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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 129—PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER
§129.1 Current good manufacturing practice.
§129.20 Plant construction and design.
§129.35 Sanitary facilities.
§129.37 Sanitary operations.
§129.40 Equipment and procedures.
§129.80 Processes and controls.
Authority: 21 U.S.C. 342, 348, 371, 374; 42 U.S.C. 264.
Source: 42 FR 14355, Mar. 15, 1977, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A—General Provisions
§129.1 Current good manufacturing practice.
The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the criteria in §§129.20, 129.35, 129.37, 129.40, and 129.80 shall apply in determining whether the facilities, methods, practices, and controls used in the processing, bottling, holding, and shipping of bottled drinking water are in conformance with or are operated or administered in conformity with good manufacturing practice to assure that bottled drinking water is safe and that it has been processed, bottled, held, and transported under sanitary conditions.
For the purposes of this part, the following definitions apply:
(a) Approved source when used in reference to a plant's product water or operations water means a source of water and the water therefrom, whether it be from a spring, artesian well, drilled well, municipal water supply, or any other source, that has been inspected and the water sampled, analyzed, and found to be of a safe and sanitary quality according to applicable laws and regulations of State and local government agencies having jurisdiction. The presence in the plant of current certificates or notifications of approval from the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction constitutes approval of the source and the water supply.
(b) Bottled drinking water means all water which is sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water.
(c) Lot means a collection of primary containers or unit packages of the same size, type, and style produced under conditions as nearly uniform as possible and designated by a common container code or marking.
(d) Multiservice containers means containers intended for use more than one time.
(e) Nontoxic materials means materials for product water contact surfaces utilized in the transporting, processing, storing, and packaging of bottled drinking water, which are free of substances which may render the water injurious to health or which may adversely affect the flavor, color, odor, or bacteriological quality of the water.
(f) Operations water means water which is delivered under pressure to a plant for container washing, hand washing, plant and equipment cleanup and for other sanitary purposes.
(g) Primary container means the immediate container in which the product water is packaged.
(h) Product water means processed water used by a plant for bottled drinking water.
(i) Shall and should. “Shall” refers to mandatory requirements and “should” refers to recommended or advisory procedures or equipment.
(j) Shipping case means a container in which one or more primary containers of the product are held.
(k) Single-service container means a container intended for one time usage only.
(l) Unit package means a standard commercial package of bottled drinking water, which may consist of one or more containers.
[42 FR 14355, Mar. 6, 1977, as amended at 44 FR 12175, Mar. 6, 1979]
Subpart B—Buildings and Facilities
§129.20 Plant construction and design.
(a) The bottling room shall be separated from other plant operations or storage areas by tight walls, ceilings, and self-closing doors to protect against contamination. Conveyor openings shall not exceed the size required to permit passage of containers.
(b) If processing operations are conducted in other than a sealed system under pressure, adequate protection shall be provided to preclude contamination of the water and the system.
(c) Adequate ventilation shall be provided to minimize condensation in processing rooms, bottling rooms, and in container washing and sanitizing areas.
(d) The washing and sanitizing of containers for bottled drinking water shall be performed in an enclosed room. The washing and sanitizing operation shall be positioned within the room so as to minimize any possible post-sanitizing contamination of the containers before they enter the bottling room.
(e) Rooms in which product water is handled, processed, or held or in which containers, utensils, or equipment are washed or held shall not open directly into any room used for domestic household purposes.
§129.35 Sanitary facilities.
Each plant shall provide adequate sanitary facilities including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) Product water and operations water—(1) Product water. The product water supply for each plant shall be from an approved source properly located, protected, and operated and shall be easily accessible, adequate, and of a safe, sanitary quality which shall be in conformance at all times with the applicable laws and regulations of the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction.
(2) Operations water. If different from the product water supply, the operations water supply shall be obtained from an approved source properly located, protected, and operated and shall be easily accessible, adequate, and of a safe, sanitary quality which shall be in conformance at all times with the applicable laws and regulations of the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction.
(3) Product water and operations water from approved sources. (i) Samples of source water from each source in use by the plant are to be taken and analyzed by the plant as often as necessary, but at a minimum frequency of once each year for chemical contaminants and once every 4 years for radiological contaminants. Additionally, source water obtained from other than a public water system is to be sampled and analyzed for total coliform at least once each week. If any coliform organisms are detected, follow-up testing must be conducted to determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli. This sampling is in addition to any performed by government agencies having jurisdiction. Source water found to contain E. coli is not considered water of a safe, sanitary quality as required for use in bottled water by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Before a bottler can use source water from a source that has tested positive for E. coli, the bottler must take appropriate measures to rectify or otherwise eliminate the cause of E. coli contamination of that source in a manner sufficient to prevent its reoccurrence. A source previously found to contain E. coli will be considered negative for E. coli after five samples collected over a 24-hour period from the same sampling site that originally tested positive for E. coli are tested and found to be E. coli negative. Records of approval of the source water by government agencies having jurisdiction, records of sampling and analyses for which the plant is responsible, and records describing corrective measures taken in response to a finding of E. coli are to be maintained on file at the plant.
(ii) Test and sample methods shall be those recognized and approved by the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction over the approval of the water source, and shall be consistent with the minimum requirements set forth in §165.110(b) of this chapter.
(iii) Analysis of the sample may be performed for the plant by competent commercial laboratories (e.g., Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State-certified laboratories).
(4) Source water testing exemptions. (i) Firms that use a public water system for source water may substitute public water system testing results, or certificates showing full compliance with all provisions of EPA National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations pertaining to chemical contaminants (40 CFR parts 141 and 143), for the testing requirements of §129.35(a)(3).
(ii) Firms that do not use a public water system as the source of their water may reduce the frequency of their testing of that source, as well as the number of chemical contaminants for which they test the source water, if they can document that such reduction is consistent with a State-issued waiver under EPA regulations (40 CFR parts 141 and 143).
(iii) Firms that do not use a public water system as the source of their water and whose source water has not been treated with a chlorine-based disinfectant or ozone do not have to test their source water for the residual disinfectants and DBP's listed in §165.110(b)(4)(iii)(H) of this chapter. Firms that do not use a public water system as the source of their water but whose source water has been treated with a chlorine-based disinfectant or ozone must test their source water for the residual disinfectants and the DBP's listed in §165.110(b)(4)(iii)(H) that are likely to result from such treatment.
(iv) The finished bottled water must comply with bottled water quality standards (§165.110(b) of this chapter) and section 402(a)(1) and (a)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act dealing with adulterated foods.
(b) Air under pressure. Whenever air under pressure is directed at product water or a product water-contact surface, it shall be free of oil, dust, rust, excessive moisture, and extraneous materials; shall not affect the bacteriological quality of the water; and should not adversely affect the flavor, color, or odor of the water.
(c) Locker and lunchrooms. When employee locker and lunchrooms are provided, they shall be separate from plant operations and storage areas and shall be equipped with self-closing doors. The rooms shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and refuse containers should be provided. Packaging or wrapping material or other processing supplies shall not be stored in locker or lunchrooms.
[42 FR 14355, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 44 FR 12175, Mar. 6, 1979; 60 FR 57123, Nov. 13, 1995; 66 FR 16865, Mar. 28, 2001; 74 FR 25664, May 29, 2009]
§129.37 Sanitary operations.
(a) The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes, and equipment used in the transportation, processing, handling, and storage of product water shall be clean and adequately sanitized. All product water-contact surfaces shall be inspected by plant personnel as often as necessary to maintain the sanitary condition of such surfaces and to assure they are kept free of scale, evidence of oxidation, and other residue. The presence of any unsanitary condition, scale, residue, or oxidation shall be immediately remedied by adequate cleaning and sanitizing of that product water-contact surface prior to use.
(b) After cleaning, all multiservice containers, utensils, and disassembled piping and equipment shall be transported and stored in such a manner as to assure drainage and shall be protected from contamination.
(c) Single-service containers and caps or seals shall be purchased and stored in sanitary closures and kept clean therein in a clean, dry place until used. Prior to use they shall be examined, and as necessary, washed, rinsed, and sanitized and shall be handled in a sanitary manner.
(d) Filling, capping, closing, sealing, and packaging of containers shall be done in a sanitary manner so as to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water.
§129.40 Equipment and procedures.
(a) Suitability. (1) All plant equipment and utensils shall be suitable for their intended use. This includes all collection and storage tanks, piping, fittings, connections, bottle washers, fillers, cappers, and other equipment which may be used to store, handle, process, package, or transport product water.
(2) All product water contact surfaces shall be constructed of nontoxic and nonabsorbant material which can be adequately cleaned and sanitized and is in compliance with section 409 of the act.
(b) Design. Storage tanks shall be of the type that can be closed to exclude all foreign matter and shall be adequately vented.
Subpart D [Reserved]
Subpart E—Production and Process Controls
§129.80 Processes and controls.
(a) Treatment of product water. All treatment of product water by distillation, ion-exchanging, filtration, ultraviolet treatment, reverse osmosis, carbonation, mineral addition, or any other process shall be done in a manner so as to be effective in accomplishing its intended purpose and in accordance with section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. All such processes shall be performed in and by equipment and with substances which will not adulterate the bottled product. A record of the type and date of physical inspections of such equipment, conditions found, and the performance and effectiveness of such equipment shall be maintained by the plant. Product water samples shall be taken after processing and prior to bottling by the plant and analyzed as often as is necessary to assure uniformity and effectiveness of the processes performed by the plant. The methods of analysis shall be those approved by the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction.
(b) Containers. (1) Multiservice primary containers shall be adequately cleaned, sanitized, and inspected just prior to being filled, capped, and sealed. Containers found to be unsanitary or defective by the inspection shall be reprocessed or discarded. All multiservice primary containers shall be washed, rinsed, and sanitized by mechanical washers or by any other method giving adequate sanitary results. Mechanical washers shall be inspected as often as is necessary to assure adequate performance. Records of physical maintenance, inspections and conditions found, and performance of the mechanical washer shall be maintained by the plant.
(2) Multiservice shipping cases shall be maintained in such condition as to assure they will not contaminate the primary container or the product water. Adequate dry or wet cleaning procedures shall be performed as often as necessary to maintain the cases in satisfactory condition.
(c) Cleaning and sanitizing solutions. Cleaning and sanitizing solutions utilized by the plant shall be sampled and tested by the plant as often as is necessary to assure adequate performance in the cleaning and sanitizing operations. Records of these tests shall be maintained by the plant.
(d) Sanitizing operations. Sanitizing operations, including those performed by chemical means or by any other means such as circulation of live steam or hot water, shall be adequate to effect sanitization of the intended product water-contact surfaces and any other critical area. The plant should maintain a record of the intensity of the sanitizing agent and the time duration that the agent was in contact with the surface being sanitized. The following times and intensities shall be considered a minimum:
(1) Steam in enclosed system: At least 170 °F for at least 15 minutes or at least 200 °F for at least 5 minutes.
(2) Hot water in enclosed system: At least 170 °F for at least 15 minutes or at least 200 °F for at least 5 minutes.
(3) Chemical sanitizers shall be equivalent in bactericidal action to a 2-minute exposure of 50 parts per million of available chlorine at 57 °F when used as an immersion or circulating solution. Chemical sanitizers applied as a spray or fog shall have as a minimum 100 parts per million of available chlorine at 57 °F or its equivalent in bactericidal action.
(4) 0.1 part per million ozone water solution in an enclosed system for at least 5 minutes.
(5) When containers are sanitized using a substance other than one provided for in §178.1010 of this chapter, such substance shall be removed from the surface of the container by a rinsing procedure. The final rinse, prior to filling the container with product water, shall be performed with a disinfected water rinse free of pathogenic bacteria or by an additional sanitizing procedure equivalent in bactericidal action to that required in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.
(e) Unit package production code. Each unit package from a batch or segment of a continuous production run of bottled drinking water shall be identified by a production code. The production code shall identify a particular batch or segment of a continuous production run and the day produced. The plant shall record and maintain information as to the kind of product, volume produced, date produced, lot code used, and the distribution of the finished product to wholesale and retail outlets.
(f) Filling, capping, or sealing. During the process of filling, capping or sealing either single-service or multiservice containers, the performance of the filler, capper or sealer shall be monitored and the filled containers visually or electronically inspected to assure they are sound, properly capped or sealed, and coded and labeled. Containers which are not satisfactory shall be reprocessed or rejected. Only nontoxic containers and closures shall be used. All containers and closures shall be sampled and inspected to ascertain that they are free from contamination. At least once each 3 months, a bacteriological swab and/or rinse count should be made from at least four containers and closures selected just prior to filling and sealing. No more than one of the four samples may exceed more than one bacteria per milliliter of capacity or one colony per square centimeter of surface area. All samples shall be free of coliform organisms. The procedure and apparatus for these bacteriological tests shall be in conformance with those recognized by the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction. Tests shall be performed either by qualified plant personnel or a competent commercial laboratory.
(g) Compliance procedures. A quality standard for bottled drinking water is established in §165.110(b) of this chapter. To assure that the plant's production of bottled drinking water complies with the applicable standards, laws, and regulations of the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction, the plant will analyze product samples as follows:
(1) For bacteriological purposes, take and analyze at least once a week for total coliform a representative sample from a batch or segment of a continuous production run for each type of bottled drinking water produced during a day's production. The representative sample shall consist of primary containers of product or unit packages of product. If any coliform organisms are detected, follow-up testing must be conducted to determine whether any of the coliform organisms are E. coli.
(2) For chemical, physical, and radiological purposes, take and analyze at least annually a representative sample from a batch or segment of a continuous production run for each type of bottled drinking water produced during a day's production. The representtive sample(s) consists of primary containers of product of unit packages of product.
(3) Analyze such samples by methods approved by the government agency or agencies having jurisdiction. The plant shall maintain records of date of sampling, type of product sampled, production code, and results of the analysis.
(h) Record retention. All records required by §§129.1, 129.20, 129.35, 129.37, 129.40, and 129.80 shall be maintained at the plant for not less than 2 years. Plants shall also retain, on file at the plant, current certificates or notifications of approval issued by the government agency or agencies approving the plant's source and supply of product water and operations water. All required documents shall be available for official review at reasonable times.
[42 FR 14355, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 44 FR 12175, Mar. 6, 1979; 60 FR 57124, Nov. 13, 1995; 74 FR 25665, May 29, 2009]