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Title 16: Commercial Practices
PART 1212—SAFETY STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS
§1212.1 Scope, application, and effective date.
§1212.3 Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.
§1212.4 Test protocol.
§1212.12 Certificate of compliance.
§1212.13 Certification tests.
§1212.14 Qualification testing.
§1212.16 Production testing.
§1212.17 Recordkeeping and reporting.
§1212.18 Refusal of importation.
Appendix A to Part 1212—Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act
Source: 64 FR 71872, Dec. 22, 1999, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A—Requirements for Child-Resistance
Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2056, 2058, 2079(d).
§1212.1 Scope, application, and effective date.
This part 1212, a consumer product safety standard, prescribes requirements for multi-purpose lighters. These requirements are intended to make the multi-purpose lighters subject to the standard's provisions resistant to successful operation by children younger than 5 years of age. This standard applies to all multi-purpose lighters, as defined in §1212.2, that are manufactured in the United States, or imported, on or after December 22, 2000.
As used in this part 1212:
(a)(1) Multi-purpose lighter, (also known as grill lighter, fireplace lighter, utility lighter, micro-torch, or gas match, etc.) means: A hand-held, flame-producing product that operates on fuel, incorporates an ignition mechanism, and is used by consumers to ignite items such as candles, fuel for fireplaces, charcoal or gas-fired grills, camp fires, camp stoves, lanterns, fuel-fired appliances or devices, or pilot lights, or for uses such as soldering or brazing. Some multi-purpose lighters have a feature that allows for hands-free operation.
(2) The following products are not multi-purpose lighters:
(i) Devices intended primarily for igniting cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, whether or not such devices are subject to the requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210).
(ii) Devices containing more than 10 oz. of fuel.
(b) Successful operation means one signal of any duration from a surrogate multi-purpose lighter within either of the two 5-minute test periods specified in §1212.4(f).
(c)(1) Surrogate multi-purpose lighter means a device that
(i) Approximates the appearance, size, shape, and weight of, and is identical in all other factors that affect child resistance (including operation and the force(s) required for operation), within reasonable manufacturing tolerances, to, a multi-purpose lighter intended for use by consumers,
(ii) Has no fuel,
(iii) Does not produce a flame, and
(iv) produces an audible, or audible and visual, signal that will be clearly discernible when the surrogate multi-purpose lighter is activated in each manner that would produce a flame in a fueled production multi-purpose lighter.
(2) This definition does not require a multi-purpose lighter to be modified with electronics or the like to produce a signal. Manufacturers may use a multi-purpose lighter without fuel as a surrogate multi-purpose lighter if a distinct audible signal, such as a “click,” can be heard clearly when the mechanism is operated in each manner that would produce a flame in a production lighter and if a flame cannot be produced in a production multi-purpose lighter without the signal. But see §1212.4(f)(1).
(d) Child-resistant mechanism means the mechanism of a multi-purpose lighter that makes the lighter resist successful operation by young children, as specified in §1212.3.
(e) Model means one or more multi-purpose lighters from the same manufacturer or importer that do not differ in design or other characteristics in any manner that may affect child resistance. Lighter characteristics that may affect child resistance include, but are not limited to, size, shape, case material, and ignition mechanism (including child-resistant features).
§1212.3 Requirements for multi-purpose lighters.
(a) A multi-purpose lighter subject to this part 1212 shall be resistant to successful operation by at least 85% of the child-test panel when tested in the manner prescribed by §1212.4.
(b) The child-resistant mechanism of a multi-purpose lighter subject to this part 1212 must:
(1) Operate safely when used in a normal and convenient manner,
(2) Comply with this §1212.3 for the reasonably expected life of the lighter,
(3) Not be easy to deactivate or prevent from complying with this §1212.3.
(4) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter.
(5) The child-resistant mechanism of a multi-purpose lighter subject to this part 1212 that allows hands-free operation must:
(i) Require operation of an additional feature (e.g., lock, switch, etc.) after a flame is achieved before hands-free operation can occur;
(ii) Have a manual mechanism for turning off the flame when the hands-free function is used; and either
(iii) Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter when the hands-free function is not used; or
(iv) Automatically reset when or before the user lets go of the lighter after turning off the flame when the hands-free feature is used.
§1212.4 Test protocol.
(a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a multi-purpose lighter is resistant to successful operation by children uses a panel of children to test a surrogate multi-purpose lighter representing the production multi-purpose lighter. Written informed consent shall be obtained from a parent or legal guardian of a child before the child participates in the test.
(2) The test shall be conducted using at least one, but no more than two, 100-child test panels in accordance with the provisions of §1212.4(f).
(3) The children for the test panel shall live within the United States.
(4) The age and sex distribution of each 100-child panel shall be:
(i) 30±2 children (20 ±1 males; 10±1 females) 42 through 44 months old;
(ii) 40±2 children (26±1 males; 14±1 females) 45 through 48 months old;
(iii) 30±2 children (20±1 males; 10±1 females) 49 through 51 months old.
Note to paragraph (a)(4): To calculate a child's age in months: Subtract the child's birth date from the test date. The following calculation shows how to determine the age of the child at the time of the test. Both dates are expressed numerically as Month-Day-Year.
Example: Test Date (e.g., 8/3/94) minus Birth Date—(e.g., 6/23/90). Subtract the number for the year of birth from the number for the year of the test (i.e., 94 minus 90 = 4). Multiply the difference in years by 12 months (i.e., 4 years × 12 months = 48 months). Subtract the number for the month of the birth date from the number of the month of the test date (i.e., 8 minus 6 = 2 months). Add the difference in months obtained above to the number of months represented by the difference in years described above (48 months + 2 months = 50 months). If the difference in days is greater than 15 (e.g., 16, 17 . . .), add 1 month. If the difference in days is less than −15 (e.g., −16, −17), subtract 1 month (e.g., 50 months−1 month = 49 months). If the difference in days is between −15 and 15 (e.g., −15, −14, . . . 14, 15), do not add or subtract a month.
(5) No child with a permanent or temporary illness, injury, or handicap that would interfere with the child's ability to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall participate.
(6) Two children at a time shall participate in testing of surrogate multi-purpose lighters. Extra children whose results will not be counted in the test may be used if necessary to provide the required partner for test subjects, if the extra children are within the required age range and a parent or guardian of each such child has signed a consent form.
(7) No child shall participate in more than one test panel or test more than one surrogate multi-purpose lighter. No child shall participate in both surrogate multi-purpose lighter testing and either surrogate cigarette lighter testing or child-resistant package testing on the same day.
(b) Test sites, environment, and adult testers. (1) Surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall be tested within the United States at 5 or more test sites throughout the geographical area for each 100-child panel if the sites are the customary nursery schools or day care centers of the participating children. No more than 20 children shall be tested at each site. In the alternative, surrogate multi-purpose lighters may be tested within the United States at one or more central locations, provided the participating children are drawn from a variety of geographical locations.
(2) Testing of surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall be conducted in a room that is familiar to the children on the test panel (for example, a room the children frequent at their customary nursery school or day care center). If the testing is conducted in a room that initially is unfamiliar to the children (for example, a room at a central location), the tester shall allow at least 5 minutes for the children to become accustomed to the new environment before starting the test. The area in which the testing is conducted shall be well-lighted and isolated from distractions. The children shall be allowed freedom of movement to work with their surrogate multi-purpose lighters, as long as the tester can watch both children at the same time. Two children at a time shall participate in testing of surrogate multi-purpose lighters. The children shall be seated side by side in chairs approximately 6 inches apart, across a table from the tester. The table shall be normal table height for the children, so that they can sit up at the table with their legs underneath and so that their arms will be at a comfortable height when on top of the table. The children's chairs shall be “child size.”
(3) Each tester shall be at least 18 years old. Five or 6 adult testers shall be used for each 100-child test panel. Each tester shall test an approximately equal number of children from the 100-child test panel (20±2 children each for 5 testers and 17±2 children each for 6 testers).
Note: When a test is initiated with five testers and one tester drops out, a sixth tester may be added to complete the testing. When a test is initiated with six testers and one tester drops out, the test shall be completed using the five remaining testers. When a tester drops out, the requirement for each tester to test an approximately equal number of children does not apply to that tester. When testing is initiated with five testers, no tester shall test more than 19 children until it is certain that the test can be completed with five testers.
(c) Surrogate multi-purpose lighters. (1) Six surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall be used for each 100-child panel. The six multi-purpose lighters shall represent the range of forces required for operation of multi-purpose lighters intended for use. All of these surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall have the same visual appearance, including color. The surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall be labeled with sequential numbers beginning with the number one. The same six surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall be used for the entire 100-child panel. The surrogate multi-purpose lighters may be used in more than one 100-child panel test. The surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall not be damaged or jarred during storage or transportation. The surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall not be exposed to extreme heat or cold. The surrogate multi-purpose lighters shall be tested at room temperature. No surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be left unattended.
(2) Each surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be tested by an approximately equal number of children in a 100-child test panel (17±2 children).
Note: If a surrogate multi-purpose lighter is permanently damaged, testing shall continue with the remaining multi-purpose lighters. When a multi-purpose lighter is dropped out, the requirement that each multi-purpose lighter be tested by an approximately equal number of children does not apply to that lighter.
(3) Before each 100-child panel is tested, each surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be examined to verify that it approximates the appearance, size, shape, and weight of a production multi-purpose lighter intended for use.
(4) Before and after each 100-child panel is tested, force measurements shall be taken on all operating components that could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for the corresponding production multi-purpose lighter.
(5) Before and after testing surrogate multi-purpose lighters with each child, each surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be operated outside the presence of any child participating in the test to verify that it produces a signal. If the surrogate multi-purpose lighter will not produce a signal before the test, it shall be repaired before it is used in testing. If the surrogate multi-purpose lighter does not produce a signal when it is operated after the test, the results for the preceding test with that multi-purpose lighter shall be eliminated. An explanation shall be recorded on the data collection record. The multi-purpose lighter shall be repaired and tested with another eligible child (as one of a pair of children) to complete the test panel.
(d) Encouragement. (1) Prior to the test, the tester shall talk to the children in a normal and friendly tone to make them feel at ease and to gain their confidence.
(2) The tester shall tell the children that he or she needs their help for a special job. The children shall not be promised a reward of any kind for participating, and shall not be told that the test is a game or contest or that it is fun.
(3) The tester shall not discourage a child from attempting to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter at any time (either verbally or with body language such as facial expressions), unless a child is in danger of hurting himself or another child. The tester shall not discuss the dangers of multi-purpose lighters or matches with the children to be tested prior to the end of the 10-minute test.
(4) Whenever a child has stopped attempting to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter for a period of approximately one minute, the tester shall encourage the child to try by saying “keep trying for just a little longer.”
(5) Whenever a child says that his or her parent, grandparent, guardian, etc., said never to touch lighters, say “that's right—never touch a real lighter—but your [parent, etc.] said it was OK for you to try to make a noise with this special lighter because it can't hurt you.”
(6) The children in a pair being tested may encourage each other to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter and may tell or show each other how to operate it. (This interaction is not considered to be disruption as described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.) However, neither child shall be allowed to touch or operate the other child's multi-purpose lighter. If one child takes the other child's surrogate multi-purpose lighter, that surrogate lighter shall be immediately returned to the proper child. If this occurs, the tester shall say “No. He (she) has to try to do it himself (herself).”
(e) Children who refuse to participate. (1) If a child becomes upset or afraid, and cannot be reassured before the test starts, select another eligible child for participation in that pair.
(2) If a child disrupts the participation of another child for more than 1 minute during the test, the test shall be stopped and both children eliminated from the results. An explanation shall be recorded on the data collection record. These two children should be replaced with other eligible children to complete the test panel.
(3) If a child is not disruptive but refuses to attempt to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter throughout the entire test period, that child shall be eliminated from the test results and an explanation shall be recorded on the data collection record. The child shall be replaced with another eligible child (as one of a pair of children) to complete the test panel.
(f) Test procedure. (1) To begin the test, the tester shall say “I have a special lighter that will not make a flame. It makes a noise like this.” Except where doing so would block the child's view of a visual signal, the adult tester shall place a 81⁄2 by 11 inch sheet of cardboard or other rigid opaque material upright on the table in front of the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, so that the surrogate multi-purpose lighter cannot be seen by the child, and shall operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter once to produce its signal. The tester shall say “Your parents said it is OK for you to try to make that noise with your lighter.” The tester shall place a surrogate multi-purpose lighter in each child's hand and say “now you try to make a noise with your lighter. Keep trying until I tell you to stop.”
Note: For multi-purpose lighters with an “off/on” switch, the surrogate lighter shall be given to the child with the switch in the “on,” or unlocked, position.
(2) The adult tester shall observe the children for 5 minutes to determine if either or both of the children can successfully operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter by producing one signal of any duration. If a child achieves a spark without defeating the child-resistant feature, say “that's a spark—it won't hurt you—try to make a noise with your lighter.” If any child successfully operates the surrogate multi-purpose lighter during this first 5-minute period, the lighter shall be taken from that child and the child shall not be asked to try to operate the lighter again. The tester shall ask the successful child to remain until the other child is finished.
(3) If either or both of the children are unable to successfully operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter during the 5-minute period specified in §1212.4(f) (3), the adult tester shall demonstrate the operation of the surrogate multi-purpose lighter. To conduct the demonstration, secure the children's full attention by saying “Okay, give me your lighter(s) now.” Take the surrogate multi-purpose lighters and place them on the table in front of you out of the children's reach. Then say, “I'll show you how to make the noise with your lighters. First I'll show you with (child's name) lighter and then I'll show you with (child's name) lighter.” Pick up the first child's surrogate multi-purpose lighter. Hold the lighter approximately 2 feet in front of the children at their eye level. Hold the surrogate multi-purpose lighter in a comfortable operating position in one hand so both children can see the operation of the child-resistant mechanism and the ignition mechanism during each demonstration. Say “now watch the lighter.” Look at each child to verify that they are both looking at the lighter. Operate the multi-purpose lighter one time in a normal manner according to the manufacturer's instructions. Do not exaggerate operating movements. Do not verbally describe the lighter's operation. Place the first child's lighter back on the table in front of you and pick up the second child's lighter. Say, “Okay, now watch this lighter.” Repeat the demonstration as described above using the second child's multi-purpose lighter.
Note to paragraph (f)(3): The demonstration is conducted with each child's lighter, even if one child has successfully operated the lighter. Testers shall conduct the demonstration in a uniform manner, including the words spoken to the children, the way the multi-purpose lighter is held and operated, and how the tester's hand and body is oriented to the children. All testers must be able to operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighters using only appropriate operating movements in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. If any of these requirements are not met during the demonstration for any pair of children, the results for that pair of children shall be eliminated from the test. Another pair of eligible children shall be used to complete the test panel.
(4) Each child who fails to successfully operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter in the first 5 minutes is then given another 5 minutes in which to attempt to complete the successful operation of the surrogate multi-purpose lighter. After the demonstrations, give the same surrogate multi-purpose lighter back to each child who did not successfully operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter in the first 5 minutes by placing the multi-purpose lighter in the child's hand. Say “Okay, now you try to make the noise with your lighter(s)—keep trying until I tell you to stop.” If any child successfully operates the surrogate multi-purpose lighter during this period, the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be taken from that child and the child shall not be asked to try to operate the lighter again. If the other child has not yet successfully operated the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the tester shall ask the successful child to remain until the other child is finished.
Note: Multi-purpose lighters with an on/off switch shall have the switch returned to the position the child left it at the end of the first 5-minute test period before returning the lighter to the child.
(5) At the end of the second 5-minute test period, take the surrogate multi-purpose lighter from any child who has not successfully operated it.
(6) After the test is over, ask the children to stand next to you. Look at the children's faces and say: “These are special lighters that don't make fire. Real lighters can burn you. Will you both promise me that if you find a real lighter you won't touch it and that you'll tell a grownup right away?” Wait for an affirmative response from each child; then thank the children for helping.
(7) Escort the children out of the room used for testing.
(8) After a child has participated in the testing of a surrogate multi-purpose lighter, and on the same day, provide written notice of that fact to the child's parent or guardian. This notification may be in the form of a letter provided to the school to be given to a parent or guardian of each child. The notification shall state that the child participated, shall ask the parent or guardian to warn the child not to play with lighters or matches, and shall remind the parent or guardian to keep all lighters and matches, whether child-resistant or not, out of the reach of children. For children who operated the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the notification shall state that the child was able to operate the child-resistant multi-purpose lighter. For children who do not defeat the child-resistant feature, the notification shall state that, although the child did not defeat the child-resistant feature, the child may be able to do so in the future.
(g) Data collection and recording. Except for recording the times required for the children to activate the signal, recording of data should be avoided while the children are trying to operate the multi-purpose lighters, so that the tester's full attention is on the children during the test period. If actual testing is videotaped, the camera shall be stationary and shall be operated remotely in order to avoid distracting the children. Any photographs shall be taken after actual testing and shall simulate actual test procedure(s) (for example, the demonstration). The following data shall be collected and recorded for each child in the 100-child test panel:
(1) Sex (male or female).
(2) Date of birth (month, day, year).
(3) Age (in months, to the nearest month).
(4) The number of the multi-purpose lighter tested by that child.
(5) Date of participation in the test (month, day, year).
(6) Location where the test was given (city, state, and the name of the site).
(7) The name of the tester who conducted the test.
(8) The elapsed time at which the child achieved any operation of the surrogate signal in the first 5-minute test period.
(9) The elapsed time at which the child achieved any operation of the surrogate signal in the second 5-minute test period.
(10) For a single pair of children from each 100-child test panel, photograph(s) or video tape to show how the multi-purpose lighter was held in the tester's hand, and the orientation of the tester's body and hand to the children, during the demonstration.
(h) Evaluation of test results and acceptance criterion. To determine whether a surrogate multi-purpose lighter resists operation by at least 85% of the children, sequential panels of 100 children each, up to a maximum of 2 panels, shall be tested as prescribed below.
(1) If no more than 10 children in the first 100-child test panel successfully operated the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the multi-purpose lighter represented by the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be considered to be resistant to successful operation by at least 85% of the child test panel, and no further testing is conducted. If 11 through 18 children in the first 100-child test panel successfully operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the test results are inconclusive, and the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be tested with a second 100-child test panel in accordance with this §1212.4. If 19 or more of the children in the first 100-child test panel successfully operated the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the lighter represented by the surrogate shall be considered not resistant to successful operation by at least 85% of the child test panel, and no further testing is conducted. (2)(i) If additional testing of the surrogate multi-purpose lighter is required by paragraph (h)(1) of this section, conduct the test specified by this §1212.4 using a second 100-child test panel and record the results. If a total of no more than 30 of the children in the combined first and second 100-child test panels successfully operated the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the multi-purpose lighter represented by the surrogate multi-purpose lighter shall be considered resistant to successful operation by at least 85% of the child test panel, and no further testing is performed. If a total of 31 or more children in the combined first and second 100-child test panels successfully operate the surrogate multi-purpose lighter, the multi-purpose lighter represented by the surrogate shall be considered not resistant to successful operation by 85% of the child test panel, and no further testing is conducted.
(ii) Thus, for the first panel of 100 children, the surrogate passes if there are 0-10 successful operations by the children; the surrogate fails if there are 19 or greater successful operations; and testing is continued if there are 11-18 successes. If testing is continued with a second panel of children, the surrogate passes if the combined total of the successful operations of the two panels is 30 or less, and it fails if there are 31 or more.
(a) Before issuing a final rule, the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA), 15 U.S.C. 2058(f)(1), requires the Commission to consider and make appropriate findings for inclusion in the rule with respect to:
(1) The degree and nature of the risk of injury the rule is designed to eliminate or reduce;
(2) The approximate number of consumer products, or types or classes thereof, subject to such rule;
(3) The need of the public for the consumer products subject to such rule, and the probable effect of such rule, upon the utility, cost, or availability of such products to meet such need; and
(4) Any means of achieving the objective of the order while minimizing adverse effects on competition or disruption or dislocation of manufacturing and other commercial practices consistent with the public health and safety
(b) The CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2058(f)(3), also requires the Commission to make the following findings before it promulgates a rule, and to include such findings in the rule:
(1) That the rule (including its effective date) is reasonably necessary to eliminate or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury associated with such product;
(2) That the promulgation of the rule is in the public interest;
(3) That the benefits expected from the rule bear a reasonable relationship to its costs; and
(4) That the rule imposes the least burdensome requirement that prevents or adequately reduces the risk of injury for which the rule is being promulgated.
(c) The required findings are included as appendix A to this part 1212.
Subpart B—Certification Requirements
Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2063, 2065(b), 2066(g), 2076(e), 2079(d).
Section 14(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA), 15 U.S.C. 2063(a), requires every manufacturer, private labeler, or importer of a product that is subject to a consumer product safety standard and that is distributed in commerce to issue a certificate that such product conforms to the applicable standard and to base that certificate upon a test of each item or upon a reasonable testing program. The purpose of this subpart B of part 1212 is to establish requirements that manufacturers, importers, and private labelers must follow to certify that their products comply with the Safety Standard for Multi-purpose lighters. This Subpart B describes the minimum features of a reasonable testing program and includes requirements for labeling, recordkeeping, and reporting pursuant to sections 14, 16(b), 17(g), and 27(e) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2063, 2065(b), 2066(g), and 2076(e).
§1212.12 Certificate of compliance.
(a) General requirements—(1) Manufacturers (including importers). Manufacturers of any multi-purpose lighter subject to the standard must issue the certificate of compliance required by section 14(a) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2063(a), and this subpart B, based on a reasonable testing program or a test of each product, as required by §§1212.13, 1212.14, and 1212.16. Manufacturers must also label each multi-purpose lighter subject to the standard as required by paragraph (c) of this section and keep the records and make the reports required by §§1212.15 and 1212.17. For purposes of this requirement, an importer of multi-purpose lighters shall be considered the “manufacturer.”
(2) Private labelers. Because private labelers necessarily obtain their products from a manufacturer or importer that is already required to issue the certificate, private labelers are not required to issue a certificate. However, private labelers must ensure that the multi-purpose lighters are labeled in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section and that any certificate of compliance that is supplied with each shipping unit of multi-purpose lighters in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section is supplied to any distributor or retailer who receives the product from the private labeler.
(3) Testing on behalf of importers. (i) If the required testing has been performed by or for a foreign manufacturer of a product, an importer may rely on such tests to support the certificate of compliance, provided that:
(A) The importer is a resident of the United States or has a resident agent in the United States and
(B) The records are in English and the records and the surrogate multi-purpose lighters tested are kept in the United States and can be provided to the Commission within 48 hours (§1212.17(a)) or, in the case of production records, can be provided to the Commission within 7 calendar days in accordance with §1212.17(a)(3).
(ii) The importer is responsible for ensuring that:
(A) The foreign manufacturer's records show that all testing used to support the certificate of compliance has been performed properly (§§1212.14-1212.16),
(B) The records provide a reasonable assurance that all multi-purpose lighters imported comply with the standard (§1212.13(b)(1)),
(C) The records exist in English (§1212.17(a)),
(D) The importer knows where the required records and multi-purpose lighters are located and that records required to be located in the United States are located there,
(E) Arrangements have been made so that any records required to be kept in the United States will be provided to the Commission within 48 hours of a request and any records not kept in the United States will be provided to the Commission within 7 calendar days (§1212.17(a)), and
(F) The information required by §1212.17(b) to be provided to the Commission's Office of Compliance has been provided.
(b) Certificate of compliance. A certificate of compliance must accompany each shipping unit of the product (for example, a case), or otherwise be furnished to any distributor or retailer to whom the product is sold or delivered by the manufacturer, private labeler, or importer. The certificate shall state:
(1) That the product “complies with the Consumer Product Safety Standard for Multi-purpose lighters (16 CFR part 1212)”,
(2) The name and address of the manufacturer or importer issuing the certificate or of the private labeler, and
(3) The date(s) of manufacture and, if different from the address in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the address of the place of manufacture.
(c) Labeling. The manufacturer or importer must label each multi-purpose lighter with the following information, which may be in code.
(1) An identification of the period of time, not to exceed 31 days, during which the multi-purpose lighter was manufactured.
(2) An identification of the manufacturer of the multi-purpose lighter, unless the multi-purpose lighter bears a private label. If the multi-purpose lighter bears a private label, it shall bear a code mark or other label that will permit the seller of the multi-purpose lighter to identify the manufacturer to the purchaser upon request.
§1212.13 Certification tests.
(a) General. As explained in §1212.11 of this subpart, certificates of compliance required by section 14(a) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2063(a), must be based on a reasonable testing program.
(b) Reasonable testing programs—(1) Requirements. (i) A reasonable testing program for multi-purpose lighters is one that demonstrates with a high degree of assurance that all multi-purpose lighters manufactured for sale or distributed in commerce will meet the requirements of the standard, including the requirements of §1212.3. Manufacturers and importers shall determine the types and frequency of testing for their own reasonable testing programs. A reasonable testing program should be sufficiently stringent that it will detect any variations in production or performance during the production interval that would cause any multi-purpose lighters to fail to meet the requirements of the standard.
(ii) All reasonable testing programs shall include:
(A) Qualification tests, which must be performed on surrogates of each model of multi-purpose lighter produced, or to be produced, to demonstrate that the product is capable of passing the tests prescribed by the standard (see §1212.14) and
(B) Production tests, which must be performed during appropriate production intervals as long as the product is being manufactured (see §1212.16).
(iii) Corrective action and/or additional testing must be performed whenever certification tests of samples of the product give results that do not provide a high degree of assurance that all multi-purpose lighters manufactured during the applicable production interval will pass the tests of the standard.
(2) Testing by third parties. At the option of the manufacturer or importer, some or all of the testing of each multi-purpose lighter or multi-purpose lighter surrogate may be performed by a commercial testing laboratory or other third party. However, the manufacturer or importer must ensure that all certification testing has been properly performed with passing results and that all records of such tests are maintained in accordance with §1212.17 of this subpart.
§1212.14 Qualification testing.
(a) Testing. Before any manufacturer or importer of multi-purpose lighters distributes multi-purpose lighters in commerce in the United States, surrogate multi-purpose lighters of each model shall be tested in accordance with §1212.4 to ensure that all such multi-purpose lighters comply with the standard. However, if a manufacturer has tested one model of multi-purpose lighter, and then wishes to distribute another model of multi-purpose lighter that differs from the first model only by differences that would not have an adverse effect on child resistance, the second model need not be tested in accordance with §1212.4.
(b) Product modifications. If any changes are made to a product after initial qualification testing that could adversely affect the ability of the product to meet the requirements of the standard, additional qualification tests must be made on surrogates for the changed product before the changed multi-purpose lighters are distributed in commerce.
(c) Requalification. If a manufacturer or importer chooses to requalify a multi-purpose lighter design after it has been in production, this may be done by following the testing procedures at §1212.4.
(a) Requirement. Before any multi-purpose lighters that are subject to the standard are distributed in commerce, the manufacturer or importer shall ensure that the surrogate multi-purpose lighters used for qualification testing under §1212.14 are described in a written product specification. (Section 1212.4(c) requires that six surrogate multi-purpose lighters be used for testing each 100-child panel.)
(b) Contents of specification. The product specification shall include the following information:
(1) A complete description of the multi-purpose lighter, including size, shape, weight, fuel, fuel capacity, ignition mechanism, and child-resistant features.
(2) A detailed description of all dimensions, force requirements, or other features that could affect the child-resistance of the multi-purpose lighter, including the manufacturer's tolerances for each such dimension or force requirement.
(3) Any further information, including, but not limited to, model names or numbers, necessary to adequately describe the multi-purpose lighters and any child-resistant features.
§1212.16 Production testing.
(a) General. Manufacturers and importers shall test samples of multi-purpose lighters subject to the standard as they are manufactured, to demonstrate that the multi-purpose lighters meet the specifications, required under §1212.15, of the surrogate that has been shown by qualification testing to meet the requirements of the standard.
(b) Types and frequency of testing. Manufacturers, private labelers, and importers shall determine the types of tests for production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to provide a high degree of assurance that, if the samples selected for testing pass the production tests, all other multi-purpose lighters produced during the interval will meet the standard.
(c) Test failure—(1) Sale of multi-purpose lighters. If any test yields results which indicate that any multi-purpose lighters manufactured during the production interval may not meet the standard, production and distribution in commerce of multi-purpose lighters that may not comply with the standard must cease until it is determined that the lighters meet the standard or until corrective action is taken. (It may be necessary to modify the multi-purpose lighters or perform additional tests to ensure that only complying multi-purpose lighters are distributed in commerce. Multi-purpose lighters from other production intervals having test results showing that multi-purpose lighters from that interval comply with the standard could be produced and distributed unless there was some reason to believe that they might not comply with the standard.)
(2) Corrective actions. When any production test fails to provide a high degree of assurance that all multi-purpose lighters comply with the standard, corrective action must be taken. Corrective action may include changes in the manufacturing process, the assembly process, the equipment used to manufacture the product, or the product's materials or design. The corrective action must provide a high degree of assurance that all multi-purpose lighters produced after the corrective action will comply with the standard. If the corrective action changes the product from the surrogate used for qualification testing in a manner that could adversely affect its child-resistance, the multi-purpose lighter must undergo new qualification tests in accordance with §1212.14.
§1212.17 Recordkeeping and reporting.
(a) Every manufacturer and importer of lighters subject to the standard shall maintain the following records in English on paper, microfiche, or similar media and make such records available to any designated officer or employee of the Commission in accordance with section 16(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act, 15 U.S.C. 2065(b). Such records must also be kept in the United States and provided to the Commission within 48 hours of receipt of a request from any employee of the Commission, except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Legible copies of original records may be used to comply with these requirements.
(1) Records of qualification testing, including a description of the tests, photograph(s) or a video tape for a single pair of children from each 100-child test panel to show how the lighter was held in the tester's hand, and the orientation of the tester's body and hand to the children, during the demonstration, the dates of the tests, the data required by §1212.4(d), the actual surrogate lighters tested, and the results of the tests, including video tape records, if any. These records shall be kept for a period of 3 years after the production of the particular model to which such tests relate has ceased. If requalification tests are undertaken in accordance with §1212.14(c), the original qualification test results may be discarded 3 years after the requalification testing, and the requalification test results and surrogates, and the other information required in this subsection for qualifications tests, shall be kept in lieu thereof.
(2) Records of procedures used for production testing required by this subpart B, including a description of the types of tests conducted (in sufficient detail that they may be replicated), the production interval selected, the sampling scheme, and the pass/reject criterion. These records shall be kept for a period of 3 years after production of the lighter has ceased.
(3) Records of production testing, including the test results, the date and location of testing, and records of corrective actions taken, which in turn includes the specific actions taken to improve the design or manufacture or to correct any noncomplying lighter, the date the actions were taken, the test result or failure that triggered the actions, and the additional actions taken to ensure that the corrective action had the intended effect. These records shall be kept for a period of 3 years following the date of testing. Records of production testing results may be kept on paper, microfiche, computer tape, or other retrievable media. Where records are kept on computer tape or other retrievable media, however, the records shall be made available to the Commission on paper copies upon request. A manufacturer or importer of a lighter that is not manufactured in the United States may maintain the production records required by this paragraph (a)(3) outside the United States, but shall make such records available to the Commission in the United States within 1 week of a request from a Commission employee for access to those records under section 16(b) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2065(b).
(4) Records of specifications required under §1212.15 shall be kept for 3 years after production of each lighter model has ceased.
(b) Reporting. At least 30 days before it first imports or distributes in commerce any model of lighter subject to the standard, every manufacturer and importer must provide a written report to the Office of Compliance, Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East-West Highway, Room 610, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4408. Such report shall include:
(1) The name, address, and principal place of business of the manufacturer or importer,
(2) A detailed description of the lighter model and the child-resistant feature(s) used in that model,
(3) A description of the qualification testing, including a description of the surrogate lighters tested (including a description of the point in the operation at which the surrogate will signal operation—e.g., the distance by which a trigger must be moved), the specification of the surrogate lighter required by §1212.15, a summary of the results of all such tests, the dates the tests were performed, the location(s) of such tests, and the identity of the organization that conducted the tests,
(4) An identification of the place or places that the lighters were or will be manufactured,
(5) The location(s) where the records required to be maintained by paragraph (a) of this section are kept, and
(6) A prototype or production unit of that lighter model.
(c) Confidentiality. Persons who believe that any information required to be submitted or made available to the Commission is trade secret or otherwise confidential shall request that the information be considered exempt from disclosure by the Commission, in accordance with 16 CFR 1015.18. Requests for confidentiality of records provided to the Commission will be handled in accordance with section 6(a)(2) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2055(a)(2), the Freedom of Information Act as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552, and the Commission's regulations under that act, 16 CFR part 1015.
§1212.18 Refusal of importation.
(a) For noncompliance with reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Commission has determined that compliance with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements of this subpart is necessary to ensure that lighters comply with this part 1212. Therefore, pursuant to section 17(g) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2066(g), the Commission may refuse to permit importation of any lighters with respect to which the manufacturer or importer has not complied with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements of this subpart. Since the records are required to demonstrate that production lighters comply with the specifications for the surrogate, the Commission may refuse importation of lighters if production lighters do not comply with the specifications required by this subpart, or if any other recordkeeping or reporting requirement in this part is violated.
(b) For noncompliance with this standard or for lack of a certification certificate. As provided in section 17(a) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C. 2066(a), products subject to this standard shall be refused admission into the customs territory of the United States if, among other reasons, the product either fails to comply with this standard or is not accompanied by the certificate required by this standard.
Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2058(g)(2), 2065(b), 2079(d)
(a) Definition. “Stockpiling” means to manufacture or import a product that is subject to a consumer product safety rule between the date of issuance of the rule and its effective date at a rate which is significantly greater than the rate at which such product was produced or imported during a base period.
(b) Base period. For purposes of this rule, “base period” means the 1-year period ending December 21, 1999.
(c) Prohibited act. Manufacturers and importers of multi-purpose lighters shall not manufacture or import such lighters that do not comply with the requirements of this part between December 22, 1999 and December 22, 2000, at a rate that is greater than the rate of production or importation during the base period plus 20 per cent of that rate.
(d) Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. All firms and persons who make or import multi-purpose lighters, after the date of publication of this rule, that do not meet the requirements of this standard, shall supply the Commission's Office of Compliance with:
(1) Supporting information to establish the number of multi-purpose lighters made or imported during the base period. This information shall be submitted by January 21, 2000.
(2) Supporting information to establish the number of lighters made or imported during the year following publication of the final rule. This information shall be submitted within 10 days of the end of each calendar month, for lighters shipped within that month.
(3) Supporting information shall be sufficient to identify the manufacturer or importer, the party to which the lighters were sold, the destination of the lighters, and shall include copies of relevant invoices and importation documents.
Appendix A to Part 1212—Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act
Section 9(f) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2058(f)) requires the Commission to make findings concerning the following topics and to include the findings in the rule. Because the findings are required to be published in the rule, they reflect the information that was available to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (“CPSC” or “Commission”) when the standard was issued on December 22, 1999.
A. The degree and nature of the risk of injury the rule is designed to eliminate or reduce. The standard is designed to reduce the risk of death and injury from accidental fires started by children playing with multi-purpose lighters. The Commission has identified 196 fires that occurred from 1995 through 1998 that were started by children under age 5 playing with multi-purpose lighters. These fires resulted in a total of 35 deaths and 81 injuries. Fire-related injuries include thermal burns—many of high severity—as well as anoxia and other, less serious injuries. The societal costs of these fires is estimated to include $175 million in deaths, $13.7 million in injuries, and over $5 million in property damage. Because these data are from known fires rather than national estimates, the extent of the total problem may be greater. Fires started by children under age 5 are those which the standard would most effectively reduce.
B. The approximate number of consumer products, or types or classes thereof, subject to the rule. The standard covers certain flame-producing devices, commonly known as multi-purpose lighters, that are defined in §1212.2(a) of 16 CFR part 1212. This definition includes products that are referred to as micro-torches. Multi-purpose lighters may use any fuel and may be refillable or nonrefillable. Approximately 21 million multi-purpose lighters are expected to be sold to consumers in the U.S. during 1999. Multi-purpose lighters manufactured in the United States, or imported, on or after December 22, 2000 will be required to meet child-resistance requirements. The following products are not multi-purpose lighters: devices intended primarily for igniting cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, whether or not such devices are subject to the requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than 10 oz. of fuel; and matches.
C. The need of the public for the consumer products subject to the rule, and the probable effect of the rule on the utility, cost, or availability of such products to meet such need. Consumers use multi-purpose lighters primarily to ignite items such as candles, fuel for fireplaces, charcoal or gas-fired grills, camp fires, camp stoves, lanterns, or fuel-fired appliances or devices or their pilot lights.
1. There will be several types of costs associated with the rule. Manufacturers would have to devote some resources to the development or modification of technology to produce child-resistant multi-purpose lighters. Before being marketed, the lighters must be tested and certified to the new standard. It is also possible that manufacturing child-resistant lighters may require more labor or material than non-child-resistant lighters.
2. Manufacturers will have to modify their existing multi-purpose lighters to comply with the rule. In general, costs that manufacturers would incur in developing, producing, and selling new complying lighters include the following:
• Research and development toward finding the most promising approaches to improving child resistance, including building prototypes and surrogate lighters for preliminary child panel testing;
• Retooling and other production equipment changes required to produce more child-resistant multi-purpose lighters, beyond normal periodic changes made to the plant and equipment;
• Labor and material costs of the additional assembly steps, or modification of assembly steps, in the manufacturing process;
• The additional labeling, recordkeeping, certification, testing, and reporting that will be required for each new model;
• Various administrative costs of compliance, such as legal support and executive time spent at related meetings and activities; and
• Lost revenue if sales are adversely affected.
3. Industry sources have not been able to provide firm estimates of these costs. One major manufacturer has introduced a child-resistant multi-purpose lighter. However, because that company did not previously manufacture a non-child-resistant lighter, it was unable to estimate the incremental cost of developing and manufacturing child-resistant multi-purpose lighters.
4. Assuming that there are 20 manufacturers and that each invests an average of $2 million to develop and market complying lighters, the total industry cost for research development, retooling, and compliance testing would be approximately $40 million. If amortized over a period of 10 years, and assuming a modest 1% sales growth each year, the average of these costs would be about $0.23 per unit. For a manufacturer with a large market share (i.e., selling several million units or more a year) the cost per unit of the development costs could be lower than the estimated $0.23 per unit, even at the high end of the estimates. On the other hand, for manufacturers with a small market share, the per-unit development costs would be greater. Some manufacturers with small market shares may even drop out of the market (at least temporarily) or delay entering the market.
5. In addition to the research, development, retooling, and testing costs, material and labor costs are likely to increase. For example, additional labor will be required to add the child-resistant mechanism to the lighter during assembly. Additional materials may also be needed to produce the child-resistant mechanism. While CPSC was unable to obtain reliable estimates, some industry sources indicated that they believed that these costs would be relatively low, probably less than $0.25 per unit.
6. Multi-purpose lighters will also be required to have a label that identifies the manufacturer and the approximate date of manufacture. However, virtually all products are already labeled in some way. Since the requirement in the rule allows substantial flexibility to the manufacturer in terms of things such as color, size, and location, this requirement is not expected to increase the costs significantly.
7. Certification and testing costs include costs of producing surrogate lighters; conducting child panel tests; and issuing and maintaining records for each model. The largest component of these costs is believed to be building surrogates and conducting child panel tests, which, based on CPSC experience, may cost about $25,000 per lighter model. Administrative expenses associated with the compliance and related activities are difficult to quantify, since many such activities associated with the rule would probably be carried out anyway and the marginal impact of the recommended rule is probably slight.
8. Multi-purpose lighters are sold in countries other than the United States. Some manufacturers may develop lighters that meet the requirements of the rule for distribution in the United States, but continue to distribute the current, non-child-resistant models in other countries. Thus, some manufacturers may incur the incremental costs associated with producing multiple lines of similar products. These costs could include extra administrative costs required to maintain different lines and the incremental costs of producing different lines of similar products, such as using different molds or different assembly steps. These costs would, however, be mitigated if similar or identical standards were adopted by other countries. In total, the rule will likely increase the cost of manufacturing multi-purpose lighters by about $0.48 per unit.
9. At the present time, one manufacturer has about 80-90% of the market for multi-purpose lighters. The other manufacturers, importers, and private labelers divide up the remaining 10-20% of the market. Thus, there is already a very high degree of concentration in the market. Even so, at least two manufacturers have already entered the market with models that are believed to meet the requirements of the rule and at least one other firm is believed to be actively developing a child-resistant lighter. Therefore, the rule is not expected to have any significant impact on competition. Moreover, other firms are expected to enter the market for multi-purpose lighters, and thereby increase competition, as the market expands. Firms that market child-resistant multi-purpose lighters before the standard's effective date may gain an initial competitive advantage. However, any differential impact is likely to be slight and short-lived. Other manufacturers can be expected to have child-resistant multi-purpose lighters developed and ready to market before or soon after the rule goes into effect.
D. Impact on consumers. Aside from increased safety, the rule is likely to affect consumers in two ways. First, the increased cost for producing the child-resistant models will likely result in higher retail prices for multi-purpose lighters. Second, the utility derived from child-resistant lighters may be decreased if complying lighters are less easy to operate.
1. Assuming a 100% markup over the incremental cost to manufacturers (estimated at $0.48/unit), the rule may be expected to increase the retail price of multi-purpose lighters by $0.96 per unit. The per-unit price increase for micro-torches and other high-end multi-purpose lighters may be higher due to the smaller numbers of such lighters produced.
2. The utility that consumers receive from multi-purpose lighters may be reduced if the rule makes the lighters more difficult to operate. This could result in some consumers switching to substitute products, such as matches. However, as with child-resistant cigarette lighters, the increased difficulty of operating child-resistant multi-purpose lighters is expected to be slight. Moreover, even if some consumers do switch to other products, the risk of fire is not expected to increase significantly. Most cigarette lighters (one possible substitute) must already meet the same child-resistant standard as those applicable to multi-purpose lighters. Although consumers that switch to matches may increase the risk of child-play fires somewhat, matches seem to be inherently more child resistant than are non-child-resistant multi-purpose lighters. Previously, the CPSC determined that non-child-resistant cigarette lighters were 1.4 times as likely as matches to be involved in child-play fires and 3.9 times as likely to be involved in a child-play death. Thus, even if some consumers did switch to using matches, the risk of child-play fires would still likely be less than if they continued to use non-child-resistant multi-purpose lighters.
3. The total societal costs of fires known to have been started during 1995 through 1998 by children under age 5 playing with multi-purpose lighters was approximately $194.2 million, or $48.6 million per year. This is probably an underestimate, since it only includes the cases of which CPSC is aware. During the same period, an estimated 20 million multi-purpose lighters were available for use each year. The societal costs of the fires started by young children attempting to operate multi-purpose lighters is, therefore, about $2.43 per lighter ($48.6 million ÷ 20 million lighters) per year. The rule is expected to reduce this cost by 75 to 84%. Therefore, the expected societal benefit of the rule in terms of reduced fires, deaths, injuries, and property damage is expected to be at least $1.82 per complying lighter sold.
4. As discussed above, the rule may increase the cost of manufacturing multi-purpose lighters by $0.48 and may increase the retail prices by as much as $0.96. Therefore, assuming that sales of multi-purpose lighters remain the same, the net benefit (benefits minus costs) of the rule to consumers is expected to be at least $0.86 per unit ($1.82—$0.96). Based on annual sales of approximately 20 million units per year, the rule would result in an annual net benefit to consumers at least $17.2 million (20 million × $0.86) annually.
5. The actual level of benefits observed could be higher if some multi-purpose lighters are stored with the on/off switch in the “on” position. If a significant number of consumers commonly store multi-purpose lighters with the switch on, the effective level of child resistance of multi-purpose lighters currently in use may be lower than indicated by CPSC's baseline testing. This would increase the effectiveness of the rule and the value of the net benefits.
E. Any means of achieving the objective of the order while minimizing adverse effects on competition or disruption or dislocation of manufacturing and other commercial practices consistent with the public health and safety. 1. The performance requirements of this part 1212 are based on the Commission's Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters, 16 CFR part 1210. In developing that standard, the Commission considered the potential effects on competition and business practices of various aspects of the standard, and incorporated some burden-reducing elements into the standard.
2. One possible alternative to this mandatory standard would be for the Commission to rely on voluntary conformance to the requirements of the standard to provide safety to consumers. The expected level of conformance to a voluntary standard is uncertain, however. Although some of the largest firms may market some child-resistant multi-purpose lighters that conform to these requirements, most firms (possibly including some of the largest) probably would not. Even under generous assumptions about the level of voluntary conformance, net benefits to consumers would be substantially lower under this alternative than under the standard. Thus, the Commission finds that reliance on voluntary conformance to the provisions of this part 1212 would not adequately reduce the unreasonable risk associated with multi-purpose lighters.
F. The rule (including its effective date) is reasonably necessary to eliminate or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury. The Commission's hazard data and regulatory analysis demonstrate that multi-purpose lighters covered by the standard pose an unreasonable risk of death and injury to consumers. The Commission considered a number of alternatives to address this risk, and believes that the standard strikes the most reasonable balance between risk reduction benefits and potential costs. Further, the amount of time before the standard becomes effective (one year after publication of the final rule) will provide manufacturers and importers of most products adequate time to design, produce, and market safer multi-purpose lighters. Thus, the Commission finds that the standard and its effective date are reasonably necessary to reduce the risk of fire-related death and injury associated with young children playing with multi-purpose lighters.
G. The benefits expected from the rule bear a reasonable relationship to its costs. The standard will substantially reduce the number of fire-related deaths, injuries, and property damage associated with young children playing with multi-purpose lighters. The cost of these accidents, which is estimated to be greater than $48.6 million annually, will also be greatly reduced. The rule is expected to reduce this societal cost by 75-84%, or by greater than $36.5 million. The estimated annual costs to the public are expected to be less than $20 million. Therefore, substantial net benefits will accrue to consumers. Thus, the Commission finds that a reasonable relationship exists between the expected benefits and the expected costs of the standard.
H. The rule imposes the least burdensome requirement which prevents or adequately reduces the risk of injury for which the rule is being promulgated. 1. The Commission incorporated a number of features from the cigarette lighter standard, 16 CFR part 1210, in order to minimize the potential burden of the rule on industry and consumers. The Commission also considered alternatives involving different performance and test requirements and different definitions determining the scope of coverage among products. Alternatives that would be more burdensome to industry would have higher costs to consumers. Less burdensome alternatives would have lowered the risk-reduction benefits to consumers. No alternative has been identified that would result in a higher level of net benefits to consumers.
2. A less stringent acceptance criterion of 80% (rather than the standard's 85%) might slightly reduce costs to industry and consumers. The safety benefits of this alternative, however, would likely be reduced disproportionately to the potential reduction in costs. A higher (90%) acceptance criterion was also considered. This higher performance level may not be commercially or technically feasible for many firms, however. The Commission believes that this more stringent alternative would have substantial adverse effects on manufacturing and competition, and would increase costs disproportionate to benefits. The Commission believes that the requirement that complying multi-purpose lighters not be operable by at least 85% of children in prescribed tests strikes a reasonable balance between improved safety for a substantial majority of young children and other potential fire victims and the potential for adverse competitive effects and manufacturing disruption.
3. The standard becomes effective 12 months after it is issued December 22, 2000. The Commission also considered an effective date of 6 months after the date of issuance of the final rule. Although most multi-purpose lighters sold in the U.S. could probably be made child-resistant within 6 months, the supply of some imported multi-purpose lighters would be disrupted. The 12-month period in the standard would minimize this potential effect, and would allow more time for firms to design, produce, and import complying multi-purpose lighters. The Commission estimates that there would be no significant adverse impact on the overall supply of multi-purpose lighters for the U.S. market. A longer effective date was deemed unsuitable because it would unduly delay the lifesaving benefits of the standard and would penalize firms that have already begun to develop child-resistant multi-purpose lighters.
I. The promulgation of the rule is in the public interest. As required by the CPSA and the Regulatory Flexibility Act, the Commission considered the potential benefits and costs of the standard and various alternatives. The standard provides substantial net benefits to society. Although certain alternatives to the final rule were estimated to also have net benefits to consumers, they would decrease the level of safety. Therefore, the Commission finds that the standard is in the public interest.