About GPO   |   Newsroom/Media   |   Congressional Relations   |   Inspector General   |   Careers   |   Contact   |   askGPO   |   Help  
 
Home   |   Customers   |   Vendors   |   Libraries  

The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is a regularly updated, unofficial editorial compilation of CFR material and Federal Register amendments produced by the National Archives and Records Administration's Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Printing Office.

Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States Code
Text | PDF

Find, review, and submit comments on Federal rules that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register using Regulations.gov.

Purchase individual CFR titles from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.

Find issues of the CFR (including issues prior to 1996) at a local Federal depository library.

[2]
 
 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of December 18, 2014

Title 27Chapter IISubchapter B → Part 478


Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms


PART 478—COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION


Contents

Subpart A—Introduction

§478.1   Scope of regulations.
§478.2   Relation to other provisions of law.

Subpart B—Definitions

§478.11   Meaning of terms.

Subpart C—Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions

§478.21   Forms prescribed.
§478.22   Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.
§478.23   Right of entry and examination.
§478.24   Compilation of State laws and published ordinances.
§478.25   Disclosure of information.
§478.25a   Responses to requests for information.
§478.26   Curio and relic determination.
§478.27   Destructive device determination.
§478.28   Transportation of destructive devices and certain firearms.
§478.29   Out-of-State acquisition of firearms by nonlicensees.
§478.29a   Acquisition of firearms by nonresidents.
§478.30   Out-of-State disposition of firearms by nonlicensees.
§478.31   Delivery by common or contract carrier.
§478.32   Prohibited shipment, transportation, possession, or receipt of firearms and ammunition by certain persons.
§478.33   Stolen firearms and ammunition.
§478.33a   Theft of firearms.
§478.34   Removed, obliterated, or altered serial number.
§478.35   Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.
§478.36   Transfer or possession of machine guns.
§478.37   Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.
§478.38   Transportation of firearms.
§478.39   Assembly of semiautomatic rifles or shotguns.
§478.39a   Reporting theft or loss of firearms.
§478.40   Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.
§478.40a   Transfer and possession of large capacity ammunition feeding devices.

Subpart D—Licenses

§478.41   General.
§478.42   License fees.
§478.43   License fee not refundable.
§478.44   Original license.
§478.45   Renewal of license.
§478.46   Insufficient fee.
§478.47   Issuance of license.
§478.48   Correction of error on license.
§478.49   Duration of license.
§478.50   Locations covered by license.
§478.51   License not transferable.
§478.52   Change of address.
§478.53   Change in trade name.
§478.54   Change of control.
§478.55   Continuing partnerships.
§478.56   Right of succession by certain persons.
§478.57   Discontinuance of business.
§478.58   State or other law.
§478.59   Abandoned application.
§478.60   Certain continuances of business.

Subpart E—License Proceedings

§478.71   Denial of an application for license.
§478.72   Hearing after application denial.
§478.73   Notice of revocation, suspension, or imposition of civil fine.
§478.74   Request for hearing after notice of suspension, revocation, or imposition of civil fine.
§478.75   Service on applicant or licensee.
§478.76   Representation at a hearing.
§478.77   Designated place of hearing.
§478.78   Operations by licensee after notice.

Subpart F—Conduct of Business

§478.91   Posting of license.
§478.92   How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition feeding devices?
§478.93   Authorized operations by a licensed collector.
§478.94   Sales or deliveries between licensees.
§478.95   Certified copy of license.
§478.96   Out-of-State and mail order sales.
§478.97   Loan or rental of firearms.
§478.98   Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.
§478.99   Certain prohibited sales or deliveries.
§478.100   Conduct of business away from licensed premises.
§478.101   Record of transactions.
§478.102   Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998.
§478.103   Posting of signs and written notification to purchasers of handguns.

Subpart G—Importation

§478.111   General.
§478.112   Importation by a licensed importer.
§478.113   Importation by other licensees.
§478.113a   Importation of firearm barrels by nonlicensees.
§478.114   Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.
§478.115   Exempt importation.
§478.116   Conditional importation.
§478.117   Function outside a customs territory.
§478.118   Importation of certain firearms classified as curios or relics.
§478.119   Importation of ammunition feeding devices.
§478.120   Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

Subpart H—Records

§478.121   General.
§478.122   Records maintained by importers.
§478.123   Records maintained by manufacturers.
§478.124   Firearms transaction record.
§478.125   Record of receipt and disposition.
§478.125a   Personal firearms collection.
§478.126   Furnishing transaction information.
§478.126a   Reporting multiple sales or other disposition of pistols and revolvers.
§478.127   Discontinuance of business.
§478.128   False statement or representation.
§478.129   Record retention.
§478.131   Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.
§478.132   Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use and to employees or contractors of nuclear facilities.
§478.133   Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.
§478.134   Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

Subpart I—Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures

§478.141   General.
§478.142   Effect of pardons and expunctions of convictions.
§478.143   Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.
§478.144   Relief from disabilities under the Act.
§478.145   Research organizations.
§478.146   Deliveries by mail to certain persons.
§478.147   Return of firearm.
§478.148   Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.
§478.149   Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.
§478.150   Alternative to NICS in certain geographical locations.
§478.151   Semiautomatic rifles or shotguns for testing or experimentation.
§478.152   Seizure and forfeiture.
§478.153   Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing or experimentation.

Subpart J [Reserved]

Subpart K—Exportation

§478.171   Exportation.

Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552(a); 18 U.S.C. 847, 921-931; 44 U.S.C. 3504(h).

Source: 33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and further redesignated by T.D. ATF-487, 68 FR 3750, Jan. 24, 2003.

Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 478 appear by T.D. ATF-411, 64 FR 17291, Apr. 9, 1999, and T.D. ATF-487, 68 FR 3750, Jan. 24, 2003, and ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240-57242, Oct. 2, 2008.

Subpart A—Introduction

§478.1   Scope of regulations.

(a) General. The regulations contained in this part relate to commerce in firearms and ammunition and are promulgated to implement Title I, State Firearms Control Assistance (18 U.S.C. Chapter 44), of the Gun Control Act of 1968 (82 Stat. 1213) as amended by Pub. L. 99-308 (100 Stat. 449), Pub. L. 99-360 (100 Stat. 766), Pub. L. 99-408 (100 Stat. 920), Pub. L. 103-159 (107 Stat. 1536), Pub. L. 103-322 (108 Stat. 1796), Pub. L. 104-208 (110 Stat. 3009), and Pub. L. 105-277 (112 Stat. 2681).

(b) Procedural and substantive requirements. This part contains the procedural and substantive requirements relative to:

(1) The interstate or foreign commerce in firearms and ammunition;

(2) The licensing of manufacturers and importers of firearms and ammunition, collectors of firearms, and dealers in firearms;

(3) The conduct of business or activity by licensees;

(4) The importation of firearms and ammunition;

(5) The records and reports required of licensees;

(6) Relief from disabilities under this part;

(7) Exempt interstate and foreign commerce in firearms and ammunition; and

(8) Restrictions on armor piercing ammunition.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10490, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7112, Feb. 14, 1994; T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17450, Apr. 6, 1995; T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35522, June 30, 1998; T.D. ATF-471, 67 FR 5425, Feb. 5, 2002]

§478.2   Relation to other provisions of law.

The provisions in this part are in addition to, and are not in lieu of, any other provision of law, or regulations, respecting commerce in firearms or ammunition. For regulations applicable to traffic in machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms, see Part 479 of this chapter. For statutes applicable to the registration and licensing of persons engaged in the business of manufacturing, importing or exporting arms, ammunition, or implements of war, see section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778) and regulations thereunder and Part 447 of this chapter. For statutes applicable to nonmailable firearms, see 18 U.S.C. 1715 and regulations thereunder.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10490, Mar. 31, 1988]

Subpart B—Definitions

§478.11   Meaning of terms.

When used in this part and in forms prescribed under this part, where not otherwise distinctly expressed or manifestly incompatible with the intent thereof, terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this section. Words in the plural form shall include the singular, and vice versa, and words importing the masculine gender shall include the feminine. The terms “includes” and “including” do not exclude other things not enumerated which are in the same general class or are otherwise within the scope thereof.

Act. 18 U.S.C. Chapter 44.

Adjudicated as a mental defective. (a) A determination by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority that a person, as a result of marked subnormal intelligence, or mental illness, incompetency, condition, or disease:

(1) Is a danger to himself or to others; or

(2) Lacks the mental capacity to contract or manage his own affairs.

(b) The term shall include—

(1) A finding of insanity by a court in a criminal case; and

(2) Those persons found incompetent to stand trial or found not guilty by reason of lack of mental responsibility pursuant to articles 50a and 72b of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, 10 U.S.C. 850a, 876b.

Admitted to the United States for lawful hunting or sporting purposes. (a) Is entering the United States to participate in a competitive target shooting event sponsored by a national, State, or local organization, devoted to the competitive use or other sporting use of firearms; or

(b) Is entering the United States to display firearms at a sports or hunting trade show sponsored by a national, State, or local firearms trade organization, devoted to the competitive use or other sporting use of firearms.

Alien. Any person not a citizen or national of the United States.

Alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States. Aliens who are unlawfully in the United States are not in valid immigrant, nonimmigrant or parole status. The term includes any alien—

(a) Who unlawfully entered the United States without inspection and authorization by an immigration officer and who has not been paroled into the United States under section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA);

(b) Who is a nonimmigrant and whose authorized period of stay has expired or who has violated the terms of the nonimmigrant category in which he or she was admitted;

(c) Paroled under INA section 212(d)(5) whose authorized period of parole has expired or whose parole status has been terminated; or

(d) Under an order of deportation, exclusion, or removal, or under an order to depart the United States voluntarily, whether or not he or she has left the United States.

Ammunition. Ammunition or cartridge cases, primers, bullets, or propellent powder designed for use in any firearm other than an antique firearm. The term shall not include (a) any shotgun shot or pellet not designed for use as the single, complete projectile load for one shotgun hull or casing, nor (b) any unloaded, non-metallic shotgun hull or casing not having a primer.

Antique firearm. (a) Any firearm (including any firearm with a matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system) manufactured in or before 1898; and (b) any replica of any firearm described in paragraph (a) of this definition if such replica (1) is not designed or redesigned for using rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition, or (2) uses rimfire or conventional centerfire fixed ammunition which is no longer manufactured in the United States and which is not readily available in the ordinary channels of commercial trade.

Armor piercing ammunition. Projectiles or projectile cores which may be used in a handgun and which are constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium; or full jacketed projectiles larger than .22 caliber designed and intended for use in a handgun and whose jacket has a weight of more than 25 percent of the total weight of the projectile. The term does not include shotgun shot required by Federal or State environmental or game regulations for hunting purposes, frangible projectiles designed for target shooting, projectiles which the Director finds are primarily intended to be used for sporting purposes, or any other projectiles or projectile cores which the Director finds are intended to be used for industrial purposes, including charges used in oil and gas well perforating devices.

ATF officer. An officer or employee of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) authorized to perform any function relating to the administration or enforcement of this part.

Business premises. The property on which the manufacturing or importing of firearms or ammunition or the dealing in firearms is or will be conducted. A private dwelling, no part of which is open to the public, shall not be recognized as coming within the meaning of the term.

Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center (FFLC). The ATF official responsible for the issuance and renewal of licenses under this part.

Collector. Any person who acquires, holds, or disposes of firearms as curios or relics.

Collection premises. The premises described on the license of a collector as the location at which he maintains his collection of curios and relics.

Commerce. Travel, trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between the District of Columbia and any State, or between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any State or the District of Columbia, or between points in the same State but through any other State or the District of Columbia or a foreign country.

Committed to a mental institution. A formal commitment of a person to a mental institution by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority. The term includes a commitment to a mental institution involuntarily. The term includes commitment for mental defectiveness or mental illness. It also includes commitments for other reasons, such as for drug use. The term does not include a person in a mental institution for observation or a voluntary admission to a mental institution.

Controlled substance. A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 802. The term includes, but is not limited to, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, and narcotic drugs. The term does not include distilled spirits, wine, malt beverages, or tobacco, as those terms are defined or used in Subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

Crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year. Any Federal, State or foreign offense for which the maximum penalty, whether or not imposed, is capital punishment or imprisonment in excess of 1 year. The term shall not include (a) any Federal or State offenses pertaining to antitrust violations, unfair trade practices, restraints of trade, or other similar offenses relating to the regulation of business practices or (b) any State offense classified by the laws of the State as a misdemeanor and punishable by a term of imprisonment of 2 years or less. What constitutes a conviction of such a crime shall be determined in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the proceedings were held. Any conviction which has been expunged or set aside or for which a person has been pardoned or has had civil rights restored shall not be considered a conviction for the purposes of the Act or this part, unless such pardon, expunction, or restoration of civil rights expressly provides that the person may not ship, transport, possess, or receive firearms, or unless the person is prohibited by the law of the jurisdiction in which the proceedings were held from receiving or possessing any firearms.

Curios or relics. Firearms which are of special interest to collectors by reason of some quality other than is associated with firearms intended for sporting use or as offensive or defensive weapons. To be recognized as curios or relics, firearms must fall within one of the following categories:

(a) Firearms which were manufactured at least 50 years prior to the current date, but not including replicas thereof;

(b) Firearms which are certified by the curator of a municipal, State, or Federal museum which exhibits firearms to be curios or relics of museum interest; and

(c) Any other firearms which derive a substantial part of their monetary value from the fact that they are novel, rare, bizarre, or because of their association with some historical figure, period, or event. Proof of qualification of a particular firearm under this category may be established by evidence of present value and evidence that like firearms are not available except as collector's items, or that the value of like firearms available in ordinary commercial channels is substantially less.

Customs officer. Any officer of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, any commissioned, warrant, or petty officer of the Coast Guard, or any agent or other person authorized by law to perform the duties of a customs officer.

Dealer. Any person engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail; any person engaged in the business of repairing firearms or of making or fitting special barrels, stocks, or trigger mechanisms to firearms; or any person who is a pawnbroker. The term shall include any person who engages in such business or occupation on a part-time basis.

Destructive device. (a) Any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas (1) bomb, (2) grenade, (3) rocket having a propellant charge of more than 4 ounces, (4) missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, (5) mine, or (6) device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding paragraphs of this definition; (b) any type of weapon (other than a shotgun or a shotgun shell which the Director finds is generally recognized as particularly suitable for sporting purposes) by whatever name known which will, or which may be readily converted to, expel a projectile by the action of an explosive or other propellant, and which has any barrel with a bore of more than one-half inch in diameter; and (c) any combination of parts either designed or intended for use in converting any device into any destructive device described in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section and from which a destructive device may be readily assembled. The term shall not include any device which is neither designed nor redesigned for use as a weapon; any device, although originally designed for use as a weapon, which is redesigned for use as a signalling, pyrotechnic, line throwing, safety, or similar device; surplus ordnance sold, loaned, or given by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to the provisions of section 4684(2), 4685, or 4686 of title 10, United States Code; or any other device which the Director finds is not likely to be used as a weapon, is an antique, or is a rifle which the owner intends to use solely for sporting, recreational, or cultural purposes.

Director. The Director, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

Director of Industry Operations. The principal ATF official in a Field Operations division responsible for administering regulations in this part.

Discharged under dishonorable conditions. Separation from the U.S. Armed Forces resulting from a dishonorable discharge or dismissal adjudged by a general court-martial. The term does not include any separation from the Armed Forces resulting from any other discharge, e.g., a bad conduct discharge.

Division. A Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Division.

Engaged in the business—(a) Manufacturer of firearms. A person who devotes time, attention, and labor to manufacturing firearms as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the sale or distribution of the firearms manufactured;

(b) Manufacturer of ammunition. A person who devotes time, attention, and labor to manufacturing ammunition as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the sale or distribution of the ammunition manufactured;

(c) Dealer in firearms other than a gunsmith or a pawnbroker. A person who devotes time, attention, and labor to dealing in firearms as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the repetitive purchase and resale of firearms, but such a term shall not include a person who makes occasional sales, exchanges, or purchases of firearms for the enhancement of a personal collection or for a hobby, or who sells all or part of his personal collection of firearms;

(d) Gunsmith. A person who devotes time, attention, and labor to engaging in such activity as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit, but such a term shall not include a person who makes occasional repairs of firearms or who occasionally fits special barrels, stocks, or trigger mechanisms to firearms;

(e) Importer of firearms. A person who devotes time, attention, and labor to importing firearms as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the sale or distribution of the firearms imported; and,

(f) Importer of ammunition. A person who devotes time, attention, and labor to importing ammunition as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the sale or distribution of the ammunition imported.

Executed under penalties of perjury. Signed with the prescribed declaration under the penalties of perjury as provided on or with respect to the return form, or other document or, where no form of declaration is prescribed, with the declaration:

“I declare under the penalties of perjury that this—(insert type of document, such as, statement, application, request, certificate), including the documents submitted in support thereof, has been examined by me and, to the best of my knowledge and belief, is true, correct, and complete.”

Federal Firearms Act. 15 U.S.C. Chapter 18.

Firearm. Any weapon, including a starter gun, which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive; the frame or receiver of any such weapon; any firearm muffler or firearm silencer; or any destructive device; but the term shall not include an antique firearm. In the case of a licensed collector, the term shall mean only curios and relics.

Firearm frame or receiver. That part of a firearm which provides housing for the hammer, bolt or breechblock, and firing mechanism, and which is usually threaded at its forward portion to receive the barrel.

Firearm muffler or firearm silencer. Any device for silencing, muffling, or diminishing the report of a portable firearm, including any combination of parts, designed or redesigned, and intended for use in assembling or fabricating a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, and any part intended only for use in such assembly or fabrication.

Friendly foreign government. Any government with whom the United States has diplomatic relations and whom the United States has not identified as a State sponsor of terrorism.

Fugitive from justice. Any person who has fled from any State to avoid prosecution for a felony or a misdemeanor; or any person who leaves the State to avoid giving testimony in any criminal proceeding. The term also includes any person who knows that misdemeanor or felony charges are pending against such person and who leaves the State of prosecution.

Handgun. (a) Any firearm which has a short stock and is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand; and

(b) Any combination of parts from which a firearm described in paragraph (a) can be assembled.

Hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States. A license or permit issued by a State for hunting which is valid and unexpired.

Identification document. A document containing the name, residence address, date of birth, and photograph of the holder and which was made or issued by or under the authority of the United States Government, a State, political subdivision of a State, a foreign government, political subdivision of a foreign government, an international governmental or an international quasi- governmental organization which, when completed with information concerning a particular individual, is of a type intended or commonly accepted for the purpose of identification of individuals.

Importation. The bringing of a firearm or ammunition into the United States; except that the bringing of a firearm or ammunition from outside the United States into a foreign-trade zone for storage pending shipment to a foreign country or subsequent importation into this country, pursuant to this part, shall not be deemed importation.

Importer. Any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States. The term shall include any person who engages in such business on a part-time basis.

Indictment. Includes an indictment or information in any court, under which a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year (as defined in this section) may be prosecuted, or in military cases to any offense punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year which has been referred to a general court-martial. An information is a formal accusation of a crime, differing from an indictment in that it is made by a prosecuting attorney and not a grand jury.

Interstate or foreign commerce. Includes commerce between any place in a State and any place outside of that State, or within any possession of the United States (not including the Canal Zone) or the District of Columbia. The term shall not include commerce between places within the same State but through any place outside of that State.

Intimate partner. With respect to a person, the spouse of the person, a former spouse of the person, an individual who is a parent of a child of the person, and an individual who cohabitates or has cohabitated with the person.

Large capacity ammunition feeding device. A magazine, belt, drum, feed strip, or similar device for a firearm manufactured after September 13, 1994, that has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than 10 rounds of ammunition. The term does not include an attached tubular device designed to accept, and capable of operating only with, .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, or a fixed device for a manually operated firearm, or a fixed device for a firearm listed in 18 U.S.C. 922, appendix A.

Licensed collector. A collector of curios and relics only and licensed under the provisions of this part.

Licensed dealer. A dealer licensed under the provisions of this part.

Licensed importer. An importer licensed under the provisions of this part.

Licensed manufacturer. A manufacturer licensed under the provisions of this part.

Machine gun. Any weapon which shoots, is designed to shoot, or can be readily restored to shoot, automatically more than one shot, without manual reloading, by a single function of the trigger. The term shall also include the frame or receiver of any such weapon, any part designed and intended solely and exclusively, or combination of parts designed and intended, for use in converting a weapon into a machine gun, and any combination of parts from which a machine gun can be assembled if such parts are in the possession or under the control of a person.

Manufacturer. Any person engaged in the business of manufacturing firearms or ammunition. The term shall include any person who engages in such business on a part-time basis.

Mental institution. Includes mental health facilities, mental hospitals, sanitariums, psychiatric facilities, and other facilities that provide diagnoses by licensed professionals of mental retardation or mental illness, including a psychiatric ward in a general hospital.

Misdemeanor crime of domestic violence. (a) Is a Federal, State or local offense that:

(1) Is a misdemeanor under Federal or State law or, in States which do not classify offenses as misdemeanors, is an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of one year or less, and includes offenses that are punishable only by a fine. (This is true whether or not the State statute specifically defines the offense as a “misdemeanor” or as a “misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.” The term includes all such misdemeanor convictions in Indian Courts established pursuant to 25 CFR part 11.);

(2) Has, as an element, the use or attempted use of physical force (e.g., assault and battery), or the threatened use of a deadly weapon; and

(3) Was committed by a current or former spouse, parent, or guardian of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabiting with or has cohabited with the victim as a spouse, parent, or guardian, (e.g., the equivalent of a “common law” marriage even if such relationship is not recognized under the law), or a person similarly situated to a spouse, parent, or guardian of the victim (e.g., two persons who are residing at the same location in an intimate relationship with the intent to make that place their home would be similarly situated to a spouse).

(b) A person shall not be considered to have been convicted of such an offense for purposes of this part unless:

(1) The person is considered to have been convicted by the jurisdiction in which the proceedings were held.

(2) The person was represented by counsel in the case, or knowingly and intelligently waived the right to counsel in the case; and

(3) In the case of a prosecution for which a person was entitled to a jury trial in the jurisdiction in which the case was tried, either

(i) The case was tried by a jury, or

(ii) The person knowingly and intelligently waived the right to have the case tried by a jury, by guilty plea or otherwise.

(c) A person shall not be considered to have been convicted of such an offense for purposes of this part if the conviction has been expunged or set aside, or is an offense for which the person has been pardoned or has had civil rights restored (if the law of the jurisdiction in which the proceedings were held provides for the loss of civil rights upon conviction for such an offense) unless the pardon, expunction, or restoration of civil rights expressly provides that the person may not ship, transport, possess, or receive firearms, and the person is not otherwise prohibited by the law of the jurisdiction in which the proceedings were held from receiving or possessing any firearms.

National Firearms Act. 26 U.S.C. Chapter 53.

NICS. The National Instant Criminal Background Check System established by the Attorney General pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 922(t).

Nonimmigrant alien. An alien in the United States in a nonimmigrant classification as defined by section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)).

Nonimmigrant visa. A visa properly issued to an alien as an eligible nonimmigrant by a competent officer as provided in the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.

Pawnbroker. Any person whose business or occupation includes the taking or receiving, by way of pledge or pawn, of any firearm as security for the payment or repayment of money. The term shall include any person who engages in such business on a part-time basis.

Permanently inoperable. A firearm which is incapable of discharging a shot by means of an explosive and incapable of being readily restored to a firing condition. An acceptable method of rendering most firearms permanently inoperable is to fusion weld the chamber closed and fusion weld the barrel solidly to the frame. Certain unusual firearms require other methods to render the firearm permanently inoperable. Contact ATF for instructions.

Person. Any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company.

Pistol. A weapon originally designed, made, and intended to fire a projectile (bullet) from one or more barrels when held in one hand, and having (a) a chamber(s) as an integral part(s) of, or permanently aligned with, the bore(s); and (b) a short stock designed to be gripped by one hand and at an angle to and extending below the line of the bore(s).

Principal objective of livelihood and profit. The intent underlying the sale or disposition of firearms is predominantly one of obtaining livelihood and pecuniary gain, as opposed to other intents such as improving or liquidating a personal firearms collection: Provided, That proof of profit shall not be required as to a person who engages in the regular and repetitive purchase and disposition of firearms for criminal purposes or terrorism. For purposes of this part, the term “terrorism” means activity, directed against United States persons, which—

(a) Is committed by an individual who is not a national or permanent resident alien of the United States;

(b) Involves violent acts or acts dangerous to human life which would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States; and

(c) Is intended—

(1) To intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

(2) To influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or

(3) To affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping.

Published ordinance. A published law of any political subdivision of a State which the Director determines to be relevant to the enforcement of this part and which is contained on a list compiled by the Director, which list is incorporated by reference in the Federal Register, revised annually, and furnished to licensees under this part.

Renounced U.S. citizenship. (a) A person has renounced his U.S. citizenship if the person, having been a citizen of the United States, has renounced citizenship either—

(1) Before a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States in a foreign state pursuant to 8 U.S.C. 1481(a)(5); or

(2) Before an officer designated by the Attorney General when the United States is in a state of war pursuant to 8 U.S.C. 1481(a)(6).

(b) The term shall not include any renunciation of citizenship that has been reversed as a result of administrative or judicial appeal.

Revolver. A projectile weapon, of the pistol type, having a breechloading chambered cylinder so arranged that the cocking of the hammer or movement of the trigger rotates it and brings the next cartridge in line with the barrel for firing.

Rifle. A weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder, and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed metallic cartridge to fire only a single projectile through a rifled bore for each single pull of the trigger.

Semiautomatic assault weapon. (a) Any of the firearms, or copies or duplicates of the firearms in any caliber, known as:

(1) Norinco, Mitchell, and Poly Technologies Avtomat Kalashnikovs (all models),

(2) Action Arms Israeli Military Industries UZI and Galil,

(3) Beretta Ar70 (SC-70),

(4) Colt AR-15,

(5) Fabrique National FN/FAL, FN/LAR, and FNC,

(6) SWD M-10, M-11, M-11/9, and M-12,

(7) Steyr AUG,

(8) INTRATEC TEC-9, TEC-DC9 and TEC-22, and

(9) Revolving cylinder shotguns, such as (or similar to) the Street Sweeper and Striker 12;

(b) A semiautomatic rifle that has an ability to accept a detachable magazine and has at least 2 of—

(1) A folding or telescoping stock,

(2) A pistol grip that protrudes conspicuously beneath the action of the weapon,

(3) A bayonet mount,

(4) A flash suppressor or threaded barrel designed to accommodate a flash suppressor, and

(5) A grenade launcher;

(c) A semiautomatic pistol that has an ability to accept a detachable magazine and has at least 2 of—

(1) An ammunition magazine that attaches to the pistol outside of the pistol grip,

(2) A threaded barrel capable of accepting a barrel extender, flash suppressor, forward handgrip, or silencer,

(3) A shroud that is attached to, or partially or completely encircles, the barrel and that permits the shooter to hold the firearm with the nontrigger hand without being burned,

(4) A manufactured weight of 50 ounces or more when the pistol is unloaded, and

(5) A semiautomatic version of an automatic firearm; and

(d) A semiautomatic shotgun that has at least 2 of—

(1) A folding or telescoping stock,

(2) A pistol grip that protrudes conspicuously beneath the action of the weapon,

(3) A fixed magazine capacity in excess of 5 rounds, and

(4) An ability to accept a detachable magazine.

Semiautomatic pistol. Any repeating pistol which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge to extract the fired cartridge case and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge.

Semiautomatic rifle. Any repeating rifle which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge to extract the fired cartridge case and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge.

Semiautomatic shotgun. Any repeating shotgun which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge to extract the fired cartridge case and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge.

Short-barreled rifle. A rifle having one or more barrels less than 16 inches in length, and any weapon made from a rifle, whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise, if such weapon, as modified, has an overall length of less than 26 inches.

Short-barreled shotgun. A shotgun having one or more barrels less than 18 inches in length, and any weapon made from a shotgun, whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise, if such weapon as modified has an overall length of less than 26 inches.

Shotgun. A weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder, and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of the explosive in a fixed shotgun shell to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger.

State. A State of the United States. The term shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not including the Canal Zone).

State of residence. The State in which an individual resides. An individual resides in a State if he or she is present in a State with the intention of making a home in that State. If an individual is on active duty as a member of the Armed Forces, the individual's State of residence is the State in which his or her permanent duty station is located, as stated in 18 U.S.C. 921(b). The following are examples that illustrate this definition:

Example 1. A maintains a home in State X. A travels to State Y on a hunting, fishing, business, or other type of trip. A does not become a resident of State Y by reason of such trip.
Example 2. A maintains a home in State X and a home in State Y. A resides in State X except for weekends or the summer months of the year and in State Y for the weekends or the summer months of the year. During the time that A actually resides in State X, A is a resident of State X, and during the time that A actually resides in State Y, A is a resident of State Y.
Example 3. A, an alien, travels to the United States on a three-week vacation to State X. A does not have a state of residence in State X because A does not have the intention of making a home in State X while on vacation. This is true regardless of the length of the vacation.
Example 4. A, an alien, travels to the United States to work for three years in State X. A rents a home in State X, moves his personal possessions into the home, and his family resides with him in the home. A intends to reside in State X during the 3-year period of his employment. A is a resident of State X.

Unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance. A person who uses a controlled substance and has lost the power of self-control with reference to the use of controlled substance; and any person who is a current user of a controlled substance in a manner other than as prescribed by a licensed physician. Such use is not limited to the use of drugs on a particular day, or within a matter of days or weeks before, but rather that the unlawful use has occurred recently enough to indicate that the individual is actively engaged in such conduct. A person may be an unlawful current user of a controlled substance even though the substance is not being used at the precise time the person seeks to acquire a firearm or receives or possesses a firearm. An inference of current use may be drawn from evidence of a recent use or possession of a controlled substance or a pattern of use or possession that reasonably covers the present time, e.g., a conviction for use or possession of a controlled substance within the past year; multiple arrests for such offenses within the past 5 years if the most recent arrest occurred within the past year; or persons found through a drug test to use a controlled substance unlawfully, provided that the test was administered within the past year. For a current or former member of the Armed Forces, an inference of current use may be drawn from recent disciplinary or other administrative action based on confirmed drug use, e.g., court-martial conviction, nonjudicial punishment, or an administrative discharge based on drug use or drug rehabilitation failure.

Unserviceable firearm. A firearm which is incapable of discharging a shot by means of an explosive and is incapable of being readily restored to a firing condition.

U.S.C. The United States Code.

(5 U.S.C. 552(a), 80 Stat. 383, as amended; 18 U.S.C. 847 (84 Stat. 959); 18 U.S.C. 926 (82 Stat. 1226))

[T.D. ATF-48, 43 FR 13536, Mar. 31 1978; 44 FR 55842, Sept. 28, 1979]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §478.11, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

Subpart C—Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions

§478.21   Forms prescribed.

(a) The Director is authorized to prescribe all forms required by this part. All of the information called for in each form shall be furnished as indicated by the headings on the form and the instructions on or pertaining to the form. In addition, information called for in each form shall be furnished as required by this part.

(b) Requests for forms should be submitted to the ATF Distribution Center (http://www.atf.gov) or made by calling (202) 648-6420.

(5 U.S.C. 552(a); 80 Stat. 383, as amended)

[T.D. ATF-92, 46 FR 46915, Sept. 23, 1981, as amended by T.D. ATF-249, 52 FR 5962, Feb. 27, 1987; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10492, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. 372, 61 FR 20724, May 8, 1996; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240, Oct. 2, 2008; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug.11, 2014]

§478.22   Alternate methods or procedures; emergency variations from requirements.

(a) Alternate methods or procedures. The licensee, on specific approval by the Director as provided in this paragraph, may use an alternate method or procedure in lieu of a method or procedure specifically prescribed in this part. The Director may approve an alternate method or procedure, subject to stated conditions, when it is found that:

(1) Good cause is shown for the use of the alternate method or procedure;

(2) The alternate method or procedure is within the purpose of, and consistent with the effect intended by, the specifically prescribed method or procedure and that the alternate method or procedure is substantially equivalent to that specifically prescribed method or procedure; and

(3) The alternate method or procedure will not be contrary to any provision of law and will not result in an increase in cost to the Government or hinder the effective administration of this part. Where the licensee desires to employ an alternate method or procedure, a written application shall be submitted to the appropriate Director of Industry Operations, for transmittal to the Director. The application shall specifically describe the proposed alternate method or procedure and shall set forth the reasons for it. Alternate methods or procedures may not be employed until the application is approved by the Director. The licensee shall, during the period of authorization of an alternate method or procedure, comply with the terms of the approved application. Authorization of any alternate method or procedure may be withdrawn whenever, in the judgment of the Director, the effective administration of this part is hindered by the continuation of the authorization.

(b) Emergency variations from requirements. The Director may approve a method of operation other than as specified in this part, where it is found that an emergency exists and the proposed variation from the specified requirements are necessary and the proposed variations (1) will not hinder the effective administration of this part, and (2) will not be contrary to any provisions of law. Variations from requirements granted under this paragraph are conditioned on compliance with the procedures, conditions, and limitations set forth in the approval of the application. Failure to comply in good faith with the procedures, conditions, and limitations shall automatically terminate the authority for the variations, and the licensee shall fully comply with the prescribed requirements of regulations from which the variations were authorized. Authority for any variation may be withdrawn whenever, in the judgment of the Director, the effective administration of this part is hindered by the continuation of the variation. Where the licensee desires to employ an emergency variation, a written application shall be submitted to the appropriate Director of Industry Operations for transmittal to the Director. The application shall describe the proposed variation and set forth the reasons for it. Variations may not be employed until the application is approved.

(c) Retention of approved variations. The licensee shall retain, as part of the licensee's records, available for examination by ATF officers, any application approved by the Director under this section.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10492, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.23   Right of entry and examination.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), any ATF officer, when there is reasonable cause to believe a violation of the Act has occurred and that evidence of the violation may be found on the premises of any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, may, upon demonstrating such cause before a Federal magistrate and obtaining from the magistrate a warrant authorizing entry, enter during business hours (or, in the case of a licensed collector, the hours of operation) the premises, including places of storage, of any such licensee for the purpose of inspecting or examining:

(1) Any records or documents required to be kept by such licensee under this part and

(2) Any inventory of firearms or ammunition kept or stored by any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer at such premises or any firearms curios or relics or ammunition kept or stored by any licensed collector at such premises.

(b) Any ATF officer, without having reasonable cause to believe a violation of the Act has occurred or that evidence of the violation may be found and without demonstrating such cause before a Federal magistrate or obtaining from the magistrate a warrant authorizing entry, may enter during business hours the premises, including places of storage, of any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer for the purpose of inspecting or examining the records, documents, ammunition and firearms referred to in paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) In the course of a reasonable inquiry during the course of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee,

(2) For insuring compliance with the recordkeeping requirements of this part:

(i) Not more than once during any 12-month period, or

(ii) At any time with respect to records relating to a firearm involved in a criminal investigation that is traced to the licensee, or

(3) When such inspection or examination may be required for determining the disposition of one or more particular firearms in the course of a bona fide criminal investigation.

(c) Any ATF officer, without having reasonable cause to believe a violation of the Act has occurred or that evidence of the violation may be found and without demonstrating such cause before a Federal magistrate or obtaining from the magistrate a warrant authorizing entry, may enter during hours of operation the premises, including places of storage, of any licensed collector for the purpose of inspecting or examining the records, documents, firearms, and ammunition referred to in paragraph (a) of this section (1) for ensuring compliance with the recordkeeping requirements of this part not more than once during any 12-month period or (2) when such inspection or examination may be required for determining the disposition of one or more particular firearms in the course of a bona fide criminal investigation. At the election of the licensed collector, the annual inspection permitted by this paragraph shall be performed at the ATF office responsible for conducting such inspection in closest proximity to the collectors premises.

(d) The inspections and examinations provided by this section do not authorize an ATF officer to seize any records or documents other than those records or documents constituting material evidence of a violation of law. If an ATF officer seizes such records or documents, copies shall be provided the licensee within a reasonable time.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10492, Mar. 31, 1988; as amended by T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17450, Apr. 6, 1995]

§478.24   Compilation of State laws and published ordinances.

(a) The Director shall annually revise and furnish Federal firearms licensees with a compilation of State laws and published ordinances which are relevant to the enforcement of this part. The Director annually revises the compilation and publishes it as “State Laws and Published Ordinances—Firearms” which is furnished free of charge to licensees under this part. Where the compilation has previously been furnished to licensees, the Director need only furnish amendments of the relevant laws and ordinances to such licensees.

(b) “State Laws and Published Ordinances—Firearms” is incorporated by reference in this part. It is ATF Publication 5300.5, revised yearly. The current edition is available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. It is also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10493, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004]

§478.25   Disclosure of information.

The Director of Industry Operations may make available to any Federal, State or local law enforcement agency any information which is obtained by reason of the provisions of the Act with respect to the identification of persons prohibited from purchasing or receiving firearms or ammunition who have purchased or received firearms or ammunition, together with a description of such firearms or ammunition. Upon the request of any Federal, State or local law enforcement agency, the Director of Industry Operations may provide such agency any information contained in the records required to be maintained by the Act or this part.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10493, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.25a   Responses to requests for information.

Each licensee shall respond immediately to, and in no event later than 24 hours after the receipt of, a request by an ATF officer at the National Tracing Center for information contained in the records required to be kept by this part for determining the disposition of one or more firearms in the course of a bona fide criminal investigation. The requested information shall be provided orally to the ATF officer within the 24-hour period. Verification of the identity and employment of National Tracing Center personnel requesting information may be established at the time the requested information is provided by telephoning the toll-free number 1-800-788-7132 or using the toll-free facsimile (FAX) number 1-800-788-7133.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17451, Apr. 6, 1996, as amended by T.D. ATF-396, 63 FR 12646, Mar. 16, 1998; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.26   Curio and relic determination.

Any person who desires to obtain a determination whether a particular firearm is a curio or relic shall submit a written request, in duplicate, for a ruling thereon to the Director. Each such request shall be executed under the penalties of perjury and shall contain a complete and accurate description of the firearm, and such photographs, diagrams, or drawings as may be necessary to enable the Director to make a determination. The Director may require the submission of the firearm for examination and evaluation. If the submission of the firearm is impractical, the person requesting the determination shall so advise the Director and designate the place where the firearm will be available for examination and evaluation.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10493, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.27   Destructive device determination.

The Director shall determine in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 921(a)(4) whether a device is excluded from the definition of a destructive device. A person who desires to obtain a determination under that provision of law for any device which he believes is not likely to be used as a weapon shall submit a written request, in triplicate, for a ruling thereon to the Director. Each such request shall be executed under the penalties of perjury and contain a complete and accurate description of the device, the name and address of the manufacturer or importer thereof, the purpose of and use for which it is intended, and such photographs, diagrams, or drawings as may be necessary to enable the Director to make his determination. The Director may require the submission to him, of a sample of such device for examination and evaluation. If the submission of such device is impracticable, the person requesting the ruling shall so advise the Director and designate the place where the device will be available for examination and evaluation.

§478.28   Transportation of destructive devices and certain firearms.

(a) The Director may authorize a person to transport in interstate or foreign commerce any destructive device, machine gun, short-barreled shotgun, or short-barreled rifle, if he finds that such transportation is reasonably necessary and is consistent with public safety and applicable State and local law. A person who desires to transport in interstate or foreign commerce any such device or weapon shall submit a written request so to do, in duplicate, to the Director. The request shall contain:

(1) A complete description and identification of the device or weapon to be transported;

(2) A statement whether such transportation involves a transfer of title;

(3) The need for such transportation;

(4) The approximate date such transportation is to take place;

(5) The present location of such device or weapon and the place to which it is to be transported;

(6) The mode of transportation to be used (including, if by common or contract carrier, the name and address of such carrier); and

(7) Evidence that the transportation or possession of such device or weapon is not inconsistent with the laws at the place of destination.

(b) No person shall transport any destructive device, machine gun, short-barreled shotgun, or short-barreled rifle in interstate or foreign commerce under the provisions of this section until he has received specific authorization so to do from the Director. Authorization granted under this section does not carry or import relief from any other statutory or regulatory provision relating to firearms.

(c) This section shall not be construed as requiring licensees to obtain authorization to transport destructive devices, machine guns, short-barreled shotguns, and short-barreled rifles in interstate or foreign commerce: Provided, That in the case of a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer, such a licensee is qualified under the National Firearms Act (see also Part 479 of this chapter) and this part to engage in the business with respect to the device or weapon to be transported, and that in the case of a licensed collector, the device or weapon to be transported is a curio or relic.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16385, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-138, 48 FR 35399, Aug. 4, 1983]

§478.29   Out-of-State acquisition of firearms by nonlicensees.

No person, other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, shall transport into or receive in the State where the person resides (or if a corporation or other business entity, where it maintains a place of business) any firearm purchased or otherwise obtained by such person outside that State: Provided, That the provisions of this section:

(a) Shall not preclude any person who lawfully acquires a firearm by bequest or intestate succession in a State other than his State of residence from transporting the firearm into or receiving it in that State, if it is lawful for such person to purchase or possess such firearm in that State,

(b) Shall not apply to the transportation or receipt of a rifle or shotgun obtained from a licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector in a State other than the transferee's State of residence in an over-the-counter transaction at the licensee's premises obtained in conformity with the provisions of §478.96(c) and

(c) Shall not apply to the transportation or receipt of a firearm obtained in conformity with the provisions of §§478.30 and 478.97.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10493, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.29a   Acquisition of firearms by nonresidents.

No person, other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, who does not reside in any State shall receive any firearms unless such receipt is for lawful sporting purposes.

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17451, Apr. 6, 1995]

§478.30   Out-of-State disposition of firearms by nonlicensees.

No nonlicensee shall transfer, sell, trade, give, transport, or deliver any firearm to any other nonlicensee, who the transferor knows or has reasonable cause to believe does not reside in (or if the person is a corporation or other business entity, does not maintain a place of business in) the State in which the transferor resides: Provided, That the provisions of this section:

(a) shall not apply to the transfer, transportation, or delivery of a firearm made to carry out a bequest of a firearm to, or any acquisition by intestate succession of a firearm by, a person who is permitted to acquire or possess a firearm under the laws of the State of his residence; and

(b) shall not apply to the loan or rental of a firearm to any person for temporary use for lawful sporting purposes.

[T.D. ATF-313, 56 FR 32508, July 17, 1991; 57 FR 1205, Jan. 10, 1992]

§478.31   Delivery by common or contract carrier.

(a) No person shall knowingly deliver or cause to be delivered to any common or contract carrier for transportation or shipment in interstate or foreign commerce to any person other than a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector, any package or other container in which there is any firearm or ammunition without written notice to the carrier that such firearm or ammunition is being transported or shipped: Provided, That any passenger who owns or legally possesses a firearm or ammunition being transported aboard any common or contract carrier for movement with the passenger in interstate or foreign commerce may deliver said firearm or ammunition into the custody of the pilot, captain, conductor or operator of such common or contract carrier for the duration of that trip without violating any provision of this part.

(b) No common or contract carrier shall require or cause any label, tag, or other written notice to be placed on the outside of any package, luggage, or other container indicating that such package, luggage, or other container contains a firearm.

(c) No common or contract carrier shall transport or deliver in interstate or foreign commerce any firearm or ammunition with knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that the shipment, transportation, or receipt thereof would be in violation of any provision of this part: Provided, however, That the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply in respect to the transportation of firearms or ammunition in in-bond shipment under Customs laws and regulations.

(d) No common or contract carrier shall knowingly deliver in interstate or foreign commerce any firearm without obtaining written acknowledgement of receipt from the recipient of the package or other container in which there is a firearm: Provided, That this paragraph shall not apply with respect to the return of a firearm to a passenger who places firearms in the carrier's custody for the duration of the trip.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16385, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7112, Feb. 14, 1994; T.D. ATF-361, 60 FR 10786, Feb. 27, 1995]

§478.32   Prohibited shipment, transportation, possession, or receipt of firearms and ammunition by certain persons.

(a) No person may ship or transport any firearm or ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce, or receive any firearm or ammunition which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, or possess any firearm or ammunition in or affecting commerce, who:

(1) Has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year,

(2) Is a fugitive from justice,

(3) Is an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 802),

(4) Has been adjudicated as a mental defective or has been committed to a mental institution,

(5) Being an alien—

(i) Is illegally or unlawfully in the United States; or

(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa: Provided, That the provisions of this paragraph (a)(5)(ii) do not apply to any alien who has been lawfully admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa, if that alien is—

(A) Admitted to the United States for lawful hunting or sporting purposes or is in possession of a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States;

(B) An official representative of a foreign government who is either accredited to the United States Government or the Government's mission to an international organization having its headquarters in the United States or is en route to or from another country to which that alien is accredited. This exception only applies if the firearm or ammunition is shipped, transported, possessed, or received in the representative's official capacity;

(C) An official of a foreign government or a distinguished foreign visitor who has been so designated by the Department of State. This exception only applies if the firearm or ammunition is shipped, transported, possessed, or received in the official's or visitor's official capacity, except if the visitor is a private individual who does not have an official capacity; or

(D) A foreign law enforcement officer of a friendly foreign government entering the United States on official law enforcement business,

(6) Has been discharged from the Armed Forces under dishonorable conditions,

(7) Having been a citizen of the United States, has renounced citizenship,

(8) Is subject to a court order that—

(i) Was issued after a hearing of which such person received actual notice, and at which such person had an opportunity to participate;

(ii) Restrains such person from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner of such person or child of such intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child; and

(iii)(A) Includes a finding that such person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of such intimate partner or child; or

(B) By its terms explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against such intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury, or

(9) Has been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.

(b) No person who is under indictment for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year may ship or transport any firearm or ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce or receive any firearm or ammunition which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce.

(c) Any individual, who to that individual's knowledge and while being employed by any person described in paragraph (a) of this section, may not in the course of such employment receive, possess, or transport any firearm or ammunition in commerce or affecting commerce or receive any firearm or ammunition which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce.

(d) No person may sell or otherwise dispose of any firearm or ammunition to any person knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that such person:

(1) Is under indictment for, or has been convicted in any court of, a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year,

(2) Is a fugitive from justice,

(3) Is an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 802),

(4) Has been adjudicated as a mental defective or has been committed to a mental institution,

(5) Being an alien—

(i) Is illegally or unlawfully in the United States; or

(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa: Provided, That the provisions of this paragraph (d)(5)(ii) do not apply to any alien who has been lawfully admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa, if that alien is—

(A) Admitted to the United States for lawful hunting or sporting purposes or is in possession of a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States;

(B) An official representative of a foreign government who is either accredited to the United States Government or the Government's mission to an international organization having its headquarters in the United States or en route to or from another country to which that alien is accredited. This exception only applies if the firearm or ammunition is shipped, transported, possessed, or received in the representative's official capacity;

(C) An official of a foreign government or a distinguished foreign visitor who has been so designated by the Department of State. This exception only applies if the firearm or ammunition is shipped, transported, possessed, or received in the official's or visitor's official capacity, except if the visitor is a private individual who does not have an official capacity; or

(D) A foreign law enforcement officer of a friendly foreign government entering the United States on official law enforcement business,

(6) Has been discharged from the Armed Forces under dishonorable conditions,

(7) Having been a citizen of the United States, has renounced citizenship,

(8) Is subject to a court order that restrains such person from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner of such person or child of such intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child: Provided, That the provisions of this paragraph shall only apply to a court order that—

(i) Was issued after a hearing of which such person received actual notice, and at which such person had the opportunity to participate; and

(ii)(A) Includes a finding that such person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of such intimate partner or child; or

(B) By its terms explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against such intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury, or

(9) Has been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.

(e) The actual notice required by paragraphs (a)(8)(i) and (d)(8)(i) of this section is notice expressly and actually given, and brought home to the party directly, including service of process personally served on the party and service by mail. Actual notice also includes proof of facts and circumstances that raise the inference that the party received notice including, but not limited to, proof that notice was left at the party's dwelling house or usual place of abode with some person of suitable age and discretion residing therein; or proof that the party signed a return receipt for a hearing notice which had been mailed to the party. It does not include notice published in a newspaper.

(f) Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(3), any individual who has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa may receive a waiver from the prohibition contained in paragraph (a)(5)(ii) of this section if the Attorney General approves a petition for the waiver.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10493, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17451, Apr. 6, 1995; T.D. ATF-391, 62 FR 34639, June 27, 1997; T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35522, June 30, 1998; T.D. ATF-471, 67 FR 5425, Feb. 5, 2002; T.D. ATF-24F, 77 FR 33629, June 7, 2012]

§478.33   Stolen firearms and ammunition.

No person shall transport or ship in interstate or foreign commerce any stolen firearm or stolen ammunition knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the firearm or ammunition was stolen, and no person shall receive, possess, conceal, store, barter, sell, or dispose of any stolen firearm or stolen ammunition, or pledge or accept as security for a loan any stolen firearm or stolen ammunition, which is moving as, which is a part of, which constitutes, or which has been shipped or transported in, interstate or foreign commerce, either before or after it was stolen, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the firearm or ammunition was stolen.

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17451, Apr. 6, 1995]

§478.33a   Theft of firearms.

No person shall steal or unlawfully take or carry away from the person or the premises of a person who is licensed to engage in the business of importing, manufacturing, or dealing in firearms, any firearm in the licensee's business inventory that has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce.

[T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7112, Feb. 14, 1994]

§478.34   Removed, obliterated, or altered serial number.

No person shall knowingly transport, ship, or receive in interstate or foreign commerce any firearm which has had the importer's or manufacturer's serial number removed, obliterated, or altered, or possess or receive any firearm which has had the importer's or manufacturer's serial number removed, obliterated, or altered and has, at any time, been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce.

[T.D. ATF-313, 56 FR 32508, July 17, 1991]

§478.35   Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.

Licensing and recordkeeping requirements, including permissible alternate records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director of Industry Operations on a case by case basis.

§478.36   Transfer or possession of machine guns.

No person shall transfer or possess a machine gun except:

(a) A transfer to or by, or possession by or under the authority of, the United States, or any department or agency thereof, or a State, or a department, agency, or political subdivision thereof. (See Part 479 of this chapter); or

(b) Any lawful transfer or lawful possession of a machine gun that was lawfully possessed before May 19, 1986 (See Part 479 of this chapter).

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10494, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.37   Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except:

(a) The manufacture or importation, or the sale or delivery by any manufacturer or importer, of armor piercing ammunition for the use of the United States or any department or agency thereof or any State or any department, agency or political subdivision thereof;

(b) The manufacture, or the sale or delivery by a manufacturer or importer, of armor piercing ammunition for the purpose of exportation; or

(c) The sale or delivery by a manufacturer or importer of armor piercing ammunition for the purposes of testing or experimentation as authorized by the Director under the provisions of §478.149.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10494, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.38   Transportation of firearms.

Notwithstanding any other provision of any law or any rule or regulation of a State or any political subdivision thereof, any person who is not otherwise prohibited by this chapter from transporting, shipping, or receiving a firearm shall be entitled to transport a firearm for any lawful purpose from any place where such person may lawfully possess and carry such firearm to any other place where such person may lawfully possess and carry such firearm if, during such transportation the firearm is unloaded, and neither the firearm nor any ammunition being transported is readily accessible or is directly accessible from the passenger compartment of such transporting vehicle: Provided, That in the case of a vehicle without a compartment separate from the driver's compartment the firearm or ammunition shall be contained in a locked container other than the glove compartment or console.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10494, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.39   Assembly of semiautomatic rifles or shotguns.

(a) No person shall assemble a semiautomatic rifle or any shotgun using more than 10 of the imported parts listed in paragraph (c) of this section if the assembled firearm is prohibited from importation under section 925(d)(3) as not being particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes.

(b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to:

(1) The assembly of such rifle or shotgun for sale or distribution by a licensed manufacturer to the United States or any department or agency thereof or to any State or any department, agency, or political subdivision thereof; or

(2) The assembly of such rifle or shotgun for the purposes of testing or experimentation authorized by the Director under the provisions of §478.151; or

(3) The repair of any rifle or shotgun which had been imported into or assembled in the United States prior to November 30, 1990, or the replacement of any part of such firearm.

(c) For purposes of this section, the term imported parts are:

(1) Frames, receivers, receiver castings, forgings or stampings

(2) Barrels

(3) Barrel extensions

(4) Mounting blocks (trunions)

(5) Muzzle attachments

(6) Bolts

(7) Bolt carriers

(8) Operating rods

(9) Gas pistons

(10) Trigger housings

(11) Triggers

(12) Hammers

(13) Sears

(14) Disconnectors

(15) Buttstocks

(16) Pistol grips

(17) Forearms, handguards

(18) Magazine bodies

(19) Followers

(20) Floorplates

[T.D. ATF-346, 58 FR 40589, July 29, 1993]

§478.39a   Reporting theft or loss of firearms.

Each licensee shall report the theft or loss of a firearm from the licensee's inventory (including any firearm which has been transferred from the licensee's inventory to a personal collection and held as a personal firearm for at least 1 year), or from the collection of a licensed collector, within 48 hours after the theft or loss is discovered. Licensees shall report thefts or losses by telephoning 1-888-930-9275 (nationwide toll free number) and by preparing ATF Form 3310.11, Federal Firearms Licensee Theft/Loss Report, in accordance with the instructions on the form. The original of the report shall be forwarded to the office specified thereon, and Copy 1 shall be retained by the licensee as part of the licensee's permanent records. Theft or loss of any firearm shall also be reported to the appropriate local authorities.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0039)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17451, Apr. 6, 1995, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.40   Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

(a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon.

(b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to:

(1) The possession or transfer of any semiautomatic assault weapon otherwise lawfully possessed in the United States under Federal law on September 13, 1994;

(2) Any of the firearms, or replicas or duplicates of the firearms, specified in 18 U.S.C. 922, appendix A, as such firearms existed on October 1, 1993;

(3) Any firearm that—

(i) Is manually operated by bolt, pump, lever, or slide action;

(ii) Has been rendered permanently inoperable; or

(iii) Is an antique firearm;

(4) Any semiautomatic rifle that cannot accept a detachable magazine that holds more than 5 rounds of ammunition;

(5) Any semiautomatic shotgun that cannot hold more than 5 rounds of ammunition in a fixed or detachable magazine;

(6) The manufacture for, transfer to, or possession by the United States or a department or agency of the United States or a State or a department, agency, or political subdivision of a State, or a transfer to or possession by a law enforcement officer employed by such an entity for purposes of law enforcement;

(7) The transfer to a licensee under title I of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) for purposes of establishing and maintaining an on-site physical protection system and security organization required by Federal law, or possession by an employee or contractor of such licensee on-site for such purposes or off-site for purposes of licensee-authorized training or transportation of nuclear materials;

(8) The possession, by an individual who is retired from service with a law enforcement agency and is not otherwise prohibited from receiving a firearm, of a semiautomatic assault weapon transferred to the individual by the agency upon such retirement;

(9) The manufacture, transfer, or possession of a semiautomatic assault weapon by a licensed manufacturer or licensed importer for the purposes of testing or experimentation as authorized by the Director under the provisions of §478.153; or

(10) The manufacture, transfer, or possession of a semiautomatic assault weapon by a licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer for the purpose of exportation in compliance with the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778).

(c) Manufacture and dealing in semiautomatic assault weapons. Subject to compliance with the provisions of this part, licensed manufacturers and licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons may manufacture and deal in such weapons manufactured after September 13, 1994: Provided, The licensee obtains evidence that the weapons will be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. Examples of acceptable evidence include the following:

(1) Contracts between the manufacturer and dealers stating that the weapons may only be sold to law enforcement agencies, law enforcement officers, or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section;

(2) Copies of purchase orders submitted to the manufacturer or dealer by law enforcement agencies or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section;

(3) Copies of letters submitted to the manufacturer or dealer by government agencies, law enforcement officers, or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section expressing an interest in purchasing the semiautomatic assault weapons;

(4) Letters from dealers to the manufacturer stating that sales will only be made to law enforcement agencies, law enforcement officers, or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and

(5) Letters from law enforcement officers purchasing in accordance with paragraph (b)(6) of this section and §478.132.

(Paragraph (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0041)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17451, Apr. 6, 1995], as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.40a   Transfer and possession of large capacity ammunition feeding devices.

(a) Prohibition. No person shall transfer or possess a large capacity ammunition feeding device.

(b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to:

(1) The possession or transfer of any large capacity ammunition feeding device otherwise lawfully possessed on September 13, 1994;

(2) The manufacture for, transfer to, or possession by the United States or a department or agency of the United States or a State or a department, agency, or political subdivision of a State, or a transfer to or possession by a law enforcement officer employed by such an entity for purposes of law enforcement;

(3) The transfer to a licensee under title I of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 for purposes of establishing and maintaining an on-site physical protection system and security organization required by Federal law, or possession by an employee or contractor of such licensee on-site for such purposes or off-site for purposes of licensee-authorized training or transportation of nuclear materials;

(4) The possession, by an individual who is retired from service with a law enforcement agency and is not otherwise prohibited from receiving ammunition, of a large capacity ammunition feeding device transferred to the individual by the agency upon such retirement;

(5) The manufacture, transfer, or possession of any large capacity ammunition feeding device by a manufacturer or importer for the purposes of testing or experimentation in accordance with §478.153; or

(6) The manufacture, transfer, or possession of any large capacity ammunition feeding device by a manufacturer or importer for the purpose of exportation in accordance with the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778).

(c) Importation, manufacture, and dealing in large capacity ammunition feeding devices. Possession and transfer of large capacity ammunition feeding devices by persons who manufacture, import, or deal in such devices will be presumed to be lawful if such persons maintain evidence establishing that the devices are possessed and transferred for sale to purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section. Examples of acceptable evidence include the following:

(1) Contracts between persons who import or manufacture such devices and persons who deal in such devices stating that the devices may only be sold to law enforcement agencies or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section;

(2) Copies of purchase orders submitted to persons who manufacture, import, or deal in such devices by law enforcement agencies or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section;

(3) Copies of letters submitted to persons who manufacture, import, or deal in such devices by government agencies or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section expressing an interest in purchasing the devices;

(4) Letters from persons who deal in such devices to persons who import or manufacture such devices stating that sales will only be made to law enforcement agencies or other purchasers specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and

(5) Letters from law enforcement officers purchasing in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section and §478.132.

(Paragraph (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0041)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17452, Apr. 6, 1995, as amended by T.D. ATF-383, 61 FR 39321, July 29, 1996; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240, Oct. 2, 2008]

Subpart D—Licenses

§478.41   General.

(a) Each person intending to engage in business as an importer or manufacturer of firearms or ammunition, or a dealer in firearms shall, before commencing such business, obtain the license required by this subpart for the business to be operated. Each person who desires to obtain a license as a collector of curios or relics may obtain such a license under the provisions of this subpart.

(b) Each person intending to engage in business as a firearms or ammunition importer or manufacturer, or dealer in firearms shall file an application, with the required fee (see §478.42), with ATF in accordance with the instructions on the form (see §478.44), and, pursuant to §478.47, receive the license required for such business from the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center. Except as provided in §478.50, a license must be obtained for each business and each place at which the applicant is to do business. A license as an importer or manufacturer of firearms or ammunition, or a dealer in firearms shall, subject to the provisions of the Act and other applicable provisions of law, entitle the licensee to transport, ship, and receive firearms and ammunition covered by such license in interstate or foreign commerce and to engage in the business specified by the license, at the location described on the license, and for the period stated on the license. However, it shall not be necessary for a licensed importer or a licensed manufacturer to also obtain a dealer's license in order to engage in business on the licensed premises as a dealer in the same type of firearms authorized by the license to be imported or manufactured. Payment of the license fee as an importer or manufacturer of destructive devices, ammunition for destructive devices or armor piercing ammunition or as a dealer in destructive devices includes the privilege of importing or manufacturing firearms other than destructive devices and ammunition for other than destructive devices or ammunition other than armor piercing ammunition, or dealing in firearms other than destructive devices, as the case may be, by such a licensee at the licensed premises.

(c) Each person seeking the privileges of a collector licensed under this part shall file an application, with the required fee (see §478.42), with ATF in accordance with the instructions on the form (see §478.44), and pursuant to §478.47, receive from the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, the license covering the collection of curios and relics. A separate license may be obtained for each collection premises, and such license shall, subject to the provisions of the Act and other applicable provisions of law, entitle the licensee to transport, ship, receive, and acquire curios and relics in interstate or foreign commerce, and to make disposition of curios and relics in interstate or foreign commerce, to any other person licensed under the provisions of this part, for the period stated on the license.

(d) The collector license provided by this part shall apply only to transactions related to a collector's activity in acquiring, holding or disposing of curios and relics. A collector's license does not authorize the collector to engage in a business required to be licensed under the Act or this part. Therefore, if the acquisitions and dispositions of curios and relics by a collector bring the collector within the definition of a manufacturer, importer, or dealer under this part, he shall qualify as such. (See also §478.93 of this part.)

(18 U.S.C. 847 (84 Stat. 959); 18 U.S.C. 926 (82 Stat. 1226))

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10494, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53054, Dec. 27, 1989]

§478.42   License fees.

Each applicant shall pay a fee for obtaining a firearms license or ammunition license, a separate fee being required for each business or collecting activity at each place of such business or activity, as follows:

(a) For a manufacturer:

(1) Of destructive devices, ammunition for destructive devices or armor piercing ammunition—$1,000 per year.

(2) Of firearms other than destructive devices—$50 per year.

(3) Of ammunition for firearms other than ammunition for destructive devices or armor piercing ammunition—$10 per year.

(b) For an importer:

(1) Of destructive devices, ammunition for destructive devices or armor piercing ammunition—$1,000 per year.

(2) Of firearms other than destructive devices or ammunition for firearms other than destructive devices or ammunition other than armor piercing ammunition—$50 per year.

(c) For a dealer:

(1) In destructive devices—$1,000 per year.

(2) Who is not a dealer in destructive devices—$200 for 3 years, except that the fee for renewal of a valid license shall be $90 for 3 years.

(d) For a collector of curios and relics—$10 per year.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10494, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7112, Feb. 14, 1994]

§478.43   License fee not refundable.

No refund of any part of the amount paid as a license fee shall be made where the operations of the licensee are, for any reason, discontinued during the period of an issued license. However, the license fee submitted with an application for a license shall be refunded if that application is denied or withdrawn by the applicant prior to being acted upon.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10494, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.44   Original license.

(a)(1) Any person who intends to engage in business as a firearms or ammunition importer or manufacturer, or firearms dealer, or who has not previously been licensed under the provisions of this part to so engage in business, or who has not timely submitted an application for renewal of the previous license issued under this part, must file an application for license, ATF Form 7 (Firearms), in duplicate, with ATF in accordance with the instructions on the form. The application must:

(i) Be executed under the penalties of perjury and the penalties imposed by 18 U.S.C. 924;

(ii) Include a photograph and fingerprints as required in the instructions on the form;

(iii) If the applicant (including, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association, any individual possessing, directly or indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the corporation, partnership, or association) is an alien who has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa, applicable documentation demonstrating that the alien falls within an exception specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(2) (e.g., a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States) or has obtained a waiver as specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(3); and

(iv) Include the appropriate fee in the form of money order or check made payable to the “Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives”.

(2) ATF Form 7 may be obtained by contacting the ATF Distribution Center (See §478.21).

(b) Any person who desires to obtain a license as a collector under the Act and this part, or who has not timely submitted an application for renewal of the previous license issued under this part, shall file an application, ATF Form 7CR (Curios and Relics), with ATF in accordance with the instructions on the form. If the applicant (including, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association, any individual possessing, directly or indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the corporation, partnership, or association) is an alien who has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa, the application must include applicable documentation demonstrating that the alien falls within an exception specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(2) (e.g., a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States) or has obtained a waiver as specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(3). The application must be executed under the penalties of perjury and the penalties imposed by 18 U.S.C. 924. The application shall include the appropriate fee in the form of a money order or check made payable to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. ATF Form 7CR (Curios and Relics) may be obtained by contacting the ATF Distribution Center (See §478.21).

(Paragraphs (a) and (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0060)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17453, Apr. 6, 1995, as amended by T.D. ATF-471, 67 FR 5425, Feb. 5, 2002; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57240, Oct. 2, 2008; T.D. ATF-24F, 77 FR 33629, June 7, 2012]

§478.45   Renewal of license.

If a licensee intends to continue the business or activity described on a license issued under this part during any portion of the ensuing year, the licensee shall, unless otherwise notified in writing by the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, execute and file with ATF prior to the expiration of the license an application for a license renewal, ATF Form 8 Part II, in accordance with the instructions on the form, and the required fee. If the applicant is an alien who has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa, the application must include applicable documentation demonstrating that the alien falls within an exception specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(2) (e.g., a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States) or has obtained a waiver as specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(3). The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center may, in writing, require the applicant for license renewal to also file completed ATF Form 7 or ATF Form 7CR in the manner required by §478.44. In the event the licensee does not timely file an ATF Form 8 Part II, the licensee must file an ATF Form 7 or ATF Form 7CR as required by §478.44, and obtain the required license before continuing business or collecting activity. If an ATF Form 8 Part II is not timely received through the mails, the licensee should so notify the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0060)

[ATF-11, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008, as amended by T.D. ATF-24F, 77 FR 33629, June 7, 2012]

§478.46   Insufficient fee.

If an application is filed with an insufficient fee, the application and any fee submitted will be returned to the applicant.

(18 U.S.C. 847 (84 Stat. 959); 18 U.S.C. 926 (82 Stat. 1226))

[T.D. ATF-200, 50 FR 10498, Mar. 15, 1985]

§478.47   Issuance of license.

(a) Upon receipt of a properly executed application for a license on ATF Form 7, ATF Form 7CR, or ATF Form 8 Part II, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall, upon finding through further inquiry or investigation, or otherwise, that the applicant is qualified, issue the appropriate license. Each license shall bear a serial number and such number may be assigned to the licensee to whom issued for so long as the licensee maintains continuity of renewal in the same location (State).

(b) The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall approve a properly executed application for license on ATF Form 7, ATF Form 7CR, or ATF Form 8 Part II, if:

(1) The applicant is 21 years of age or over;

(2) The applicant (including, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association, any individual possessing, directly or indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the corporation, partnership, or association) is not prohibited under the provisions of the Act from shipping or transporting in interstate or foreign commerce, or possessing in or affecting commerce, any firearm or ammunition, or from receiving any firearm or ammunition which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce;

(3) The applicant has not willfully violated any of the provisions of the Act or this part;

(4) The applicant has not willfully failed to disclose any material information required, or has not made any false statement as to any material fact, in connection with his application; and

(5) The applicant has in a State (i) premises from which he conducts business subject to license under the Act or from which he intends to conduct such business within a reasonable period of time, or (ii) in the case of a collector, premises from which he conducts his collecting subject to license under the Act or from which he intends to conduct such collecting within a reasonable period of time.

(c) The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall approve or the Director of Industry Operations shall deny an application for a license within the 60-day period beginning on the date the properly executed application was received: Provided, That when an applicant for license renewal is a person who is, pursuant to the provisions of §478.78, §478.143, or §478.144, conducting business or collecting activity under a previously issued license, action regarding the application will be held in abeyance pending the completion of the proceedings against the applicant's existing license or license application, final determination of the applicant's criminal case, or final action by the Director on an application for relief submitted pursuant to §478.144, as the case may be.

(d) When the Director of Industry Operations or the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center fails to act on an application for a license within the 60-day period prescribed by paragraph (c) of this section, the applicant may file an action under section 1361 of title 28, United States Code, to compel ATF to act upon the application.

(18 U.S.C. 847 (84 Stat. 959); 18 U.S.C. 926 (82 Stat. 1226))

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-135, 48 FR 24068, May 31, 1983; T.D. ATF-241, 51 FR 39619, Oct. 29, 1986; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10495, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53054, Dec. 27, 1989; T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17453, Apr. 6, 1995; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.48   Correction of error on license.

(a) Upon receipt of a license issued under the provisions of this part, each licensee shall examine same to ensure that the information contained thereon is accurate. If the license is incorrect, the licensee shall return the license to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, with a statement showing the nature of the error. The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall correct the error, if the error was made in his office, and return the license. However, if the error resulted from information contained in the licensee's application for the license, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall require the licensee to file an amended application setting forth the correct information and a statement explaining the error contained in the application. Upon receipt of the amended application and a satisfactory explanation of the error, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall make the correction on the license and return same to the licensee.

(b) When the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, finds through any means other than notice from the licensee that an incorrect license has been issued, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, may require the holder of the incorrect license to (1) return the license for correction, and (2) if the error resulted from information contained in the licensee's application for the license, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall require the licensee to file an amended application setting forth the correct information, and a statement explaining the error contained in the application. The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, then shall make the correction on the license and return same to the licensee.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53054, Dec. 27, 1989]

§478.49   Duration of license.

The license entitles the person to whom issued to engage in the business or activity specified on the license, within the limitations of the Act and the regulations contained in this part, for a three year period, unless terminated sooner.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10495, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.50   Locations covered by license.

The license covers the class of business or the activity specified in the license at the address specified therein. A separate license must be obtained for each location at which a firearms or ammunition business or activity requiring a license under this part is conducted except:

(a) No license is required to cover a separate warehouse used by the licensee solely for storage of firearms or ammunition if the records required by this part are maintained at the licensed premises served by such warehouse;

(b) A licensed collector may acquire curios and relics at any location, and dispose of curios or relics to any licensee or to other persons who are residents of the State where the collector's license is held and the disposition is made;

(c) A licensee may conduct business at a gun show pursuant to the provision of §478.100; or

(d) A licensed importer, manufacturer, or dealer may engage in the business of dealing in curio or relic firearms with another licensee at any location pursuant to the provisions of §478.100.

[T.D. ATF-191, 49 FR 46890, Nov. 29, 1984, as amended by T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35523, June 30, 1998]

§478.51   License not transferable.

Licenses issued under this part are not transferable. In the event of the lease, sale, or other transfer of the operations authorized by the license, the successor must obtain the license required by this part prior to commencing such operations. However, for rules on right of succession, see §478.56.

§478.52   Change of address.

(a) Licensees may during the term of their current license remove their business or activity to a new location at which they intend regularly to carry on such business or activity by filing an Application for an Amended Federal Firearms License, ATF Form 5300.38, in duplicate, not less than 30 days prior to such removal with the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center. The ATF Form 5300.38 shall be completed in accordance with the instructions on the form. The application must be executed under the penalties of perjury and penalties imposed by 18 U.S.C. 924. The application shall be accompanied by the licensee's original license. The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center Center, may, in writing, require the applicant for an amended license to also file completed ATF Form 7 or ATF Form 7CR, or portions thereof, in the manner required by §478.44.

(b) Upon receipt of a properly executed application for an amended license, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall, upon finding through further inquiry or investigation, or otherwise, that the applicant is qualified at the new location, issue the amended license, and return it to the applicant. The license shall be valid for the remainder of the term of the original license. The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, shall, if the applicant is not qualified, refer the application for amended license to the Director of Industry Operations for denial in accordance with §478.71.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0040)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17453, Apr. 6, 1995, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.53   Change in trade name.

A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which he conducts his business: Provided, That such licensee furnishes his license for endorsement of such change to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center within 30 days from the date the licensee begins his business under the new trade name.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-48, 44 FR 55842, Sept. 28, 1979; T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53055, Dec. 27, 1989]

§478.54   Change of control.

In the case of a corporation or association holding a license under this part, if actual or legal control of the corporation or association changes, directly or indirectly, whether by reason of change in stock ownership or control (in the licensed corporation or in any other corporation), by operations of law, or in any other manner, the licensee shall, within 30 days of such change, give written notification thereof, executed under the penalties of perjury, to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center. Upon expiration of the license, the corporation or association must file a Form 7 (Firearms) as required by §478.44.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53054, Dec. 27, 1989]

§478.55   Continuing partnerships.

Where, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership is not terminated on death or insolvency of a partner, but continues until the winding up of the partnership affairs is completed, and the surviving partner has the exclusive right to the control and possession of the partnership assets for the purpose of liquidation and settlement, such surviving partner may continue to operate the business under the license of the partnership. If such surviving partner acquires the business on completion of the settlement of the partnership, he shall obtain a license in his own name from the date of acquisition, as provided in §478.44. The rule set forth in this section shall also apply where there is more than one surviving partner.

§478.56   Right of succession by certain persons.

(a) Certain persons other than the licensee may secure the right to carry on the same firearms or ammunition business at the same address shown on, and for the remainder of the term of, a current license. Such persons are:

(1) The surviving spouse or child, or executor, administrator, or other legal representative of a deceased licensee; and

(2) A receiver or trustee in bankruptcy, or an assignee for benefit of creditors.

(b) In order to secure the right provided by this section, the person or persons continuing the business shall furnish the license for that business for endorsement of such succession to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, within 30 days from the date on which the successor begins to carry on the business.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-48, 44 FR 55842, Sept. 28, 1979; T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53055, Dec. 27, 1989; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

§478.57   Discontinuance of business.

(a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within 30 days thereof furnish to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center notification of the discontinuance or succession. (See also §478.127.)

(b) Since section 922(v), Title 18, U.S.C., makes it unlawful to transfer or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon, except as provided in the law, any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer intending to discontinue business shall, prior to going out of business, transfer in compliance with the provisions of this part any semiautomatic assault weapon manufactured or imported after September 13, 1994, to a person specified in §478.40(b), or, subject to the provisions of §§478.40(c) and 478.132, a licensed manufacturer, a licensed importer, or a licensed dealer.

(c) Since section 922(w), Title 18, U.S.C., makes it unlawful to transfer or possess a large capacity ammunition feeding device, except as provided in the law, any person who manufactures, imports, or deals in such devices and who intends to discontinue business shall, prior to going out of business, transfer in compliance with the provisions of this part any large capacity ammunition feeding device manufactured after September 13, 1994, to a person specified in §478.40a(b), or, subject to the provisions of §§478.40a(c) and 478.132, a person who manufactures, imports, or deals in such devices.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-48, 44 FR 55842, Sept. 28, 1979; T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53055, Dec. 27, 1989; T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17453, Apr. 6, 1995; T.D. ATF-383, 61 FR 39321, July 29, 1996]

§478.58   State or other law.

A license issued under this part confers no right or privilege to conduct business or activity contrary to State or other law. The holder of such a license is not by reason of the rights and privileges granted by that license immune from punishment for operating a firearm or ammunition business or activity in violation of the provisions of any State or other law. Similarly, compliance with the provisions of any State or other law affords no immunity under Federal law or regulations.

§478.59   Abandoned application.

Upon receipt of an incomplete or improperly executed application on ATF form 7 (5310.12), or ATF Form 8 (5310.11) Part II, the applicant shall be notified of the deficiency in the application. If the application is not corrected and returned within 30 days following the date of notification, the application shall be considered as having been abandoned and the license fee returned.

[T.D. ATF-135, 48 FR 24068, May 31, 1983]

§478.60   Certain continuances of business.

A licensee who furnishes his license to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center for correction or endorsement in compliance with the provisions contained in this subpart may continue his operations while awaiting its return.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53054, Dec. 27, 1989]

Subpart E—License Proceedings

§478.71   Denial of an application for license.

Whenever the Director has reason to believe that an applicant is not qualified to receive a license under the provisions of §478.47, he may issue a notice of denial, on Form 4498, to the applicant. The notice shall set forth the matters of fact and law relied upon in determining that the application should be denied, and shall afford the applicant 15 days from the date of receipt of the notice in which to request a hearing to review the denial. If no request for a hearing is filed within such time, the application shall be disapproved and a copy, so marked, shall be returned to the applicant.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10495, Mar. 31, 1988; ATF-27P, 74 FR 1878, Jan. 14, 2009]

§478.72   Hearing after application denial.

If the applicant for an original or renewal license desires a hearing to review the denial of his application, he shall file a request therefor, in duplicate, with the Director of Industry Operations within 15 days after receipt of the notice of denial.The request should include a statement of the reasons therefor. On receipt of the request, the Director of Industry Operations shall, as expeditiously as possible, make the necessary arrangements for the hearing and advise the applicant of the date, time, location, and the name of the officer before whom the hearing will be held.Such notification shall be made not less than 10 days in advance of the date set for the hearing. On conclusion of the hearing and consideration of all relevant facts and circumstances presented by the applicant or his representative, the Director shall render his decision confirming or reversing the denial of the application. If the decision is that the denial should stand, a certified copy of the Director's findings and conclusions shall be furnished to the applicant with a final notice of denial, Form 5300.13.A copy of the application, marked “Disapproved,” will be returned to the applicant. If the decision is that the license applied for should be issued, the applicant shall be so notified, in writing, and the license shall be issued as provided by §478.47.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968, as amended by ATF-27P, 74 FR 1878, Jan. 14, 2009; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

§478.73   Notice of revocation, suspension, or imposition of civil fine.

(a) Basis for action. Whenever the Director has reason to believe that a licensee has willfully violated any provision of the Act or this part, a notice of revocation of the license, ATF Form 4500, may be issued. In addition, a notice of revocation, suspension, or imposition of a civil fine may be issued on ATF Form 4500 whenever the Director has reason to believe that a licensee has knowingly transferred a firearm to an unlicensed person and knowingly failed to comply with the requirements of 18 U.S.C. 922(t)(1) with respect to the transfer and, at the time that the transferee most recently proposed the transfer, the national instant criminal background check system was operating and information was available to the system demonstrating that the transferee's receipt of a firearm would violate 18 U.S.C. 922(g) or 922(n) or State law.

(b) Issuance of notice. The notice shall set forth the matters of fact constituting the violations specified, dates, places, and the sections of law and regulations violated. The Director shall afford the licensee 15 days from the date of receipt of the notice in which to request a hearing prior to suspension or revocation of the license, or imposition of a civil fine. If the licensee does not file a timely request for a hearing, the Director shall issue a final notice of suspension or revocation and/or imposition of a civil fine on ATF Form 5300.13, as provided in §478.74.

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58278, Oct. 29, 1998, as amended by T.D. ATF-27P, 74 FR 1878, Jan. 14, 2009; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

§478.74   Request for hearing after notice of suspension, revocation, or imposition of civil fine.

If a licensee desires a hearing after receipt of a notice of suspension or revocation of a license, or imposition of a civil fine, the licensee shall file a request, in duplicate, with the Director of Industry Operations within 15 days after receipt of the notice of suspension or revocation of a license, or imposition of a civil fine. On receipt of such request, the Director of Industry Operations shall, as expeditiously as possible, make necessary arrangements for the hearing and advise the licensee of the date, time, location and the name of the officer before whom the hearing will be held. Such notification shall be made no less than 10 days in advance of the date set for the hearing. On conclusion of the hearing and consideration of all the relevant presentations made by the licensee or the licensee's representative, the Director shall render a decision and shall prepare a brief summary of the findings and conclusions on which the decision is based. If the decision is that the license should be revoked, or, in actions under 18 U.S.C. 922(t)(5), that the license should be revoked or suspended, and/or that a civil fine should be imposed, a certified copy of the summary shall be furnished to the licensee with the final notice of revocation, suspension, or imposition of a civil fine on ATF Form 5300.13. If the decision is that the license should not be revoked, or in actions under 18 U.S.C. 922(t)(5), that the license should not be revoked or suspended, and a civil fine should not be imposed, the licensee shall be notified in writing.

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58278, Oct. 29, 1998, as amended by ATF-27P, 74 FR 1878, Jan. 14, 2009; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

§478.75   Service on applicant or licensee.

All notices and other documents required to be served on an applicant or licensee under this subpart shall be served by certified mail or by personal delivery. Where service is by certified mail, a signed duplicate original copy of the formal document shall be mailed, with return receipt requested, to the applicant or licensee at the address stated in his application or license, or at his last known address. Where service is by personal delivery, a signed duplicate original copy of the formal document shall be delivered to the applicant or licensee, or, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association, by delivering it to an officer, manager, or general agent thereof, or to its attorney of record.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and further redesignated by T.D. ATF-241, 51 FR 39619, Oct. 29, 1986; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10496, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.76   Representation at a hearing.

An applicant or licensee may be represented by an attorney, certified public accountant, or other person recognized to practice before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives as provided in 31 CFR Part 8 (Practice Before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms), if he has otherwise complied with the applicable requirements of 26 CFR 601.521 through 601.527 (conference and practice requirements for alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities) of this chapter. The Director may be represented in proceedings by an attorney in the office of Chief Counsel who is authorized to execute and file motions, briefs and other papers in the proceeding, on behalf of the Director, in his own name as “Attorney for the Government.”

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-48, 44 FR 55842, Sept. 28, 1979; T.D. ATF-92, 46 FR 46916, Sept. 23, 1981. Further redesignated by T.D. ATF-241, 51 FR 39619, Oct. 29, 1986; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10496, Mar. 31, 1988; ATF-27P, 74 FR 1878, Jan. 14, 2009; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

§478.77   Designated place of hearing.

The designated place of the hearing shall be a location convenient to the aggrieved party.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10496, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.78   Operations by licensee after notice.

In any case where denial, suspension, or revocation proceedings are pending before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, or notice of denial, suspension, or revocation has been served on the licensee and he has filed timely request for a hearing, the license in the possession of the licensee shall remain in effect even though such license has expired, or the suspension or revocation date specified in the notice of revocation on Form 4500 served on the licensee has passed: Provided, That with respect to a license that has expired, the licensee has timely filed an application for the renewal of his license. If a licensee is dissatisfied with a posthearing decision revoking or suspending the license or denying the application or imposing a civil fine, as the case may be, he may, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 923(f)(3), within 60 days after receipt of the final notice denying the application or revoking or suspending the license or imposing a civil fine, file a petition for judicial review of such action. Such petition should be filed with the U.S. district court for the district in which the applicant or licensee resides or has his principal place of business. In such case, when the Director finds that justice so requires, he may postpone the effective date of suspension or revocation of a license or authorize continued operations under the expired license, as applicable, pending judicial review.

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58278, Oct. 29, 1998, as amended by ATF-27P, 74 FR 1878, Jan. 14, 2009; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

Subpart F—Conduct of Business

§478.91   Posting of license.

Any license issued under this part shall be kept posted and kept available for inspection on the premises covered by the license.

§478.92   How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition feeding devices?

(a)(1) Firearms. You, as a licensed manufacturer or licensed importer of firearms, must legibly identify each firearm manufactured or imported as follows:

(i) By engraving, casting, stamping (impressing), or otherwise conspicuously placing or causing to be engraved, cast, stamped (impressed) or placed on the frame or receiver thereof an individual serial number. The serial number must be placed in a manner not susceptible of being readily obliterated, altered, or removed, and must not duplicate any serial number placed by you on any other firearm. For firearms manufactured or imported on and after January 30, 2002, the engraving, casting, or stamping (impressing) of the serial number must be to a minimum depth of .003 inch and in a print size no smaller than 116 inch; and

(ii) By engraving, casting, stamping (impressing), or otherwise conspicuously placing or causing to be engraved, cast, stamped (impressed) or placed on the frame, receiver, or barrel thereof certain additional information. This information must be placed in a manner not susceptible of being readily obliterated, altered, or removed. For firearms manufactured or imported on and after January 30, 2002, the engraving, casting, or stamping (impressing) of this information must be to a minimum depth of .003 inch. The additional information includes:

(A) The model, if such designation has been made;

(B) The caliber or gauge;

(C) Your name (or recognized abbreviation) and also, when applicable, the name of the foreign manufacturer;

(D) In the case of a domestically made firearm, the city and State (or recognized abbreviation thereof) where you as the manufacturer maintain your place of business; and

(E) In the case of an imported firearm, the name of the country in which it was manufactured and the city and State (or recognized abbreviation thereof) where you as the importer maintain your place of business. For additional requirements relating to imported firearms, see Customs regulations at 19 CFR part 134.

(2) Firearm frames or receivers. A firearm frame or receiver that is not a component part of a complete weapon at the time it is sold, shipped, or otherwise disposed of by you must be identified as required by this section.

(3) Special markings for semiautomatic assault weapons, effective July 5, 1995. In the case of any semiautomatic assault weapon manufactured after September 13, 1994, you must mark the frame or receiver “RESTRICTED LAW ENFORCEMENT/GOVERNMENT USE ONLY” or, in the case of weapons manufactured for export, “FOR EXPORT ONLY,” in a manner not susceptible of being readily obliterated, altered, or removed. For weapons manufactured or imported on and after January 30, 2002, the engraving, casting, or stamping (impressing) of the special markings prescribed in this paragraph (a)(3) must be to a minimum depth of .003 inch.

(4) Exceptions. (i) Alternate means of identification. The Director may authorize other means of identification upon receipt of a letter application from you, submitted in duplicate, showing that such other identification is reasonable and will not hinder the effective administration of this part.

(ii) Destructive devices. In the case of a destructive device, the Director may authorize other means of identifying that weapon upon receipt of a letter application from you, submitted in duplicate, showing that engraving, casting, or stamping (impressing) such a weapon would be dangerous or impracticable.

(iii) Machine guns, silencers, and parts. Any part defined as a machine gun, firearm muffler, or firearm silencer in §478.11, that is not a component part of a complete weapon at the time it is sold, shipped, or otherwise disposed of by you, must be identified as required by this section. The Director may authorize other means of identification of parts defined as machine guns other than frames or receivers and parts defined as mufflers or silencers upon receipt of a letter application from you, submitted in duplicate, showing that such other identification is reasonable and will not hinder the effective administration of this part.

(5) Measurement of height and depth of markings. The depth of all markings required by this section will be measured from the flat surface of the metal and not the peaks or ridges. The height of serial numbers required by paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section will be measured as the distance between the latitudinal ends of the character impression bottoms (bases).

(b) Armor piercing ammunition—(1) Marking of ammunition. Each licensed manufacturer or licensed importer of armor piercing ammunition shall identify such ammunition by means of painting, staining or dying the exterior of the projectile with an opaque black coloring. This coloring must completely cover the point of the projectile and at least 50 percent of that portion of the projectile which is visible when the projectile is loaded into a cartridge case.

(2) Labeling of packages. Each licensed manufacturer or licensed importer of armor piercing ammunition shall clearly and conspicuously label each package in which armor piercing ammunition is contained, e.g., each box, carton, case, or other container. The label shall include the words “ARMOR PIERCING” in block letters at least 14 inch in height. The lettering shall be located on the exterior surface of the package which contains information concerning the caliber or gauge of the ammunition. There shall also be placed on the same surface of the package in block lettering at least 18 inch in height the words “FOR GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES OR EXPORTATION ONLY.” The statements required by this subparagraph shall be on a contrasting background.

(c) Large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured after September 13, 1994. (1) Each person who manufactures or imports any large capacity ammunition feeding device manufactured after September 13, 1994, shall legibly identify each such device with a serial number. Such person may use the same serial number for all large capacity ammunition feeding devices produced.

(i) Additionally, in the case of a domestically made large capacity ammunition feeding device, such device shall be marked with the name, city and State (or recognized abbreviation thereof) of the manufacturer;

(ii) And in the case of an imported large capacity ammunition feeding device, such device shall be marked:

(A) With the name of the manufacturer, country of origin, and,

(B) Effective July 5, 1995, the name, city and State (or recognized abbreviation thereof) of the importer.

(iii) Further, large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured after September 13, 1994, shall be marked “RESTRICTED LAW ENFORCEMENT/GOVERNMENT USE ONLY” or, in the case of devices manufactured or imported for export, effective July 5, 1995, “FOR EXPORT ONLY.”

(2) All markings required by this paragraph (c) shall be cast, stamped, or engraved on the exterior of the device. In the case of a magazine, the markings shall be placed on the magazine body.

(3) Exceptions—(i) Metallic links. Persons who manufacture or import metallic links for use in the assembly of belted ammunition are only required to place the identification marks prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section on the containers used for the packaging of the links.

(ii) Alternate means of identification. The Director may authorize other means of identifying large capacity ammunition feeding devices upon receipt of a letter application, in duplicate, from the manufacturer or importer showing that such other identification is reasonable and will not hinder the effective administration of this part.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0050)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10496, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17454, Apr. 6, 1995; T.D. ATF-383, 61 FR 39321, July 29, 1996; T.D. ATF-396, 63 FR 12646, Mar. 16, 1998; T.D. ATF-461, 66 FR 40600, Aug. 3, 2001; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.93   Authorized operations by a licensed collector.

The license issued to a collector of curios or relics under the provisions of this part shall cover only transactions by the licensed collector in curios and relics. The collector's license is of no force or effect and a licensed collector is of the same status under the Act and this part as a nonlicensee with respect to (a) any acquisition or disposition of firearms other than curios or relics, or any transportation, shipment, or receipt of firearms other than curios or relics in interstate or foreign commerce, and (b) any transaction with a nonlicensee involving any firearm other than a curio or relic. (See also §478.50.) A collectors license is not necessary to receive or dispose of ammunition, and a licensed collector is not precluded by law from receiving or disposing of armor piercing ammunition. However, a licensed collector may not dispose of any ammunition to a person prohibited from receiving or possessing ammunition (see §478.99(c)). Any licensed collector who disposes of armor piercing ammunition must record the disposition as required by §478.125 (a) and (b).

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10496, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.94   Sales or deliveries between licensees.

A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer selling or otherwise disposing of firearms, and a licensed collector selling or otherwise disposing of curios or relics, to another licensee shall verify the identity and licensed status of the transferee prior to making the transaction. Verification shall be established by the transferee furnishing to the transferor a certified copy of the transferee's license and by such other means as the transferor deems necessary: Provided, That it shall not be required (a) for a transferee who has furnished a certified copy of its license to a transferor to again furnish such certified copy to that transferor during the term of the transferee's current license, (b) for a licensee to furnish a certified copy of its license to another licensee if a firearm is being returned either directly or through another licensee to such licensee and (c) for licensees of multilicensed business organizations to furnish certified copies of their licenses to other licensed locations operated by such organization: Provided further, That a multilicensed business organization may furnish to a transferor, in lieu of a certified copy of each license, a list, certified to be true, correct and complete, containing the name, address, license number, and the date of license expiration of each licensed location operated by such organization, and the transferor may sell or otherwise dispose of firearms as provided by this section to any licensee appearing on such list without requiring a certified copy of a license therefrom. A transferor licensee who has the certified information required by this section may sell or dispose of firearms to a licensee for not more than 45 days following the expiration date of the transferee's license.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10496, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.95   Certified copy of license.

The license furnished to each person licensed under the provisions of this part contains a purchasing certification statement. This original license may be reproduced and the reproduction then certified by the licensee for use pursuant to §178.94. If the licensee desires an additional copy of the license for certification (instead of making a reproduction of the original license), the licensee may submit a request, in writing, for a certified copy or copies of the license to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center. The request must set forth the name, trade name (if any) and address of the licensee, and the number of license copies desired. There is a charge of $1 for each copy. The fee paid for copies of the license must accompany the request for copies. The fee may be paid by (a) cash, or (b) money order or check made payable to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10497, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53055, Dec. 27, 1989; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.96   Out-of-State and mail order sales.

(a) The provisions of this section shall apply when a firearm is purchased by or delivered to a person not otherwise prohibited by the Act from purchasing or receiving it.

(b) A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer may sell a firearm that is not subject to the provisions of §478.102(a) to a nonlicensee who does not appear in person at the licensee's business premises if the nonlicensee is a resident of the same State in which the licensee's business premises are located, and the nonlicensee furnishes to the licensee the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, required by §478.124. The nonlicensee shall attach to such record a true copy of any permit or other information required pursuant to any statute of the State and published ordinance applicable to the locality in which he resides. The licensee shall prior to shipment or delivery of the firearm, forward by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested) a copy of the record, Form 4473, to the chief law enforcement officer named on such record, and delay shipment or delivery of the firearm for a period of at least 7 days following receipt by the licensee of the return receipt evidencing delivery of the copy of the record to such chief law enforcement officer, or the return of the copy of the record to him due to the refusal of such chief law enforcement officer to accept same in accordance with U.S. Postal Service regulations. The original Form 4473, and evidence of receipt or rejection of delivery of the copy of the Form 4473 sent to the chief law enforcement officer shall be retained by the licensee as a part of the records required of him to be kept under the provisions of subpart H of this part.

(c)(1) A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer may sell or deliver a rifle or shotgun, and a licensed collector may sell or deliver a rifle or shotgun that is a curio or relic to a nonlicensed resident of a State other than the State in which the licensee's place of business is located if—

(i) The purchaser meets with the licensee in person at the licensee's premises to accomplish the transfer, sale, and delivery of the rifle or shotgun;

(ii) The licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer complies with the provisions of §478.102;

(iii) The purchaser furnishes to the licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, required by §478.124; and

(iv) The sale, delivery, and receipt of the rifle or shotgun fully comply with the legal conditions of sale in both such States.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (c) of this section, any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer is presumed, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to have had actual knowledge of the State laws and published ordinances of both such States.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0021)

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-48, 44 FR 55842, Sept. 28, 1979; T.D. ATF-241, 51 FR 39620, Oct. 29, 1986; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10497, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7112, Feb. 14, 1994; T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58278, Oct. 29, 1998; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.97   Loan or rental of firearms.

(a) A licensee may lend or rent a firearm to any person for temporary use off the premises of the licensee for lawful sporting purposes: Provided, That the delivery of the firearm to such person is not prohibited by §478.99(b) or §478.99(c), the licensee complies with the requirements of §478.102, and the licensee records such loan or rental in the records required to be kept by him under Subpart H of this part.

(b) A club, association, or similar organization temporarily furnishing firearms (whether by loan, rental, or otherwise) to participants in a skeet, trap, target, or similar shooting activity for use at the time and place such activity is held does not, unattended by other circumstances, cause such club, association, or similar organization to be engaged in the business of a dealer in firearms or as engaging in firearms transactions. Therefore, licensing and recordkeeping requirements contained in this part pertaining to firearms transactions would not apply to this temporary furnishing of firearms for use on premises on which such an activity is conducted.

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58278, Oct. 29, 1998]

§478.98   Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.

The sale or delivery by a licensee of any destructive device, machine gun, short-barreled shotgun, or short-barreled rifle, to any person other than another licensee who is licensed under this part to deal in such device or firearm, is prohibited unless the person to receive such device or firearm furnishes to the licensee a sworn statement setting forth

(a) The reasons why there is a reasonable necessity for such person to purchase or otherwise acquire the device or weapon; and

(b) That such person's receipt or possession of the device or weapon would be consistent with public safety. Such sworn statement shall be made on the application to transfer and register the firearm required by Part 479 of this chapter. The sale or delivery of the device or weapon shall not be made until the application for transfer is approved by the Director and returned to the licensee (transferor) as provided in Part 479 of this chapter.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10497, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.99   Certain prohibited sales or deliveries.

(a) Interstate sales or deliveries. A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector shall not sell or deliver any firearm to any person not licensed under this part and who the licensee knows or has reasonable cause to believe does not reside in (or if a corporation or other business entity, does not maintain a place of business in) the State in which the licensee's place of business or activity is located: Provided, That the foregoing provisions of this paragraph (1) shall not apply to the sale or delivery of a rifle or shotgun (curio or relic, in the case of a licensed collector) to a resident of a State other than the State in which the licensee's place of business or collection premises is located if the requirements of §478.96(c) are fully met, and (2) shall not apply to the loan or rental of a firearm to any person for temporary use for lawful sporting purposes (see §478.97).

(b) Sales or deliveries to underaged persons. A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector shall not sell or deliver (1) any firearm or ammunition to any individual who the importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector knows or has reasonable cause to believe is less than 18 years of age, and, if the firearm, or ammunition, is other than a shotgun or rifle, or ammunition for a shotgun or rifle, to any individual who the importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector knows or has reasonable cause to believe is less than 21 years of age, or (2) any firearm to any person in any State where the purchase or possession by such person of such firearm would be in violation of any State law or any published ordinance applicable at the place of sale, delivery, or other disposition, unless the importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the purchase or possession would not be in violation of such State law or such published ordinance.

(c) Sales or deliveries to prohibited categories of persons. A licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector shall not sell or otherwise dispose of any firearm or ammunition to any person knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that such person:

(1) Is, except as provided by §478.143, under indictment for, or, except as provided by §478.144, has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year;

(2) Is a fugitive from justice;

(3) Is an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substance Act, 21 U.S.C. 802);

(4) Has been adjudicated as a mental defective or has been committed to any mental institution;

(5) Is an alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States or, except as provided in §478.32(f), is an alien who has been admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa: Provided, That the provisions of this paragraph (c)(5) do not apply to any alien who has been lawfully admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa if that alien is—

(i) Admitted to the United States for lawful hunting or sporting purposes or is in possession of a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States;

(ii) An official representative of a foreign government who is either accredited to the United States Government or the Government's mission to an international organization having its headquarters in the United States or en route to or from another country to which that alien is accredited. This exception only applies if the firearm or ammunition is shipped, transported, possessed, or received in the representative's official capacity;

(iii) An official of a foreign government or a distinguished foreign visitor who has been so designated by the Department of State. This exception only applies if the firearm or ammunition is shipped, transported, possessed, or received in the official's or visitor's official capacity, except if the visitor is a private individual who does not have an official capacity; or

(iv) A foreign law enforcement officer of a friendly foreign government entering the United States on official law enforcement business;

(6) Has been discharged from the Armed Forces under dishonorable conditions;

(7) Who, having been a citizen of the United States, has renounced citizenship;

(8) Is subject to a court order that restrains such person from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner of such person or child of such intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child, except that this paragraph shall only apply to a court order that—

(i) Was issued after a hearing of which such person received actual notice, and at which such person had the opportunity to participate; and

(ii)(A) Includes a finding that such person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of such intimate partner or child; or

(B) By its terms explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against such intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury, or

(9) Has been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.

(d) Manufacture, importation, and sale of armor piercing ammunition by licensed importers and licensed manufacturers. A licensed importer or licensed manufacturer shall not import or manufacture armor piercing ammunition or sell or deliver such ammunition, except:

(1) For use of the United States or any department or agency thereof or any State or any department, agency, or political subdivision thereof;

(2) For the purpose of exportation; or

(3) For the purpose of testing or experimentation authorized by the Director under the provisions of §478.149.

(e) Transfer of armor piercing ammunition by licensed dealers. A licensed dealer shall not willfully transfer armor piercing ammunition: Provided, That armor piercing ammunition received and maintained by the licensed dealer as business inventory prior to August 28, 1986, may be transferred to any department or agency of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof if a record of such ammunition is maintained in the form and manner prescribed by §478.125(c). Any licensed dealer who violates this paragraph is subject to license revocation. See subpart E of this part. For purposes of this paragraph, the Director shall furnish each licensed dealer information defining which projectiles are considered armor piercing. Such information may not be all-inclusive for purposes of the prohibition on manufacture, importation, or sale or delivery by a manufacturer or importer of such ammunition or 18 U.S.C. 929 relating to criminal misuse of such ammunition.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10497, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17454, Apr. 6, 1995; T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35523, June 30, 1998; T.D. ATF-471, 67 FR 5426, Feb. 5, 2002; T.D. ATF-24F, 77 FR 33629, June 7, 2012]

§478.100   Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

(a)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or event at which the licensee conducts business shall be considered part of the licensed premises. Accordingly, no separate fee or license is required for the gun show or event locations. However, licensees shall comply with the provisions of §478.91 relating to posting of licenses (or a copy thereof) while conducting business at the gun show or event.

(2) A licensed importer, manufacturer, or dealer may engage in the business of dealing in curio or relic firearms with another licensee at any location.

(b) A gun show or an event is a function sponsored by any national, State, or local organization, devoted to the collection, competitive use, or other sporting use of firearms, or an organization or association that sponsors functions devoted to the collection, competitive use, or other sporting use of firearms in the community.

(c) Licensees conducting business at locations other than the premises specified on their license under the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall maintain firearms records in the form and manner prescribed by subpart H of this part. In addition, records of firearms transactions conducted at such locations shall include the location of the sale or other disposition, be entered in the acquisition and disposition records of the licensee, and retained on the premises specified on the license.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10498, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35523, June 30, 1998]

§478.101   Record of transactions.

Every licensee shall maintain firearms and armor piercing ammunition records in such form and manner as is prescribed by subpart H of this part.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10498, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.102   Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998.

(a) Background check. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer (the licensee) shall not sell, deliver, or transfer a firearm to any other person who is not licensed under this part unless the licensee meets the following requirements:

(1) Before the completion of the transfer, the licensee has contacted NICS;

(2)(i) NICS informs the licensee that it has no information that receipt of the firearm by the transferee would be in violation of Federal or State law and provides the licensee with a unique identification number; or

(ii) Three business days (meaning days on which State offices are open) have elapsed from the date the licensee contacted NICS and NICS has not notified the licensee that receipt of the firearm by the transferee would be in violation of law; and

(3) The licensee verifies the identity of the transferee by examining the identification document presented in accordance with the provisions of §478.124(c).

Example for paragraph (a). A licensee contacts NICS on Thursday, and gets a “delayed” response. The licensee does not get a further response from NICS. If State offices are not open on Saturday and Sunday, 3 business days would have elapsed on the following Tuesday. The licensee may transfer the firearm on the next day, Wednesday.

(b) Transaction number. In any transaction for which a licensee receives a transaction number from NICS (which shall include either a NICS transaction number or, in States where the State is recognized as a point of contact for NICS checks, a State transaction number), such number shall be recorded on a firearms transaction record, Form 4473, which shall be retained in the records of the licensee in accordance with the provisions of §478.129. This applies regardless of whether the transaction is approved or denied by NICS, and regardless of whether the firearm is actually transferred.

(c) Time limitation on NICS checks. A NICS check conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section may be relied upon by the licensee only for use in a single transaction, and for a period not to exceed 30 calendar days from the date that NICS was initially contacted. If the transaction is not completed within the 30-day period, the licensee shall initiate a new NICS check prior to completion of the transfer.

Example 1 for paragraph (c). A purchaser completes the Form 4473 on December 15, 1998, and a NICS check is initiated by the licensee on that date. The licensee is informed by NICS that the information available to the system does not indicate that receipt of the firearm by the transferee would be in violation of law, and a unique identification number is provided. However, the State imposes a 7-day waiting period on all firearms transactions, and the purchaser does not return to pick up the firearm until January 22, 1999. The licensee must conduct another NICS check before transferring the firearm to the purchaser.
Example 2 for paragraph (c). A purchaser completes the Form 4473 on January 25, 1999, and arranges for the purchase of a single firearm. A NICS check is initiated by the licensee on that date. The licensee is informed by NICS that the information available to the system does not indicate that receipt of the firearm by the transferee would be in violation of law, and a unique identification number is provided. The State imposes a 7-day waiting period on all firearms transactions, and the purchaser returns to pick up the firearm on February 15, 1999. Before the licensee executes the Form 4473, and the firearm is transferred, the purchaser decides to purchase an additional firearm. The transfer of these two firearms is considered a single transaction; accordingly, the licensee may add the second firearm to the Form 4473, and transfer that firearm without conducting another NICS check.
Example 3 for paragraph (c). A purchaser completes a Form 4473 on February 15, 1999. The licensee receives a unique identification number from NICS on that date, the Form 4473 is executed by the licensee, and the firearm is transferred. On February 20, 1999, the purchaser returns to the licensee's premises and wishes to purchase a second firearm. The purchase of the second firearm is a separate transaction; thus, a new NICS check must be initiated by the licensee.

(d) Exceptions to NICS check. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply if—

(1) The transferee has presented to the licensee a valid permit or license that—

(i) Allows the transferee to possess, acquire, or carry a firearm;

(ii) Was issued not more than 5 years earlier by the State in which the transfer is to take place; and

(iii) The law of the State provides that such a permit or license is to be issued only after an authorized government official has verified that the information available to such official does not indicate that possession of a firearm by the transferee would be in violation of Federal, State, or local law: Provided, That on and after November 30, 1998, the information available to such official includes the NICS;

(2) The firearm is subject to the provisions of the National Firearms Act and has been approved for transfer under 27 CFR part 479; or

(3) On application of the licensee, in accordance with the provisions of §478.150, the Director has certified that compliance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section is impracticable.

(e) The document referred to in paragraph (d)(1) of this section (or a copy thereof) shall be retained or the required information from the document shall be recorded on the firearms transaction record in accordance with the provisions of §478.131.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0045)

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58279, Oct. 29, 1998, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.103   Posting of signs and written notification to purchasers of handguns.

(a) Each licensed importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector who delivers a handgun to a nonlicensee shall provide such nonlicensee with written notification as described in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) The written notification (ATF I 5300.2) required by paragraph (a) of this section shall state as follows:

(1) The misuse of handguns is a leading contributor to juvenile violence and fatalities.

(2) Safely storing and securing firearms away from children will help prevent the unlawful possession of handguns by juveniles, stop accidents, and save lives.

(3) Federal law prohibits, except in certain limited circumstances, anyone under 18 years of age from knowingly possessing a handgun, or any person from transferring a handgun to a person under 18.

(4) A knowing violation of the prohibition against selling, delivering, or otherwise transferring a handgun to a person under the age of 18 is, under certain circumstances, punishable by up to 10 years in prison.

FEDERAL LAW

The Gun Control Act of 1968, 18 U.S.C. Chapter 44, provides in pertinent part as follows:

18 U.S.C. 922(x)

(x)(1) It shall be unlawful for a person to sell, deliver, or otherwise transfer to a person who the transferor knows or has reasonable cause to believe is a juvenile—

(A) a handgun; or

(B) ammunition that is suitable for use only in a handgun.

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person who is a juvenile to knowingly possess—

(A) a handgun; or

(B) ammunition that is suitable for use only in a handgun.

(3) This subsection does not apply to—

(A) a temporary transfer of a handgun or ammunition to a juvenile or to the possession or use of a handgun or ammunition by a juvenile if the handgun and ammunition are possessed and used by the juvenile—

(i) in the course of employment, in the course of ranching or farming related to activities at the residence of the juvenile (or on property used for ranching or farming at which the juvenile, with the permission of the property owner or lessee, is performing activities related to the operation of the farm or ranch), target practice, hunting, or a course of instruction in the safe and lawful use of a handgun;

(ii) with the prior written consent of the juvenile's parent or guardian who is not prohibited by Federal, State, or local law from possessing a firearm, except—

(I) during transportation by the juvenile of an unloaded handgun in a locked container directly from the place of transfer to a place at which an activity described in clause (i) is to take place and transportation by the juvenile of that handgun, unloaded and in a locked container, directly from the place at which such an activity took place to the transferor; or

(II) with respect to ranching or farming activities as described in clause (i) a juvenile may possess and use a handgun or ammunition with the prior written approval of the juvenile's parent or legal guardian and at the direction of an adult who is not prohibited by Federal, State, or local law from possessing a firearm;

(iii) the juvenile has the prior written consent in the juvenile's possession at all times when a handgun is in the possession of the juvenile; and

(iv) in accordance with State and local law;

(B) a juvenile who is a member of the Armed Forces of the United States or the National Guard who possesses or is armed with a handgun in the line of duty;

(C) a transfer by inheritance of title (but not possession) of a handgun or ammunition to a juvenile; or

(D) the possession of a handgun or ammunition by a juvenile taken in defense of the juvenile or other persons against an intruder into the residence of the juvenile or a residence in which the juvenile is an invited guest.

(4) A handgun or ammunition, the possession of which is transferred to a juvenile in circumstances in which the transferor is not in violation of this subsection shall not be subject to permanent confiscation by the Government if its possession by the juvenile subsequently becomes unlawful because of the conduct of the juvenile, but shall be returned to the lawful owner when such handgun or ammunition is no longer required by the Government for the purposes of investigation or prosecution.

(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term “juvenile” means a person who is less than 18 years of age.

(6)(A) In a prosecution of a violation of this subsection, the court shall require the presence of a juvenile defendant's parent or legal guardian at all proceedings.

(B) The court may use the contempt power to enforce subparagraph (A).

(C) The court may excuse attendance of a parent or legal guardian of a juvenile defendant at a proceeding in a prosecution of a violation of this subsection for good cause shown.

18 U.S.C. 924(a)(6)

(6)(A)(i) A juvenile who violates section 922(x) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both, except that a juvenile described in clause (ii) shall be sentenced to probation on appropriate conditions and shall not be incarcerated unless the juvenile fails to comply with a condition of probation.

(ii) A juvenile is described in this clause if—

(I) the offense of which the juvenile is charged is possession of a handgun or ammunition in violation of section 922(x)(2); and

(II) the juvenile has not been convicted in any court of an offense (including an offense under section 922(x) or a similar State law, but not including any other offense consisting of conduct that if engaged in by an adult would not constitute an offense) or adjudicated as a juvenile delinquent for conduct that if engaged in by an adult would constitute an offense.

(B) A person other than a juvenile who knowingly violates section 922(x)—

(i) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both; and

(ii) if the person sold, delivered, or otherwise transferred a handgun or ammunition to a juvenile knowing or having reasonable cause to know that the juvenile intended to carry or otherwise possess or discharge or otherwise use the handgun or ammunition in the commission of a crime of violence, shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

(c) This written notification shall be delivered to the nonlicensee on ATF I 5300.2, or in the alternative, the same written notification may be delivered to the nonlicensee on another type of written notification, such as a manufacturer's or importer's brochure accompanying the handgun; a manufacturer's or importer's operational manual accompanying the handgun; or a sales receipt or invoice applied to the handgun package or container delivered to a nonlicensee. Any written notification delivered to a nonlicensee other than on ATF I 5300.2 shall include the language set forth in paragraph (b) of this section in its entirety. Any written notification other than ATF I 5300.2 shall be legible, clear, and conspicuous, and the required language shall appear in type size no smaller than 10-point type.

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each licensed importer, manufacturer, or dealer who delivers a handgun to a nonlicensee shall display at its licensed premises (including temporary business locations at gun shows) a sign as described in paragraph (e) of this section. The sign shall be displayed where customers can readily see it. Licensed importers, manufacturers, and dealers will be provided with such signs by ATF. Replacement signs may be requested from the ATF Distribution Center.

(e) The sign (ATF I 5300.1) required by paragraph (d) of this section shall state as follows:

(1) The misuse of handguns is a leading contributor to juvenile violence and fatalities.

(2) Safely storing and securing firearms away from children will help prevent the unlawful possession of handguns by juveniles, stop accidents, and save lives.

(3) Federal law prohibits, except in certain limited circumstances, anyone under 18 years of age from knowingly possessing a handgun, or any person from transferring a handgun to a person under 18.

(4) A knowing violation of the prohibition against selling, delivering, or otherwise transferring a handgun to a person under the age of 18 is, under certain circumstances, punishable by up to 10 years in prison.

Note: ATF I 5300.2 provides the complete language of the statutory prohibitions and exceptions provided in 18 U.S.C. 922(x) and the penalty provisions of 18 U.S.C. 924(a)(6). The Federal firearms licensee posting this sign will provide you with a copy of this publication upon request. Requests for additional copies of ATF I 5300.2 should be submitted to the ATF Distribution Center (http://www.atf.gov) or made by calling (202) 648-6420.

(f) The sign required by paragraph (d) of this section need not be posted on the premises of any licensed importer, manufacturer, or dealer whose only dispositions of handguns to nonlicensees are to nonlicensees who do not appear at the licensed premises and the dispositions otherwise comply with the provisions of this part.

[T.D. ATF-402, 63 FR 37742, July 13, 1998, as amended by T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

Subpart G—Importation

§478.111   General.

(a) Section 922(a)(3) of the Act makes it unlawful, with certain exceptions not pertinent here, for any person other than a licensee to transport into or receive in the State where the person resides any firearm purchased or otherwise obtained by the person outside of that State. However, section 925(a)(4) provides a limited exception for the transportation, shipment, receipt or importation of certain firearms and ammunition by certain members of the United States Armed Forces. Section 922(1) of the Act makes it unlawful for any person knowingly to import or bring into the United States or any possession thereof any firearm or ammunition except as provided by section 925(d) of the Act, which section provides standards for importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States. Section 925(d) also provides standards for importing or bringing firearm barrels into the United States. Accordingly, no firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition may be imported or brought into the United States except as provided by this part.

(b) Where a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition is imported and the authorization for importation required by this subpart has not been obtained by the person importing same, such person shall:

(1) Store, at the person's expense, such firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition at a facility designated by U.S Customs or the Director of Industry Operations to await the issuance of the required authorization or other disposition; or

(2) Abandon such firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to the U.S. Government; or

(3) Export such firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition.

(c) Any inquiry relative to the provisions or procedures under this subpart, other than that pertaining to the payment of customs duties or the release from Customs custody of firearms, firearm barrels, or ammunition authorized by the Director to be imported, shall be directed to the Director of Industry Operations for reply.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10498, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.112   Importation by a licensed importer.

(a) No firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition shall be imported or brought into the United States by a licensed importer (as defined in §478.11) unless the Director has authorized the importation of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition.

(b)(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part I, to import or bring a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition into the United States or a possession thereof under this section must be filed, in triplicate, with the Director. The application must be signed and dated and must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name, address, telephone number, and license number (including expiration date) of the importer;

(ii) The country from which the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition is to be imported;

(iii) The name and address of the foreign seller and foreign shipper;

(iv) A description of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to be imported, including:

(A) The name and address of the manufacturer;

(B) The type (e.g., rifle, shotgun, pistol, revolver and, in the case of ammunition only, ball, wadcutter, shot, etc.);

(C) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(D) The model;

(E) The barrel length, if a firearm or firearm barrel (in inches);

(F) The overall length, if a firearm (in inches);

(G) The serial number, if known;

(H) Whether the firearm is new or used;

(I) The quantity;

(J) The unit cost of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to be imported;

(v) The specific purpose of importation, including final recipient information if different from the importer;

(vi) Verification that if a firearm, it will be identified as required by this part; and

(vii)(A) If a firearm or ammunition imported or brought in for scientific or research purposes, a statement describing such purpose; or

(B) If a firearm or ammunition for use in connection with competition or training pursuant to Chapter 401 of Title 10, U.S.C., a statement describing such intended use; or

(C) If an unserviceable firearm (other than a machine gun) being imported as a curio or museum piece, a description of how it was rendered unserviceable and an explanation of why it is a curio or museum piece; or

(D) If a firearm other than a surplus military firearm, of a type that does not fall within the definition of a firearm under section 5845(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and is for sporting purposes, an explanation of why the firearm is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes; or

(E) If ammunition being imported for sporting purposes, a statement why the ammunition is particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes; or

(F) If a firearm barrel for a handgun, an explanation why the handgun is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes.

(2)(i) If the Director approves the application, such approved application will serve as the permit to import the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition described therein, and importation of such firearms, firearm barrels, or ammunition may continue to be made by the licensed importer under the approved application (permit) during the period specified thereon. The Director will furnish the approved application (permit) to the applicant and retain two copies thereof for administrative use.

(ii) If the Director disapproves the application, the licensed importer will be notified of the basis for the disapproval.

(c) A firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition imported or brought into the United States or a possession thereof under the provisions of this section by a licensed importer may be released from Customs custody to the licensed importer upon showing that the importer has obtained a permit from the Director for the importation of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to be released. The importer will also submit to Customs a copy of the export license authorizing the export of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition from the exporting country. If the exporting country does not require issuance of an export license, the importer must submit a certification, under penalty of perjury, to that effect.

(1) In obtaining the release from Customs custody of a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition authorized by this section to be imported through the use of a permit, the licensed importer will prepare ATF Form 6A, in duplicate, and furnish the original ATF Form 6A to the Customs officer releasing the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition. The Customs officer will, after certification, forward the ATF Form 6A to the address specified on the form.

(2) The ATF Form 6A must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name, address, and license number of the importer;

(ii) The name of the manufacturer of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition;

(iii) The country of manufacture;

(iv) The type;

(v) The model;

(vi) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(vii) The serial number in the case of firearms, if known; and

(viii) The number of firearms, firearm barrels, or rounds of ammunition released.

(d) Within 15 days of the date of release from Customs custody, the licensed importer must:

(1) Forward to the address specified on the form a copy of ATF Form 6A on which must be reported any error or discrepancy appearing on the ATF Form 6A certified by Customs and serial numbers if not previously provided on ATF Form 6A;

(2) Pursuant to §478.92, place all required identification data on each imported firearm if same did not bear such identification data at the time of its release from Customs custody; and

(3) Post in the records required to be maintained by the importer under subpart H of this part all required information regarding the importation.

(Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0005; paragraphs (c) and (d) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0007)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10498, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-426, 65 FR 38198, June 20, 2000; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.113   Importation by other licensees.

(a) No person other than a licensed importer (as defined in §478.11) shall engage in the business of importing firearms or ammunition. Therefore, no firearm or ammunition shall be imported or brought into the United States or a possession thereof by any licensee other than a licensed importer unless the Director issues a permit authorizing the importation of the firearm or ammunition. No barrel for a handgun not generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes shall be imported or brought into the United States or a possession thereof by any person. Therefore, no firearm barrel shall be imported or brought into the United States or possession thereof by any licensee other than a licensed importer unless the Director issues a permit authorizing the importation of the firearm barrel.

(b)(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part I, to import or bring a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition into the United States or a possession thereof by a licensee, other than a licensed importer, must be filed, in triplicate, with the Director. The application must be signed and dated and must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name, address, telephone number, and license number (including expiration date) of the applicant;

(ii) The country from which the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition is to be imported;

(iii) The name and address of the foreign seller and foreign shipper;

(iv) A description of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to be imported, including:

(A) The name and address of the manufacturer;

(B) The type (e.g., rifle, shotgun, pistol, revolver and, in the case of ammunition only, ball, wadcutter, shot, etc.);

(C) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(D) The model;

(E) The barrel length, if a firearm or firearm barrel (in inches);

(F) The overall length, if a firearm (in inches);

(G) The serial number, if known;

(H) Whether the firearm is new or used;

(I) The quantity;

(J) The unit cost of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to be imported;

(v) The specific purpose of importation, including final recipient information if different from the applicant; and

(vi)(A) If a firearm or ammunition imported or brought in for scientific or research purposes, a statement describing such purpose; or

(B) If a firearm or ammunition for use in connection with competition or training pursuant to Chapter 401 of Title 10, U.S.C., a statement describing such intended use; or

(C) If an unserviceable firearm (other than a machine gun) being imported as a curio or museum piece, a description of how it was rendered unserviceable and an explanation of why it is a curio or museum piece; or

(D) If a firearm other than a surplus military firearm, of a type that does not fall within the definition of a firearm under section 5845(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and is for sporting purposes, an explanation of why the firearm is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes; or

(E) If ammunition being imported for sporting purposes, a statement why the ammunition is particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes; or

(F) If a firearm barrel for a handgun, an explanation why the handgun is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes.

(2)(i) If the Director approves the application, such approved application will serve as the permit to import the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition described therein, and importation of such firearms, firearm barrels, or ammunition may continue to be made by the applicant under the approved application (permit) during the period specified thereon. The Director will furnish the approved application (permit) to the applicant and retain two copies thereof for administrative use.

(ii) If the Director disapproves the application, the applicant will be notified of the basis for the disapproval.

(c) A firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition imported or brought into the United States or a possession thereof under the provisions of this section may be released from Customs custody to the licensee upon showing that the licensee has obtained a permit from the Director for the importation of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition to be released.

(1) In obtaining the release from Customs custody of a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition authorized by this section to be imported through the use of a permit, the licensee will prepare ATF Form 6A, in duplicate, and furnish the original ATF Form 6A to the Customs officer releasing the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition. The Customs officer will, after certification, forward the ATF Form 6A to the address specified on the form.

(2) The ATF Form 6A must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name, address, and license number of the licensee;

(ii) The name of the manufacturer of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition;

(iii) The country of manufacture;

(iv) The type;

(v) The model;

(vi) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(vii) The serial number in the case of firearms; and

(viii) The number of firearms, firearm barrels, or rounds of ammunition released.

(Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0005; paragraph (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0007)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10499, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-426, 65 FR 38199, June 20, 2000; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.113a   Importation of firearm barrels by nonlicensees.

(a) A permit will not be issued for a firearm barrel for a handgun not generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes. No firearm barrel shall be imported or brought into the United States or possession thereof by any nonlicensee unless the Director issues a permit authorizing the importation of the firearm barrel.

(b)(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part I, to import or bring a firearm barrel into the United States or a possession thereof under this section must be filed, in triplicate, with the Director. The application must be signed and dated and must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name, address, and telephone number of the applicant;

(ii) The country from which the firearm barrel is to be imported;

(iii) The name and address of the foreign seller and foreign shipper;

(iv) A description of the firearm barrel to be imported, including:

(A) The name and address of the manufacturer;

(B) The type (e.g., rifle, shotgun, pistol, revolver);

(C) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(D) The model;

(E) The barrel length (in inches);

(F) The quantity;

(G) The unit cost of the firearm barrel;

(v) The specific purpose of importation, including final recipient information if different from the importer; and

(vi) If a handgun barrel, an explanation of why the barrel is for a handgun that is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes.

(2)(i) If the Director approves the application, such approved application will serve as the permit to import the firearm barrel, and importation of such firearm barrels may continue to be made by the applicant under the approved application (permit) during the period specified thereon. The Director will furnish the approved application (permit) to the applicant and retain two copies thereof for administrative use.

(ii) If the Director disapproves the application, the applicant will be notified of the basis for the disapproval.

(c) A firearm barrel imported or brought into the United States or a possession thereof under the provisions of this section may be released from Customs custody to the person importing the firearm barrel upon showing that the person has obtained a permit from the Director for the importation of the firearm barrel to be released.

(1) In obtaining the release from Customs custody of a firearm barrel authorized by this section to be imported through the use of a permit, the person importing the firearm barrel will prepare ATF Form 6A, in duplicate, and furnish the original ATF Form 6A to the Customs officer releasing the firearm barrel. The Customs officer will, after certification, forward the ATF Form 6A to the address specified on the form.

(2) The ATF Form 6A must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name and address of the person importing the firearm barrel;

(ii) The name of the manufacturer of the firearm barrel;

(iii) The country of manufacture;

(iv) The type;

(v) The model;

(vi) The caliber or gauge of the firearm barrel so released; and

(vii) The number of firearm barrels released.

(Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0005; paragraph (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0007)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10499, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-426, 65 FR 38200, June 20, 2000; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.114   Importation by members of the U.S. Armed Forces.

(a) The Director may issue a permit authorizing the importation of a firearm or ammunition into the United States to the place of residence of any military member of the U.S. Armed Forces who is on active duty outside the United States, or who has been on active duty outside the United States within the 60-day period immediately preceding the intended importation: Provided, That such firearm or ammunition is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes and is intended for the personal use of such member.

(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part II, to import a firearm or ammunition into the United States under this section must be filed, in triplicate, with the Director. The application must be signed and dated and must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name, current address, and telephone number of the applicant;

(ii) Certification that the transportation, receipt, or possession of the firearm or ammunition to be imported would not constitute a violation of any provision of the Act or of any State law or local ordinance at the place of the applicant's residence;

(iii) The country from which the firearm or ammunition is to be imported;

(iv) The name and address of the foreign seller and foreign shipper;

(v) A description of the firearm or ammunition to be imported, including:

(A) The name and address of the manufacturer;

(B) The type (e.g., rifle, shotgun, pistol, revolver and, in the case of ammunition only, ball, wadcutter, shot, etc.);

(C) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(D) The model;

(E) The barrel length, if a firearm (in inches);

(F) The overall length, if a firearm (in inches);

(G) The serial number;

(H) Whether the firearm is new or used;

(I) The quantity;

(J) The unit cost of the firearm or ammunition to imported;

(vi) The specific purpose of importation, that is—

(A) That the firearm or ammunition being imported is for the personal use of the applicant; and

(B) If a firearm, a statement that it is not a surplus military firearm, that it does not fall within the definition of a firearm under section 5845(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and an explanation of why the firearm is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes; or

(C) If ammunition, a statement why it is generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes; and

(vii) The applicant's date of birth;

(viii) The applicant's rank or grade;

(ix) The applicant's place of residence;

(x) The applicant's present foreign duty station or last foreign duty station, as the case may be;

(xi) The date of the applicant's reassignment to a duty station within the United States, if applicable; and

(xii) The military branch of which the applicant is a member.

(2)(i) If the Director approves the application, such approved application will serve as the permit to import the firearm or ammunition described therein. The Director will furnish the approved application (permit) to the applicant and retain two copies thereof for administrative use.

(ii) If the Director disapproves the application, the applicant will be notified of the basis for the disapproval.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, a firearm or ammunition imported into the United States under the provisions of this section by the applicant may be released from Customs custody to the applicant upon showing that the applicant has obtained a permit from the Director for the importation of the firearm or ammunition to be released.

(1) In obtaining the release from Customs custody of a firearm or ammunition authorized by this section to be imported through the use of a permit, the military member of the U.S. Armed Forces will prepare ATF Form 6A and furnish the completed form to the Customs officer releasing the firearm or ammunition. The Customs officer will, after certification, forward the ATF Form 6A to the address specified on the form.

(2) The ATF Form 6A must contain the information requested on the form, including:

(i) The name and address of the military member;

(ii) The name of the manufacturer of the firearm or ammunition;

(iii) The country of manufacture;

(iv) The type;

(v) The model;

(vi) The caliber, gauge, or size;

(vii) The serial number in the case of firearms; and

(viii) If applicable, the number of firearms or rounds of ammunition released.

(3) When such military member is on active duty outside the United States, the military member may appoint, in writing, an agent to obtain the release of the firearm or ammunition from Customs custody for such member. Such agent will present sufficient identification of the agent and the written authorization to act on behalf of such military member to the Customs officer who is to release the firearm or ammunition.

(c) Firearms determined by the Department of Defense to be war souvenirs may be imported into the United States by the military members of the U.S. Armed Forces under such provisions and procedures as the Department of Defense may issue.

(Paragraph (a) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0006; paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0007)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10500, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-426, 65 FR 38200, June 20, 2000; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.115   Exempt importation.

(a) Firearms and ammunition may be brought into the United States or any possession thereof by any person who can establish to the satisfaction of Customs that such firearm or ammunition was previously taken out of the United States or any possession thereof by such person. Registration on Customs Form 4457 or on any other registration document available for this purpose may be completed before departure from the United States at any U.S. customhouse or any office of an Director of Industry Operations. A bill of sale or other commercial document showing transfer of the firearm or ammunition in the United States to such person also may be used to establish proof that the firearm or ammunition was taken out of the United States by such person. Firearms and ammunition furnished under the provisions of section 925(a)(3) of the Act to military members of the U.S. Armed Forces on active duty outside of the United States also may be imported into the United States or any possession thereof by such military members upon establishing to the satisfaction of Customs that such firearms and ammunition were so obtained.

(b) Firearms, firearm barrels, and ammunition may be imported or brought into the United States by or for the United States or any department or agency thereof, or any State or any department, agency, or political subdivision thereof. A firearm, firearm barrel or ammunition imported or brought into the United States under this paragraph may be released from Customs custody upon a showing that the firearm, firearm barrel or ammunition is being imported or brought into the United States by or for such a governmental entity.

(c) The provisions of this subpart shall not apply with respect to the importation into the United States of any antique firearm.

(d) Firearms and ammunition are not imported into the United States, and the provisions of this subpart shall not apply, when such firearms and ammunition are brought into the United States by:

(1) A nonresident of the United States for legitimate hunting or lawful sporting purposes, and such firearms and such ammunition as remains following such shooting activity are to be taken back out of the territorial limits of the United States by such person upon conclusion of the shooting activity;

(2) Foreign military personnel on official assignment to the United States who bring such firearms or ammunition into the United States for their exclusive use while on official duty in the United States, and such firearms and unexpended ammunition are taken back out of the territorial limits of the United States by such foreign military personnel when they leave the United States;

(3) Official representatives of foreign governments who are accredited to the U.S. Government or are en route to or from other countries to which accredited, and such firearms and unexpended ammunition are taken back out of the territorial limits of the United States by such official representatives of foreign governments when they leave the United States;

(4) Officials of foreign governments and distinguished foreign visitors who have been so designated by the Department of State, and such firearms and unexpended ammunition are taken back out of the territorial limits of the United States by such officials of foreign governments and distinguished foreign visitors when they leave the United States; and

(5) Foreign law enforcement officers of friendly foreign governments entering the United States on official law enforcement business, and such firearms and unexpended ammunition are taken back out of the territorial limits of the United States by such foreign law enforcement officers when they leave the United States.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (d) (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) of this section, the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may in the interest of public safety and necessity require a permit for the importation or bringing into the United States of any firearms or ammunition.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-58, 44 FR 32367, June 6, 1979; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10500, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-471, 67 FR 5426, Feb. 5, 2002]

§478.116   Conditional importation.

The Director shall permit the conditional importation or bringing into the United States or any possession thereof of any firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device as defined in §478.119(b) for the purpose of examining and testing the firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device in connection with making a determination as to whether the importation or bringing in of such firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device will be authorized under this part. An application on ATF Form 6 for such conditional importation shall be filed, in duplicate, with the Director. The Director may impose conditions upon any importation under this section including a requirement that the firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device be shipped directly from Customs custody to the Director and that the person importing or bringing in the firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device must agree to either export the firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device or destroy same if a determination is made that the firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device may not be imported or brought in under this part. A firearm, firearm barrel, ammunition, or ammunition feeding device imported or brought into the United States or any possession thereof under the provisions of this section shall be released from Customs custody upon the payment of customs duties, if applicable, and in the manner prescribed in the conditional authorization issued by the Director.

[T.D. ATF-383, 61 FR 39321, July 29, 1996]

§478.117   Function outside a customs territory.

In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within a customs territory may be performed by the appropriate authorities of a territorial government or other officers of the United States who have been designated to perform such functions. For the purpose of this subpart, the term customs territory means the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

§478.118   Importation of certain firearms classified as curios or relics.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, a licensed importer may import all rifles and shotguns classified by the Director as curios or relics, and all handguns classified by the Director as curios or relics that are determined to be generally recognized as particularly suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes. The importation of such curio or relic firearms must be in accordance with the applicable importation provisions of this part and the importation provisions of 27 CFR part 447. Curios or relics which fall within the definition of “firearm” under 26 U.S.C. 5845(a) must also meet the importation provisions of 27 CFR part 479 before they may be imported.

[T.D. ATF-202, 50 FR 14383, Apr. 12, 1985]

§478.119   Importation of ammunition feeding devices.

(a) No ammunition feeding device shall be imported or brought into the United States unless the Director has authorized the importation of such device.

(b) For purposes of this section, an “ammunition feeding device” is a magazine, belt, drum, feed strip, or similar device for a firearm that has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than 10 rounds of ammunition. The term does not include an attached tubular device designed to accept, and capable of operating only with, .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, or a fixed device for a manually operated firearm, or a fixed device for a firearm listed in 18 U.S.C. 922, appendix A.

(c) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6, to import or bring an ammunition feeding device into the United States or a possession thereof under this section shall be filed, in triplicate, with the Director. The application shall contain:

(1) The name and address of the person importing the device,

(2) A description of the device to be imported, including type and cartridge capacity, model and caliber of firearm for which the device was made, country of manufacture, and name of the manufacturer if known,

(3) The unit cost of the device to be imported,

(4) The country from which to be imported,

(5) The name and address of the foreign seller and the foreign shipper,

(6) Verification that such device will be marked as required by this part, and

(7) A statement by the importer that the device is being imported for sale to purchasers specified in §478.40a(b) or physical or reasonable documentary evidence establishing that the magazine was manufactured on or before September 13, 1994. Any one of the following examples, which are not meant to be exhaustive, may be sufficient to establish the time of manufacture:

(i) Permanent markings or physical characteristics which establish that the magazine was manufactured on or before September 13, 1994;

(ii) A certification from the importer, under penalty of perjury, that the importer maintained continuous custody beginning on a date prior to September 14, 1994, and continuing until the date of the certification. Such certification shall also be supported by reasonable documentary evidence, such as commercial records;

(iii) A certification from the importer, under penalty of perjury, that the magazines sought to be imported were in the custody and control of a foreign Government on or before September 13, 1994, along with reasonable documentary evidence to support the certification; or

(iv) A certification from the importer, under penalty of perjury, that the magazine was in the possession of a foreign arms supplier on or before September 13, 1994, along with reasonable documentary evidence to support the certification.

(d) The Director shall act upon applications to import ammunition feeding devices as expeditiously as possible. If the Director approves the application, such approved application shall serve as the permit to import the device described therein, and importation of such devices may continue to be made by the person importing such devices under the approved application (permit) during the period specified thereon. The Director shall furnish the approved application (permit) to the applicant and retain two copies thereof for administrative use. If the Director disapproves the application, the person importing such devices shall be notified of the basis for the disapproval.

(e) An ammunition feeding device imported or brought into the United States by a person importing such a device may be released from Customs custody to the person importing such a device upon showing that such person has obtained a permit from the Director for the importation of the device to be released. In obtaining the release from Customs custody of such a device authorized by this section to be imported through use of a permit, the person importing such a device shall prepare ATF Form 6A, in duplicate, and furnish the original ATF Form 6A to the Customs officer releasing the device. The Customs officer shall, after certification, forward the ATF Form 6A to the address specified on the form. The ATF Form 6A shall show the name and address of the person importing the device, the name of the manufacturer of the device, the country of manufacture, the type, model, caliber, size, and the number of devices released.

(f) Within 15 days of the date of release from Customs custody, the person importing such a device shall:

(1) Forward to the address specified on the form a copy of ATF Form 6A on which shall be reported any error or discrepancy appearing on the ATF Form 6A certified by Customs, and

(2) Pursuant to §478.92, place all required identification data on each imported device manufactured after September 13, 1994, if same did not bear such identification data at the time of its release from Customs custody.

(g) The Director may authorize the conditional importation of an ammunition feeding device as provided in §478.116.

(Paragraphs (a), (c), and (d) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1140-0005 and 1140-0006; paragraphs (e) and (f) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0007)

[T.D. ATF-383, 61 FR 39322, July 29, 1996, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.120   Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

(a) General. A nonimmigrant alien temporarily importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States for lawful hunting or sporting purposes must first obtain an approved ATF Form 6NIA (5330.3D).

(b) Aliens admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa. (1) Any alien lawfully admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa who completes an ATF Form 6NIA to import firearms or ammunition into the United States, or any licensee who completes an ATF Form 6 to import firearms or ammunition for such nonimmigrant alien, must attach applicable documentation to the Form 6NIA or Form 6 establishing the nonimmigrant alien falls within an exception specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(2) (e.g., a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States) or has obtained a waiver as specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(3).

(2) Aliens admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States must provide the United States Customs and Border Protection with applicable documentation (e.g., a hunting license or permit lawfully issued in the United States) establishing the nonimmigrant alien falls within an exception specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(2) or has obtained a waiver as specified in 18 U.S.C. 922(y)(3) before the firearm or ammunition may be imported. This provision applies in all cases, whether or not a Form 6 is needed to bring the firearms or ammunition into the United States.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0060)

[T.D. ATF-24F, 77 FR 33629, June 7, 2012]

Subpart H—Records

§478.121   General.

(a) The records pertaining to firearms transactions prescribed by this part shall be retained on the licensed premises in the manner prescribed by this subpart and for the length of time prescribed by §478.129. The records pertaining to ammunition prescribed by this part shall be retained on the licensed premises in the manner prescribed by §478.125.

(b) ATF officers may, for the purposes and under the conditions prescribed in §478.23, enter the premises of any licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector for the purpose of examining or inspecting any record or document required by or obtained under this part. Section 923(g) of the Act requires licensed importers, licensed manufacturers, licensed dealers, and licensed collectors to make such records available for such examination or inspection during business hours or, in the case of licensed collectors, hours of operation, as provided in §478.23.

(c) Each licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, and licensed collector shall maintain such records of importation, production, shipment, receipt, sale, or other disposition, whether temporary or permanent, of firearms and such records of the disposition of ammunition as the regulations contained in this part prescribe. Section 922(m) of the Act makes it unlawful for any licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector knowingly to make any false entry in, to fail to make appropriate entry in, or to fail to properly maintain any such record.

(d) For recordkeeping requirements for sales by licensees at gun shows see §478.100(c).

(Information collection requirements in paragraph (a) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0020; information collection requirements in paragraphs (b) and (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-191, 49 FR 46891, Nov. 29, 1984; T.D. ATF-208, 50 FR 26703, June 28, 1985; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10501, Mar. 31, 1988; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.122   Records maintained by importers.

(a) Each licensed importer shall, within 15 days of the date of importation or other acquisition, record the type, model, caliber or gauge, manufacturer, country of manufacture, and the serial number of each firearm imported or otherwise acquired, and the date such importation or other acquisition was made.

(b) A record of firearms disposed of by a licensed importer to another licensee and a separate record of armor piercing ammunition dispositions to governmental entities, for exportation, or for testing or experimentation authorized under the provisions of §478.149 shall be maintained by the licensed importer on the licensed premises. For firearms, the record shall show the quantity, type, manufacturer, country of manufacture, caliber or gauge, model, serial number of the firearms so transferred, the name and license number of the licensee to whom the firearms were transferred, and the date of the transaction. For armor piercing ammunition, the record shall show the date of the transaction, manufacturer, caliber or gauge, quantity of projectiles, and the name and address of the purchaser. The information required by this paragraph shall be entered in the proper record book not later than the seventh day following the date of the transaction, and such information shall be recorded under the following formats:

Importer's Firearms Disposition Record

QuantityTypeManufacturerCountry of manufactureCaliber or gaugeModelSerial No.Name and license No. of licensee to whom transferredDate of the transaction
   

Importer's Armor Piercing Ammunition Disposition Record

DateManufacturerCalibur or gaugeQuantity of projectilesPurchaser—Name and address
   

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed importer to record the disposal of firearms and armor piercing ammunition when it is shown by the licensed importer that such alternate records will accurately and readily disclose the information required by paragraph (b) of this section. A licensed importer who proposes to use alternate records shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director of Industry Operations and shall describe the proposed alternate records and the need therefor. Such alternate records shall not be employed by the licensed importer until approval in such regard is received from the Director of Industry Operations.

(d) Each licensed importer shall maintain separate records of the sales or other dispositions made of firearms to nonlicensees. Such records shall be maintained in the form and manner as prescribed by §§478.124 and 478.125 in regard to firearms transaction records and records of acquisition and disposition of firearms.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10501, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.123   Records maintained by manufacturers.

(a) Each licensed manufacturer shall record the type, model, caliber or gauge, and serial number of each complete firearm manufactured or otherwise acquired, and the date such manufacture or other acquisition was made. The information required by this paragraph shall be recorded not later than the seventh day following the date such manufacture or other acquisition was made.

(b) A record of firearms disposed of by a manufacturer to another licensee and a separate record of armor piercing ammunition dispositions to governmental entities, for exportation, or for testing or experimentation authorized under the provision of §478.149 shall be maintained by the licensed manufacturer on the licensed premises. For firearms, the record shall show the quantity, type, model, manufacturer, caliber, size or gauge, serial number of the firearms so transferred, the name and license number of the licensee to whom the firearms were transferred, and the date of the transaction. For armor piercing ammunition, the record shall show the manufacturer, caliber or gauge, quantity, the name and address of the transferee to whom the armor piercing ammunition was transferred, and the date of the transaction. The information required by this paragraph shall be entered in the proper record book not later than the seventh day following the date of the transaction, and such information shall be recorded under the format prescribed by §478.122, except that the name of the manufacturer of a firearm or armor piercing ammunition need not be recorded if the firearm or armor piercing ammunition is of the manufacturer's own manufacture.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed manufacturer to record the disposal of firearms and armor piercing ammunition when it is shown by the licensed manufacturer that such alternate records will accurately and readily disclose the information required by paragraph (b) of this section. A licensed manufacturer who proposes to use alternate records shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director of Industry Operations and shall describe the proposed alternate record and the need therefor. Such alternate records shall not be employed by the licensed manufacturer until approval in such regard is received from the Director of Industry Operations.

(d) Each licensed manufacturer shall maintain separate records of the sales or other dispositions made of firearms to nonlicensees. Such records shall be maintained in the form and manner as prescribed by §§478.124 and 478.125 in regard to firearms transaction records and records of acquisition and disposition of firearms.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0067)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10501, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.124   Firearms transaction record.

(a) A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer shall not sell or otherwise dispose, temporarily or permanently, of any firearm to any person, other than another licensee, unless the licensee records the transaction on a firearms transaction record, Form 4473: Provided, That a firearms transaction record, Form 4473, shall not be required to record the disposition made of a firearm delivered to a licensee for the sole purpose of repair or customizing when such firearm or a replacement firearm is returned to the person from whom received.

(b) A licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer shall retain in alphabetical (by name of purchaser), chronological (by date of disposition), or numerical (by transaction serial number) order, and as a part of the required records, each Form 4473 obtained in the course of transferring custody of the firearms.

(c)(1) Prior to making an over-the-counter transfer of a firearm to a nonlicensee who is a resident of the State in which the licensee's business premises is located, the licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer so transferring the firearm shall obtain a Form 4473 from the transferee showing the transferee's name, sex, residence address (including county or similar political subdivision), date and place of birth; height, weight and race of the transferee; the transferee's country of citizenship; the transferee's INS-issued alien number or admission number; the transferee's State of residence; and certification by the transferee that the transferee is not prohibited by the Act from transporting or shipping a firearm in interstate or foreign commerce or receiving a firearm which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce or possessing a firearm in or affecting commerce.

(2) In order to facilitate the transfer of a firearm and enable NICS to verify the identity of the person acquiring the firearm, ATF Form 4473 also requests certain optional information. This information includes the transferee's social security number. Such information may help avoid the possibility of the transferee being misidentified as a felon or other prohibited person.

(3) After the transferee has executed the Form 4473, the licensee:

(i) Shall verify the identity of the transferee by examining the identification document (as defined in §478.11) presented, and shall note on the Form 4473 the type of identification used;

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Must, in the case of a transferee who is an alien admitted to the United States under a nonimmigrant visa who states that he or she falls within an exception to, or has a waiver from, the prohibition in section 922(g)(5)(B) of the Act, have the transferee present applicable documentation establishing the exception or waiver, note on the Form 4473 the type of documentation provided, and attach a copy of the documentation to the Form 4473; and

(iv) Shall comply with the requirements of §478.102 and record on the form the date on which the licensee contacted the NICS, as well as any response provided by the system, including any identification number provided by the system.

(4) The licensee shall identify the firearm to be transferred by listing on the Form 4473 the name of the manufacturer, the name of the importer (if any), the type, model, caliber or gauge, and the serial number of the firearm.

(5) The licensee shall sign and date the form if the licensee does not know or have reasonable cause to believe that the transferee is disqualified by law from receiving the firearm and transfer the firearm described on the Form 4473.

(d) Prior to making an over-the-counter transfer of a shotgun or rifle under the provisions contained in §478.96(c) to a nonlicensee who is not a resident of the State in which the licensee's business premises is located, the licensee so transferring the shotgun or rifle, and such transferee, shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(e) Prior to making a transfer of a firearm to any nonlicensee who is not a resident of the State in which the licensee's business premises is located, and such nonlicensee is acquiring the firearm by loan or rental from the licensee for temporary use for lawful sporting purposes, the licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer so furnishing the firearm, and such transferee, shall comply with the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section.

(f) Form 4473 shall be submitted, in duplicate, to a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer by a transferee who is purchasing or otherwise acquiring a firearm by other than an over-the-counter transaction, who is not subject to the provisions of §478.102(a), and who is a resident of the State in which the licensee's business premises are located. The Form 4473 shall show the name, address, date and place of birth, height, weight, and race of the transferee; and the title, name, and address of the principal law enforcement officer of the locality to which the firearm will be delivered. The transferee also must date and execute the sworn statement contained on the form showing, in case the firearm to be transferred is a firearm other than a shotgun or rifle, the transferee is 21 years or more of age; in case the firearm to be transferred is a shotgun or rifle, the transferee is 18 years or more of age; whether the transferee is a citizen of the United States; the transferee's State of residence; the transferee is not prohibited by the provisions of the Act from shipping or transporting a firearm in interstate or foreign commerce or receiving a firearm which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce or possessing a firearm in or affecting commerce; and the transferee's receipt of the firearm would not be in violation of any statute of the State or published ordinance applicable to the locality in which the transferee resides. Upon receipt of such Forms 4473, the licensee shall identify the firearm to be transferred by listing in the Forms 4473 the name of the manufacturer, the name of the importer (if any), the type, model, caliber or gauge, and the serial number of the firearm to be transferred. The licensee shall prior to shipment or delivery of the firearm to such transferee, forward by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested) a copy of the Form 4473 to the principal law enforcement officer named in the Form 4473 by the transferee, and shall delay shipment or delivery of the firearm to the transferee for a period of at least 7 days following receipt by the licensee of the return receipt evidencing delivery of the copy of the Form 4473 to such principal law enforcement officer, or the return of the copy of the Form 4473 to the licensee due to the refusal of such principal law enforcement officer to accept same in accordance with U.S. Postal Service regulations. The original Form 4473, and evidence of receipt or rejection of delivery of the copy of the Form 4473 sent to the principal law enforcement officer, shall be retained by the licensee as a part of the records required to be kept under this subpart.

(g) A licensee who sells or otherwise disposes of a firearm to a nonlicensee who is other than an individual, shall obtain from the transferee the information required by this section from an individual authorized to act on behalf of the transferee. In addition, the licensee shall obtain from the individual acting on behalf of the transferee a written statement, executed under the penalties of perjury, that the firearm is being acquired for the use of and will be the property of the transferee, and showing the name and address of that transferee.

(h) The requirements of this section shall be in addition to any other recordkeeping requirement contained in this part.

(i) A licensee may obtain, upon request, an emergency supply of Forms 4473 from any Director of Industry Operations. For normal usage, a licensee should request a year's supply from the ATF Distribution Center (See §478.21).

(Paragraph (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1140-0045, 1140-0020, and 1140-0060; paragraph (f) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0021; all other recordkeeping approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0020)

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968, as amended by T.D. ATF-172, 49 FR 14942, Apr. 16, 1984; T.D. ATF-241, 51 FR 39625, Oct. 29, 1986; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10502, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-389, 62 FR 19444, Apr. 21, 1997; T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58279, Oct. 29, 1998; T.D. ATF-471, 67 FR 5426, Feb. 5, 2002; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008; T.D. ATF-24F and 22I, 77 FR 33630, 33634, June 7, 2012]

§478.125   Record of receipt and disposition.

(a) Armor piercing ammunition sales by licensed collectors to nonlicensees. The sale or other disposition of armor piercing ammunition by licensed collectors shall be recorded in a bound record at the time a transaction is made. The bound record shall be maintained in chronological order by date of sale or disposition of the armor piercing ammunition, and shall be retained on the licensed premises of the licensee for a period not less than two years following the date of the recorded sale or disposition of the armor piercing ammunition. The bound record entry shall show:

(1) The date of the transaction;

(2) The name of the manufacturer;

(3) The caliber or gauge;

(4) The quantity of projectiles;

(5) The name, address, and date of birth of the nonlicensee; and

(6) The method used to establish the identity of the armor piercing ammunition purchaser.

The format required for the bound record is as follows:

Disposition Record of Armor Piercing Ammunition

DateManufacturerCaliber or gaugeQuantity of projectilesPurchaserEnter a (x) in the “known” column if purchaser is personally known to you. Otherwise, establish the purchaser's identification
Name and addressDate of birthKnownDriver's licenseOther type (specify)
   

However, when a commercial record is made at the time a transaction is made, a licensee may delay making an entry into the bound record if the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section are complied with.

(b) Armor piercing ammunition sales by licensed collectors to licensees. Sales or other dispositions of armor piercing ammunition from a licensed collector to another licensee shall be recorded and maintained in the manner prescribed in §478.122(b) for importers: Provided, That the license number of the transferee may be recorded in lieu of the transferee's address.

(c) Armor piercing ammunition sales by licensed dealers to governmental entities. A record of armor piercing ammunition disposed of by a licensed dealer to a governmental entity pursuant to §478.99(e) shall be maintained by the licensed dealer on the licensed premises and shall show the name of the manufacturer, the caliber or gauge, the quantity, the name and address of the entity to which the armor piercing ammunition was transferred, and the date of the transaction. Such information shall be recorded under the format prescribed by §478.122(b). Each licensed dealer disposing of armor piercing ammunition pursuant to §478.99(e) shall also maintain a record showing the date of acquisition of such ammunition which shall be filed in an orderly manner separate from other commercial records maintained and be readily available for inspection. The records required by this paragraph shall be retained on the licensed premises of the licensee for a period not less than two years following the date of the recorded sale or disposition of the armor piercing ammunition.

(d) Commercial records of armor piercing ammunition transactions. When a commercial record is made at the time of sale or other disposition of armor piercing ammunition, and such record contains all information required by the bound record prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section, the licensed collector transferring the armor piercing ammunition may, for a period not exceeding 7 days following the date of such transfer, delay making the required entry into such bound record: Provided, That the commercial record pertaining to the transfer is:

(1) Maintained by the licensed collector separate from other commercial documents maintained by such licensee, and

(2) Is readily available for inspection on the licensed premises until such time as the required entry into the bound record is made.

(e) Firearms receipt and disposition by dealers. Each licensed dealer shall enter into a record each receipt and disposition of firearms.In addition, before commencing or continuing a firearms business, each licensed dealer shall inventory the firearms possessed for such business and shall record same in the record required by this paragraph. The record required by this paragraph shall be maintained in bound form under the format prescribed below. The purchase or other acquisition of a firearm shall, except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, be recorded not later than the close of the next business day following the date of such purchase or acquisition. The record shall show the date of receipt, the name and address or the name and license number of the person from whom received, the name of the manufacturer and importer (if any), the model, serial number, type, and the caliber or gauge of the firearm. The sale or other disposition of a firearm shall be recorded by the licensed dealer not later than 7 days following the date of such transaction. When such disposition is made to a nonlicensee, the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, obtained by the licensed dealer shall be retained, until the transaction is recorded, separate from the licensee's Form 4473 file and be readily available for inspection. When such disposition is made to a licensee, the commercial record of the transaction shall be retained, until the transaction is recorded, separate from other commercial documents maintained by the licensed dealer, and be readily available for inspection. The record shall show the date of the sale or other disposition of each firearm, the name and address of the person to whom the firearm is transferred, or the name and license number of the person to whom transferred if such person is a licensee, or the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, serial number if the licensed dealer transferring the firearm serially numbers the Forms 4473 and files them numerically. The format required for the record of receipt and disposition of firearms is as follows:

Firearms Acquisition and Disposition Record

Description of firearmReceiptDisposition
Manufacturer and/or ImporterModelSerial No.TypeCaliber or gaugeDateName and address or name and license No.DateNameAddress or license No. if licensee, or Form 4473 Serial No. if Forms 4473 filed numerically
   

(f) Firearms receipt and disposition by licensed collectors. (1) Each licensed collector shall enter into a record each receipt and disposition of firearms curios or relics. The record required by this paragraph shall be maintained in bound form under the format prescribed below. The purchase or other acquisition of a curio or relic shall, except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section, be recorded not later than the close of the next business day following the date of such purchase or other acquisition. The record shall show the date of receipt, the name and address or the name and license number of the person from whom received, the name of the manufacturer and importer (if any), the model, serial number, type, and the caliber or gauge of the firearm curio or relic. The sale or other disposition of a curio or relic shall be recorded by the licensed collector not later than 7 days following the date of such transaction. When such disposition is made to a licensee, the commercial record of the transaction shall be retained, until the transaction is recorded, separate from other commercial documents maintained by the licensee, and be readily available for inspection. The record shall show the date of the sale or other disposition of each firearm curio or relic, the name and address of the person to whom the firearm curio or relic is transferred, or the name and license number of the person to whom transferred if such person is a licensee, and the date of birth of the transferee if other than a licensee. In addition, the licensee shall cause the transferee, if other than a licensee, to be identified in any manner customarily used in commercial transactions (e.g., a driver's license), and note on the record the method used.

(2) The format required for the record of receipt and disposition of firearms by collectors is as follows:

Firearms Collectors Acquisition and Disposition Record

Description of firearmReceiptDisposition
Manufacturer and/or importerModelSerial No.TypeCaliber or gaugeDateName and address or name and license No.DateName and address or name and license No.Date of birth if non-licenseeDriver's license No. or other identification if non-licensee
   

(g) Commercial records of firearms received. When a commercial record is held by a licensed dealer or licensed collector showing the acquisition of a firearm or firearm curio or relic, and such record contains all acquisition information required by the bound record prescribed by paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, the licensed dealer or licensed collector acquiring such firearm or curio or relic, may, for a period not exceeding 7 days following the date of such acquisition, delay making the required entry into such bound record: Provided, That the commercial record is, until such time as the required entry into the bound record is made, (1) maintained by the licensed dealer or licensed collector separate from other commercial documents maintained by such licensee, and (2) readily available for inspection on the licensed premises: Provided further, That when disposition is made of a firearm or firearm curio or relic not entered in the bound record under the provisions of this paragraph, the licensed dealer or licensed collector making such disposition shall enter all required acquisition information regarding the firearm or firearm curio or relic in the bound record at the time such transfer or disposition is made.

(h) Alternate records. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a), (e), and (f) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed dealer or licensed collector to record the acquisition and disposition of firearms or curios or relics and the disposition of armor piercing ammunition when it is shown by the licensed dealer or the licensed collector that such alternate records will accurately and readily disclose the required information. A licensed dealer or licensed collector who proposes to use alternate records shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director of Industry Operations and shall describe the proposed alternate records and the need therefor. Such alternate records shall not be employed by the licensed dealer or licensed collector until approval in such regard is received from the Director of Industry Operations.

(i) Requirements for importers and manufacturers. Each licensed importer and licensed manufacturer selling or otherwise disposing of firearms or armor piercing ammunition to nonlicensees shall maintain such records of such transactions as are required of licensed dealers by this section.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10503, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-273, 53 FR 24687, June 30, 1988; T.D. ATF-313, 56 FR 32508, July 17, 1991; T.D. ATF-389, 62 FR 19445, Apr. 21, 1997; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57241, Oct. 2, 2008; T.D. ATF-22I, 77 FR 33634, June 7, 2012; 79 FR 45092, Aug. 4, 2014]

§478.125a   Personal firearms collection.

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, a licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer is not required to comply with the provisions of §478.102 or record on a firearms transaction record, Form 4473, the sale or other disposition of a firearm maintained as part of the licensee's personal firearms collection: Provided, That

(1) The licensee has maintained the firearm as part of such collection for 1 year from the date the firearm was transferred from the business inventory into the personal collection or otherwise acquired as a personal firearm,

(2) The licensee recorded in the bound record prescribed by §478.125(e) the receipt of the firearm into the business inventory or other acquisition,

(3) The licensee recorded the firearm as a disposition in the bound record prescribed by §478.125(e) when the firearm was transferred from the business inventory into the personal firearms collection or otherwise acquired as a personal firearm, and

(4) The licensee enters the sale or other disposition of the firearm from the personal firearms collection into a bound record, under the format prescribed below, identifying the firearm transferred by recording the name of the manufacturer and importer (if any), the model, serial number, type, and the caliber or gauge, and showing the date of the sale or other disposition, the name and address of the transferee, or the name and business address of the transferee if such person is a licensee, and the date of birth of the transferee if other than a licensee. In addition, the licensee shall cause the transferee, if other than a licensee, to be identified in any manner customarily used in commercial transactions (e.g., a drivers license). The format required for the disposition record of personal firearms is as follows:

Disposition Record of Personal Firearms

Description of firearmDisposition
Manufacturer and/or importerModelSerial No.TypeCaliber or gaugeDateName and address (business address if licensee)Date of birth if nonlicensee
   

(b) Any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer selling or otherwise disposing of a firearm from the licensee's personal firearms collection under this section shall be subject to the restrictions imposed by the Act and this part on the dispositions of firearms by persons other than licensed manufacturers, licensed importers, and licensed dealers.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10504, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-313, 56 FR 32509, July 17, 1991; T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58280, Oct. 29, 1998; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.126   Furnishing transaction information.

(a) Each licensee shall, when required by letter issued by the Director of Industry Operations, and until notified to the contrary in writing by such officer, submit on Form 5300.5, Report of Firearms Transactions, for the periods and at the times specified in the letter issued by the Director of Industry Operations, all record information required by this subpart, or such lesser record information as the Director of Industry Operations in his letter may specify.

(b) The Director of Industry Operations may authorize the information to be submitted in a manner other than that prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section when it is shown by a licensee that an alternate method of reporting is reasonably necessary and will not unduly hinder the effective administration of this part. A licensee who proposes to use an alternate method of reporting shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director of Industry Operations and shall describe the proposed alternate method of reporting and the need therefor. An alternate method of reporting shall not be employed by the licensee until approval in such regard is received from the Director of Industry Operations.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0032)

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-172, 49 FR 14942, Apr. 16, 1984; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008; T.D. ATF 2013R-9F, 79 FR 46692, Aug. 11, 2014]

§478.126a   Reporting multiple sales or other disposition of pistols and revolvers.

Each licensee shall prepare a report of multiple sales or other disposition whenever the licensee sells or otherwise disposes of, at one time or during any five consecutive business days, two or more pistols, or revolvers, or any combination of pistols and revolvers totaling two or more, to an unlicensed person: Provided, That a report need not be made where pistols or revolvers, or any combination thereof, are returned to the same person from whom they were received. The report shall be prepared on Form 3310.4, Report of Multiple Sale or Other Disposition of Pistols and Revolvers. Not later than the close of business on the day that the multiple sale or other disposition occurs, the licensee shall forward two copies of Form 3310.4 to the ATF office specified thereon and one copy to the State police or to the local law enforcement agency in which the sale or other disposition took place. Where the State or local law enforcement officials have notified the licensee that a particular official has been designated to receive Forms 3310.4, the licensee shall forward such forms to that designated official. The licensee shall retain one copy of Form 3310.4 and attach it to the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, executed upon delivery of the pistols or revolvers.

Example. 1. A licensee sells a pistol and revolver in a single transaction to an unlicensed person. This is a multiple sale and must be reported not later than the close of business on the date of the transaction.
Example. 2. A licensee sells a pistol on Monday and sells a revolver on the following Friday to the same unlicensed person. This is a multiple sale and must be reported not later than the close of business on Friday. If the licensee sells the same unlicensed person another pistol or revolver on the following Monday, this would constitute an additional multiple sale and must also be reported.
Example 3. A licensee maintaining business hours on Monday through Saturday sells a revolver to an unlicensed person on Monday and sells another revolver to the same person on the following Saturday. This does not constitute a multiple sale and need not be reported since the sales did not occur during five consecutive business days.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0003)

[T.D. ATF-16, 40 FR 19202, May 2, 1975, as amended by T.D. ATF-172, 49 FR 14942, Apr. 16, 1984; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10505, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7113, Feb. 14, 1994; T.D. ATF-361, 60 FR 10787, Feb. 27, 1995; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.127   Discontinuance of business.

Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a new licensee, the records prescribed by this subpart shall appropriately reflect such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall be delivered within 30 days following the business discontinuance to the ATF Out-of-Business Records Center, 244 Needy Road, Martinsburg, West Virginia 25405, or to any ATF office in the division in which the business was located: Provided, however, Where State law or local ordinance requires the delivery of records to other responsible authority, the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center may arrange for the delivery of the records required by this subpart to such authority: Provided further, That where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a new licensee, the records may be delivered within 30 days following the business discontinuance to the ATF Out-of-Business Records Center or to any ATF office in the division in which the business was located.

[T.D. ATF-290, 54 FR 53055, Dec. 27, 1989, as amended by T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17455, Apr. 6, 1995; ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.128   False statement or representation.

(a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any license or exemption or relief from disability, under the provisions of the Act, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(b) Any person other than a licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector who knowingly makes any false statement or representation with respect to any information required by the provisions of the Act or this part to be kept in the records of a person licensed under the Act or this part shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(c) Any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector who knowingly makes any false statement or representation with respect to any information required by the provisions of the Act or this part to be kept in the records of a person licensed under the Act or this part shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10505, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.129   Record retention.

(a) Records prior to Act. Licensed importers and licensed manufacturers may dispose of records of sale or other disposition of firearms prior to December 16, 1968. Licensed dealers and licensed collectors may dispose of all records of firearms transactions that occurred prior to December 16, 1968.

(b) Firearms transaction record. Licensees shall retain each Form 4473 and Form 4473(LV) for a period of not less than 20 years after the date of sale or disposition. Where a licensee has initiated a NICS check for a proposed firearms transaction, but the sale, delivery, or transfer of the firearm is not made, the licensee shall record any transaction number on the Form 4473, and retain the Form 4473 for a period of not less than 5 years after the date of the NICS inquiry. Forms 4473 shall be retained in the licensee's records as provided in §478.124(b): Provided, That Forms 4473 with respect to which a sale, delivery or transfer did not take place shall be separately retained in alphabetical (by name of transferee) or chronological (by date of transferee's certification) order.

(c) Statement of intent to obtain a handgun, reports of multiple sales or other disposition of pistols and revolvers, and reports of theft or loss of firearms. Licensees shall retain each Form 5300.35 (Statement of Intent to Obtain a Handgun(s)) for a period of not less than 5 years after notice of the intent to obtain the handgun was forwarded to the chief law enforcement officer, as defined in §478.150(c). Licensees shall retain each copy of Form 3310.4 (Report of Multiple Sale or Other Disposition of Pistols and Revolvers) for a period of not less than 5 years after the date of sale or other disposition. Licensees shall retain each copy of Form 3310.11 (Federal Firearms Licensee Theft/Loss Report) for a period of not less than 5 years after the date the theft or loss was reported to ATF.

(d) Records of importation and manufacture. Licensees will maintain permanent records of the importation, manufacture, or other acquisition of firearms, including ATF Forms 6 and 6A as required by subpart G of this part. Licensed importers' records and licensed manufacturers' records of the sale or other disposition of firearms after December 15, 1968, shall be retained through December 15, 1988, after which records of transactions over 20 years of age may be discarded.

(e) Records of dealers and collectors under the Act. The records prepared by licensed dealers and licensed collectors under the Act of the sale or other disposition of firearms and the corresponding record of receipt of such firearms shall be retained through December 15, 1988, after which records of transactions over 20 years of age may be discarded.

(f) Retention of records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The documentation required by §§478.40(c) and 478.132 shall be retained in the licensee's permanent records for a period of not less than 5 years after the date of sale or other disposition.

(Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0544; Paragraph (c) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 1512-0520, 1512-0006, and 1512-0524; Paragraph (f) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0526; all other recordkeeping approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0129)

[T.D. ATF-208, 50 FR 26704, June 28, 1985 and correctly designated at 50 FR 35081, Aug. 29, 1985, as amended by T.D. ATF-273, 53 FR 24687, June 30, 1988; T.D. ATF-361, 60 FR 10787, Feb. 27, 1995; T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17455, Apr. 6, 1995; T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58280, Oct. 29, 1998; T.D. ATF-426, 65 FR 38201, June 20, 2000]

§478.131   Firearms transactions not subject to a NICS check.

(a)(1) A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer whose sale, delivery, or transfer of a firearm is made pursuant to the alternative provisions of §478.102(d) and is not subject to the NICS check prescribed by §478.102(a) shall maintain the records required by paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) If the transfer is pursuant to a permit or license in accordance with §478.102(d)(1), the licensee shall either retain a copy of the purchaser's permit or license and attach it to the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, or record on the firearms transaction record, Form 4473, any identifying number, the date of issuance, and the expiration date (if provided) from the permit or license.

(3) If the transfer is pursuant to a certification by ATF in accordance with §§478.102(d)(3) and 478.150, the licensee shall maintain the certification as part of the records required to be kept under this subpart and for the period prescribed for the retention of Form 5300.35 in §478.129(c).

(b) The requirements of this section shall be in addition to any other recordkeeping requirements contained in this part.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0045)

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58280, Oct. 29, 1998, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.132   Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use and to employees or contractors of nuclear facilities.

Licensed manufacturers, licensed importers, and licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal in large capacity ammunition feeding devices, may transfer such weapons and devices manufactured after September 13, 1994, to law enforcement officers and to employees or contractors of nuclear facilities with the following documentation:

(a) Law enforcement officers. (1) A written statement from the purchasing officer, under penalty of perjury, stating that the weapon or device is being purchased for use in performing official duties and that the weapon or device is not being acquired for personal use or for purposes of transfer or resale; and

(2) A written statement from a supervisor of the purchasing officer, on agency letterhead, under penalty of perjury, stating that the purchasing officer is acquiring the weapon or device for use in official duties, that the firearm is suitable for use in performing official duties, and that the weapon or device is not being acquired for personal use or for purposes of transfer or resale.

(b) Employees or contractors of nuclear facilities. (1) Evidence that the employee is employed by a nuclear facility licensed pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2133 or evidence that the contractor has a valid contract with such a facility.

(2) A written statement from the purchasing employee or contractor under penalty of perjury, stating that the weapon or device is being purchased for one of the purposes authorized in §§478.40(b)(7) and 478.40(b)(3), i.e., on-site physical protection, on-site or off-site training, or off-site transportation of nuclear materials.

(3) A written statement from a supervisor of the purchasing employee or contractor, on agency or company letterhead, under penalty of perjury, stating that the purchasing employee or contractor is acquiring the weapon or device for use in official duties, and that the weapon or device is not being acquired for personal use or for purposes of transfer or resale.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0041)

[T.D. ATF-396, 63 FR 12646, Mar. 16, 1998, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.133   Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

The evidence specified in §478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in the permanent records of the manufacturer or dealer and in the records of the licensee to whom the weapons are transferred.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0041)

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17455, Apr. 6, 1995, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.134   Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

(a) Law enforcement officers purchasing firearms for official use who provide the licensee with a certification on agency letterhead, signed by a person in authority within the agency (other than the officer purchasing the firearm), stating that the officer will use the firearm in official duties and that a records check reveals that the purchasing officer has no convictions for misdemeanor crimes of domestic violence are not required to complete Form 4473 or Form 5300.35. The law enforcement officer purchasing the firearm may purchase a firearm from a licensee in another State, regardless of where the officer resides or where the agency is located.

(b)(1) The following individuals are considered to have sufficient authority to certify that law enforcement officers purchasing firearms will use the firearms in the performance of official duties:

(i) In a city or county police department, the director of public safety or the chief or commissioner of police.

(ii) In a sheriff's office, the sheriff.

(iii) In a State police or highway patrol department, the superintendent or the supervisor in charge of the office to which the State officer or employee is assigned.

(iv) In Federal law enforcement offices, the supervisor in charge of the office to which the Federal officer or employee is assigned.

(2) An individual signing on behalf of the person in authority is acceptable, provided there is a proper delegation of authority.

(c) Licensees are not required to prepare a Form 4473 or Form 5300.35 covering sales of firearm made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section to law enforcement officers for official use. However, disposition to the officer must be entered into the licensee's permanent records, and the certification letter must be retained in the licensee's files.

[T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35523, June 30, 1998]

Subpart I—Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures

§478.141   General.

With the exception of §§478.32(a)(9) and (d)(9) and 478.99(c)(9), the provisions of this part shall not apply with respect to:

(a) The transportation, shipment, receipt, possession, or importation of any firearm or ammunition imported for, sold or shipped to, or issued for the use of, the United States or any department or agency thereof or any State or any department, agency, or political subdivision thereof.

(b) The shipment or receipt of firearms or ammunition when sold or issued by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to section 4308 of Title 10, U.S.C., and the transportation of any such firearm or ammunition carried out to enable a person, who lawfully received such firearm or ammunition from the Secretary of the Army, to engage in military training or in competitions.

(c) The shipment, unless otherwise prohibited by the Act or any other Federal law, by a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer to a member of the U.S. Armed Forces on active duty outside the United States or to clubs, recognized by the Department of Defense, whose entire membership is composed of such members of the U.S. Armed Forces, and such members or clubs may receive a firearm or ammunition determined by the Director to be generally recognized as particularly suitable for sporting purposes and intended for the personal use of such member or club. Before making a shipment of firearms or ammunition under the provisions of this paragraph, a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer may submit a written request, in duplicate, to the Director for a determination by the Director whether such shipment would constitute a violation of the Act or any other Federal law, or whether the firearm or ammunition is considered by the Director to be generally recognized as particularly suitable for sporting purposes.

(d) The transportation, shipment, receipt, possession, or importation of any antique firearm.

[33 FR 18555, Dec. 14, 1968. Redesignated at 40 FR 10835, Apr. 15, 1975, and amended by T.D. ATF-241, 51 FR 39628, Oct. 29, 1986; T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10505, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-313, 56 FR 32509, July 17, 1991; T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35523, June 30, 1998]

§478.142   Effect of pardons and expunctions of convictions.

(a) A pardon granted by the President of the United States regarding a Federal conviction for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year shall remove any disability which otherwise would be imposed by the provisions of this part with respect to that conviction.

(b) A pardon granted by the Governor of a State or other State pardoning authority or by the pardoning authority of a foreign jurisdiction with respect to a conviction, or any expunction, reversal, setting aside of a conviction, or other proceeding rendering a conviction nugatory, or a restoration of civil rights shall remove any disability which otherwise would be imposed by the provisions of this part with respect to the conviction, unless:

(1) The pardon, expunction, setting aside, or other proceeding rendering a conviction nugatory, or restoration of civil rights expressly provides that the person may not ship, transport, possess or receive firearms; or

(2) The pardon, expunction, setting aside, or other proceeding rendering a conviction nugatory, or restoration of civil rights did not fully restore the rights of the person to possess or receive firearms under the law of the jurisdiction where the conviction occurred.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10505, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.143   Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

A licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector who is indicted for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year may, notwithstanding any other provision of the Act, continue operations pursuant to his existing license during the term of such indictment and until any conviction pursuant to the indictment becomes final: Provided, That if the term of the license expires during the period between the date of the indictment and the date the conviction thereunder becomes final, such importer, manufacturer, dealer, or collector must file a timely application for the renewal of his license in order to continue operations. Such application shall show that the applicant is under indictment for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year.

§478.144   Relief from disabilities under the Act.

(a) Any person may make application for relief from the disabilities under section 922 (g) and (n) of the Act (see §478.32).

(b) An application for such relief shall be filed, in triplicate, with the Director. It shall include the information required by this section and such other supporting data as the Director and the applicant deem appropriate.

(c) Any record or document of a court or other government entity or official required by this paragraph to be furnished by an applicant in support of an application for relief shall be certified by the court or other government entity or official as a true copy. An application shall include:

(1) In the case of an applicant who is an individual, a written statement from each of 3 references, who are not related to the applicant by blood or marriage and have known the applicant for at least 3 years, recommending the granting of relief;

(2) Written consent to examine and obtain copies of records and to receive statements and information regarding the applicant's background, including records, statements and other information concerning employment, medical history, military service, and criminal record;

(3) In the case of an applicant under indictment, a copy of the indictment or information;

(4) In the case of an applicant having been convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year, a copy of the indictment or information on which the applicant was convicted, the judgment of conviction or record of any plea of nolo contendere or plea of guilty or finding of guilt by the court, and any pardon, expunction, setting aside or other record purporting to show that the conviction was rendered nugatory or that civil rights were restored;

(5) In the case of an applicant who has been adjudicated a mental defective or committed to a mental institution, a copy of the order of a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority that made the adjudication or ordered the commitment, any petition that sought to have the applicant so adjudicated or committed, any medical records reflecting the reasons for commitment and diagnoses of the applicant, and any court order or finding of a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority showing the applicant's discharge from commitment, restoration of mental competency and the restoration of rights;

(6) In the case of an applicant who has been discharged from the Armed Forces under dishonorable conditions, a copy of the applicant's summary of service record (Department of Defense Form 214), charge sheet (Department of Defense Form 458), and final court martial order;

(7) In the case of an applicant who, having been a citizen of the United States, has renounced his or her citizenship, a copy of the formal renunciation of nationality before a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States in a foreign state or before an officer designated by the Attorney General when the United States was in a state of war (see 8 U.S.C. 1481(a) (5) and (6)); and

(8) In the case of an applicant who has been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence, a copy of the indictment or information on which the applicant was convicted, the judgment of conviction or record of any plea of nolo contendere or plea of guilty or finding of guilt by the court, and any pardon, expunction, setting aside or other record purporting to show that the conviction was rendered nugatory or that civil rights were restored.

(d) The Director may grant relief to an applicant if it is established to the satisfaction of the Director that the circumstances regarding the disability, and the applicant's record and reputation, are such that the applicant will not be likely to act in a manner dangerous to public safety, and that the granting of the relief would not be contrary to the public interest. The Director will not ordinarily grant relief if the applicant has not been discharged from parole or probation for a period of at least 2 years. Relief will not be granted to an applicant who is prohibited from possessing all types of firearms by the law of the State where such applicant resides.

(e) In addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, an applicant who has been adjudicated a mental defective or committed to a mental institution will not be granted relief unless the applicant was subsequently determined by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority to have been restored to mental competency, to be no longer suffering from a mental disorder, and to have had all rights restored.

(f) Upon receipt of an incomplete or improperly executed application for relief, the applicant shall be notified of the deficiency in the application. If the application is not corrected and returned within 30 days following the date of notification, the application shall be considered as having been abandoned.

(g) Whenever the Director grants relief to any person pursuant to this section, a notice of such action shall be promptly published in the Federal Register, together with the reasons therefor.

(h) A person who has been granted relief under this section shall be relieved of any disabilities imposed by the Act with respect to the acquisition, receipt, transfer, shipment, transportation, or possession of firearms or ammunition and incurred by reason of such disability.

(i)(1) A licensee who incurs disabilities under the Act (see §478.32(a)) during the term of a current license or while the licensee has pending a license renewal application, and who files an application for removal of such disabilities, shall not be barred from licensed operations for 30 days following the date on which the applicant was first subject to such disabilities (or 30 days after the date upon which the conviction for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year becomes final), and if the licensee files the application for relief as provided by this section within such 30-day period, the licensee may further continue licensed operations during the pendency of the application. A licensee who does not file such application within such 30-day period shall not continue licensed operations beyond 30 days following the date on which the licensee was first subject to such disabilities (or 30 days from the date the conviction for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year becomes final).

(2) In the event the term of a license of a person expires during the 30-day period specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section, or during the pendency of the application for relief, a timely application for renewal of the license must be filed in order to continue licensed operations. Such license application shall show that the applicant is subject to Federal firearms disabilities, shall describe the event giving rise to such disabilities, and shall state when the disabilities were incurred.

(3) A licensee shall not continue licensed operations beyond 30 days following the date the Director issues notification that the licensee's applications for removal of disabilities has been denied.

(4) When as provided in this paragraph a licensee may no longer continue licensed operations, any application for renewal of license filed by the licensee during the pendency of the application for removal of disabilities shall be denied by the Director of Industry Operations.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10506, Mar. 31, 1988, as amended by T.D. ATF-313, 56 FR 32509, July 17, 1991; 56 FR 43649, Sept. 3, 1991; T.D. ATF-401, 63 FR 35523, June 30, 1998]

§478.145   Research organizations.

The provisions of §478.98 with respect to the sale or delivery of destructive devices, machine guns, short-barreled shotguns, and short-barreled rifles shall not apply to the sale or delivery of such devices and weapons to any research organization designated by the Director to receive same. A research organization desiring such designation shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director. Such application shall contain the name and address of the research organization, the names and addresses of the persons directing or controlling, directly or indirectly, the policies and management of such organization, the nature and purpose of the research being conducted, a description of the devices and weapons to be received, and the identity of the person or persons from whom such devices and weapons are to be received.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10507, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.146   Deliveries by mail to certain persons.

The provisions of this part shall not be construed as prohibiting a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer from depositing a firearm for conveyance in the mails to any officer, employee, agent, or watchman who, pursuant to the provisions of section 1715 of title 18, U.S.C., is eligible to receive through the mails pistols, revolvers, and other firearms capable of being concealed on the person, for use in connection with his official duties.

§478.147   Return of firearm.

A person not otherwise prohibited by Federal, State or local law may ship a firearm to a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed dealer for any lawful purpose, and, notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer may return in interstate or foreign commerce to that person the firearm or a replacement firearm of the same kind and type. See §478.124(a) for requirements of a Form 4473 prior to return. A person not otherwise prohibited by Federal, State or local law may ship a firearm curio or relic to a licensed collector for any lawful purpose, and, notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the licensed collector may return in interstate or foreign commerce to that person the firearm curio or relic.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10507, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.148   Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

The Director may exempt certain armor piercing ammunition from the requirements of this part. A person who desires to obtain an exemption under this section for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for industrial purposes, including charges used in oil and gas well perforating devices, shall submit a written request to the Director. Each request shall be executed under the penalties of perjury and contain a complete and accurate description of the ammunition, the name and address of the manufacturer or importer, the purpose of and use for which it is designed and intended, and any photographs, diagrams, or drawings as may be necessary to enable the Director to make a determination. The Director may require that a sample of the ammunition be submitted for examination and evaluation.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10507, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.149   Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

The provisions of §§478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing ammunition and the sale or delivery of armor piercing ammunition by manufacturers and importers shall not apply to the manufacture, importation, sale or delivery of armor piercing ammunition for the purpose of testing or experimentation as authorized by the Director. A person desiring such authorization to receive armor piercing ammunition shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director. Such application shall contain the name and addresses of the persons directing or controlling, directly or indirectly, the policies and management of the applicant, the nature or purpose of the testing or experimentation, a description of the armor piercing ammunition to be received, and the identity of the manufacturer or importer from whom such ammunition is to be received. The approved application shall be submitted to the manufacturer or importer who shall retain a copy as part of the records required by subpart H of this part.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10507, Mar. 31, 1988]

§478.150   Alternative to NICS in certain geographical locations.

(a) The provisions of §478.102(d)(3) shall be applicable when the Director has certified that compliance with the provisions of §478.102(a)(1) is impracticable because:

(1) The ratio of the number of law enforcement officers of the State in which the transfer is to occur to the number of square miles of land area of the State does not exceed 0.0025;

(2) The business premises of the licensee at which the transfer is to occur are extremely remote in relation to the chief law enforcement officer; and

(3) There is an absence of telecommunications facilities in the geographical area in which the business premises are located.

(b) A licensee who desires to obtain a certification under this section shall submit a written request to the Director. Each request shall be executed under the penalties of perjury and contain information sufficient for the Director to make such certification. Such information shall include statistical data, official reports, or other statements of government agencies pertaining to the ratio of law enforcement officers to the number of square miles of land area of a State and statements of government agencies and private utility companies regarding the absence of telecommunications facilities in the geographical area in which the licensee's business premises are located.

(c) For purposes of this section and §478.129(c), the “chief law enforcement officer” means the chief of police, the sheriff, or an equivalent officer or the designee of any such individual.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0045)

[T.D. ATF-415, 63 FR 58280, Oct. 29, 1998, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.151   Semiautomatic rifles or shotguns for testing or experimentation.

(a) The provisions of §478.39 shall not apply to the assembly of semiautomatic rifles or shotguns for the purpose of testing or experimentation as authorized by the Director.

(b) A person desiring authorization to assemble nonsporting semiautomatic rifles or shotguns shall submit a written request, in duplicate, to the Director. Each such request shall be executed under the penalties of perjury and shall contain a complete and accurate description of the firearm to be assembled, and such diagrams or drawings as may be necessary to enable the Director to make a determination. The Director may require the submission of the firearm parts for examination and evaluation. If the submission of the firearm parts is impractical, the person requesting the authorization shall so advise the Director and designate the place where the firearm parts will be available for examination and evaluation.

(Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0037)

[T.D. ATF-346, 58 FR 40590, July 29, 1993, as amended by ATF-11F, 73 FR 57242, Oct. 2, 2008]

§478.152   Seizure and forfeiture.

(a) Any firearm or ammunition involved in or used in any knowing violation of subsections (a)(4), (a)(6), (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), or (k) of section 922 of the Act, or knowing importation or bringing into the United States or any possession thereof any firearm or ammunition in violation of section 922(l) of the Act, or knowing violation of section 924 of the Act, or willful violation of any other provision of the Act or of this part, or any violation of any other criminal law of the United States, or any firearm or ammunition intended to be used in any offense referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, where such intent is demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and disposition of firearms, as defined in section 5845(a) of that Code, shall, so far as applicable, extend to seizures and forfeitures under the provisions of the Act: Provided, That upon acquittal of the owner or possessor, or dismissal of the charges against such person other than upon motion of the Government prior to trial, or lapse of or court termination of the restraining order to which he is subject, the seized or relinquished firearms or ammunition shall be returned forthwith to the owner or possessor or to a person delegated by the owner or possessor unless the return of the firearms or ammunition would place the owner or possessor or the delegate of the owner or possessor in violation of law. Any action or proceeding for the forfeiture of firearms or ammunition shall be commenced within 120 days of such seizure.

(b) Only those firearms or quantities of ammunition particularly named and individually identified as involved in or used in any violation of the provisions of the Act or this part, or any other criminal law of the United States or as intended to be used in any offense referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, where such intent is demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence, shall be subject to seizure, forfeiture and disposition.

(c) The offenses referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section for which firearms and ammunition intended to be used in such offenses are subject to seizure and forfeiture are:

(1) Any crime of violence, as that term is defined in section 924(c)(3) of the Act;

(2) Any offense punishable under the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.);

(3) Any offense described in section 922(a)(1), 922(a)(3), 922(a)(5), or 922(b)(3) of the Act, where the firearm or ammunition intended to be used in such offense is involved in a pattern of activities which includes a violation of any offense described in section 922(a)(1), 922(a)(3), 922(a)(5), or 922(b)(3) of the Act;

(4) Any offense described in section 922(d) of the Act where the firearm or ammunition is intended to be used in such offense by the transferor of such firearm or ammunition;

(5) Any offense described in section 922(i), 922(j), 922(l), 922(n), or 924(b) of the Act; and

(6) Any offense which may be prosecuted in a court of the United States which involves the exportation of firearms or ammunition.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10507, Mar. 31, 1988; Redesignated by T.D. ATF-354, 59 FR 7114, Feb. 14, 1994, and further redesignated by T.D. ATF-361, 60 FR 10788, Feb. 27, 1995; T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17455, Apr. 6, 1995]

§478.153   Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing or experimentation.

The provisions of §478.40 with respect to the manufacture, transfer, or possession of a semiautomatic assault weapon, and §478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to the manufacture, transfer, or possession of such weapons or devices by a manufacturer or importer for the purposes of testing or experimentation as authorized by the Director. A person desiring such authorization shall submit a letter application, in duplicate, to the Director. Such application shall contain the name and addresses of the persons directing or controlling, directly or indirectly, the policies and management of the applicant, the nature or purpose of the testing or experimentation, a description of the weapons or devices to be manufactured or imported, and the source of the weapons or devices. The approved application shall be retained as part of the records required by subpart H of this part.

[T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17456, Apr. 6, 1995]

Subpart J [Reserved]

Subpart K—Exportation

§478.171   Exportation.

Firearms and ammunition shall be exported in accordance with the applicable provisions of section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778) and regulations thereunder. However, licensed manufacturers, licensed importers, and licensed dealers exporting firearms shall maintain records showing the manufacture or acquisition of the firearms as required by this part and records showing the name and address of the foreign consignee of the firearms and the date the firearms were exported. Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault weapons manufactured after September 13, 1994, shall maintain records showing the name and address of the foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons were exported.

[T.D. ATF-270, 53 FR 10507, Mar. 31, 1988; T.D. ATF-363, 60 FR 17456, Apr. 6, 1995]



For questions or comments regarding e-CFR editorial content, features, or design, email ecfr@nara.gov.
For questions concerning e-CFR programming and delivery issues, email webteam@gpo.gov.