site in any craft classification shall not be greater than the ratio permitted to the contractor as to the entire work force under the registered program. Any worker listed on a payroll at an apprentice wage rate, who is not registered or otherwise employed as stated above, shall be paid not less than the applicable wage rate on the wage determination for the classification of work actually performed. In addition, any apprentice performing work on the job site in excess of the ratio permitted under the registered program shall be paid not less than the applicable wage rate on the wage determination for the work actually performed. Where a contractor is performing construction on a project in a locality other than that in which its program is registered, the ratios and wage rates (expressed in percentages of the journeyman's hourly rate) specified in the contractor's or subcontractor's registered program shall be observed. Every apprentice must be paid at not less than the rate specified in the registered program for the apprentice's level of progress, expressed as a percentage of the journeymen hourly rate specified in the applicable wage determination. Apprentices shall be paid fringe benefits in accordance with the provisions of the apprenticeship program. If the apprenticeship program does not specify fringe benefits, apprentices must be paid the full amount of fringe benefits listed on the wage determination for the applicable classification. If the Administrator determines that a different practice prevails for the applicable apprentice classification, fringes shall be paid in accordance with that determination. In the event the Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer and Labor Services, or a State Apprenticeship Agency recognized by the Office, withdraws approval of an apprenticeship program, the contractor will no longer be permitted to utilize apprentices at less than the applicable predetermined rate for the work performed until an acceptable program is approved.

(ii) Trainees. Except as provided in 29 CFR 5.16, trainees will not be permitted to work at less than the predetermined rate for the work performed unless they are employed pursuant to and individually registered in a program which has received prior approval, evidenced by formal certification by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. The ratio of trainees to journeymen on the job site shall not be greater than permitted under the plan approved by the Employment and Training Administration. Every trainee must be paid at not less than the rate specified in the approved program for the trainee's level of progress, expressed as a percentage of the journeyman hourly rate specified in the applicable wage determination. Trainees shall be paid fringe benefits in accordance with the provisions of the trainee program. If the trainee program does not mention fringe benefits, trainees shall be paid the full amount of fringe benefits listed on the wage determination unless the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division determines that there is an apprenticeship program associated with the corresponding journeyman wage rate on the wage determination which provides for less than full fringe benefits for apprentices. Any employee listed on the payroll at a trainee rate who is not registered and participating in a training plan approved by the Employment and Training Administration shall be paid not less than the applicable wage rate on the wage determination for the classification of work actually performed. In addition, any trainee performing work on the job site in excess of the ratio permitted under the registered program shall be paid not less than the applicable wage rate on the wage determination for the work actually performed. In the event the Employment and Training Administration withdraws approval of a training program, the contractor will no longer be permitted to utilize trainees at less than the applicable predetermined rate for the work performed until an acceptable program is approved.

(iii) Equal employment opportunity. The utilization of apprentices, trainees and journeymen under this part shall be in conformity with the equal employment opportunity requirements of Executive Order 11246, as amended, and 29 CFR part 30.

(5) Compliance with Copeland Act requirements. The contractor shall comply with the requirements of 29 CFR part 3, which are incorporated by reference in this contract.

(6) Subcontracts. The contractor or subcontractor shall insert in any subcontracts the clauses contained in 29 CFR 5.5(a)(1) through (10) and such other clauses as the (write in the name of the Federal agency) may by appropriate instructions require, and also a clause requiring the subcontractors to include these clauses in any lower tier subcontracts. The prime contractor shall be responsible for the compliance by any subcontractor or lower tier subcontractor with all the contract clauses in 29 CFR 5.5.

(7) Contract termination: debarment. A breach of the contract clauses in 29 CFR 5.5 may be grounds for termination of the contract, and for debarment as a contractor and a subcontractor as provided in 29 CFR 5.12.

(8) Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act requirements. All rulings and interpretations of the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts contained in 29 CFR parts 1, 3, and 5 are herein incorporated by reference in this contract.

(9) Disputes concerning labor standards. Disputes arising out of the labor standards provisions of this contract shall not be subject to the general disputes clause of this contract. Such disputes shall be resolved in accordance with the procedures of the Department of Labor set forth in 29 CFR parts 5, 6, and 7. Disputes within the meaning of this clause include disputes between the contractor (or any of its subcontractors) and the contracting agency, the U.S. Department of Labor, or the employees or their representatives.

(10) Certification of eligibility. (i) By entering into this contract, the contractor certifies that neither it (nor he or she) nor any person or firm who has an interest in the contractor's firm is a person or firm ineligible to be awarded Government contracts by virtue of section 3(a) of the Davis-Bacon Act or 29 CFR 5.12(a)(1).

(ii) No part of this contract shall be subcontracted to any person or firm ineligible for award of a Government contract by virtue of section 3(a) of the Davis-Bacon Act or 29 CFR 5.12(a)(1).

(iii) The penalty for making false statements is prescribed in the U.S. Criminal Code, 18 U.S.C. 1001.

(b) Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. The Agency Head shall cause or require the contracting officer to insert the following clauses set forth in paragraphs (b)(1), (2), (3), and (4) of this section in full in any contract in an amount in excess of $100,000 and subject to the overtime provisions of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. These clauses shall be inserted in addition to the clauses required by §5.5(a) or §4.6 of part 4 of this title. As used in this paragraph, the terms laborers and mechanics include watchmen and guards.

(1) Overtime requirements. No contractor or subcontractor contracting for any part of the conract work which may require or involve the employment of laborers or mechanics shall require or permit any such laborer or mechanic in any workweek in which he or she is employed on such work to work in excess of forty hours in such workweek unless such laborer or mechanic receives compensation at a rate not less than one and one-half times the basic rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of forty hours in such workweek.

(2) Violation; liability for unpaid wages; liquidated damages. In the event of any violation of the clause set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section the contractor and any subcontractor responsible therefor shall be liable for the unpaid wages. In addition, such contractor and subcontractor shall be liable to the United States (in the case of work done under contract for the District of Columbia or a territory, to such District or to such territory), for liquidated damages. Such liquidated damages shall be computed with respect to each individual laborer or mechanic, including watchmen and guards, employed in violation of the clause set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, in the sum of $10 for each calendar day on which such individual was required or permitted to work in excess of the standard workweek of forty hours without payment of the overtime wages required by the clause set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(3) Withholding for unpaid wages and liquidated damages. The (write in the name of the Federal agency or the loan or grant recipient) shall upon its own action or upon written request of an authorized representative of the Department of Labor withhold or cause to be withheld, from any moneys payable on account of work performed by the contractor or subcontractor under any such contract or any other Federal contract with the same prime contractor, or any other federally-assisted contract subject to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, which is held by the same prime contractor, such sums as may be determined to be necessary to satisfy any liabilities of such contractor or subcontractor for unpaid wages and liquidated damages as provided in the clause set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(4) Subcontracts. The contractor or subcontractor shall insert in any subcontracts the clauses set forth in paragraph (b)(1) through (4) of this section and also a clause requiring the subcontractors to include these clauses in any lower tier subcontracts. The prime contractor shall be responsible for compliance by any subcontractor or lower tier subcontractor with the clauses set forth in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section.

(c) In addition to the clauses contained in paragraph (b), in any contract subject only to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act and not to any of the other statutes cited in §5.1, the Agency Head shall cause or require the contracting officer to insert a clause requiring that the contractor or subcontractor shall maintain payrolls and basic payroll records during the course of the work and shall preserve them for a period of three years from the completion of the contract for all laborers and mechanics, including guards and watchmen, working on the contract. Such records shall contain the name and address of each such employee, social security number, correct classifications, hourly rates of wages paid, daily and weekly number of hours worked, deductions made, and actual wages paid. Further, the Agency Head shall cause or require the contracting officer to insert in any such contract a clause providing that the records to be maintained under this paragraph shall be made available by the contractor or subcontractor for inspection, copying, or transcription by authorized representatives of the (write the name of agency) and the Department of Labor, and the contractor or subcontractor will permit such representatives to interview employees during working hours on the job.

(The information collection, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements contained in the following paragraphs of this section were approved by the Office of Management and Budget:

Paragraph OMB Control Number
(a)(1)(ii)(B)1215-0140
(a)(1)(ii)(C)1215-0140
(a)(1)(iv)1215-0140
(a)(3)(i)1215-0140,
   1215-0017
(a)(3)(ii)(A)1215-0149
(c)1215-0140,
   1215-0017

[48 FR 19540, Apr. 29, 1983, as amended at 51 FR 12265, Apr. 9, 1986; 55 FR 50150, Dec. 4, 1990; 57 FR 28776, June 26, 1992; 58 FR 58955, Nov. 5, 1993; 61 FR 40716, Aug. 5, 1996; 65 FR 69693, Nov. 20, 2000; 73 FR 77511, Dec. 19, 2008]

Effective Date Note: At 58 FR 58955, Nov. 5, 1993, §5.5 was amended by suspending paragraph (a)(1)(ii) indefinitely.

§5.6   Enforcement.

(a)(1) It shall be the responsibility of the Federal agency to ascertain whether the clauses required by §5.5 have been inserted in the contracts subject to the labor standards provisions of the Acts contained in §5.1. Agencies which do not directly enter into such contracts shall promulgate the necessary regulations or procedures to require the recipient of the Federal assistance to insert in its contracts the provisions of §5.5. No payment, advance, grant, loan, or guarantee of funds shall be approved by the Federal agency unless the agency insures that the clauses required by §5.5 and the appropriate wage determination of the Secretary of Labor are contained in such contracts. Furthermore, no payment, advance, grant, loan, or guarantee of funds shall be approved by the Federal agency after the beginning of construction unless there is on file with the agency a certification by the contractor that the contractor and its subcontractors have complied with the provisions of §5.5 or unless there is on file with the agency a certification by the contractor that there is a substantial dispute with respect to the required provisions.

(2) Payrolls and Statements of Compliance submitted pursuant to §5.5(a)(3)(ii) shall be preserved by the Federal agency for a period of 3 years from the date of completion of the contract and shall be produced at the request of the Department of Labor at any time during the 3-year period.

(3) The Federal agency shall cause such investigations to be made as may be necessary to assure compliance with the labor standards clauses required by §5.5 and the applicable statutes listed in §5.1. Investigations shall be made of all contracts with such frequency as may be necessary to assure compliance. Such investigations shall include interviews with employees, which shall be taken in confidence, and examinations of payroll data and evidence of registration and certification with respect to apprenticeship and training plans. In making such examinations, particular care shall be taken to determine the correctness of classifications and to determine whether there is a disproportionate employment of laborers and of apprentices or trainees registered in approved programs. Such investigations shall also include evidence of fringe benefit plans and payments thereunder. Complaints of alleged violations shall be given priority.

(4) In accordance with normal operating procedures, the contracting agency may be furnished various investigatory material from the investigation files of the Department of Labor. None of the material, other than computations of back wages and liquidated damages and the summary of back wages due, may be disclosed in any manner to anyone other than Federal officials charged with administering the contract or program providing Federal assistance to the contract, without requesting the permission and views of the Department of Labor.

(5) It is the policy of the Department of Labor to protect the identity of its confidential sources and to prevent an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Accordingly, the identity of an employee who makes a written or oral statement as a complaint or in the course of an investigation, as well as portions of the statement which would reveal the employee's identity, shall not be disclosed in any manner to anyone other than Federal officials without the prior consent of the employee. Disclosure of employee statements shall be governed by the provisions of the “Freedom of Information Act” (5 U.S.C. 552, see 29 CFR part 70) and the “Privacy Act of 1974” (5 U.S.C. 552a).

(b) The Administrator shall cause to be made such investigations as deemed necessary, in order to obtain compliance with the labor standards provisions of the applicable statutes listed in §5.1, or to affirm or reject the recommendations by the Agency Head with respect to labor standards matters arising under the statutes listed in §5.1. Federal agencies, contractors, subcontractors, sponsors, applicants, or owners shall cooperate with any authorized representative of the Department of Labor in the inspection of records, in interviews with workers, and in all other aspects of the investigations. The findings of such an investigation, including amounts found due, may not be altered or reduced without the approval of the Department of Labor. Where the underpayments disclosed by such an investigation total $1,000 or more, where there is reason to believe that the violations are aggravated or willful (or, in the case of the Davis-Bacon Act, that the contractor has disregarded its obligations to employees and subcontractors), or where liquidated damages may be assessed under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, the Department of Labor will furnish the Federal agency an enforcement report detailing the labor standards violations disclosed by the investigation and any action taken by the contractor to correct the violative practices, including any payment of back wages. In other circumstances, the Federal agency will be furnished a letter of notification summarizing the findings of the investigation.

§5.7   Reports to the Secretary of Labor.

(a) Enforcement reports. (1) Where underpayments by a contractor or subcontractor total less than $1,000, and where there is no reason to believe that the violations are aggravated or willful (or, in the case of the Davis-Bacon Act that the contractor has disregarded its obligations to employees and subcontractors), and where restitution has been effected and future compliance assured, the Federal agency need not submit its investigative findings and recommendations to the Administrator, unless the investigation was made at the request of the Department of Labor. In the latter case, the Federal agency shall submit a factual summary report detailing any violations including any data on the amount of restitution paid, the number of workers who received restitution, liquidated damages assessed under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, corrective measures taken (such as “letters of notice”), and any information that may be necessary to review any recommendations for an appropriate adjustment in liquidated damages under §5.8.

(2) Where underpayments by a contractor or subcontractor total $1,000 or more, or where there is reason to believe that the violations are aggravated or willful (or, in the case of the Davis-Bacon Act, that the contractor has disregarded its obligations to employees and subcontractors), the Federal agency shall furnish within 60 days after completion of its investigation, a detailed enforcement report to the Administrator.

(b) Semi-annual enforcement reports. To assist the Secretary in fulfilling the responsibilities under Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950, Federal agencies shall furnish to the Administrator by April 30 and October 31 of each calendar year semi-annual reports on compliance with and enforcement of the labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act and its related acts covering the periods of October 1 through March 31 and April 1 through September 30, respectively. Such reports shall be prepared in the manner prescribed in memoranda issued to Federal agencies by the Administrator. This report has been cleared in accordance with FPMR 101-11.11 and assigned interagency report control number 1482-DOL-SA.

(c) Additional information. Upon request, the Agency Head shall transmit to the Administrator such information available to the Agency with respect to contractors and subcontractors, their contracts, and the nature of the contract work as the Administrator may find necessary for the performance of his or her duties with respect to the labor standards provisions referred to in this part.

(d) Contract termination. Where a contract is terminated by reason of violations of the labor standards provisions of the statutes listed in §5.1, a report shall be submitted promptly to the Administrator and to the Comptroller General (if the contract is subject to the Davis-Bacon Act), giving the name and address of the contractor or subcontractor whose right to proceed has been terminated, and the name and address of the contractor or subcontractor, if any, who is to complete the work, the amount and number of the contract, and the description of the work to be performed.

§5.8   Liquidated damages under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

(a) The Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act requires that laborers or mechanics shall be paid wages at a rate not less than one and one-half times the basic rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of forty hours in any workweek. In the event of violation of this provision, the contractor and any subcontractor shall be liable for the unpaid wages and in addition for liquidated damages, computed with respect to each laborer or mechanic employed in violation of the Act in the amount of $10 for each calendar day in the workweek on which such individual was required or permitted to work in excess of forty hours without payment of required overtime wages. Any contractor of subcontractor aggrieved by the withholding of liquidated damages shall have the right to appeal to the head of the agency of the United States (or the territory of District of Columbia, as appropriate) for which the contract work was performed or for which financial assistance was provided.

(b) Findings and recommendations of the Agency Head. The Agency Head has the authority to review the administrative determination of liquidated damages and to issue a final order affirming the determination. It is not necessary to seek the concurrence of the Administrator but the Administrator shall be advised of the action taken. Whenever the Agency Head finds that a sum of liquidated damages administratively determined to be due is incorrect or that the contractor or subcontractor violated inadvertently the provisions of the Act notwithstanding the exercise of due care upon the part of the contractor or subcontractor involved, and the amount of the liquidated damages computed for the contract is in excess of $500, the Agency Head may make recommendations to the Secretary that an appropriate adjustment in liquidated damages be made or that the contractor or subcontractor be relieved of liability for such liquidated damages. Such findings with respect to liquidated damages shall include findings with respect to any wage underpayments for which the liquidated damages are determined.

(c) The recommendations of the Agency Head for adjustment or relief from liquidated damages under paragraph (a) of this section shall be reviewed by the Administrator or an authorized representative who shall issue an order concurring in the recommendations, partially concurring in the recommendations, or rejecting the recommendations, and the reasons therefor. The order shall be the final decision of the Department of Labor, unless a petition for review is filed pursuant to part 7 of this title, and the Administrative Review Board in its discretion reviews such decision and order; or, with respect to contracts subject to the Service Contract Act, unless petition for review is filed pursuant to part 8 of this title, and the Administrative Review Board in its discretion reviews such decision and order.

(d) Whenever the Agency Head finds that a sum of liquidated damages administratively determined to be due under section 104(a) of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act for a contract is $500 or less and the Agency Head finds that the sum of liquidated damages is incorrect or that the contractor or subcontractor violated inadvertently the provisions of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act notwithstanding the exercise of due care upon the part of the contractor or subcontractor involved, an appropriate adjustment may be made in such liquidated damages or the contractor or subcontractor may be relieved of liability for such liquidated damages without submitting recommendations to this effect or a report to the Department of Labor. This delegation of authority is made under section 105 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act and has been found to be necessary and proper in the public interest to prevent undue hardship and to avoid serious impairment of the conduct of Government business.

[48 FR 19541, Apr. 29, 1983, as amended at 51 FR 12265, Apr. 9, 1986; 51 FR 13496, Apr. 21, 1986]

§5.9   Suspension of funds.

In the event of failure or refusal of the contractor or any subcontractor to comply with the labor standards clauses contained in §5.5 and the applicable statutes listed in §5.1, the Federal agency, upon its own action or upon written request of an authorized representative of the Department of Labor, shall take such action as may be necessary to cause the suspension of the payment, advance or guarantee of funds until such time as the violations are discontinued or until sufficient funds are withheld to compensate employees for the wages to which they are entitled and to cover any liquidated damages which may be due.

§5.10   Restitution, criminal action.

(a) In cases other than those forwarded to the Attorney General of the United States under paragraph (b), of this section, where violations of the labor standards clauses contained in §5.5 and the applicable statutes listed in §5.1 result in underpayment of wages to employees, the Federal agency or an authorized representative of the Department of Labor shall request that restitution be made to such employees or on their behalf to plans, funds, or programs for any type of bona fide fringe benefits within the meaning of section 1(b)(2) of the Davis-Bacon Act.

(b) In cases where the Agency Head or the Administrator finds substantial evidence that such violations are willful and in violation of a criminal statute, the matter shall be forwarded to the Attorney General of the United States for prosecution if the facts warrant. In all such cases the Administrator shall be informed simultaneously of the action taken.

§5.11   Disputes concerning payment of wages.

(a) This section sets forth the procedure for resolution of disputes of fact or law concerning payment of prevailing wage rates, overtime pay, or proper classification. The procedures in this section may be initiated upon the Administrator's own motion, upon referral of the dispute by a Federal agency pursuant to §5.5(a)(9), or upon request of the contractor or subcontractor(s).

(b)(1) In the event of a dispute described in paragraph (a) of this section in which it appears that relevant facts are at issue, the Administrator will notify the affected contractor and subcontractor(s) (if any), by registered or certified mail to the last known address, of the investigation findings. If the Administrator determines that there is reasonable cause to believe that the contractor and/or subcontractor(s) should also be subject to debarment under the Davis-Bacon Act or §5.12(a)(1), the letter will so indicate.

(2) A contractor and/or subcontractor desiring a hearing concerning the Administrator's investigative findings shall request such a hearing by letter postmarked within 30 days of the date of the Administrator's letter. The request shall set forth those findings which are in dispute and the reasons therefor, including any affirmative defenses, with respect to the violations and/or debarment, as appropriate.

(3) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing, the Administrator shall refer the case to the Chief Administrative Law Judge by Order of Reference, to which shall be attached a copy of the letter from the Administrator and response thereto, for designation of an Administrative Law Judge to conduct such hearings as may be necessary to resolve the disputed matters. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth in 29 CFR part 6.

(c)(1) In the event of a dispute described in paragraph (a) of this section in which it appears that there are no relevant facts at issue, and where there is not at that time reasonable cause to institute debarment proceedings under §5.12, the Administrator shall notify the contractor and subcontractor(s) (if any), by registered or certified mail to the last known address, of the investigation findings, and shall issue a ruling on any issues of law known to be in dispute.

(2)(i) If the contractor and/or subcontractor(s) disagree with the factual findings of the Administrator or believe that there are relevant facts in dispute, the contractor or subcontractor(s) shall so advise the Administrator by letter postmarked within 30 days of the date of the Administrator's letter. In the response, the contractor and/or subcontractor(s) shall explain in detail the facts alleged to be in dispute and attach any supporting documentation.

(ii) Upon receipt of a response under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section alleging the existence of a factual dispute, the Administrator shall examine the information submitted. If the Administrator determines that there is a relevant issue of fact, the Administrator shall refer the case to the Chief Administrative Law Judge in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section. If the Administrator determines that there is no relevant issue of fact, the Administrator shall so rule and advise the contractor and subcontractor(s) (if any) accordingly.

(3) If the contractor and/or subcontractor(s) desire review of the ruling issued by the Administrator under paragraph (c)(1) or (2) of this section, the contractor and/or subcontractor(s) shall file a petition for review thereof with the Administrative Review Board within 30 days of the date of the ruling, with a copy thereof the Administrator. The petition for review shall be filed in accordance with part 7 of this title.

(d) If a timely response to the Administrator's findings or ruling is not made or a timely petition for review is not filed, the Administrator's findings and/or ruling shall be final, except that with respect to debarment under the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator shall advise the Comptroller General of the Administrator's recommendation in accordance with §5.12(a)(1). If a timely response or petition for review is filed, the findings and/or ruling of the Administrator shall be inoperative unless and until the decision is upheld by the Administrative Law Judge or the Administrative Review Board.

§5.12   Debarment proceedings.

(a)(1) Whenever any contractor or subcontractor is found by the Secretary of Labor to be in aggravated or willful violation of the labor standards provisions of any of the applicable statutes listed in §5.1 other than the Davis-Bacon Act, such contractor or subcontractor or any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such contractor or subcontractor has a substantial interest shall be ineligible for a period not to exceed 3 years (from the date of publication by the Comptroller General of the name or names of said contractor or subcontractor on the ineligible list as provided below) to receive any contracts or subcontracts subject to any of the statutes listed in §5.1.

(2) In cases arising under contracts covered by the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the Comptroller General the names of the contractors or subcontractors and their responsible officers, if any (and any firms in which the contractors or subcontractors are known to have an interest), who have been found to have disregarded their obligations to employees, and the recommendation of the Secretary of Labor or authorized representative regarding debarment. The Comptroller General will distribute a list to all Federal agencies giving the names of such ineligible person or firms, who shall be ineligible to be awarded any contract or subcontract of the United States or the District of Columbia and any contract or subcontract subject to the labor standards provisions of the statutes listed in §5.1.

(b)(1) In addition to cases under which debarment action is initiated pursuant to §5.11, whenever as a result of an investigation conducted by the Federal agency or the Department of Labor, and where the Administrator finds reasonable cause to believe that a contractor or subcontractor has committed willful or aggravated violations of the labor standards provisions of any of the statutes listed in §5.1 (other than the Davis-Bacon Act), or has committed violations of the Davis-Bacon Act which constitute a disregard of its obligations to employees or subcontractors under section 3(a) thereof, the Administrator shall notify by registered or certified mail to the last known address, the contractor or subcontractor and its responsible officers, if any (and any firms in which the contractor or subcontractor are known to have a substantial interest), of the finding. The Administrator shall afford such contractor or subcontractor and any other parties notified an opportunity for a hearing as to whether debarment action should be taken under paragraph (a)(1) of this section or section 3(a) of the Davis-Bacon Act. The Administrator shall furnish to those notified a summary of the investigative findings. If the contractor or subcontractor or any other parties notified wish to request a hearing as to whether debarment action should be taken, such a request shall be made by letter postmarked within 30 days of the date of the letter from the Administrator, and shall set forth any findings which are in dispute and the reasons therefor, including any affirmative defenses to be raised. Upon receipt of such request for a hearing, the Administrator shall refer the case to the Chief Administrative Law Judge by Order of Reference, to which shall be attached a copy of the letter from the Administrator and the response thereto, for designation of an Administrative Law Judge to conduct such hearings as may be necessary to determine the matters in dispute. In considering debarment under any of the statutes listed in §5.1 other than the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrative Law Judge shall issue an order concerning whether the contractor or subcontractor is to be debarred in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. In considering debarment under the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrative Law Judge shall issue a recommendation as to whether the contractor or subcontractor should be debarred under section 3(a) of the Act.

(2) Hearings under this section shall be conducted in accordance with 29 CFR part 6. If no hearing is requested within 30 days of receipt of the letter from the Administrator, the Administrator's findings shall be final, except with respect to recommendations regarding debarment under the Davis-Bacon Act, as set forth in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(c) Any person or firm debarred under §5.12(a)(1) may in writing request removal from the debarment list after six months from the date of publication by the Comptroller General of such person or firm's name on the ineligible list. Such a request should be directed to the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210, and shall contain a full explanation of the reasons why such person or firm should be removed from the ineligible list. In cases where the contractor or subcontractor failed to make full restitution to all underpaid employees, a request for removal will not be considered until such underpayments are made. In all other cases, the Administrator will examine the facts and circumstances surrounding the violative practices which caused the debarment, and issue a decision as to whether or not such person or firm has demonstrated a current responsibility to comply with the labor standards provisions of the statutes listed in §5.1, and therefore should be removed from the ineligible list. Among the factors to be considered in reaching such a decision are the severity of the violations, the contractor or subcontractor's attitude towards compliance, and the past compliance history of the firm. In no case will such removal be effected unless the Administrator determines after an investigation that such person or firm is in compliance with the labor standards provisions applicable to Federal contracts and Federally assisted construction work subject to any of the applicable statutes listed in §5.1 and other labor statutes providing wage protection, such as the Service Contract Act, the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act. If the request for removal is denied, the person or firm may petition for review by the Administrative Review Board pursuant to 29 CFR part 7.

(d)(1) Section 3(a) of the Davis-Bacon Act provides that for a period of three years from date of publication on the ineligible list, no contract shall be awarded to any persons or firms placed on the list as a result of a finding by the Comptroller General that such persons or firms have disregarded obligations to employees and subcontractors under that Act, and further, that no contract shall be awarded to “any firm, corporation, partnership, or association in which such persons or firms have an interest.” Paragraph (a)(1) of this section similarly provides that for a period not to exceed three years from date of publication on the ineligible list, no contract subject to any of the statutes listed in §5.1 shall be awarded to any contractor or subcontractor on the ineligible list pursuant to that paragraph, or to “any firm, corporation, partnership, or association” in which such contractor or subcontractor has a “substantial interest.” A finding as to whether persons or firms whose names appear on the ineligible list have an interest (or a substantial interest, as appropriate) in any other firm, corporation, partnership, or association, may be made through investigation, hearing, or otherwise.

(2)(i) The Administrator, on his/her own motion or after receipt of a request for a determination pursuant to paragraph (d)(3) of this section may make a finding on the issue of interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate).

(ii) If the Administrator determines that there may be an interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate), but finds that there is insufficient evidence to render a final ruling thereon, the Administrator may refer the issue to the Chief Administrative Law Judge in accordance with paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(iii) If the Administrator finds that no interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate) exists, or that there is not sufficient information to warrant the initiation of an investigation, the requesting party, if any, will be so notified and no further action taken.

(iv)(A) If the Administrator finds that an interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate) exists, the person or firm affected will be notified of the Administrator's finding (by certified mail to the last known address), which shall include the reasons therefor, and such person or firm shall be afforded an opportunity to request that a hearing be held to render a decision on the issue.

(B) Such person or firm shall have 20 days from the date of the Administrator's ruling to request a hearing. A detailed statement of the reasons why the Administrator's ruling is in error, including facts alleged to be in dispute, if any, shall be submitted with the request for a hearing.

(C) If no hearing is requested within the time mentioned in paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, the Administrator's finding shall be final and the Administrator shall so notify the Comptroller General. If a hearing is requested, the ruling of the Administrator shall be inoperative unless and until the administrative law judge or the Administrative Review Board issues an order that there is an interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate).

(3)(i) A request for a determination of interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate), may be made by any interested party, including contractors or prospective contractors and associations of contractor's representatives of employees, and interested Government agencies. Such a request shall be submitted in writing to the Administrator, Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210.

(ii) The request shall include a statement setting forth in detail why the petitioner believes that a person or firm whose name appears on the debarred bidders list has an interest (or a substantial interest, as appropriate) in any firm, corporation, partnership, or association which is seeking or has been awarded a contract of the United States or the District of Columbia, or which is subject to any of the statutes listed in §5.1. No particular form is prescribed for the submission of a request under this section.

(4) Referral to the Chief Administrative Law Judge. The Administrator, on his/her own motion under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section or upon a request for hearing where the Administrator determines that relevant facts are in dispute, will by order refer the issue to the Chief Administrative Law Judge, for designation of an Administrative Law Judge who shall conduct such hearings as may be necessary to render a decision solely on the issue of interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate). Such proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth at 29 CFR part 6.

(5) Referral to the Administrative Review Board. If the person or firm affected requests a hearing and the Administrator determines that relevant facts are not in dispute, the Administrator will refer the issue and the record compiled thereon to the Administrative Review Board to render a decision solely on the issue of interest (or substantial interest, as appropriate). Such proceeding shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth at 29 CFR part 7.

[48 FR 19541, Apr. 29, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 50313, Nov. 1, 1983]

§5.13   Rulings and interpretations.

All questions relating to the application and interpretation of wage determinations (including the classifications therein) issued pursuant to part 1 of this subtitle, of the rules contained in this part and in parts 1 and 3, and of the labor standards provisions of any of the statutes listed in §5.1 shall be referred to the Administrator for appropriate ruling or interpretation. The rulings and interpretations shall be authoritative and those under the Davis-Bacon Act may be relied upon as provided for in section 10 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (29 U.S.C. 259). Requests for such rulings and interpretations should be addressed to the Administrator, Wage and Hour Division, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210.

§5.14   Variations, tolerances, and exemptions from parts 1 and 3 of this subtitle and this part.

The Secretary of Labor may make variations, tolerances, and exemptions from the regulatory requirements of this part and those of parts 1 and 3 of this subtitle whenever the Secretary finds that such action is necessary and proper in the public interest or to prevent injustice and undue hardship. Variations, tolerances, and exemptions may not be made from the statutory requirements of any of the statutes listed in §5.1 unless the statute specifically provides such authority.

§5.15   Limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

(a) General. Upon his or her own initiative or upon the request of any Federal agency, the Secretary of Labor may provide under section 105 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act reasonable limitations and allow variations, tolerances, and exemptions to and from any or all provisions of that Act whenever the Secretary finds such action to be necessary and proper in the public interest to prevent injustice, or undue hardship, or to avoid serious impairment of the conduct of Government business. Any request for such action by the Secretary shall be submitted in writing, and shall set forth the reasons for which the request is made.

(b) Exemptions. Pursuant to section 105 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, the following classes of contracts are found exempt from all provisions of that Act in order to prevent injustice, undue hardship, or serious impairment of Government business:

(1) Contract work performed in a workplace within a foreign country or within territory under the jurisdiction of the United States other than the following: A State of the United States; the District of Columbia; Puerto Rico; the Virgin Islands; Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462); American Samoa; Guam; Wake Island; Eniwetok Atoll; Kwajalein Atoll; and Johnston Island.

(2) Agreements entered into by or on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation providing for the storing in or handling by commercial warehouses of wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, grain sorghums, soybeans, flaxseed, rice, naval stores, tobacco, peanuts, dry beans, seeds, cotton, and wool.

(3) Sales of surplus power by the Tennessee Valley Authority to States, counties, municipalities, cooperative organization of citizens or farmers, corporations and other individuals pursuant to section 10 of the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933 (16 U.S.C. 8311).

(c) Tolerances. (1) The “basic rate of pay” under section 102 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act may be computed as an hourly equivalent to the rate on which time-and-one-half overtime compensation may be computed and paid under section 7 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (29 U.S.C. 207), as interpreted in part 778 of this title. This tolerance is found to be necessary and proper in the public interest in order to prevent undue hardship.

(2) Concerning the tolerance provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the provisions of section 7(d)(2) of the Fair Labor Standards Act and §778.7 of this title should be noted. Under these provisions, payments for occasional periods when no work is performed, due to vacations, and similar causes are excludable from the “regular rate” under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Such payments, therefore, are also excludable from the “basic rate” under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

(3) See §5.8(c) providing a tolerance subdelegating authority to the heads of agencies to make appropriate adjustments in the assessment of liquidated damages totaling $500 or less under specified circumstances.

(4)(i) Time spent in an organized program of related, supplemental instruction by laborers or mechanics employed under bona fide apprenticeship or training programs may be excluded from working time if the criteria prescribed in paragraphs (c)(4)(ii) and (iii) of this section are met.

(ii) The apprentice or trainee comes within the definition contained in §5.2(n).

(iii) The time in question does not involve productive work or performance of the apprentice's or trainee's regular duties.

(d) Variations. (1) In the event of failure or refusal of the contractor or any subcontractor to comply with overtime pay requirements of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, if the funds withheld by Federal agencies for the violations are not sufficient to pay fully both the unpaid wages due laborers and mechanics and the liquidated damages due the United States, the available funds shall be used first to compensate the laborers and mechanics for the wages to which they are entitled (or an equitable portion thereof when the funds are not adequate for this purpose); and the balance, if any, shall be used for the payment of liquidated damages.

(2) In the performance of any contract entered into pursuant to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 620 to provide nursing home care of veterans, no contractor or subcontractor under such contract shall be deemed in violation of section 102 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act by virtue of failure to pay the overtime wages required by such section for work in excess of 40 hours in the workweek to any individual employed by an establishment which is an institution primarily engaged in the care of the sick, the aged, or the mentally ill or defective who reside on the premises if, pursuant to an agreement or understanding arrived at between the employer and the employee before performance of the work, a work period of 14 consecutive days is accepted in lieu of the workweek of 7 consecutive days for the purpose of overtime compensation and if such individual receives compensation for employment in excess of 8 hours in any workday and in excess of 80 hours in such 14-day period at a rate not less than 112 times the regular rate at which the individual is employed, computed in accordance with the requirements of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended.

(3) Any contractor or subcontractor performing on a government contract the principal purpose of which is the furnishing of fire fighting or suppression and related services, shall not be deemed to be in violation of section 102 of the Contract Work Hour and Safety Standards Act for failing to pay the overtime compensation required by section 102 of the Act in accordance with the basic rate of pay as defined in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, to any pilot or copilot of a fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft employed on such contract if:

(i) Pursuant to a written employment agreement between the contractor and the employee which is arrived at before performance of the work.

(A) The employee receives gross wages of not less than $300 per week regardless of the total number of hours worked in any workweek, and

(B) Within any workweek the total wages which an employee receives are not less than the wages to which the employee would have been entitled in that workweek if the employee were paid the minimum hourly wage required under the contract pursuant to the provisions of the Service Contract Act of 1965 and any applicable wage determination issued thereunder for all hours worked, plus an additional premium payment of one-half times such minimum hourly wage for all hours worked in excess of 40 hours in the workweek;

(ii) The contractor maintains accurate records of the total daily and weekly hours of work performed by such employee on the government contract. In the event these conditions for the exemption are not met, the requirements of section 102 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act shall be applicable to the contract from the date the contractor or subcontractor fails to satisfy the conditions until completion of the contract.

(Reporting and recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (d)(2) have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1215-0140 and 1215-0017. Reporting and recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1215-0017)

[48 FR 19541, Apr. 29, 1983, as amended at 51 FR 12265, Apr. 9, 1986; 61 FR 40716, Aug. 5, 1996]

§5.16   Training plans approved or recognized by the Department of Labor prior to August 20, 1975.

(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of §5.5(a)(4)(ii) relating to the utilization of trainees on Federal and federally assisted construction, no contractor shall be required to obtain approval of a training program which, prior to August 20, 1975, was approved by the Department of Labor for purposes of the Davis-Bacon and Related Acts, was established by agreement of organized labor and management and therefore recognized by the Department, and/or was recognized by the Department under Executive Order 11246, as amended. A copy of the program and evidence of its prior approval, if applicable shall be submitted to the Employment and Training Administration, which shall certify such prior approval or recognition of the program. In every other respect, the provisions of §5.5(a)(4)(ii)—including those relating to registration of trainees, permissible ratios, and wage rates to be paid—shall apply to these programs.

(b) Every trainee employed on a contract executed on and after August 20, 1975, in one of the above training programs must be individually registered in the program in accordance with Employment and Training Administration procedures, and must be paid at the rate specified in the program for the level of progress. Any such employee listed on the payroll at a trainee rate who is not registered and participating in a program certified by ETA pursuant to this section, or approved and certified by ETA pursuant to §5.5(a)(4)(ii), must be paid the wage rate determined by the Secretary of Labor for the classification of work actually performed. The ratio of trainees to journeymen shall not be greater than permitted by the terms of the program.

(c) In the event a program which was recognized or approved prior to August 20, 1975, is modified, revised, extended, or renewed, the changes in the program or its renewal must be approved by the Employment and Training Administration before they may be placed into effect.

§5.17   Withdrawal of approval of a training program.

If at any time the Employment and Training Administration determines, after opportunity for a hearing, that the standards of any program, whether it is one recognized or approved prior to August 20, 1975, or a program subsequently approved, have not been complied with, or that such a program fails to provide adequate training for participants, a contractor will no longer be permitted to utilize trainees at less than the predetermined rate for the classification of work actually performed until an acceptable program is approved.

Subpart B—Interpretation of the Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act

Source: 29 FR 13465, Sept. 30, 1964, unless otherwise noted.

§5.20   Scope and significance of this subpart.

The 1964 amendments (Pub. L. 88-349) to the Davis-Bacon Act require, among other things, that the prevailing wage determined for Federal and federally-assisted construction include: (a) The basic hourly rate of pay; and (b) the amount contributed by the contractor or subcontractor for certain fringe benefits (or the cost to them of such benefits). The purpose of this subpart is to explain the provisions of these amendments. This subpart makes available in one place official interpretations of the fringe benefits provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. These interpretations will guide the Department of Labor in carrying out its responsibilities under these provisions. These interpretations are intended also for the guidance of contractors, their associations, laborers and mechanics and their organizations, and local, State and Federal agencies, who may be concerned with these provisions of the law. The interpretations contained in this subpart are authoritative and may be relied upon as provided for in section 10 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (29 U.S.C. 359). The omission to discuss a particular problem in this subpart or in interpretations supplementing it should not be taken to indicate the adoption of any position by the Secretary of Labor with respect to such problem or to constitute an administrative interpretation, practice, or enforcement policy. Questions on matters not fully covered by this subpart may be referred to the Secretary for interpretation as provided in §5.12.

§5.21   [Reserved]

§5.22   Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.

The Davis-Bacon Act and the prevailing wage provisions of the related statutes listed in §1.1 of this subtitle confer upon the Secretary of Labor the authority to predetermine, as minimum wages, those wage rates found to be prevailing for corresponding classes of laborers and mechanics employed on projects of a character similar to the contract work in the area in which the work is to be performed. See paragraphs (a) and (b) of §1.2 of this subtitle. The fringe benefits amendments enlarge the scope of this authority by including certain bona fide fringe benefits within the meaning of the terms “wages”, “scale of wages”, “wage rates”, “minimum wages” and “prevailing wages”, as used in the Davis-Bacon Act.

§5.23   The statutory provisions.

The fringe benefits provisions of the 1964 amendments to the Davis-Bacon Act are, in part, as follows:

(b) As used in this Act the term “wages”, “scale of wages”, “wage rates”, “minimum wages”, and “prevailing wages” shall include—

(1) The basic hourly rate of pay; and

(2) The amount of—

(A) The rate of contribution irrevocably made by a contractor or subcontractor to a trustee or to a third person pursuant to a fund, plan, or program; and

(B) The rate of costs to the contractor or subcontractor which may be reasonably anticipated in providing benefits to laborers and mechanics pursuant to an enforceable commitment to carry out a financially responsible plan or program which was communicated in writing to the laborers and mechanics affected,

for medical or hospital care, pensions on retirement or death, compensation for injuries or illness resulting from occupational activity, or insurance to provide any of the foregoing, for unemployment benefits, life insurance, disability and sickness insurance, or accident insurance, for vacation and holiday pay, for defraying costs of apprenticeship or other similar programs, or for other bona fide fringe benefits, but only where the contractor or subcontractor is not required by other Federal, State, or local law to provide any of such benefits * * *.

§5.24   The basic hourly rate of pay.

“The basic hourly rate of pay” is that part of a laborer's or mechanic's wages which the Secretary of Labor would have found and included in wage determinations prior to the 1964 amendments. The Secretary of Labor is required to continue to make a separate finding of this portion of the wage. In general, this portion of the wage is the cash payment made directly to the laborer or mechanic. It does not include fringe benefits.

§5.25   Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits.

(a) Under the amendments, the Secretary is obligated to make a separate finding of the rate of contribution or cost of fringe benefits. Only the amount of contributions or costs for fringe benefits which meet the requirements of the act will be considered by the Secretary. These requirements are discussed in this subpart.

(b) The rate of contribution or cost is ordinarily an hourly rate, and will be reflected in the wage determination as such. In some cases, however, the contribution or cost for certain fringe benefits may be expressed in a formula or method of payment other than an hourly rate. In such cases, the Secretary may in his discretion express in the wage determination the rate of contribution or cost used in the formula or method or may convert it to an hourly rate of pay whenever he finds that such action would facilitate the administration of the Act. See §5.5(a)(1)(i) and (iii).

§5.26   “* * * contribution irrevocably made * * * to a trustee or to a third person”.

Under the fringe benefits provisions (section 1(b)(2) of the Act) the amount of contributions for fringe benefits must be made to a trustee or to a third person irrevocably. The “third person” must be one who is not affiliated with the contractor or subcontractor. The trustee must assume the usual fiduciary responsibilities imposed upon trustees by applicable law. The trust or fund must be set up in such a way that in no event will the contractor or subcontractor be able to recapture any of the contributions paid in or any way divert the funds to his own use or benefit. Although contributions made to a trustee or third person pursuant to a benefit plan must be irrevocably made, this does not prevent return to the contractor or subcontractor of sums which he had paid in excess of the contributions actually called for by the plan, as where such excess payments result from error or from the necessity of making payments to cover the estimated cost of contributions at a time when the exact amount of the necessary contributions under the plan is not yet ascertained. For example, a benefit plan may provide for definite insurance benefits for employees in the event of the happening of a specified contingency such as death, sickness, accident, etc., and may provide that the cost of such definite benefits, either in full or any balance in excess of specified employee contributions, will be borne by the contractor or subcontractor. In such a case the return by the insurance company to the contractor or subcontractor of sums paid by him in excess of the amount required to provide the benefits which, under the plan, are to be provided through contributions by the contractor or subcontractor, will not be deemed a recapture or diversion by the employer of contributions made pursuant to the plan. (See Report of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, S. Rep. No. 963, 88th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 5.)

§5.27   “* * * fund, plan, or program”.

The contributions for fringe benefits must be made pursuant to a fund, plan or program (sec. 1(b)(2)(A) of the act). The phrase “fund, plan, or program” is merely intended to recognize the various types of arrangements commonly used to provide fringe benefits through employer contributions. The phrase is identical with language contained in section 3(1) of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act. In interpreting this phrase, the Secretary will be guided by the experience of the Department in administering the latter statute. (See Report of Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, S. Rep. No. 963, 88th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 5.)

§5.28   Unfunded plans.

(a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be reasonably anticipated in providing benefits of the types described in the act pursuant to an enforceable commitment to carry out a financially responsible plan or program, are considered fringe benefits within the meaning of the act (see 1(b)(2)(B) of the act). The legislative history suggests that these provisions were intended to permit the consideration of fringe benefits meeting, among others, these requirements and which are provided from the general assets of a contractor or subcontractor. (Report of the House Committee on Education and Labor, H. Rep. No. 308, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 4.)

(b) No type of fringe benefit is eligible for consideration as a so-called unfunded plan unless:

(1) It could be reasonably anticipated to provide benefits described in the act;

(2) It represents a commitment that can be legally enforced;

(3) It is carried out under a financially responsible plan or program; and

(4) The plan or program providing the benefits has been communicated in writing to the laborers and mechanics affected. (See S. Rep. No. 963, p. 6.)

(c) It is in this manner that the act provides for the consideration of unfunded plans or programs in finding prevailing wages and in ascertaining compliance with the Act. At the same time, however, there is protection against the use of this provision as a means of avoiding the act's requirements. The words “reasonably anticipated” are intended to require that any unfunded plan or program be able to withstand a test which can perhaps be best described as one of actuarial soundness. Moreover, as in the case of other fringe benefits payable under the act, an unfunded plan or program must be “bona fide” and not a mere simulation or sham for avoiding compliance with the act. (See S. Rep. No. 963, p. 6.) The legislative history suggests that in order to insure against the possibility that these provisions might be used to avoid compliance with the act, the committee contemplates that the Secretary of Labor in carrying out his responsibilities under Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950, may direct a contractor or subcontractor to set aside in an account assets which, under sound actuarial principles, will be sufficient to meet the future obligation under the plan. The preservation of this account for the purpose intended would, of course, also be essential. (S. Rep. No. 963, p. 6.) This is implemented by the contractual provisions required by §5.5(a)(1)(iv).

§5.29   Specific fringe benefits.

(a) The act lists all types of fringe benefits which the Congress considered to be common in the construction industry as a whole. These include the following: Medical or hospital care, pensions on retirement or death, compensation for injuries or illness resulting from occupational activity, or insurance to provide any of the foregoing, unemployment benefits, life insurance, disability and sickness insurance, or accident insurance, vacation and holiday pay, defrayment of costs of apprenticeship or other similar programs, or other bona fide fringe benefits, but only where the contractor or subcontractor is not required by other Federal, State, or local law to provide any of such benefits.

(b) The legislative history indicates that it was not the intent of the Congress to impose specific standards relating to administration of fringe benefits. It was assumed that the majority of fringe benefits arrangements of this nature will be those which are administered in accordance with requirements of section 302(c)(5) of the National Labor Relations Act, as amended (S. Rep. No. 963, p. 5).

(c) The term “other bona fide fringe benefits” is the so-called “open end” provision. This was included so that new fringe benefits may be recognized by the Secretary as they become prevailing. It was pointed out that a particular fringe benefit need not be recognized beyond a particular area in order for the Secretary to find that it is prevailing in that area. (S. Rep. No. 963, p. 6).

(d) The legislative reports indicate that, to insure against considering and giving credit to any and all fringe benefits, some of which might be illusory or not genuine, the qualification was included that such fringe benefits must be “bona fide” (H. Rep. No. 308, p. 4; S. Rep. No. 963, p. 6). No difficulty is anticipated in determining whether a particular fringe benefit is “bona fide” in the ordinary case where the benefits are those common in the construction industry and which are established under a usual fund, plan, or program. This would be typically the case of those fringe benefits listed in paragraph (a) of this section which are funded under a trust or insurance program. Contractors may take credit for contributions made under such conventional plans without requesting the approval of the Secretary of Labor under §5.5(a)(1)(iv).

(e) Where the plan is not of the conventional type described in the preceding paragraph, it will be necessary for the Secretary to examine the facts and circumstances to determine whether they are “bona fide” in accordance with requirements of the act. This is particularly true with respect to unfunded plans. Contractors or subcontractors seeking credit under the act for costs incurred for such plans must request specific permission from the Secretary under §5.5(a)(1)(iv).

(f) The act excludes fringe benefits which a contractor or subcontractor is obligated to provide under other Federal, State, or local law. No credit may be taken under the act for the payments made for such benefits. For example, payment for workmen's compensation insurance under either a compulsory or elective State statute are not considered payments for fringe benefits under the Act. While each situation must be separately considered on its own merits, payments made for travel, subsistence or to industry promotion funds are not normally payments for fringe benefits under the Act. The omission in the Act of any express reference to these payments, which are common in the construction industry, suggests that these payments should not normally be regarded as bona fide fringe benefits under the Act.

§5.30   Types of wage determinations.

(a) When fringe benefits are prevailing for various classes of laborers and mechanics in the area of proposed construction, such benefits are includable in any Davis-Bacon wage determination. Illustrations, contained in paragraph (c) of this section, demonstrate some of the different types of wage determinations which may be made in such cases.

(b) Wage determinations of the Secretary of Labor under the act do not include fringe benefits for various classes of laborers and mechanics whenever such benefits do not prevail in the area of proposed construction. When this occurs the wage determination will contain only the basic hourly rates of pay, that is only the cash wages which are prevailing for the various classes of laborers and mechanics. An illustration of this situation is contained in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Illustrations:

ClassesBasic hourly ratesFringe benefits payments
Health and welfarePensionsVacationsApprenticeship programOthers
Laborers$3.25
Carpenters4.00$0.15
Painters3.90.15$0.10$0.20
Electricians4.85.10.15
Plumbers4.95.15.20$0.05
Ironworkers4.60.10

(It should be noted this format is not necessarily in the exact form in which determinations will issue; it is for illustration only.)

§5.31   Meeting wage determination obligations.

(a) A contractor or subcontractor performing work subject to a Davis-Bacon wage determination may discharge his minimum wage obligations for the payment of both straight time wages and fringe benefits by paying in cash, making payments or incurring costs for “bona fide” fringe benefits of the types listed in the applicable wage determination or otherwise found prevailing by the Secretary of Labor, or by a combination thereof.

(b) A contractor or subcontractor may discharge his obligations for the payment of the basic hourly rates and the fringe benefits where both are contained in a wage determination applicable to his laborers or mechanics in the following ways:

(1) By paying not less than the basic hourly rate to the laborers or mechanics and by making the contributions for the fringe benefits in the wage determinations, as specified therein. For example, in the illustration contained in paragraph (c) of §5.30, the obligations for “painters” will be met by the payment of a straight time hourly rate of not less than $3.90 and by contributing not less than at the rate of 15 cents an hour for health and welfare benefits, 10 cents an hour for pensions, and 20 cents an hour for vacations; or

(2) By paying not less than the basic hourly rate to the laborers or mechanics and by making contributions for “bona fide” fringe benefits in a total amount not less than the total of the fringe benefits required by the wage determination. For example, the obligations for “painters” in the illustration in paragraph (c) of §5.30 will be met by the payment of a straight time hourly rate of not less than $3.90 and by contributions of not less than a total of 45 cents an hour for “bona fide” fringe benefits; or

(3) By paying in cash directly to laborers or mechanics for the basic hourly rate and by making an additional cash payment in lieu of the required benefits. For example, where an employer does not make payments or incur costs for fringe benefits, he would meet his obligations for “painters” in the illustration in paragraph (c) of §5.30, by paying directly to the painters a straight time hourly rate of not less than $4.35 ($3.90 basic hourly rate plus 45 cents for fringe benefits); or

(4) As stated in paragraph (a) of this section, the contractor or subcontractor may discharge his minimum wage obligations for the payment of straight time wages and fringe benefits by a combination of the methods illustrated in paragraphs (b)(1) thru (3) of this section. Thus, for example, his obligations for “painters” may be met by an hourly rate, partly in cash and partly in payments or costs for fringe benefits which total not less than $4.35 ($3.90 basic hourly rate plus 45 cents for fringe benefits). The payments in such case may be $4.10 in cash and 25 cents in payments or costs in fringe benefits. Or, they may be $3.75 in cash and 60 cents in payments or costs for fringe benefits.

[30 FR 13136, Oct. 15, 1965]

§5.32   Overtime payments.

(a) The act excludes amounts paid by a contractor or subcontractor for fringe benefits in the computation of overtime under the Fair Labor Standards Act, the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act, and the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act whenever the overtime provisions of any of these statutes apply concurrently with the Davis-Bacon Act or its related prevailing wage statutes. It is clear from the legislative history that in no event can the regular or basic rate upon which premium pay for overtime is calculated under the aforementioned Federal statutes be less than the amount determined by the Secretary of Labor as the basic hourly rate (i.e. cash rate) under section 1(b)(1) of the Davis-Bacon Act. (See S. Rep. No. 963, p. 7.) Contributions by employees are not excluded from the regular or basic rate upon which overtime is computed under these statutes; that is, an employee's regular or basic straight-time rate is computed on his earnings before any deductions are made for the employee's contributions to fringe benefits. The contractor's contributions or costs for fringe benefits may be excluded in computing such rate so long as the exclusions do not reduce the regular or basic rate below the basic hourly rate contained in the wage determination.

(b) The legislative report notes that the phrase “contributions irrevocably made by a contractor or subcontractor to a trustee or to a third person pursuant to a fund, plan, or program” was added to the bill in Committee. This language in essence conforms to the overtime provisions of section 7(d)(4) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The intent of the committee was to prevent any avoidance of overtime requirements under existing law. See H. Rep. No. 308, p. 5.

(c)(1) The act permits a contractor or subcontractor to pay a cash equivalent of any fringe benefits found prevailing by the Secretary of Labor. Such a cash equivalent would also be excludable in computing the regular or basic rate under the Federal overtime laws mentioned in paragraph (a). For example, the W construction contractor pays his laborers or mechanics $3.50 in cash under a wage determination of the Secretary of Labor which requires a basic hourly rate of $3 and a fringe benefit contribution of 50 cents. The contractor pays the 50 cents in cash because he made no payments and incurred no costs for fringe benefits. Overtime compensation in this case would be computed on a regular or basic rate of $3.00 an hour. However, in some cases a question of fact may be presented in ascertaining whether or not a cash payment made to laborers or mechanics is actually in lieu of a fringe benefit or is simply part of their straight time cash wage. In the latter situation, the cash payment is not excludable in computing overtime compensation. Consider the examples set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section.

(2) The X construction contractor has for some time been paying $3.25 an hour to a mechanic as his basic cash wage plus 50 cents an hour as a contribution to a welfare and pension plan. The Secretary of Labor determines that a basic hourly rate of $3 an hour and a fringe benefit contribution of 50 cents are prevailing. The basic hourly rate or regular rate for overtime purposes would be $3.25, the rate actually paid as a basic cash wage for the employee of X, rather than the $3 rate determined as prevailing by the Secretary of Labor.

(3) Under the same prevailing wage determination, discussed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the Y construction contractor who has been paying $3 an hour as his basic cash wage on which he has been computing overtime compensation reduces the cash wage to $2.75 an hour but computes his costs of benefits under section 1(b)(2)(B) as $1 an hour. In this example the regular or basic hourly rate would continue to be $3 an hour. See S. Rep. No. 963, p. 7.



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