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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 19, 2014

Title 22Chapter ISubchapter M → Part 127


Title 22: Foreign Relations


PART 127—VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES


Contents
§127.1   Violations.
§127.2   Misrepresentation and omission of facts.
§127.3   Penalties for violations.
§127.4   Authority of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers.
§127.5   Authority of the Defense Security Service.
§127.6   Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.
§127.7   Debarment.
§127.8   [Reserved]
§127.9   Applicability of orders.
§127.10   Civil penalty.
§127.11   Past violations.
§127.12   Voluntary disclosures.

Authority: Sections 2, 38, and 42, Pub. L. 90-629, 90 Stat. 744 (22 U.S.C. 2752, 2778, 2791); 22 U.S.C. 401; 22 U.S.C. 2651a; 22 U.S.C. 2779a; 22 U.S.C. 2780; E.O. 13637, 78 FR 16129.

Source: 58 FR 39316, July 22, 1993, unless otherwise noted.

§127.1   Violations.

(a) Without first obtaining the required license or other written approval from the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, it is unlawful:

(1) To export or attempt to export from the United States any defense article or technical data or to furnish or attempt to furnish any defense service for which a license or written approval is required by this subchapter;

(2) To reexport or retransfer or attempt to reexport or retransfer any defense article, technical data, or defense service from one foreign end-user, end-use, or destination to another foreign end-user, end-use, or destination for which a license or written approval is required by this subchapter, including, as specified in §126.16(h) and §126.17(h) of this subchapter, any defense article, technical data, or defense service that was exported from the United States without a license pursuant to any exemption under this subchapter;

(3) To import or attempt to import any defense article whenever a license is required by this subchapter;

(4) To conspire to export, import, reexport, retransfer, furnish or cause to be exported, imported, reexported, retransferred or furnished, any defense article, technical data, or defense service for which a license or written approval is required by this subchapter; or

(5) To possess or attempt to possess any defense article with intent to export or transfer such defense article in violation of 22 U.S.C. 2778 and 2779, or any regulation, license, approval, or order issued thereunder.

(b) It is unlawful:

(1) To violate any of the terms or conditions of a license or approval granted pursuant to this subchapter, any exemption contained in this subchapter, or any rule or regulation contained in this subchapter;

(2) To engage in the business of brokering activities for which registration and a license or written approval is required by this subchapter without first registering or obtaining the required license or written approval from the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. For the purposes of this subchapter, engaging in the business of brokering activities requires only one occasion of engaging in an activity as reflected in §129.2(b) of this subchapter.

(3) To engage in the United States in the business of either manufacturing or exporting defense articles or furnishing defense services without complying with the registration requirements. For the purposes of this subchapter, engaging in the business of manufacturing or exporting defense articles or furnishing defense services requires only one occasion of manufacturing or exporting a defense article or furnishing a defense service.

(c) Any person who is granted a license or other approval or acts pursuant to an exemption under this subchapter is responsible for the acts of employees, agents, brokers, and all authorized persons to whom possession of the defense article, which includes technical data, has been entrusted regarding the operation, use, possession, transportation, and handling of such defense article abroad. All persons abroad subject to U.S. jurisdiction who obtain custody of a defense article exported from the United States or produced under an agreement described in part 124 of this subchapter, and regardless of the number of intermediate transfers, are bound by the regulations of this subchapter in the same manner and to the same extent as the original owner or transferor.

(d) A person who is ineligible pursuant to §120.1(c)(2) of this subchapter, or a person with knowledge that another person is ineligible pursuant to §120.1(c)(2) of this subchapter, may not, directly or indirectly, in any manner or capacity, without prior disclosure of the facts to and written authorization from the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls:

(1) Apply for, obtain, or use any export control document as defined in §127.2(b) for such ineligible person; or

(2) Order, buy, receive, use, sell, deliver, store, dispose of, forward, transport, finance, or otherwise service or participate in any manner in any transaction subject to this subchapter that may involve any defense article, which includes technical data, defense services, or brokering activities, where such ineligible person may obtain any benefit therefrom or have any direct or indirect interest therein.

(e) No person may knowingly or willfully attempt, solicit, cause, or aid, abet, counsel, demand, induce, procure, or permit the commission of any act prohibited by, or the omission of any act required by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 22 U.S.C. 2779, or any regulation, license, approval, or order issued thereunder.

[77 FR 16641, Mar. 21, 2012, as amended at 78 FR 52688, Aug. 26, 2013; 79 FR 8088, Feb. 11, 2014]

§127.2   Misrepresentation and omission of facts.

(a) It is unlawful to use or attempt to use any export or temporary import control document containing a false statement or misrepresenting or omitting a material fact for the purpose of exporting, transferring, reexporting, retransferring, obtaining, or furnishing any defense article, technical data, or defense service. Any false statement, misrepresentation, or omission of material fact in an export or temporary import control document will be considered as made in a matter within the jurisdiction of a department or agency of the United States for the purposes of 18 U.S.C. 1001, 22 U.S.C. 2778, and 22 U.S.C. 2779.

(b) For the purpose of this subchapter, export or temporary import control documents include the following:

(1) An application for a permanent export, reexport, retransfer, or a temporary import license and supporting documents.

(2) Electronic Export Information filing.

(3) Invoice.

(4) Declaration of destination.

(5) Delivery verification.

(6) Application for temporary export.

(7) Application for registration.

(8) Purchase order.

(9) Foreign import certificate.

(10) Bill-of-lading.

(11) Airway bill.

(12) Nontransfer and use certificate.

(13) Any other document used in the regulation or control of a defense article, defense service, or brokering activity regulated by this subchapter.

(14) Any other shipping document that has information related to the export of the defense article or defense service.

[58 FR 39316, July 22, 1993, as amended at 77 FR 16642, Mar. 21, 2012; 78 FR 52689, Aug. 26, 2013]

§127.3   Penalties for violations.

Any person who willfully:

(a) Violates any provision of §38 or §39 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 and 2779) or any rule or regulation issued under either §38 or §39 of the Act, or any undertaking specifically required by part 124 of this subchapter; or

(b) In a registration, license application, or report required by §38 or §39 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 and 2779) or by any rule or regulation issued under either section, makes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, shall upon conviction be subject to a fine or imprisonment, or both, as prescribed by 22 U.S.C. 2778(c).

[77 FR 16642, Mar. 21, 2012]

§127.4   Authority of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers.

(a) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers may take appropriate action to ensure observance of this subchapter as to the export or the attempted export or the temporary import of any defense article or technical data, including the inspection of loading or unloading of any vessel, vehicle, or aircraft. This applies whether the export is authorized by license or by written approval issued under this subchapter or by exemption.

(b) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers have the authority to investigate, detain or seize any export or attempted export of defense articles or technical data contrary to this subchapter.

(c) Upon the presentation to a U.S. Customs and Border Protection Officer of a license or written approval, or claim of an exemption, authorizing the export of any defense article, the customs officer may require the production of other relevant documents and information relating to the final export. This includes an invoice, order, packing list, shipping document, correspondence, instructions, and the documents otherwise required by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection or U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

(d) If an exemption under this subchapter is used or claimed to export, transfer, reexport or retransfer, furnish, or obtain a defense article, technical data, or defense service, law enforcement officers may rely upon the authorities noted, additional authority identified in the language of the exemption, and any other lawful means or authorities to investigate such a matter.

[70 FR 50965, Aug. 29, 2005, as amended at 77 FR 16642, Mar. 21, 2012]

§127.5   Authority of the Defense Security Service.

In the case of exports involving classified technical data or defense articles, the Defense Security Service may take appropriate action to ensure compliance with the Department of Defense National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (unless such requirements are in direct conflict with guidance provided by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, in which case the latter guidance must be followed). Upon a request to the Defense Security Service regarding the export of any classified defense article or technical data, the Defense Security Service official or a designated government transmittal authority may require the production of other relevant documents and information relating to the proposed export.

[71 FR 20549, Apr. 21, 2006]

§127.6   Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

(a) An attempt to export from the United States any defense articles in violation of the provisions of this subchapter constitutes an offense punishable under section 401 of title 22 of the United States Code. Whenever it is known or there is probable cause to believe that any defense article is intended to be or is being or has been exported or removed from the United States in violation of law, such article and any vessel, vehicle or aircraft involved in such attempt is subject to seizure, forfeiture and disposition as provided in section 401 of title 22 of the United States Code.

(b) Similarly, an attempt to violate any of the conditions under which a temporary export or temporary import license was issued pursuant to this subchapter or to violate the requirements of §123.2 of this subchapter also constitutes an offense punishable under section 401 of title 22 of the United States Code, and such article, together with any vessel, vehicle or aircraft involved in any such attempt is subject to seizure, forfeiture, and disposition as provided in section 401 of title 22 of the United States Code.

§127.7   Debarment.

(a) Administrative debarment. In implementing section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs may debar and thereby prohibit any person from participating directly or indirectly in any activities that are subject to this subchapter for any of the reasons listed below. Any such prohibition is referred to as an administrative debarment for purposes of this subchapter. The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs shall determine the appropriate period of time for administrative debarment, which generally shall be for a period of three years. Reinstatement is not automatic, however, and in all cases the debarred persons must submit a request for reinstatement and be approved for reinstatement before engaging in any activities subject to this subchapter. (See part 128 of this subchapter for administrative procedures.)

(b) Statutory debarment. Section 38(g)(4) of the Arms Export Control Act prohibits the issuance of licenses to persons who have been convicted of violating the U.S. criminal statutes enumerated in section 38(g)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act. Discretionary authority to issue licenses is provided, but only if certain statutory requirements are met. It is the policy of the Department of State not to consider applications for licenses or requests for approvals involving any person who has been convicted of violating the Arms Export Control Act or convicted of conspiracy to violate that Act for a three year period following conviction. Such individuals shall be notified in writing that they are statutorily debarred pursuant to this policy. A list of persons who have been convicted of such offenses and debarred for this reason shall be published periodically in the Federal Register. Statutory debarment in such cases is based solely upon the outcome of a criminal proceeding, conducted by a court of the United States, that established guilt beyond a reasonable doubt in accordance with due process. The procedures of part 128 of this subchapter are not applicable in such cases.

(c) Grounds. (1) The basis for statutory debarment, as described in paragraph (b) of this section, is any conviction for violating the Arms Export Control Act (see §127.3) or any conspiracy to violate the Arms Export Control Act.

(2) The basis for administrative debarment, as described in paragraph (a) of this section and in part 128 of this subchapter, is any violation of 22 U.S.C. 2778 or any rule or regulation issued thereunder when such a violation is of such a character as to provide a reasonable basis for the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls to believe that the violator cannot be relied upon to comply with the statute or these rules or regulations in the future, and when such violation is established in accordance with part 128 of this subchapter.

(d) Appeals. Any person who is ineligible pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section may appeal to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security for reconsideration of the ineligibility determination. The procedures specified in §128.13 of this subchapter will be used in submitting a reconsideration appeal.

[78 FR 52689, Aug. 26, 2013]

§127.8   [Reserved]

§127.9   Applicability of orders.

For the purpose of preventing evasion, orders of the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs debarring a person under §127.7 may be made applicable to any other person who may then or thereafter (during the term of the order) be related to the debarred person by affiliation, ownership, control, position of responsibility, or other commercial connection. Appropriate notice and opportunity to respond to the basis for the suspension will be given.

[78 FR 52689, Aug. 26, 2013]

§127.10   Civil penalty.

(a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a, and 2780 for each violation of 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a, and 2780, or any regulation, order, license, or written approval issued thereunder. This civil penalty may be either in addition to, or in lieu of, any other liability or penalty which may be imposed.

(b) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may make:

(1) The payment of a civil penalty under this section or

(2) The completion of any administrative action pursuant to this part 127 or 128 of this subchapter a prior condition for the issuance, restoration, or continuing validity of any export license or other approval.

[58 FR 39316, July 22, 1993, as amended at 62 FR 67276, Dec. 24, 1997; 71 FR 20550, Apr. 21, 2006; 77 FR 16642, Mar. 21, 2012]

§127.11   Past violations.

(a) Presumption of denial. Pursuant to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, licenses or other approvals may not be granted to persons who have been convicted of violating any of the U.S. criminal statutes enumerated in §120.27 of this subchapter or who are ineligible to receive any export licenses from any agency of the U.S. Government, subject to a narrowly defined statutory exception. This provision establishes a presumption of denial for licenses or other approvals involving such persons. This presumption is applied by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls to all persons convicted or deemed ineligible in this manner since the effective date of the Arms Export Control Act (Public Law 94-329; 90 Stat. 729) (June 30, 1976).

(b) Policy. An exception to the policy of the Department of State to deny applications for licenses or other approvals that involve persons described in paragraph (a) of this section shall not be considered unless there are extraordinary circumstances surrounding the conviction or ineligibility to export, and only if the applicant demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, that the applicant has taken appropriate steps to mitigate any law enforcement and other legitimate concerns, and to deal with the causes that resulted in the conviction, ineligibility, or debarment. Any person described in paragraph (a) of this section who wishes to request consideration of any application must explain, in a letter to the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls the reasons why the application should be considered. If the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs concludes that the application and written explanation have sufficient merit, the Assistant Secretary shall consult with the Office of the Legal Adviser and the Department of the Treasury regarding law enforcement concerns, and may also request the views of other departments, including the Department of Justice. If the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls does grant the license or other approval, subsequent applications from the same person need not repeat the information previously provided but should instead refer to the favorable decision.

(c) Debarred persons. Persons debarred pursuant to §127.7(c) (statutory debarment) may not utilize the procedures provided by this section while the debarment is in force. Such persons may utilize only the procedures provided by §127.7(d) of this part.

[71 FR 20550, Apr. 21, 2006, as amended at 79 FR 8088, Feb. 11, 2014]

§127.12   Voluntary disclosures.

(a) General policy. The Department strongly encourages the disclosure of information to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls by persons (see §120.14 of this subchapter) that believe they may have violated any export control provision of the Arms Export Control Act, or any regulation, order, license, or other authorization issued under the authority of the Arms Export Control Act. The Department may consider a voluntary disclosure as a mitigating factor in determining the administrative penalties, if any, that should be imposed. Failure to report a violation may result in circumstances detrimental to U.S. national security and foreign policy interests, and will be an adverse factor in determining the appropriate disposition of such violations.

(b) Limitations. (1) The provisions of this section apply only when information is provided to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls for its review in determining whether to take administrative action under part 128 of this subchapter concerning a violation of the export control provisions of the Arms Export Control Act and these regulations.

(2) The provisions of this section apply only when information is received by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls for review prior to such time that either the Department of State or any other agency, bureau, or department of the United States Government obtains knowledge of either the same or substantially similar information from another source and commences an investigation or inquiry that involves that information, and that is intended to determine whether the Arms Export Control Act or these regulations, or any other license, order, or other authorization issued under the Arms Export Control Act has been violated.

(3) The violation(s) in question, despite the voluntary nature of the disclosure, may merit penalties, administrative actions, sanctions, or referrals to the Department of Justice to consider criminal prosecution. In the latter case, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls will notify the Department of Justice of the voluntary nature of the disclosure, although the Department of Justice is not required to give that fact any weight. The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls has the sole discretion to consider whether “voluntary disclosure,” in context with other relevant information in a particular case, should be a mitigating factor in determining what, if any, administrative action will be imposed. Some of the mitigating factors the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may consider are:

(i) Whether the transaction would have been authorized, and under what conditions, had a proper license request been made;

(ii) Why the violation occurred;

(iii) The degree of cooperation with the ensuing investigation;

(iv) Whether the person has instituted or improved an internal compliance program to reduce the likelihood of future violation;

(v) Whether the person making the disclosure did so with the full knowledge and authorization of the person's senior management. (If not, then the Directorate will not deem the disclosure voluntary as covered in this section.)

(4) The provisions of this section do not, nor should they be relied on to, create, confer, or grant any rights, benefits, privileges, or protection enforceable at law or in equity by any person in any civil, criminal, administrative, or other matter.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to negate or lessen the affirmative duty pursuant to §§126.1(e), 126.16(h)(5), and 126.17(h)(5) of this subchapter upon persons to inform the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls of the actual or final sale, export, transfer, reexport, or retransfer of a defense article, technical data, or defense service to any country referred to in §126.1 of this subchapter, any citizen of such country, or any person acting on its behalf.

(c) Notification. (1) Any person wanting to disclose information that constitutes a voluntary disclosure should, in the manner outlined below, initially notify the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls immediately after a violation is discovered and then conduct a thorough review of all defense trade transactions where a violation is suspected.

(i) If the notification does not contain all the information required by 127.12(c)(2) of this section, a full disclosure must be submitted within 60 calendar days of the notification, or the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls will not deem the notification to qualify as a voluntary disclosure.

(ii) If the person is unable to provide a full disclosure within the 60 calendar day deadline, an empowered official (see §120.25 of this subchapter) or a senior officer may request an extension of time in writing. A request for an extension must specify what information required by §127.12(c)(2) of this section could not be immediately provided and the reasons why.

(iii) Before approving an extension of time to provide the full disclosure, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may require the requester to certify in writing that they will provide the full disclosure within a specific time period.

(iv) Failure to provide a full disclosure within a reasonable time may result in a decision by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls not to consider the notification as a mitigating factor in determining the appropriate disposition of the violation. In addition, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may direct the requester to furnish all relevant information surrounding the violation.

(2) Notification of a violation must be in writing and should include the following information:

(i) A precise description of the nature and extent of the violation (e.g., an unauthorized shipment, doing business with a party denied U.S. export privileges, etc.);

(ii) The exact circumstances surrounding the violation (a thorough explanation of why, when, where, and how the violation occurred);

(iii) The complete identities and addresses of all persons known or suspected to be involved in the activities giving rise to the violation (including mailing, shipping, and e-mail addresses; telephone and fax/facsimile numbers; and any other known identifying information);

(iv) Department of State license numbers, exemption citation, or description of any other authorization, if applicable;

(v) U.S. Munitions List category and subcategory, product description, quantity, and characteristics or technological capability of the hardware, technical data or defense service involved;

(vi) A description of corrective actions already undertaken that clearly identifies the new compliance initiatives implemented to address the causes of the violations set forth in the voluntary disclosure and any internal disciplinary action taken; and how these corrective actions are designed to deter those particular violations from occurring again;

(vii) The name and address of the person making the disclosure and a point of contact, if different, should further information be needed.

(3) Factors to be addressed in the voluntary disclosure include, for example, whether the violation was intentional or inadvertent; the degree to which the person responsible for the violation was familiar with the laws and regulations, and whether the person was the subject of prior administrative or criminal action under the AECA; whether the violations are systemic; and the details of compliance measures, processes and programs, including training, that were in place to prevent such violations, if any. In addition to immediately providing written notification, persons are strongly urged to conduct a thorough review of all export-related transactions where a possible violation is suspected.

(d) Documentation. The written disclosure should be accompanied by copies of substantiating documents. Where appropriate, the documentation should include, but not be limited to:

(1) Licensing documents (e.g., license applications, export licenses, and end-user statements), exemption citation, or other authorization description, if any;

(2) Shipping documents (e.g., Electronic Export Information filing, including the Internal Transaction Number, air waybills, and bills of laden, invoices, and any other associated documents); and

(3) Any other relevant documents must be retained by the person making the disclosure until the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls requests them or until a final decision on the disclosed information has been made.

(e) Certification. A certification must be submitted stating that all of the representations made in connection with the voluntary disclosure are true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief. Certifications should be executed by an empowered official (See §120.25 of this subchapter), or by a senior officer (e.g. chief executive officer, president, vice-president, comptroller, treasurer, general counsel, or member of the board of directors). If the violation is a major violation, reveals a systemic pattern of violations, or reflects the absence of an effective compliance program, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may require that such certification be made by a senior officer of the company.

(f) Oral presentations. Oral presentation is generally not necessary to augment the written presentation. However, if the person making the disclosure believes a meeting is desirable, a request should be included with the written presentation.

(g) Send voluntary disclosures to the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Consult the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls Web site at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov for the appropriate street address.

[58 FR 39316, July 22, 1993, as amended at 70 FR 34655, June 15, 2005; 71 FR 20550, Apr. 21, 2006; 72 FR 70778, Dec. 13, 2007; 77 FR 16642, Mar. 21, 2012]



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