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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of October 30, 2014

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 63 → Subpart S


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 63—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES


Subpart S—National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Pulp and Paper Industry


Contents
§63.440   Applicability.
§63.441   Definitions.
§63.442   [Reserved]
§63.443   Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.
§63.444   Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.
§63.445   Standards for the bleaching system.
§63.446   Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.
§63.447   Clean condensate alternative.
§§63.448-63.449   [Reserved]
§63.450   Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems.
§§63.451-63.452   [Reserved]
§63.453   Monitoring requirements.
§63.454   Recordkeeping requirements.
§63.455   Reporting requirements.
§63.456   Affirmative defense for violation of emission standards during malfunction.
§63.457   Test methods and procedures.
§63.458   Implementation and enforcement.
§63.459   Alternative standards.
Table 1 to Subpart S of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart S

Source: 63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, unless otherwise noted.

§63.440   Applicability.

(a) The provisions of this subpart apply to the owner or operator of processes that produce pulp, paper, or paperboard; that are located at a plant site that is a major source as defined in §63.2 of subpart A of this part; and that use the following processes and materials:

(1) Kraft, soda, sulfite, or semi-chemical pulping processes using wood; or

(2) Mechanical pulping processes using wood; or

(3) Any process using secondary or non-wood fibers.

(b) The affected source to which the existing sourceprovisions of this subpart apply is as follows:

(1) For the processes specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the affected source is the total of all HAP emission points in the pulping and bleaching systems; or

(2) For the processes specified in paragraphs (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section, the affected source is the total of all HAP emission points in the bleaching system.

(c) The new source provisions of this subpart apply to the total of all HAP emission points at new or existing sources as follows:

(1) Each affected source defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section that commences construction or reconstruction after December 17, 1993;

(2) Each pulping system or bleaching system for the processes specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section that commences construction or reconstruction after December 17, 1993;

(3) Each additional pulping or bleaching line at the processes specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, that commences construction after December 17, 1993;

(4) Each affected source defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section that commences construction or reconstruction after March 8, 1996; or

(5) Each additional bleaching line at the processes specified in paragraphs (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section, that commences construction after March 8, 1996.

(d) Each existing source shall achieve compliance no later than April 16, 2001, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(3) of this section.

(1) Each kraft pulping system shall achieve compliance with the pulping system provisions of §63.443 for the equipment listed in §63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v) as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event later than April 17, 2006 and the owners and operators shall establish dates, update dates, and report the dates for the milestones specified in §63.455(b).

(2) Each dissolving-grade bleaching system at either kraft or sulfite pulping mills shall achieve compliance with the bleach plant provisions of §63.445 of this subpart as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event later than 3 years after the promulgation of the revised effluent limitation guidelines and standards under 40 CFR 430.14 through 430.17 and 40 CFR 430.44 through 430.47.

(3) Each bleaching system complying with the Voluntary Advanced Technology Incentives Program for Effluent Limitation Guidelines in 40 CFR 430.24, shall comply with the requirements specified in either paragraph (d)(3)(i) or (d)(3)(ii) of this section for the effluent limitation guidelines and standards in 40 CFR 430.24.

(i) Comply with the bleach plant provisions of §63.445 of this subpart as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event later than April 16, 2001.

(ii) Comply with paragraphs (d)(3)(ii)(A), (d)(3)(ii)(B), and (d)(3)(ii)(C) of this section.

(A) The owner or operator of a bleaching system shall comply with the bleach plant provisions of §63.445 of this subpart as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event later than April 15, 2004.

(B) The owner or operator of a bleaching system shall comply with the requirements specified in either paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(B)(1) or (d)(3)(ii)(B)(2) of this section.

(1) Not increase the application rate of chlorine or hypochlorite in kilograms (kg) of bleaching agent per megagram of ODP, in the bleaching system above the average daily rates used over the three months prior to June 15, 1998 until the requirements of paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section are met and record application rates as specified in §63.454(c).

(2) Comply with enforceable effluent limitations guidelines for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin and adsorbable organic halides at least as stringent as the baseline BAT levels set out in 40 CFR 430.24(a)(1) as expeditiously as possible, but in no event later than April 16, 2001.

(C) Owners and operators shall establish dates, update dates, and report the dates for the milestones specified in §63.455(b).

(e) Each new source, specified as the total of all HAP emission points for the sources specified in paragraph (c) of this section, shall achieve compliance upon start-up or June 15, 1998, whichever is later, as provided in §63.6(b) of subpart A of this part.

(f) Each owner or operator of an affected source with affected process equipment shared by more than one type of pulping process, shall comply with the applicable requirement in this subpart that achieves the maximum degree of reduction in HAP emissions.

(g) Each owner or operator of an affected source specified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section must comply with the requirements of subpart A—General Provisions of this part, as indicated in table 1 to this subpart.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 63 FR 71389, Dec. 28, 1998]

§63.441   Definitions.

All terms used in this subpart shall have the meaning given them in the CAA, in subpart A of this part, and in this section as follows:

Acid condensate storage tank means any storage tank containing cooking acid following the sulfur dioxide gas fortification process.

Affirmative defense means, in the context of an enforcement proceeding, a response or defense put forward by a defendant, regarding which the defendant has the burden of proof, and the merits of which are independently and objectively evaluated in a judicial or administrative proceeding.

Black liquor means spent cooking liquor that has been separated from the pulp produced by the kraft, soda, or semi-chemical pulping process.

Bleaching means brightening of pulp by the addition of oxidizing chemicals or reducing chemicals.

Bleaching line means a group of bleaching stages arranged in series such that bleaching of the pulp progresses as the pulp moves from one stage to the next.

Bleaching stage means all process equipment associated with a discrete step of chemical application and removal in the bleaching process including chemical and steam mixers, bleaching towers, washers, seal (filtrate) tanks, vacuum pumps, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Bleaching system means all process equipment after high-density pulp storage prior to the first application of oxidizing chemicals or reducing chemicals following the pulping system, up to and including the final bleaching stage.

Boiler means any enclosed combustion device that extracts useful energy in the form of steam. A boiler is not considered a thermal oxidizer.

Chip steamer means a vessel used for the purpose of preheating or pretreating wood chips prior to the digester, using flash steam from the digester or live steam.

Closed-vent system means a system that is not open to the atmosphere and is composed of piping, ductwork, connections, and, if necessary, flow-inducing devices that transport gas or vapor from an emission point to a control device.

Combustion device means an individual unit of equipment, including but not limited to, a thermal oxidizer, lime kiln, recovery furnace, process heater, or boiler, used for the thermal oxidation of organic hazardous air pollutant vapors.

Decker system means all equipment used to thicken the pulp slurry or reduce its liquid content after the pulp washing system and prior to high-density pulp storage. The decker system includes decker vents, filtrate tanks, associated vacuum pumps, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Digester system means each continuous digester or each batch digester used for the chemical treatment of wood or non-wood fibers. The digester system equipment includes associated flash tank(s), blow tank(s), chip steamer(s) not using fresh steam, blow heat recovery accumulator(s), relief gas condenser(s), prehydrolysis unit(s) preceding the pulp washing system, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. The digester system includes any of the liquid streams or condensates associated with batch or continuous digester relief, blow, or flash steam processes.

Emission point means any part of a stationary source that emits hazardous air pollutants regulated under this subpart, including emissions from individual process vents, stacks, open pieces of process equipment, equipment leaks, wastewater and condensate collection and treatment system units, and those emissions that could reasonably be conveyed through a stack, chimney, or duct where such emissions first reach the environment.

Evaporator system means all equipment associated with increasing the solids content and/or concentrating spent cooking liquor from the pulp washing system including pre-evaporators, multi-effect evaporators, concentrators, and vacuum systems, as well as associated condensers, hotwells, and condensate streams, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Flow indicator means any device that indicates gas or liquid flow in an enclosed system.

HAP means a hazardous air pollutant as defined in §63.2 of subpart A of this part.

High volume, low concentration or HVLC collection system means the gas collection and transport system used to convey gases from the HVLC system to a control device.

High volume, low concentration or HVLC system means the collection of equipment including the pulp washing, knotter, screen, decker, and oxygen delignification systems, weak liquor storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Knotter system means equipment where knots, oversized material, or pieces of uncooked wood are removed from the pulp slurry after the digester system and prior to the pulp washing system. The knotter system equipment includes the knotter, knot drainer tanks, ancillary tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Kraft pulping means a chemical pulping process that uses a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide as the cooking liquor.

Lime kiln means an enclosed combustion device used to calcine lime mud, which consists primarily of calcium carbonate, into calcium oxide.

Low volume, high concentration or LVHC collection system means the gas collection and transport system used to convey gases from the LVHC system to a control device.

Low volume, high concentration or LVHC system means the collection of equipment including the digester, turpentine recovery, evaporator, steam stripper systems, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Mechanical pulping means a pulping process that only uses mechanical and thermo-mechanical processes to reduce wood to a fibrous mass. The mechanical pulping processes include, but are not limited to, stone groundwood, pressurized groundwood, refiner mechanical, thermal refiner mechanical, thermo-mechanical, and tandem thermo-mechanical.

Non-wood pulping means the production of pulp from fiber sources other than trees. The non-wood fiber sources include, but are not limited to, bagasse, cereal straw, cotton, flax straw, hemp, jute, kenaf, and leaf fibers.

Oven-dried pulp or ODP means a pulp sample at zero percent moisture content by weight. Pulp samples for applicability or compliance determinations for both the pulping and bleaching systems shall be unbleached pulp. For purposes of complying with mass emission limits in this subpart, megagram of ODP shall be measured to represent the amount of pulp entering and processed by the equipment system under the specified mass limit. For equipment that does not process pulp, megagram of ODP shall be measured to represent the amount of pulp that was processed to produce the gas and liquid streams.

Oxygen delignification system means the equipment that uses oxygen to remove lignin from pulp after high-density stock storage and prior to the bleaching system. The oxygen delignification system equipment includes the blow tank, washers, filtrate tanks, any interstage pulp storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Primary fuel means the fuel that provides the principal heat input to the combustion device. To be considered primary, the fuel must be able to sustain operation of the combustion device without the addition of other fuels.

Process wastewater treatment system means a collection of equipment, a process, or specific technique that removes or destroys the HAPs in a process wastewater stream. Examples include, but are not limited to, a steam stripping unit, wastewater thermal oxidizer, or biological treatment unit.

Pulp washing system means all equipment used to wash pulp and separate spent cooking chemicals following the digester system and prior to the bleaching system, oxygen delignification system, or paper machine system (at unbleached mills). The pulp washing system equipment includes vacuum drum washers, diffusion washers, rotary pressure washers, horizontal belt filters, intermediate stock chests, and their associated vacuum pumps, filtrate tanks, foam breakers or tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. The pulp washing system does not include deckers, screens, knotters, stock chests, or pulp storage tanks following the last stage of pulp washing.

Pulping line means a group of equipment arranged in series such that the wood chips are digested and the resulting pulp progresses through a sequence of steps that may include knotting, refining, washing, thickening, blending, storing, oxygen delignification, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Pulping process condensates means any HAP-containing liquid that results from contact of water with organic compounds in the pulping process. Examples of process condensates include digester system condensates, turpentine recovery system condensates, evaporator system condensates, LVHC system condensates, HVLC system condensates, and any other condensates from equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. Liquid streams that are intended for byproduct recovery are not considered process condensate streams.

Pulping system means all process equipment, beginning with the digester system, and up to and including the last piece of pulp conditioning equipment prior to the bleaching system, including treatment with ozone, oxygen, or peroxide before the first application of a chemical bleaching agent intended to brighten pulp. The pulping system includes pulping process condensates and can include multiple pulping lines.

Recovery furnace means an enclosed combustion device where concentrated spent liquor is burned to recover sodium and sulfur, produce steam, and dispose of unwanted dissolved wood components in the liquor.

Screen system means equipment in which oversized particles are removed from the pulp slurry prior to the bleaching or papermaking system washed stock storage.

Secondary fiber pulping means a pulping process that converts a fibrous material, that has previously undergone a manufacturing process, into pulp stock through the addition of water and mechanical energy. The mill then uses that pulp as the raw material in another manufactured product. These mills may also utilize chemical, heat, and mechanical processes to remove ink particles from the fiber stock.

Semi-chemical pulping means a pulping process that combines both chemical and mechanical pulping processes. The semi-chemical pulping process produces intermediate yields ranging from 55 to 90 percent.

Soda pulping means a chemical pulping process that uses sodium hydroxide as the active chemical in the cooking liquor.

Spent liquor means process liquid generated from the separation of cooking liquor from pulp by the pulp washing system containing dissolved organic wood materials and residual cooking compounds.

Steam stripper system means a column (including associated stripper feed tanks, condensers, or heat exchangers) used to remove compounds from wastewater or condensates using steam. The steam stripper system also contains all equipment associated with a methanol rectification process including rectifiers, condensers, decanters, storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

Strong liquor storage tanks means all storage tanks containing liquor that has been concentrated in preparation for combustion or oxidation in the recovery process.

Sulfite pulping means a chemical pulping process that uses a mixture of sulfurous acid and bisulfite ion as the cooking liquor.

Temperature monitoring device means a piece of equipment used to monitor temperature and having an accuracy of ±1.0 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5 degrees Celsius (( °deg;C), whichever is greater.

Thermal oxidizer means an enclosed device that destroys organic compounds by thermal oxidation.

Turpentine recovery system means all equipment associated with recovering turpentine from digester system gases including condensers, decanters, storage tanks, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed. The turpentine recovery system includes any liquid streams associated with the turpentine recovery process such as turpentine decanter underflow. Liquid streams that are intended for byproduct recovery are not considered turpentine recovery system condensate streams.

Weak liquor storage tank means any storage tank except washer filtrate tanks containing spent liquor recovered from the pulping process and prior to the evaporator system.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999; 77 FR 55710, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.442   [Reserved]

§63.443   Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

(a) The owner or operator of each pulping system using the kraft process subject to the requirements of this subpart shall control the total HAP emissions from the following equipment systems, as specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(1) At existing affected sources, the total HAP emissions from the following equipment systems shall be controlled:

(i) Each LVHC system;

(ii) Each knotter or screen system with total HAP mass emission rates greater than or equal to the rates specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(ii)(A) or (a)(1)(ii)(B) of this section or the combined rate specified in paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(C) of this section.

(A) Each knotter system with emissions of 0.05 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram of ODP (0.1 pounds per ton).

(B) Each screen system with emissions of 0.10 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram of ODP (0.2 pounds per ton).

(C) Each knotter and screen system with emissions of 0.15 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram of ODP (0.3 pounds per ton).

(iii) Each pulp washing system;

(iv) Each decker system that:

(A) Uses any process water other than fresh water or paper machine white water; or

(B) Uses any process water with a total HAP concentration greater than 400 parts per million by weight; and

(v) Each oxygen delignification system.

(2) At new affected sources, the total HAP emissions from the equipment systems listed in paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(iii), and (a)(1)(v) of this section and the following equipment systems shall be controlled:

(i) Each knotter system;

(ii) Each screen system;

(iii) Each decker system; and

(iv) Each weak liquor storage tank.

(b) The owner or operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this subpart shall control the total HAP emissions from the following equipment systems as specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(1) At each existing affected source, the total HAP emissions from each LVHC system shall be controlled.

(2) At each new affected source, the total HAP emissions from each LVHC system and each pulp washing system shall be controlled.

(c) Equipment systems listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall be enclosed and vented into a closed-vent system and routed to a control device that meets the requirements specified in paragraph (d) of this section. The enclosures and closed-vent system shall meet the requirements specified in §63.450.

(d) The control device used to reduce total HAP emissions from each equipment system listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall:

(1) Reduce total HAP emissions by 98 percent or more by weight; or

(2) Reduce the total HAP concentration at the outlet of the thermal oxidizer to 20 parts per million or less by volume, corrected to 10 percent oxygen on a dry basis; or

(3) Reduce total HAP emissions using a thermal oxidizer designed and operated at a minimum temperature of 871 °C (1600 °F) and a minimum residence time of 0.75 seconds; or

(4) Reduce total HAP emissions using one of the following:

(i) A boiler, lime kiln, or recovery furnace by introducing the HAP emission stream with the primary fuel or into the flame zone; or

(ii) A boiler or recovery furnace with a heat input capacity greater than or equal to 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units per hour) by introducing the HAP emission stream with the combustion air.

(e) Periods of excess emissions reported under §63.455 shall not be a violation of §63.443(c) and (d) provided that the time of excess emissions divided by the total process operating time in a semi-annual reporting period does not exceed the following levels:

(1) One percent for control devices used to reduce the total HAP emissions from the LVHC system; and

(2) Four percent for control devices used to reduce the total HAP emissions from the HVLC system; and

(3) Four percent for control devices used to reduce the total HAP emissions from both the LVHC and HVLC systems.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999; 66 FR 80762, Dec. 22, 2000; 77 FR 55710, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.444   Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

(a) The owner or operator of each sulfite process subject to the requirements of this subpart shall control the total HAP emissions from the following equipment systems as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(1) At existing sulfite affected sources, the total HAP emissions from the following equipment systems shall be controlled:

(i) Each digester system vent;

(ii) Each evaporator system vent; and

(iii) Each pulp washing system.

(2) At new affected sources, the total HAP emissions from the equipment systems listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and the following equipment shall be controlled:

(i) Each weak liquor storage tank;

(ii) Each strong liquor storage tank; and

(iii) Each acid condensate storage tank.

(b) Equipment listed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be enclosed and vented into a closed-vent system and routed to a control device that meets the requirements specified in paragraph (c) of this section. The enclosures and closed-vent system shall meet the requirements specified in §63.450. Emissions from equipment listed in paragraph (a) of this section that is not necessary to be reduced to meet paragraph (c) of this section is not required to be routed to a control device.

(c) The total HAP emissions from both the equipment systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section and the vents, wastewater, and condensate streams from the control device used to reduce HAP emissions, shall be controlled as follows.

(1) Each calcium-based or sodium-based sulfite pulping process shall:

(i) Emit no more than 0.44 kilograms of total HAP or methanol per megagram (0.89 pounds per ton) of ODP; or

(ii) Remove 92 percent or more by weight of the total HAP or methanol.

(2) Each magnesium-based or ammonium-based sulfite pulping process shall:

(i) Emit no more than 1.1 kilograms of total HAP or methanol per megagram (2.2 pounds per ton) of ODP; or

(ii) Remove 87 percent or more by weight of the total HAP or methanol.

§63.445   Standards for the bleaching system.

(a) Each bleaching system that does not use any chlorine or chlorinated compounds for bleaching is exempt from the requirements of this section. Owners or operators of the following bleaching systems shall meet all the provisions of this section:

(1) Bleaching systems that use chlorine;

(2) Bleaching systems bleaching pulp from kraft, sulfite, or soda pulping processes that use any chlorinated compounds; or

(3) Bleaching systems bleaching pulp from mechanical pulping processes using wood or from any process using secondary or non-wood fibers, that use chlorine dioxide.

(b) The equipment at each bleaching stage, of the bleaching systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section, where chlorinated compounds are introduced shall be enclosed and vented into a closed-vent system and routed to a control device that meets the requirements specified in paragraph (c) of this section. The enclosures and closed-vent system shall meet the requirements specified in §63.450. If process modifications are used to achieve compliance with the emission limits specified in paragraphs (c)(2) or (c)(3), enclosures and closed-vent systems are not required, unless appropriate.

(c) The control device used to reduce chlorinated HAP emissions (not including chloroform) from the equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this section shall:

(1) Reduce the total chlorinated HAP mass in the vent stream entering the control device by 99 percent or more by weight;

(2) Achieve a treatment device outlet concentration of 10 parts per million or less by volume of total chlorinated HAP; or

(3) Achieve a treatment device outlet mass emission rate of 0.001 kg of total chlorinated HAP mass per megagram (0.002 pounds per ton) of ODP.

(d) The owner or operator of each bleaching system subject to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with paragraph (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section to reduce chloroform air emissions to the atmosphere, except the owner or operator of each bleaching system complying with extended compliance under §63.440(d)(3)(ii) shall comply with paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(1) Comply with the following applicable effluent limitation guidelines and standards specified in 40 CFR part 430:

(i) Dissolving-grade kraft bleaching systems and lines, 40 CFR 430.14 through 430.17;

(ii) Paper-grade kraft and soda bleaching systems and lines, 40 CFR 430.24(a)(1) and (e), and 40 CFR 430.26 (a) and (c);

(iii) Dissolving-grade sulfite bleaching systems and lines, 40 CFR 430.44 through 430.47; or

(iv) Paper-grade sulfite bleaching systems and lines, 40 CFR 430.54(a) and (c), and 430.56(a) and (c).

(2) Use no hypochlorite or chlorine for bleaching in the bleaching system or line.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999]

§63.446   Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

(a) The requirements of this section apply to owners or operators of kraft processes subject to the requirements of this subpart.

(b) The pulping process condensates from the following equipment systems shall be treated to meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section:

(1) Each digester system;

(2) Each turpentine recovery system;

(3) Each evaporator system condensate from:

(i) The vapors from each stage where weak liquor is introduced (feed stages); and

(ii) Each evaporator vacuum system for each stage where weak liquor is introduced (feed stages).

(4) Each HVLC collection system; and

(5) Each LVHC collection system.

(c) One of the following combinations of HAP-containing pulping process condensates generated, produced, or associated with the equipment systems listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall be subject to the requirements of paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section:

(1) All pulping process condensates from the equipment systems specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section.

(2) The combined pulping process condensates from the equipment systems specified in paragraphs (b)(4) and (b)(5) of this section, plus pulping process condensate stream(s) that in total contain at least 65 percent of the total HAP mass from the pulping process condensates from equipment systems listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this section.

(3) The pulping process condensates from equipment systems listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section that in total contain a total HAP mass of 3.6 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (7.2 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that do not perform bleaching or 5.5 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (11.1 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that perform bleaching.

(d) The pulping process condensates from the equipment systems listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall be conveyed in a closed collection system that is designed and operated to meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section.

(1) Each closed collection system shall meet the individual drain system requirements specified in §§63.960, 63.961, and 63.962 of subpart RR of this part, except for closed vent systems and control devices shall be designed and operated in accordance with §§63.443(d) and 63.450, instead of in accordance with §63.693 as specified in §63.962 (a)(3)(ii), (b)(3)(ii)(A), and (b)(5)(iii); and

(2) If a condensate tank is used in the closed collection system, the tank shall meet the following requirements:

(i) The fixed roof and all openings (e.g., access hatches, sampling ports, gauge wells) shall be designed and operated with no detectable leaks as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per million above background, and vented into a closed-vent system that meets the requirements in §63.450 and routed to a control device that meets the requirements in §63.443(d); and

(ii) Each opening shall be maintained in a closed, sealed position (e.g., covered by a lid that is gasketed and latched) at all times that the tank contains pulping process condensates or any HAP removed from a pulping process condensate stream except when it is necessary to use the opening for sampling, removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair.

(e) Each pulping process condensate from the equipment systems listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall be treated according to one of the following options:

(1) Recycle the pulping process condensate to an equipment system specified in §63.443(a) meeting the requirements specified in §63.443(c) and (d); or

(2) Discharge the pulping process condensate below the liquid surface of a biological treatment system and treat the pulping process condensates to meet the requirements specified in paragraph (e)(3), (4), or (5) of this section, and total HAP shall be measured as specified in §63.457(g); or

(3) Treat the pulping process condensates to reduce or destroy the total HAPs by at least 92 percent or more by weight; or

(4) At mills that do not perform bleaching, treat the pulping process condensates to remove 3.3 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (6.6 pounds per ton) of ODP, or achieve a total HAP concentration of 210 parts per million or less by weight at the outlet of the control device; or

(5) At mills that perform bleaching, treat the pulping process condensates to remove 5.1 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (10.2 pounds per ton) of ODP, or achieve a total HAP concentration of 330 parts per million or less by weight at the outlet of the control device.

(f) Each HAP removed from a pulping process condensate stream during treatment and handling under paragraphs (d) or (e) of this section, except for those treated according to paragraph (e)(2) of this section, shall be controlled as specified in §63.443(c) and (d).

(g) For each control device (e.g., steam stripper system or other equipment serving the same function) used to treat pulping process condensates to comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (e)(3) through (5) of this section, periods of excess emissions reported under §63.455 shall not be a violation of paragraphs (d), (e)(3) through (5), and (f) of this section provided that the time of excess emissions divided by the total process operating time in a semi-annual reporting period does not exceed 10 percent. The 10 percent excess emissions allowance does not apply to treatment of pulping process condensates according to paragraph (e)(2) of this section (e.g., the biological wastewater treatment system used to treat multiple (primarily non-condensate) wastewater streams to comply with the Clean Water Act).

(h) Each owner or operator of a new or existing affected source subject to the requirements of this section shall evaluate all new or modified pulping process condensates or changes in the annual bleached or non-bleached ODP used to comply with paragraph (i) of this section, to determine if they meet the applicable requirements of this section.

(i) For the purposes of meeting the requirements in paragraph (c)(2) or (3) or paragraph (e)(4) or (5) of this section at mills producing both bleached and unbleached pulp products, owners and operators may meet a prorated mass standard that is calculated by prorating the applicable mass standards (kilograms of total HAP per megagram of ODP) for bleached and unbleached mills specified in paragraph (c)(2) or (3) or paragraph (e)(4) or (5) of this section by the ratio of annual megagrams of bleached and unbleached ODP.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998; 63 FR 42239, Aug. 7, 1998, as amended at 63 FR 49459, Sept. 16, 1998; 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999; 65 FR 80762, Dec. 22, 2000; 77 FR 55711, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.447   Clean condensate alternative.

As an alternative to the requirements specified in §63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v) for the control of HAP emissions from pulping systems using the kraft process, an owner or operator must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Administrator, by meeting all the requirements below, that the total HAP emissions reductions achieved by this clean condensate alternative technology are equal to or greater than the total HAP emission reductions that would have been achieved by compliance with §63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v).

(a) For the purposes of this section only the following additional definitions apply.

(1) Clean condensate alternative affected source means the total of all HAP emission points in the pulping, bleaching, causticizing, and papermaking systems (exclusive of HAP emissions attributable to additives to paper machines and HAP emission points in the LVHC system).

(2) Causticizing system means all equipment associated with converting sodium carbonate into active sodium hydroxide. The equipment includes smelt dissolving tanks, lime mud washers and storage tanks, white and mud liquor clarifiers and storage tanks, slakers, slaker grit washers, lime kilns, green liquor clarifiers and storage tanks, and dreg washers ending with the white liquor storage tanks prior to the digester system, and any other equipment serving the same function as those previously listed.

(3) Papermaking system means all equipment used to convert pulp into paper, paperboard, or market pulp, including the stock storage and preparation systems, the paper or paperboard machines, and the paper machine white water system, broke recovery systems, and the systems involved in calendering, drying, on-machine coating, slitting, winding, and cutting.

(b) Each owner or operator shall install and operate a clean condensate alternative technology with a continuous monitoring system to reduce total HAP emissions by treating and reducing HAP concentrations in the pulping process water used within the clean condensate alternative affected source.

(c) Each owner or operator shall calculate HAP emissions on a kilogram per megagram of ODP basis and measure HAP emissions according to the appropriate procedures contained in §63.457.

(d) Each owner or operator shall determine the baseline HAP emissions for each equipment system and the total of all equipment systems in the clean condensate alternative affected source based on the following:

(1) Process and air pollution control equipment installed and operating on December 17, 1993, and

(2) Compliance with the following requirements that affect the level of HAP emissions from the clean condensate alternative affected source:

(i) The pulping process condensates requirements in §63.446;

(ii) The applicable effluent limitation guidelines and standards in 40 CFR part 430, subparts A, B, D, and E; and

(iii) All other applicable requirements of local, State, or Federal agencies or statutes.

(e) Each owner or operator shall determine the following HAP emission reductions from the baseline HAP emissions determined in paragraph (d) of this section for each equipment system and the total of all equipment systems in the clean condensate alternative affected source:

(1) The HAP emission reduction occurring by complying with the requirements of §63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v); and

(2) The HAP emissions reduction occurring by complying with the clean condensate alternative technology.

(f) For the purposes of all requirements in this section, each owner or operator may use as an alternative, individual equipment systems (instead of total of all equipment systems) within the clean condensate alternative affected source to determine emissions and reductions to demonstrate equal or greater than the reductions that would have been achieved by compliance with §63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v).

(g) The initial and updates to the control strategy report specified in §63.455(b) shall include to the extent possible the following information:

(1) A detailed description of:

(i) The equipment systems and emission points that comprise the clean condensate alternative affected source;

(ii) The air pollution control technologies that would be used to meet the requirements of §63.443(a)(1)(ii) through (a)(1)(v); and

(iii) The clean condensate alternative technology to be used.

(2) Estimates and basis for the estimates of total HAP emissions and emission reductions to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section.

(h) Each owner or operator shall report to the Administrator by the applicable compliance date specified in §63.440(d) or (e) the rationale, calculations, test procedures, and data documentation used to demonstrate compliance with all the requirements of this section.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998; 63 FR 42239, Aug. 7, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999]

§§63.448-63.449   [Reserved]

§63.450   Standards for enclosures and closed-vent systems.

(a) Each enclosure and closed-vent system specified in §§63.443(c), 63.444(b), and 63.445(b) for capturing and transporting vent streams that contain HAP shall meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section.

(b) Each enclosure shall maintain negative pressure at each enclosure or hood opening as demonstrated by the procedures specified in §63.457(e). Each enclosure or hood opening closed during the initial performance test specified in §63.457(a) shall be maintained in the same closed and sealed position as during the performance test at all times except when necessary to use the opening for sampling, inspection, maintenance, or repairs.

(c) Each component of the closed-vent system used to comply with §§63.443(c), 63.444(b), and 63.445(b) that is operated at positive pressure and located prior to a control device shall be designed for and operated with no detectable leaks as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per million by volume above background, as measured by the procedures specified in §63.457(d).

(d) Each bypass line in the closed-vent system that could divert vent streams containing HAP to the atmosphere without meeting the emission limitations in §§63.443, 63.444, or 63.445 shall comply with either of the following requirements:

(1) On each bypass line, the owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a flow indicator that is capable of taking periodic readings as frequently as specified in §63.454(e). The flow indicator shall be installed in the bypass line in such a way as to indicate flow in the bypass line; or

(2) For bypass line valves that are not computer controlled, the owner or operator shall maintain the bypass line valve in the closed position with a car seal or a seal placed on the valve or closure mechanism in such a way that valve or closure mechanism cannot be opened without breaking the seal.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999; 68 FR 37348, June 23, 2003]

§§63.451-63.452   [Reserved]

§63.453   Monitoring requirements.

(a) Each owner or operator subject to the standards specified in §§63.443(c) and (d), 63.444(b) and (c), 63.445(b) and (c), 63.446(c), (d), and (e), 63.447(b) or §63.450(d), shall install, calibrate, certify, operate, and maintain according to the manufacturer's specifications, a continuous monitoring system (CMS, as defined in §63.2 of this part) as specified in paragraphs (b) through (m) of this section, except as allowed in paragraph (m) of this section. The CMS shall include a continuous recorder.

(b) A CMS shall be operated to measure the temperature in the firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox and before any substantial heat exchange occurs for each thermal oxidizer used to comply with the requirements of §63.443(d)(1) through (d)(3). Owners and operators complying with the HAP concentration requirements in §63.443(d)(2) may install a CMS to monitor the thermal oxidizer outlet total HAP or methanol concentration, as an alternative to monitoring thermal oxidizer operating temperature.

(c) A CMS shall be operated to measure the following parameters for each gas scrubber used to comply with the bleaching system requirements of §63.445(c) or the sulfite pulping system requirements of §63.444(c).

(1) The pH or the oxidation/reduction potential of the gas scrubber effluent;

(2) The gas scrubber vent gas inlet flow rate; and

(3) The gas scrubber liquid influent flow rate.

(d) As an option to the requirements specified in paragraph (c) of this section, a CMS shall be operated to measure the chlorine outlet concentration of each gas scrubber used to comply with the bleaching system outlet concentration requirement specified in §63.445(c)(2).

(e) The owner or operator of a bleaching system complying with 40 CFR 430.24, shall monitor the chlorine and hypochlorite application rates, in kg of bleaching agent per megagram of ODP, of the bleaching system during the extended compliance period specified in §63.440(d)(3).

(f) A CMS shall be operated to measure the gas scrubber parameters specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(3) of this section or those site specific parameters determined according to the procedures specified in paragraph (n) of this section to comply with the sulfite pulping system requirements specified in §63.444(c).

(g) A CMS shall be operated to measure the following parameters for each steam stripper used to comply with the treatment requirements in §63.446(e) (3), (4), or (5):

(1) The process wastewater feed rate;

(2) The steam feed rate; and

(3) The process wastewater column feed temperature.

(h) As an option to the requirements specified in paragraph (g) of this section, a CMS shall be operated to measure the methanol outlet concentration to comply with the steam stripper outlet concentration requirement specified in §63.446 (e)(4) or (e)(5).

(i) A CMS shall be operated to measure the appropriate parameters determined according to the procedures specified in paragraph (n) of this section to comply with the condensate applicability requirements specified in §63.446(c).

(j) Each owner or operator using an open biological treatment system to comply with §63.446(e)(2) shall perform the daily monitoring procedures specified in either paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section and shall conduct a performance test each quarter using the procedures specified in paragraph (j)(3) of this section.

(1) Comply with the monitoring and sampling requirements specified in paragraphs (j)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) On a daily basis, monitor the following parameters for each open biological treatment unit:

(A) Composite daily sample of outlet soluble BOD5 concentration to monitor for maximum daily and maximum monthly average;

(B) Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids;

(C) Horsepower of aerator unit(s);

(D) Inlet liquid flow; and

(E) Liquid temperature.

(ii) If the Inlet and Outlet Concentration Measurement Procedure (Procedure 3) in appendix C of this part is used to determine the fraction of HAP compounds degraded in the biological treatment system as specified in §63.457(l), conduct the sampling and archival requirements specified in paragraphs (j)(1)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) Obtain daily inlet and outlet liquid grab samples from each biological treatment unit to have HAP data available to perform quarterly performance tests specified in paragraph (j)(3) of this section and the compliance tests specified in paragraph (p) of this section.

(B) Store the samples as specified in §63.457(n) until after the results of the soluble BOD5 test required in paragraph (j)(1)(i)(A) of this section are obtained. The storage requirement is needed since the soluble BOD5 test requires 5 days or more to obtain results. If the results of the soluble BOD5 test are outside of the range established during the initial performance test, then the archive sample shall be used to perform the mass removal or percent reduction determinations.

(2) As an alternative to the monitoring requirements of paragraph (j)(1) of this section, conduct daily monitoring of the site-specific parameters established according to the procedures specified in paragraph (n) of this section.

(3) Conduct a performance test as specified in §63.457(l) within 45 days after the beginning of each quarter and meet the applicable emission limit in §63.446(e)(2).

(i) The performance test conducted in the first quarter (annually) shall be performed for total HAP as specified in §63.457(g) and meet the percent reduction or mass removal emission limit specified in §63.446(e)(2).

(ii) The remaining quarterly performance tests shall be performed as specified in paragraph (j)(3)(i) of this section except owners or operators may use the applicable methanol procedure in §63.457(l)(1) or (2) and the value of r determined during the first quarter test instead of measuring the additional HAP to determine a new value of r.

(k) Each enclosure and closed-vent system used to comply with §63.450(a) shall comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (k)(1) through (k)(6) of this section.

(1) For each enclosure opening, a visual inspection of the closure mechanism specified in §63.450(b) shall be performed at least once every 30 days to ensure the opening is maintained in the closed position and sealed.

(2) Each closed-vent system required by §63.450(a) shall be visually inspected every 30 days and at other times as requested by the Administrator. The visual inspection shall include inspection of ductwork, piping, enclosures, and connections to covers for visible evidence of defects.

(3) For positive pressure closed-vent systems or portions of closed-vent systems, demonstrate no detectable leaks as specified in §63.450(c) measured initially and annually by the procedures in §63.457(d).

(4) Demonstrate initially and annually that each enclosure opening is maintained at negative pressure as specified in §63.457(e).

(5) The valve or closure mechanism specified in §63.450(d)(2) shall be inspected at least once every 30 days to ensure that the valve is maintained in the closed position and the emission point gas stream is not diverted through the bypass line.

(6) If an inspection required by paragraphs (k)(1) through (k)(5) of this section identifies visible defects in ductwork, piping, enclosures or connections to covers required by §63.450, or if an instrument reading of 500 parts per million by volume or greater above background is measured, or if enclosure openings are not maintained at negative pressure, then the following corrective actions shall be taken as soon as practicable.

(i) A first effort to repair or correct the closed-vent system shall be made as soon as practicable but no later than 5 calendar days after the problem is identified.

(ii) The repair or corrective action shall be completed no later than 15 calendar days after the problem is identified. Delay of repair or corrective action is allowed if the repair or corrective action is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown or if the owner or operator determines that the emissions resulting from immediate repair would be greater than the emissions likely to result from delay of repair. Repair of such equipment shall be completed by the end of the next process unit shutdown.

(l) Each pulping process condensate closed collection system used to comply with §63.446(d) shall comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs (l)(1) through (l)(3) of this section.

(1) Each pulping process condensate closed collection system shall be visually inspected every 30 days and shall comply with the inspection and monitoring requirements specified in §63.964 of subpart RR of this part, except:

(i) Owners or operators shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements of §63.454 instead of the requirements specified in §63.964(a)(1)(vi) and (b)(3) of subpart RR of this part.

(ii) Owners or operators shall comply with the inspection and monitoring requirements for closed-vent systems and control devices specified in paragraphs (a) and (k) of this section instead of the requirements specified in §63.964(a)(2) of subpart RR of this part.

(2) Each condensate tank used in the closed collection system shall be operated with no detectable leaks as specified in §63.446(d)(2)(i) measured initially and annually by the procedures specified in §63.457(d).

(3) If an inspection required by this section identifies visible defects in the closed collection system, or if an instrument reading of 500 parts per million or greater above background is measured, then corrective actions specified in §63.964(b) of subpart RR of this part shall be taken.

(m) Each owner or operator using a control device, technique or an alternative parameter other than those specified in paragraphs (b) through (l) of this section shall install a CMS and establish appropriate operating parameters to be monitored that demonstrate, to the Administrator's satisfaction, continuous compliance with the applicable control requirements.

(n) To establish or reestablish the value for each operating parameter required to be monitored under paragraphs (b) through (j), (l), and (m) of this section or to establish appropriate parameters for paragraphs (f), (i), (j)(2), and (m) of this section, each owner or operator shall use the following procedures:

(1) During the initial performance test required in §63.457(a) or any subsequent performance test, continuously record the operating parameter;

(2) Determinations shall be based on the control performance and parameter data monitored during the performance test, supplemented if necessary by engineering assessments and the manufacturer's recommendations;

(3) The owner or operator shall provide for the Administrator's approval the rationale for selecting the monitoring parameters necessary to comply with paragraphs (f), (i), and (m) of this section; and

(4) Provide for the Administrator's approval the rationale for the selected operating parameter value, and monitoring frequency, and averaging time. Include all data and calculations used to develop the value and a description of why the value, monitoring frequency, and averaging time demonstrate continuous compliance with the applicable emission standard.

(o) Each owner or operator of a control device subject to the monitoring provisions of this section shall operate the control device in a manner consistent with the minimum or maximum (as appropriate) operating parameter value or procedure required to be monitored under paragraphs (a) through (n) of this section and established under this subpart. Except as provided in paragraph (p) of this section, §63.443(e), or §63.446(g), operation of the control device below minimum operating parameter values or above maximum operating parameter values established under this subpart or failure to perform procedures required by this subpart shall constitute a violation of the applicable emission standard of this subpart and be reported as a period of excess emissions.

(p) The procedures of this paragraph apply to each owner or operator of an open biological treatment system complying with paragraph (j) of this section whenever a monitoring parameter excursion occurs, and the owner or operator chooses to conduct a performance test to demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limit. A monitoring parameter excursion occurs whenever the monitoring parameters specified in paragraphs (j)(1)(i)(A) through (C) of this section or any of the monitoring parameters specified in paragraph (j)(2) of this section are below minimum operating parameter values or above maximum operating parameter values established in paragraph (n) of this section.

(1) As soon as practical after the beginning of the monitoring parameter excursion, the following requirements shall be met:

(i) Before the steps in paragraph (p)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section are performed, all sampling and measurements necessary to meet the requirements in paragraph (p)(2) of this section shall be conducted.

(ii) Steps shall be taken to repair or adjust the operation of the process to end the parameter excursion period.

(iii) Steps shall be taken to minimize total HAP emissions to the atmosphere during the parameter excursion period.

(2) A parameter excursion is not a violation of the applicable emission standard if the results of the performance test conducted using the procedures in this paragraph demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limit in §63.446(e)(2).

(i) Conduct a performance test as specified in §63.457 using the monitoring data specified in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section that coincides with the time of the parameter excursion. No maintenance or changes shall be made to the open biological treatment system after the beginning of a parameter excursion that would influence the results of the performance test.

(ii) If the results of the performance test specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limit in §63.446(e)(2), then the parameter excursion is not a violation of the applicable emission limit.

(iii) If the results of the performance test specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section do not demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limit in §63.446(e)(2) because the total HAP mass entering the open biological treatment system is below the level needed to demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission limit in §63.446(e)(2), then the owner or operator shall perform the following comparisons:

(A) If the value of fbio (MeOH) determined during the performance test specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section is within the range of values established during the initial and subsequent performance tests approved by the Administrator, then the parameter excursion is not a violation of the applicable standard.

(B) If the value of fbio (MeOH) determined during the performance test specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section is not within the range of values established during the initial and subsequent performance tests approved by the Administrator, then the parameter excursion is a violation of the applicable standard.

(iv) The results of the performance test specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section shall be recorded as specified in §63.454(f).

(3) If an owner or operator determines that performing the required procedures under paragraph (p)(2) of this section for a nonthoroughly mixed open biological system would expose a worker to dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise unsafe conditions, all of the following procedures shall be performed:

(i) Calculate the mass removal or percent reduction value using the procedures specified in §63.457(l) except the value for fbio (MeOH) shall be determined using the procedures in appendix E to this part.

(ii) Repeat the procedures in paragraph (p)(3)(i) of this section for every day until the unsafe conditions have passed.

(iii) A parameter excursion is a violation of the standard if the percent reduction or mass removal determined in paragraph (p)(3)(i) of this section is less than the percent reduction or mass removal standards specified in §63.446(e)(2), as appropriate, unless the value of fbio (MeOH) determined using the procedures in appendix E of this section, as specified in paragraph (p)(3)(i), is within the range of fbio (MeOH) values established during the initial and subsequent performance tests previously approved by the Administrator.

(iv) The determination that there is a condition that exposes a worker to dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise unsafe conditions shall be documented according to requirements in §63.454(e) and reporting in §63.455(f).

(v) The requirements of paragraphs (p)(1) and (2) of this section shall be performed and met as soon as practical but no later than 24 hours after the conditions have passed that exposed a worker to dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise unsafe conditions.

(q) At all times, the owner or operator must operate and maintain any affected source, including associated air pollution control equipment and monitoring equipment, in a manner consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions. Determination of whether such operation and maintenance procedures are being used will be based on information available to the Administrator which may include, but is not limited to, monitoring results, review of operation and maintenance procedures, review of operation and maintenance records, and inspection of the source.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17563, Apr. 12, 1999; 65 FR 80762, Dec. 22, 2000; 77 FR 55711, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.454   Recordkeeping requirements.

(a) The owner or operator of each affected source subject to the requirements of this subpart shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements of §63.10, as shown in Table 1 of this subpart, and the requirements specified in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this section for the monitoring parameters specified in §63.453.

(b) For each applicable enclosure opening, closed-vent system, and closed collection system, the owner or operator shall prepare and maintain a site-specific inspection plan including a drawing or schematic of the components of applicable affected equipment and shall record the following information for each inspection:

(1) Date of inspection;

(2) The equipment type and identification;

(3) Results of negative pressure tests for enclosures;

(4) Results of leak detection tests;

(5) The nature of the defect or leak and the method of detection (i.e., visual inspection or instrument detection);

(6) The date the defect or leak was detected and the date of each attempt to repair the defect or leak;

(7) Repair methods applied in each attempt to repair the defect or leak;

(8) The reason for the delay if the defect or leak is not repaired within 15 days after discovery;

(9) The expected date of successful repair of the defect or leak if the repair is not completed within 15 days;

(10) The date of successful repair of the defect or leak;

(11) The position and duration of opening of bypass line valves and the condition of any valve seals; and

(12) The duration of the use of bypass valves on computer controlled valves.

(c) The owner or operator of a bleaching system complying with §63.440(d)(3)(ii)(B) shall record the daily average chlorine and hypochlorite application rates, in kg of bleaching agent per megagram of ODP, of the bleaching system until the requirements specified in §63.440(d)(3)(ii)(A) are met.

(d) The owner or operator shall record the CMS parameters specified in §63.453 and meet the requirements specified in paragraph (a) of this section for any new affected process equipment or pulping process condensate stream that becomes subject to the standards in this subpart due to a process change or modification.

(e) The owner or operator shall set the flow indicator on each bypass line specified in §63.450(d)(1) to provide a record of the presence of gas stream flow in the bypass line at least once every 15 minutes.

(f) The owner or operator of an open biological treatment system complying with §63.453(p) shall prepare a written record specifying the results of the performance test specified in §63.453(p)(2).

(g) Recordkeeping of malfunctions. The owner or operator must maintain the following records of malfunctions:

(1) Records of the occurrence and duration of each malfunction of operation (i.e., process equipment) or the air pollution control and monitoring equipment.

(2) Records of actions taken during periods of malfunction to minimize emissions in accordance with §63.453(q), including corrective actions to restore malfunctioning process and air pollution control and monitoring equipment to its normal or usual manner of operation.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 65 FR 80763, Dec. 22, 2000; 68 FR 37348, June 23, 2003; 77 FR 55711, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.455   Reporting requirements.

(a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to this subpart shall comply with the reporting requirements of subpart A of this part as specified in table 1 and all the following requirements in this section. The initial notification report specified under §63.9(b)(2) of subpart A of this part shall be submitted by April 15, 1999.

(b) Each owner or operator of a kraft pulping system specified in §63.440(d)(1) or a bleaching system specified in §63.440(d)(3)(ii) shall submit, with the initial notification report specified under §63.9(b)(2) of subpart A of this part and paragraph (a) of this section and update every two years thereafter, a non-binding control strategy report containing, at a minimum, the information specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this section in addition to the information required in §63.9(b)(2) of subpart A of this part.

(1) A description of the emission controls or process modifications selected for compliance with the control requirements in this standard.

(2) A compliance schedule, including the dates by which each step toward compliance will be reached for each emission point or sets of emission points. At a minimum, the list of dates shall include:

(i) The date by which the major study(s) for determining the compliance strategy will be completed;

(ii) The date by which contracts for emission controls or process modifications will be awarded, or the date by which orders will be issued for the purchase of major components to accomplish emission controls or process changes;

(iii) The date by which on-site construction, installation of emission control equipment, or a process change is to be initiated;

(iv) The date by which on-site construction, installation of emissions control equipment, or a process change is to be completed;

(v) The date by which final compliance is to be achieved;

(vi) For compliance with paragraph §63.440(d)(3)(ii), the tentative dates by which compliance with effluent limitation guidelines and standards intermediate pollutant load effluent reductions and as available, all the dates for the best available technology's milestones reported in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System authorized under section 402 of the Clean Water Act and for the best professional milestones in the Voluntary Advanced Technology Incentives Program under 40 CFR 430.24 (b)(2); and

(vii) The date by which the final compliance tests will be performed.

(3) Until compliance is achieved, revisions or updates shall be made to the control strategy report required by paragraph (b) of this section indicating the progress made towards completing the installation of the emission controls or process modifications during the 2-year period.

(c) The owner or operator of each bleaching system complying with §63.440(d)(3)(ii)(B) shall certify in the report specified under §63.10(e)(3) of subpart A of this part that the daily application rates of chlorine and hypochlorite for that bleaching system have not increased as specified in §63.440(d)(3)(ii)(B) until the requirements of §63.440(d)(3)(ii)(A) are met.

(d) The owner or operator shall meet the requirements specified in paragraph (a) of this section upon startup of any new affected process equipment or pulping process condensate stream that becomes subject to the standards of this subpart due to a process change or modification.

(e) If the owner or operator uses the results of the performance test required in §63.453(p)(2) to revise the approved values or ranges of the monitoring parameters specified in §63.453(j)(1) or (2), the owner or operator shall submit an initial notification of the subsequent performance test to the Administrator as soon as practicable, but no later than 15 days, before the performance test required in §63.453(p)(2) is scheduled to be conducted. The owner or operator shall notify the Administrator as soon as practicable, but no later than 24 hours, before the performance test is scheduled to be conducted to confirm the exact date and time of the performance test.

(f) To comply with the open biological treatment system monitoring provisions of §63.453(p)(3), the owner or operator shall notify the Administrator as soon as practicable of the onset of the dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise unsafe conditions that did not allow a compliance determination to be conducted using the sampling and test procedures in §63.457(l). The notification shall occur no later than 24 hours after the onset of the dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise unsafe conditions and shall include the specific reason(s) that the sampling and test procedures in §63.457(l) could not be performed.

(g) Malfunction reporting requirements. If a malfunction occurred during the reporting period, the report must include the number, duration and a brief description for each type of malfunction which occurred during the reporting period and which caused or may have caused any applicable emission limitation to be exceeded. The report must also include a description of actions taken by an owner or operator during a malfunction of an affected source to minimize emissions in accordance with §63.453(q), including actions taken to correct a malfunction.

(h) The owner or operator must submit performance test reports as specified in paragraphs (h)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) The owner or operator of an affected source shall report the results of the performance test before the close of business on the 60th day following the completion of the performance test, unless approved otherwise in writing by the Administrator. A performance test is “completed” when field sample collection is terminated. Unless otherwise approved by the Administrator in writing, results of a performance test shall include the analysis of samples, determination of emissions and raw data. A complete test report must include the purpose of the test; a brief process description; a complete unit description, including a description of feed streams and control devices; sampling site description; pollutants measured; description of sampling and analysis procedures and any modifications to standard procedures; quality assurance procedures; record of operating conditions, including operating parameters for which limits are being set, during the test; record of preparation of standards; record of calibrations; raw data sheets for field sampling; raw data sheets for field and laboratory analyses; chain-of-custody documentation; explanation of laboratory data qualifiers; example calculations of all applicable stack gas parameters, emission rates, percent reduction rates, and analytical results, as applicable; and any other information required by the test method and the Administrator.

(2) Within 60 days after the date of completing each performance test (defined in §63.2) as required by this subpart, the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance tests, including any associated fuel analyses, required by this subpart to the EPA's WebFIRE database by using the Compliance and Emissions Data Reporting Interface (CEDRI) that is accessed through the EPA's Central Data Exchange (CDX) (http://www.epa.gov/cdx). Performance test data must be submitted in the file format generated through use of the EPA's Electronic Reporting Tool (ERT) (see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ert/index.html). Only data collected using test methods on the ERT Web site are subject to this requirement for submitting reports electronically to WebFIRE. Owners or operators who claim that some of the information being submitted for performance tests is confidential business information (CBI) must submit a complete ERT file including information claimed to be CBI on a compact disk, flash drive or other commonly used electronic storage media to the EPA. The electronic media must be clearly marked as CBI and mailed to U.S. EPA/OAPQS/CORE CBI Office, Attention: WebFIRE Administrator, MD C404-02, 4930 Old Page Rd., Durham, NC 27703. The same ERT file with the CBI omitted must be submitted to the EPA via CDX as described earlier in this paragraph. At the discretion of the delegated authority, the owner or operator must also submit these reports, including the CBI, to the delegated authority in the format specified by the delegated authority. For any performance test conducted using test methods that are not listed on the ERT Web site, the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance test to the Administrator at the appropriate address listed in §63.13.

(3) Within 60 days after the date of completing each CEMS performance evaluation test as defined in §63.2, the owner or operator must submit relative accuracy test audit (RATA) data to the EPA's CDX by using CEDRI in accordance with paragraph (2) of this section. Only RATA pollutants that can be documented with the ERT (as listed on the ERT Web site) are subject to this requirement. For any performance evaluations with no corresponding RATA pollutants listed on the ERT Web site, the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance evaluation to the Administrator at the appropriate address listed in §63.13.

(4) All reports required by this subpart not subject to the requirements in paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) of this section must be sent to the Administrator at the appropriate address listed in §63.13. The Administrator or the delegated authority may request a report in any form suitable for the specific case (e.g., by commonly used electronic media such as Excel spreadsheet, on CD or hard copy). The Administrator retains the right to require submittal of reports subject to paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) of this section in paper format

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 65 FR 80763, Dec. 22, 2000; 77 FR 55711, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.456   Affirmative defense for violation of emission standards during malfunction.

In response to an action to enforce the standards set forth in §§63.443(c) and (d), 63.444(b) and (c), 63.445(b) and (c), 63.446(c), (d), and (e), 63.447(b) or §63.450(d), the owner or operator may assert an affirmative defense to a claim for civil penalties for violations of such standards that are caused by malfunction, as defined at 40 CFR 63.2. Appropriate penalties may be assessed, however, if the owner or operator fails to meet the burden of proving all of the requirements in the affirmative defense. The affirmative defense shall not be available for claims for injunctive relief.

(a) To establish the affirmative defense in any action to enforce such a standard, the owner or operator must timely meet the reporting requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, and must prove by a preponderance of evidence that:

(1) The violation:

(i) Was caused by a sudden, infrequent, and unavoidable failure of air pollution control equipment, process equipment, or a process to operate in a normal or usual manner, and

(ii) Could not have been prevented through careful planning, proper design or better operation and maintenance practices; and

(iii) Did not stem from any activity or event that could have been foreseen and avoided, or planned for; and

(iv) Was not part of a recurring pattern indicative of inadequate design, operation, or maintenance; and

(2) Repairs were made as expeditiously as possible when a violation occurred. Off-shift and overtime labor were used, to the extent practicable to make these repairs; and

(3) The frequency, amount and duration of the violation (including any bypass) were minimized to the maximum extent practicable; and

(4) If the violation resulted from a bypass of control equipment or a process, then the bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life, personal injury, or severe property damage; and

(5) All possible steps were taken to minimize the impact of the violation on ambient air quality, the environment and human health; and

(6) All emissions monitoring and control systems were kept in operation if at all possible, consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices; and

(7) All of the actions in response to the violation were documented by properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs; and

(8) At all times, the affected source was operated in a manner consistent with good practices for minimizing emissions; and

(9) A written root cause analysis has been prepared, the purpose of which is to determine, correct, and eliminate the primary causes of the malfunction and the violation resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis shall also specify, using best monitoring methods and engineering judgment, the amount of any emissions that were the result of the malfunction.

(b) Report. The owner or operator seeking to assert an affirmative defense shall submit a written report to the Administrator with all necessary supporting documentation, that it has met the requirements set forth in paragraph (a) of this section. This affirmative defense report shall be included in the first periodic compliance, deviation report or excess emission report otherwise required after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard (which may be the end of any applicable averaging period). If such compliance, deviation report or excess emission report is due less than 45 days after the initial occurrence of the violation, the affirmative defense report may be included in the second compliance, deviation report or excess emission report due after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard.

[77 FR 55712, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.457   Test methods and procedures.

(a) Performance tests. Initial and repeat performance tests are required for the emissions sources specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section, except for emission sources controlled by a combustion device that is designed and operated as specified in §63.443(d)(3) or (4).

(1) Conduct an initial performance test for all emission sources subject to the limitations in §§63.443, 63.444, 63.445, 63.446, and 63.447.

(2) Conduct repeat performance tests at five-year intervals for all emission sources subject to the limitations in §§63.443, 63.444, and 63.445. The first of the 5-year repeat tests must be conducted by September 7, 2015, and thereafter within 60 months from the date of the previous performance test. Five-year repeat testing is not required for the following:

(i) Knotter or screen systems with HAP emission rates below the criteria specified in §63.443(a)(1)(ii).

(ii) Decker systems using fresh water or paper machine white water, or decker systems using process water with a total HAP concentration less than 400 parts per million by weight as specified in §63.443(a)(1)(iv).

(b) Vent sampling port locations and gas stream properties. For purposes of selecting vent sampling port locations and determining vent gas stream properties, required in §§63.443, 63.444, 63.445, and 63.447, each owner or operator shall comply with the applicable procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section.

(1) Method 1 or 1A of part 60, appendix A-1, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the sampling site as follows:

(i) To sample for vent gas concentrations and volumetric flow rates, the sampling site shall be located prior to dilution of the vent gas stream and prior to release to the atmosphere;

(ii) For determining compliance with percent reduction requirements, sampling sites shall be located prior to the inlet of the control device and at the outlet of the control device; measurements shall be performed simultaneously at the two sampling sites; and

(iii) For determining compliance with concentration limits or mass emission rate limits, the sampling site shall be located at the outlet of the control device.

(2) No traverse site selection method is needed for vents smaller than 0.10 meter (4.0 inches) in diameter.

(3) The vent gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of part 60, appendix A-1, as appropriate.

(4) The moisture content of the vent gas shall be measured using Method 4 of part 60, appendix A-3.

(5) To determine vent gas concentrations, the owner or operator shall conduct a minimum of three test runs that are representative of normal conditions and average the resulting pollutant concentrations using the following procedures.

(i) Method 308 in Appendix A of this part; Method 320 in Appendix A of this part; Method 18 in appendix A-6 of part 60; ASTM D6420-99 (Reapproved 2004) (incorporated by reference in §63.14(b)(28) of subpart A of this part); or ASTM D6348-03 (incorporated by reference in §63.14(b)(54) of subpart A of this part) shall be used to determine the methanol concentration. If ASTM D6348-03 is used, the conditions specified in paragraphs (b)(5)(i)(A) though (b)(5)(i)(B) must be met.

(A) The test plan preparation and implementation in the Annexes to ASTM D6348-03, sections A1 through A8 are required.

(B) In ASTM D6348-03 Annex A5 (Analyte Spiking Technique), the percent (%) R must be determined for each target analyte (Equation A5.5 of ASTM D6348-03). In order for the test data to be acceptable for a compound, %R must be between 70 and 130 percent. If the %R value does not meet this criterion for a target compound, the test data is not acceptable for that compound and the test must be repeated for that analyte following adjustment of the sampling or analytical procedure before the retest. The %R value for each compound must be reported in the test report, and all field measurements must be corrected with the calculated %R value for that compound using the following equation: Reported Result = Measured Concentration in the Stack × 100)/%R.

(ii) Except for the modifications specified in paragraphs (b)(5)(ii)(A) through (b)(5)(ii)(K) of this section, Method 26A of part 60, appendix A-8 shall be used to determine chlorine concentration in the vent stream.

(A) Probe/sampling line. A separate probe is not required. The sampling line shall be an appropriate length of 0.64 cm (0.25 in) OD Teflon® tubing. The sample inlet end of the sampling line shall be inserted into the stack in such a way as to not entrain liquid condensation from the vent gases. The other end shall be connected to the impingers. The length of the tubing may vary from one sampling site to another, but shall be as short as possible in each situation. If sampling is conducted in sunlight, opaque tubing shall be used. Alternatively, if transparent tubing is used, it shall be covered with opaque tape.

(B) Impinger train. Three 30 milliliter (ml) capacity midget impingers shall be connected in series to the sampling line. The impingers shall have regular tapered stems. Silica gel shall be placed in the third impinger as a desiccant. All impinger train connectors shall be glass and/or Teflon®.

(C) Critical orifice. The critical orifice shall have a flow rate of 200 to 250 ml/min and shall be followed by a vacuum pump capable of providing a vacuum of 640 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). A 45 millimeter diameter in-line Teflon 0.8 micrometer filter shall follow the impingers to protect the critical orifice and vacuum pump.

(D) The following are necessary for the analysis apparatus:

(1) Wash bottle filled with deionized water;

(2) 25 or 50 ml graduated burette and stand;

(3) Magnetic stirring apparatus and stir bar;

(4) Calibrated pH Meter;

(5) 150-250 ml beaker or flask; and

(6) A 5 ml pipette.

(E) The procedures listed in paragraphs (b)(5)(ii)(E)(1) through (b)(5)(ii)(E)(7) of this section shall be used to prepare the reagents.

(1) To prepare the 1 molarity (M) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, dissolve 13.61 grams (g) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate in water and dilute to 100 ml.

(2) To prepare the 1 M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), dissolve 4.0 g of sodium hydroxide in water and dilute to 100 ml.

(3) To prepare the buffered 2 percent potassium iodide solution, dissolve 20 g of potassium iodide in 900 ml water. Add 50 ml of the 1 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and 30 ml of the 1 M sodium hydroxide solution. While stirring solution, measure the pH of solution electrometrically and add the 1 M sodium hydroxide solution to bring pH to between 6.95 and 7.05.

(4) To prepare the 0.1 normality (N) sodium thiosulfate solution, dissolve 25 g of sodium thiosulfate, pentahydrate, in 800 ml of freshly boiled and cooled distilled water in a 1-liter volumetric flask. Dilute to volume. To prepare the 0.01 N sodium thiosulfate solution, add 10.0 ml standardized 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate solution to a 100 ml volumetric flask, and dilute to volume with water.

(5) To standardize the 0.1 N sodium thiosulfate solution, dissolve 3.249 g of anhydrous potassium bi-iodate, primary standard quality, or 3.567 g potassium iodate dried at 103 =/−2 degrees Centigrade for 1 hour, in distilled water and dilute to 1000 ml to yield a 0.1000 N solution. Store in a glass-stoppered bottle. To 80 ml distilled water, add, with constant stirring, 1 ml concentrated sulfuric acid, 10.00 ml 0.1000 N anhydrous potassium bi-iodate, and 1 g potassium iodide. Titrate immediately with 0.1 n sodium thiosulfate titrant until the yellow color of the liberated iodine is almost discharged. Add 1 ml starch indicator solution and continue titrating until the blue color disappears. The normality of the sodium thiosulfate solution is inversely proportional to the ml of sodium thiosulfate solution consumed:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.000.gif

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(6) To prepare the starch indicator solution, add a small amount of cold water to 5 g starch and grind in a mortar to obtain a thin paste. Pour paste into 1 L of boiling distilled water, stir, and let settle overnight. Use clear supernate for starch indicator solution.

(7) To prepare the 10 percent sulfuric acid solution, add 10 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid to 80 ml water in a 100 ml volumetric flask. Dilute to volume.

(F) The procedures specified in paragraphs (b)(5)(ii)(F)(1) through (b)(5)(ii)(F)(5) of this section shall be used to perform the sampling.

(1) Preparation of collection train. Measure 20 ml buffered potassium iodide solution into each of the first two impingers and connect probe, impingers, filter, critical orifice, and pump. The sampling line and the impingers shall be shielded from sunlight.

(2) Leak and flow check procedure. Plug sampling line inlet tip and turn on pump. If a flow of bubbles is visible in either of the liquid impingers, tighten fittings and adjust connections and impingers. A leakage rate not in excess of 2 percent of the sampling rate is acceptable. Carefully remove the plug from the end of the probe. Check the flow rate at the probe inlet with a bubble tube flow meter. The flow should be comparable or slightly less than the flow rate of the critical orifice with the impingers off-line. Record the flow and turn off the pump.

(3) Sample collection. Insert the sampling line into the stack and secure it with the tip slightly lower than the port height. Start the pump, recording the time. End the sampling after 60 minutes, or after yellow color is observed in the second in-line impinger. Record time and remove the tubing from the vent. Recheck flow rate at sampling line inlet and turn off pump. If the flow rate has changed significantly, redo sampling with fresh capture solution. A slight variation (less than 5 percent) in flow may be averaged. With the inlet end of the line elevated above the impingers, add about 5 ml water into the inlet tip to rinse the line into the first impinger.

(4) Sample analysis. Fill the burette with 0.01 N sodium thiosulfate solution to the zero mark. Combine the contents of the impingers in the beaker or flask. Stir the solution and titrate with thiosulfate until the solution is colorless. Record the volume of the first endpoint (TN, ml). Add 5 ml of the 10 percent sulfuric acid solution, and continue the titration until the contents of the flask are again colorless. Record the total volume of titrant required to go through the first and to the second endpoint (TA, ml). If the volume of neutral titer is less than 0.5 ml, repeat the testing for a longer period of time. It is important that sufficient lighting be present to clearly see the endpoints, which are determined when the solution turns from pale yellow to colorless. A lighted stirring plate and a white background are useful for this purpose.

(5) Interferences. Known interfering agents of this method are sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. Sulfur dioxide, which is used to reduce oxidant residuals in some bleaching systems, reduces formed iodine to iodide in the capture solution. It is therefore a negative interference for chlorine, and in some cases could result in erroneous negative chlorine concentrations. Any agent capable of reducing iodine to iodide could interfere in this manner. A chromium trioxide impregnated filter will capture sulfur dioxide and pass chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Hydrogen peroxide, which is commonly used as a bleaching agent in modern bleaching systems, reacts with iodide to form iodine and thus can cause a positive interference in the chlorine measurement. Due to the chemistry involved, the precision of the chlorine analysis will decrease as the ratio of chlorine dioxide to chlorine increases. Slightly negative calculated concentrations of chlorine may occur when sampling a vent gas with high concentrations of chlorine dioxide and very low concentrations of chlorine.

(G) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the corrected sampling flow rate:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.001.gif

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Where:

SC = Corrected (dry standard) sampling flow rate, liters per minute;

SU = Uncorrected sampling flow rate, L/min;

BP=Barometric pressure at time of sampling;

PW=Saturated partial pressure of water vapor, mm Hg at temperature; and

t=Ambient temperature, °C.

(H) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the moles of chlorine in the sample:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.002.gif

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Where:

TN = Volume neutral titer, ml;

TA = Volume acid titer (total), ml; and

NThio = Normality of sodium thiosulfate titrant.

(I) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the concentration of chlorine in the sample:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.003.gif

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Where:

SC = Corrected (dry standard) sampling flow rate, liters per minute;

tS = Time sampled, minutes;

TN = Volume neutral titer, ml;

TA = Volume acid titer (total), ml; and

NThio = Normality of sodium thiosulfate titrant.

(J) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the moles of chlorine dioxide in the sample:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.004.gif

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Where:

TA = Volume acid titer (total), ml;

TN = Volume neutral titer, ml; and

NThio = Normality of sodium thiosulfate titrant.

(K) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the concentration of chlorine dioxide in the sample:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.005.gif

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Where:

SC = Corrected (dry standard) sampling flow rate, liters per minute;

tS = Time sampled, minutes;

TA = Volume acid titer (total), ml;

TN = Volume neutral titer, ml; and

NThio = Normality of sodium thiosulfate titrant.

(iii) Any other method that measures the total HAP or methanol concentration that has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction.

(6) The minimum sampling time for each of the three test runs shall be 1 hour in which either an integrated sample or four grab samples shall be taken. If grab sampling is used, then the samples shall be taken at approximately equal intervals in time, such as 15 minute intervals during the test run.

(c) Liquid sampling locations and properties. For purposes of selecting liquid sampling locations and for determining properties of liquid streams such as wastewaters, process waters, and condensates required in §§63.444, 63.446, and 63.447, the owner or operator shall comply with the following procedures:

(1) Samples shall be collected using the sampling procedures of the test method listed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section selected to determine liquid stream HAP concentrations;

(i) Where feasible, samples shall be taken from an enclosed pipe prior to the liquid stream being exposed to the atmosphere; and

(ii) When sampling from an enclosed pipe is not feasible, samples shall be collected in a manner to minimize exposure of the sample to the atmosphere and loss of HAP compounds prior to sampling.

(2) The volumetric flow rate of the entering and exiting liquid streams shall be determined using the inlet and outlet flow meters or other methods demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction. The volumetric flow rate measurements to determine actual mass removal shall be taken at the same time as the concentration measurements.

(3) The owner or operator shall conduct a minimum of three test runs that are representative of normal conditions and average the resulting pollutant concentrations. The minimum sampling time for each test run shall be 1 hour and the grab or composite samples shall be taken at approximately equally spaced intervals over the 1-hour test run period. The owner or operator shall use one of the following procedures to determine total HAP or methanol concentration:

(i) Method 305 in Appendix A of this part, adjusted using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.006.gif

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Where:

C̅ = Pollutant concentration for the liquid stream, parts per million by weight.

Ci = Measured concentration of pollutant i in the liquid stream sample determined using Method 305, parts per million by weight.

fmi = Pollutant-specific constant that adjusts concentration measured by Method 305 to actual liquid concentration; the fm for methanol is 0.85. Additional pollutant fm values can be found in table 34, subpart G of this part.

n=Number of individual pollutants, i, summed to calculate total HAP.

(ii) For determining methanol concentrations, NCASI Method DI/MEOH-94.03. This test method is incorporated by reference in §63.14(f)(1) of subpart A of this part.

(iii) Any other method that measures total HAP concentration that has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction.

(4) To determine soluble BOD5 in the effluent stream from an open biological treatment unit used to comply with §§63.446(e)(2) and 63.453(j), the owner or operator shall use Method 405.1 of part 136 of this chapter with the following modifications:

(i) Filter the sample through the filter paper, into an Erlenmeyer flask by applying a vacuum to the flask sidearm. Minimize the time for which vacuum is applied to prevent stripping of volatile organics from the sample. Replace filter paper as often as needed in order to maintain filter times of less than approximately 30 seconds per filter paper. No rinsing of sample container or filter bowl into the Erlenmeyer flask is allowed.

(ii) Perform Method 405.1 on the filtrate obtained in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. Dilution water shall be seeded with 1 milliliter of final effluent per liter of dilution water. Dilution ratios may require adjustment to reflect the lower oxygen demand of the filtered sample in comparison to the total BOD5. Three BOD bottles and different dilutions shall be used for each sample.

(5) If the test method used to determine HAP concentration indicates that a specific HAP is not detectable, the value determined as the minimum measurement level (MML) of the selected test method for the specific HAP shall be used in the compliance demonstration calculations. To determine the MML for a specific HAP using one of the test methods specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, one of the procedures specified in paragraphs (c)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section shall be performed. The MML for a particular HAP must be determined only if the HAP is not detected in the normal working range of the method.

(i) To determine the MML for a specific HAP, the following procedures shall be performed each time the method is set up. Set up is defined as the first time the analytical apparatus is placed in operation, after any shut down of 6 months or more, or any time a major component of the analytical apparatus is replaced.

(A) Select a concentration value for the specific HAP in question to represent the MML. The value of the MML selected shall not be below the calibration standard of the selected test method.

(B) Measure the concentration of the specific HAP in a minimum of three replicate samples using the selected test method. All replicate samples shall be run through the entire analytical procedure. The samples must contain the specific HAP at the selected MML concentration and should be representative of the liquid streams to be analyzed in the compliance demonstration. Spiking of the liquid samples with a known concentration of the target HAP may be necessary to ensure that the HAP concentration in the three replicate samples is at the selected MML. The concentration of the HAP in the spiked sample must be within 50 percent of the proposed MML for the demonstration to be valid. As an alternative to spiking, a field sample above the MML may be diluted to produce a HAP concentration at the MML. To be a valid demonstration, the diluted sample must have a HAP concentration within 20 percent of the proposed MML, and the field sample must not be diluted by more than a factor of five.

(C) Calculate the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the upper confidence limit at the 95 percent confidence level using the measured HAP concentrations determined in paragraph (c)(5)(i)(B) of this section. If the upper confidence limit of the RSD is less than 30 percent, then the selected MML is acceptable. If the upper confidence limit of the RSD is greater than or equal to 30 percent, then the selected MML is too low, and the procedures specified in paragraphs (c)(5)(i)(A) through (C) of this section must be repeated.

(ii) Provide for the Administrator's approval the selected value of the MML for a specific HAP and the rationale for selecting the MML including all data and calculations used to determine the MML. The approved MML must be used in all applicable compliance demonstration calculations.

(6) When using the MML determined using the procedures in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section or when using the MML determined using the procedures in paragraph (c)(5)(i), except during set up, the analytical laboratory conducting the analysis must perform and meet the following quality assurance procedures each time a set of samples is analyzed to determine compliance.

(i) Using the selected test method, analyze in triplicate the concentration of the specific HAP in a representative sample. The sample must contain the specific HAP at a concentration that is within a factor of two of the MML. If there are no samples in the set being analyzed that contain the specific HAP at an appropriate concentration, then a sample below the MML may be spiked to produce the appropriate concentration, or a sample at a higher level may be diluted. After spiking, the sample must contain the specific HAP within 50 percent of the MML. If dilution is used instead, the diluted sample must contain the specific HAP within 20 percent of the MML and must not be diluted by more than a factor of five.

(ii) Calculate the RSD using the measured HAP concentrations determined in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section. If the RSD is less than 20 percent, then the laboratory is performing acceptably.

(d) Detectable leak procedures. To measure detectable leaks for closed-vent systems as specified in §63.450 or for pulping process wastewater collection systems as specified in §63.446(d)(2)(i), the owner or operator shall comply with the following:

(1) Method 21, of part 60, appendix A-7; and

(2) The instrument specified in Method 21 shall be calibrated before use according to the procedures specified in Method 21 on each day that leak checks are performed. The following calibration gases shall be used:

(i) Zero air (less than 10 parts per million by volume of hydrocarbon in air); and

(ii) A mixture of methane or n-hexane and air at a concentration of approximately, but less than, 10,000 parts per million by volume methane or n-hexane.

(e) Negative pressure procedures. To demonstrate negative pressure at process equipment enclosure openings as specified in §63.450(b), the owner or operator shall use one of the following procedures:

(1) An anemometer to demonstrate flow into the enclosure opening;

(2) Measure the static pressure across the opening;

(3) Smoke tubes to demonstrate flow into the enclosure opening; or

(4) Any other industrial ventilation test method demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction.

(f) HAP concentration measurements. For purposes of complying with the requirements in §§63.443, 63.444, and 63.447, the owner or operator shall measure the total HAP concentration as one of the following:

(1) As the sum of all individual HAPs; or

(2) As methanol.

(g) Condensate HAP concentration measurement. For purposes of complying with the kraft pulping condensate requirements in §63.446, the owner or operator shall measure the total HAP concentration as methanol. For biological treatment systems complying with §63.446(e)(2), the owner or operator shall measure total HAP as acetaldehyde, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and propionaldehyde and follow the procedures in §63.457(l)(1) or (2).

(h) Bleaching HAP concentration measurement. For purposes of complying with the bleaching system requirements in §63.445, the owner or operator shall measure the total HAP concentration as the sum of all individual chlorinated HAPs or as chlorine.

(i) Vent gas stream calculations. To demonstrate compliance with the mass emission rate, mass emission rate per megagram of ODP, and percent reduction requirements for vent gas streams specified in §§63.443, 63.444, 63.445, and 63.447, the owner or operator shall use the following:

(1) The total HAP mass emission rate shall be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.007.gif

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Where:

E=Mass emission rate of total HAP from the sampled vent, kilograms per hour.

K2 = Constant, 2.494×10−6 (parts per million by volume)−1 (gram-mole per standard cubic meter) (kilogram/gram) (minutes/hour), where standard temperature for (gram-mole per standard cubic meter) is 20 °C.

Cj = Concentration on a dry basis of pollutant j in parts per million by volume as measured by the test methods specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

Mj = Molecular weight of pollutant j, gram/gram-mole.

Qs = Vent gas stream flow rate (dry standard cubic meter per minute) at a temperature of 20 °C as indicated in paragraph (b) of this section.

n=Number of individual pollutants, i, summed to calculate total HAP.

(2) The total HAP mass emission rate per megagram of ODP shall be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.008.gif

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Where:

F=Mass emission rate of total HAP from the sampled vent, in kilograms per megagram of ODP.

E=Mass emission rate of total HAP from the sampled vent, in kilograms per hour determined as specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section.

P=The production rate of pulp during the sampling period, in megagrams of ODP per hour.

(3) The total HAP percent reduction shall be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.009.gif

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Where:

R=Efficiency of control device, percent.

Ei=Inlet mass emission rate of total HAP from the sampled vent, in kilograms of pollutant per hour, determined as specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section.

Eo = Outlet mass emission rate of total HAP from the sampled vent, in kilograms of pollutant per hour, determined as specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section.

(j) Liquid stream calculations. To demonstrate compliance with the mass flow rate, mass per megagram of ODP, and percent reduction requirements for liquid streams specified in §63.446, the owner or operator shall use the following:

(1) The mass flow rates of total HAP or methanol entering and exiting the treatment process shall be calculated using the following equations:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.010.gif

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Where:

Eb = Mass flow rate of total HAP or methanol in the liquid stream entering the treatment process, kilograms per hour.

Ea = Mass flow rate of total HAP or methanol in the liquid exiting the treatment process, kilograms per hour.

K=Density of the liquid stream, kilograms per cubic meter.

Vbi = Volumetric flow rate of liquid stream entering the treatment process during each run i, cubic meters per hour, determined as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

Vai = Volumetric flow rate of liquid stream exiting the treatment process during each run i, cubic meters per hour, determined as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

Cbi = Concentration of total HAP or methanol in the stream entering the treatment process during each run i, parts per million by weight, determined as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

Cai = Concentration of total HAP or methanol in the stream exiting the treatment process during each run i, parts per million by weight, determined as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

n=Number of runs.

(2) The mass of total HAP or methanol per megagram ODP shall be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.011.gif

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Where:

F=Mass loading of total HAP or methanol in the sample, in kilograms per megagram of ODP.

Ea = Mass flow rate of total HAP or methanol in the wastewater stream in kilograms per hour as determined using the procedures in paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

P=The production rate of pulp during the sampling period in megagrams of ODP per hour.

(3) The percent reduction of total HAP across the applicable treatment process shall be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.012.gif

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Where:

R=Control efficiency of the treatment process, percent.

Eb = Mass flow rate of total HAP in the stream entering the treatment process, kilograms per hour, as determined in paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

Ea = Mass flow rate of total HAP in the stream exiting the treatment process, kilograms per hour, as determined in paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

(4) Compounds that meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (j)(4)(i) or (4)(ii) of this section are not required to be included in the mass flow rate, mass per megagram of ODP, or the mass percent reduction determinations.

(i) Compounds with concentrations at the point of determination that are below 1 part per million by weight; or

(ii) Compounds with concentrations at the point of determination that are below the lower detection limit where the lower detection limit is greater than 1 part per million by weight.

(k) Oxygen concentration correction procedures. To demonstrate compliance with the total HAP concentration limit of 20 ppmv in §63.443(d)(2), the concentration measured using the methods specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this section shall be corrected to 10 percent oxygen using the following procedures:

(1) The emission rate correction factor and excess air integrated sampling and analysis procedures of Methods 3A or 3B of part 60, appendix A-2 shall be used to determine the oxygen concentration. The samples shall be taken at the same time that the HAP samples are taken. As an alternative to Method 3B, ASME PTC 19.10-1981 [Part 10] may be used (incorporated by reference, see §63.14(i)(1)).

(2) The concentration corrected to 10 percent oxygen shall be computed using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er15ap98.013.gif

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Where:

Cc = Concentration of total HAP corrected to 10 percent oxygen, dry basis, parts per million by volume.

Cm = Concentration of total HAP dry basis, parts per million by volume, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

%02d = Concentration of oxygen, dry basis, percent by volume.

(l) Biological treatment system percent reduction and mass removal calculations. To demonstrate compliance with the condensate treatment standards specified in §63.446(e)(2) and the monitoring requirements specified in §63.453(j)(3) using a biological treatment system, the owner or operator shall use one of the procedures specified in paragraphs (1)(1) and (2) of this section. Owners or operators using a nonthoroughly mixed open biological treatment system shall also comply with paragraph (1)(3) of this section.

(1) Percent reduction methanol procedure. For the purposes of complying with the condensate treatment requirements specified in §63.446(e)(2) and (3), the methanol percent reduction shall be calculated using the following equations:

eCFR graphic er14my01.003.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

R = Percent destruction.

fbio(MeOH) = The fraction of methanol removed in the biological treatment system. The site-specific biorate constants shall be determined using the appropriate procedures specified in appendix C of this part.

r = Ratio of the sum of acetaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, and propionaldehyde mass to methanol mass.

F(nonmethanol) = The sum of acetaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, and propionaldehyde mass flow rates (kg/Mg ODP) entering the biological treatment system determined using the procedures in paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

F(methanol) = The mass flow rate (kg/Mg ODP) of methanol entering the system determined using the procedures in paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

(2) Mass removal methanol procedure. For the purposes of complying with the condensate treatment requirements specified in §63.446(e)(2) and (4), or §63.446(e)(2) and (5), the methanol mass removal shall be calculated using the following equation:

eCFR graphic er14my01.004.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

F = Methanol mass removal (kg/Mg ODP).

Fb = Inlet mass flow rate of methanol (kg/Mg ODP) determined using the procedures in paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

fbio(MeOH) = The fraction of methanol removed in the biological treatment system. The site-specific biorate constants shall be determined using the appropriate procedures specified in appendix C of this part.

r = Ratio of the sum of acetaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, and propionaldehyde mass to methanol mass determined using the procedures in paragraph (1) of this section.

(3) The owner or operator of a nonthoroughly mixed open biological treatment system using the monitoring requirements specified in §63.453(p)(3) shall follow the procedures specified in section III.B.1 of appendix E of this part to determine the borate constant, Ks, and characterize the open biological treatment system during the initial and any subsequent performance tests.

(m) Condensate segregation procedures. The following procedures shall be used to demonstrate compliance with the condensate segregation requirements specified in §63.446(c).

(1) To demonstrate compliance with the percent mass requirements specified in §63.446(c)(2), the procedures specified in paragraphs (m)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section shall be performed.

(i) Determine the total HAP mass of all condensates from each equipment system listed in §63.446 (b)(1) through (b)(3) using the procedures specified in paragraphs (c) and (j) of this section.

(ii) Multiply the total HAP mass determined in paragraph (m)(1)(i) of this section by 0.65 to determine the target HAP mass for the high-HAP fraction condensate stream or streams.

(iii) Compliance with the segregation requirements specified in §63.446(c)(2) is demonstrated if the condensate stream or streams from each equipment system listed in §63.446(b)(1) through (3) being treated as specified in §63.446(e) contain at least as much total HAP mass as the target total HAP mass determined in paragraph (m)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2) To demonstrate compliance with the percent mass requirements specified in §63.446(c)(3), the procedures specified in paragraphs (m)(2)(i) through (ii) of this section shall be performed.

(i) Determine the total HAP mass contained in the high-HAP fraction condensates from each equipment system listed in §63.446(b)(1) through (b)(3) and the total condensates streams from the equipment systems listed in §63.446(b)(4) and (b)(5), using the procedures specified in paragraphs (c) and (j) of this section.

(ii) Compliance with the segregation requirements specified in §63.446(c)(3) is demonstrated if the total HAP mass determined in paragraph (m)(2)(i) of this section is equal to or greater than the appropriate mass requirements specified in §63.446(c)(3).

(n) Open biological treatment system monitoring sampling storage. The inlet and outlet grab samples required to be collected in §63.453(j)(1)(ii) shall be stored at 4 °C (40 °F) to minimize the biodegradation of the organic compounds in the samples.

(o) Performance tests shall be conducted under such conditions as the Administrator specifies to the owner or operator based on representative performance of the affected source for the period being tested. Upon request, the owner or operator shall make available to the Administrator such records as may be necessary to determine the conditions of performance tests.

[63 FR 18617, Apr. 15, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 17564, Apr. 12, 1999; 65 FR 80763, Dec. 22, 2000; 66 FR 24269, May 14, 2001; 77 FR 55712, Sept. 11, 2012]

§63.458   Implementation and enforcement.

(a) This subpart can be implemented and enforced by the U.S. EPA, or a delegated authority such as the applicable State, local, or Tribal agency. If the U.S. EPA Administrator has delegated authority to a State, local, or Tribal agency, then that agency, in addition to the U.S. EPA, has the authority to implement and enforce this subpart. Contact the applicable U.S. EPA Regional Office to find out if this subpart is delegated to a State, local, or Tribal agency.

(b) In delegating implementation and enforcement authority of this subpart to a State, local, or Tribal agency under subpart E of this part, the authorities contained in paragraph (c) of this section are retained by the Administrator of U.S. EPA and cannot be transferred to the State, local, or Tribal agency.

(c) The authorities that cannot be delegated to State, local, or Tribal agencies are as specified in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) Approval of alternatives to the requirements in §§63.440, 63.443 through 63.447 and 63.450. Where these standards reference another subpart, the cited provisions will be delegated according to the delegation provisions of the referenced subpart.

(2) Approval of alternatives to using §§63.457(b)(5)(iii), 63.457(c)(3)(ii) through (iii), and 63.257(c)(5)(ii), and any major alternatives to test methods under §63.7(e)(2)(ii) and (f), as defined in §63.90, and as required in this subpart.

(3) Approval of alternatives using §64.453(m) and any major alternatives to monitoring under §63.8(f), as defined in §63.90, and as required in this subpart.

(4) Approval of major alternatives to recordkeeping and reporting under §63.10(f), as defined in §63.90, and as required in this subpart.

[68 FR 37348, June 23, 2003]

§63.459   Alternative standards.

(a) Flint River Mill. The owner or operator of the pulping system using the kraft process at the manufacturing facility, commonly called Weyerhaeuser Company Flint River Operations, at Old Stagecoach Road, Oglethorpe, Georgia, (hereafter the Site) shall comply with all provisions of this subpart, except as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section.

(1) The owner or operator of the pulping system is not required to control total HAP emissions from equipment systems specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) if the owner or operator complies with paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(5) of this section.

(i) The brownstock diffusion washer vent and first stage brownstock diffusion washer filtrate tank vent in the pulp washing system specified in §63.443(a)(1)(iii).

(ii) The oxygen delignification system specified in §63.443(a)(1)(v).

(2) The owner or operator of the pulping system shall control total HAP emissions from equipment systems listed in paragraphs (a)(2)(i) through (a)(2)(ix) of this section as specified in §63.443(c) and (d) of this subpart no later than April 16, 2002.

(i) The weak liquor storage tank;

(ii) The boilout tank;

(iii) The utility tank;

(iv) The fifty percent solids black liquor storage tank;

(v) The south sixty-seven percent solids black liquor storage tank;

(vi) The north sixty-seven percent solids black liquor storage tank;

(vii) The precipitator make down tanks numbers one, two and three;

(viii) The salt cake mix tank; and

(ix) The NaSH storage tank.

(3) The owner and operator of the pulping system shall operate the Isothermal Cooking system at the site while pulp is being produced in the continuous digester at any time after April 16, 2002.

(i) The owner or operator shall monitor the following parameters to demonstrate that isothermal cooking is in operation:

(A) Continuous digester dilution factor; and

(B) The difference between the continuous digester vapor zone temperature and the continuous digester extraction header temperature.

(ii) The isothermal cooking system shall be in operation when the continuous digester dilution factor and the temperature difference between the continuous digester vapor zone temperature and the continuous digester extraction header temperature are maintained as set forth in Table 2:

Table 2 to Subpart S—Isothermal Cooking System Operational Values

ParameterInstrument numberLimitUnits
Digester Dilution FactorK1DILFAC>0.0None
Difference in Digester Vapor Zone Temperature and Digester03TI0311<10Degrees F.
Extraction Header Temperature03TI0329

(iii) The owner or operator shall certify annually the operational status of the isothermal cooking system.

(4) [Reserved]

(5) Definitions. All descriptions and references to equipment and emission unit ID numbers refer to equipment at the Site. All terms used in this paragraph shall have the meaning given them in this part and this paragraph. For the purposes of this paragraph only the following additional definitions apply:

Boilout tank means the tank that provides tank storage capacity for recovery of black liquor spills and evaporator water washes for return to the evaporators (emission unit ID No. U606);

Brownstock diffusion washer means the equipment used to wash pulp from the surge chests to further reduce lignin carryover in the pulp;

Continuous digester means the digester system used to chemically and thermally remove the lignin binding the wood chips to produce individual pulp fibers (emission unit ID No. P300);

Fifty percent solids black liquor storage tank means the tank used to store intermediate black liquor prior to final evaporation in the 1A, 1B, and 1C Concentrators (emission unit ID No. U605);

First stage brownstock diffusion washer means the equipment that receives and stores filtrate from the first stage of washing for return to the pressure diffusion washer;

Isothermal cooking system means the 1995-1996 modernization of brownstock pulping process including conversion of the Kamyr continuous vapor phase digester to an extended delignification unit and changes in the knotting, screening, and oxygen stage systems:

NaSH storage tank means the tank used to store sodium hydrosulfite solution prior to use as make-up to the liquor system

North sixty-seven percent solids black liquor storage tank means one of two tanks used to store black liquor prior to burning in the Recovery Boiler for chemical recovery (emission unit ID No. U501);

Precipitator make down tank numbers one, two and three mean tanks used to mix collected particulate from electrostatic precipitator chamber number one with 67% black liquor for recycle to chemical recovery in the Recovery Boiler (emission unit ID Nos. U504, U505 and U506);

Salt cake mix tank means the tank used to mix collected particulate from economizer hoppers with black liquor for recycle to chemical recovery in the Recovery Boiler (emission unit ID No. U503);

South sixty-seven percent solids black liquor storage tank means one of two tanks used to store black liquor prior to burning in the Recovery Boiler for chemical recovery (emission unit ID No. U502);

Utility tank means the tank used to store fifty percent liquor and, during black liquor tank inspections and repairs, to serve as a backup liquor storage tank (emission unit ID No. U611);

Weak gas system means high volume, low concentration or HVLC system as defined in §63.441; and

Weak liquor storage tank means the tank that provide surge capacity for weak black liquor from digesting prior to feed to multiple effect evaporators (emission unit ID No. U610).

(b) Tomahawk Wisconsin Mill—(1) Applicability. (i) The provisions of this paragraph (b) apply to the owner or operator of the stand-alone semi-chemical pulp and paper mill located at N9090 County Road E in Tomahawk, Wisconsin, referred to as the Tomahawk Mill.

(ii) The owner or operator is not required to comply with the provisions of this paragraph (b) if the owner and operator chooses to comply with the otherwise applicable sections of this subpart and provides the EPA with notice.

(iii) If the owner or operator chooses to comply with the provisions of this paragraph (b) the owner or operator shall comply with all applicable provisions of this part, including this subpart, except the following:

(A) Section 63.443(b);

(B) Section 63.443(c); and

(C) Section 63.443(d).

(2) Collection and routing of HAP emissions. (i) The owner or operator shall collect the total HAP emissions from each LVHC system.

(ii) Each LVHC system shall be enclosed and the HAP emissions shall be vented into a closed-vent system. The enclosures and closed-vent system shall meet requirements specified in paragraph (b)(6) of this section.

(iii) The HAP emissions shall be routed as follows:

(A) The HAP emissions collected in the closed-vent system from the digester system shall be routed through the primary indirect contact condenser, secondary indirect contact condenser, and evaporator indirect contact condenser; and

(B) The HAP emissions collected in the closed-vent system from the evaporator system and foul condensate standpipe shall be routed through the evaporator indirect contact condenser.

(3) Collection and routing of pulping process condensates. (i) The owner or operator shall collect the pulping process condensates from the following equipment systems:

(A) Primary indirect contact condenser;

(B) Secondary indirect contact condenser; and

(C) Evaporator indirect contact condenser.

(ii) The collected pulping process condensates shall be conveyed in a closed collection system that is designed and operated to meet the requirements specified in paragraph (b)(7) of this section.

(iii) The collected pulping process condensates shall be routed in the closed collection system to the wastewater treatment plant anaerobic basins for biodegradation.

(iv) The pulping process condensates shall be discharged into the wastewater treatment plant anaerobic basins below the liquid surface of the wastewater treatment plant anaerobic basins.

(4) HAP destruction efficiency requirements of the wastewater treatment plant. (i) The owner or operator shall achieve a destruction efficiency of at least one pound of HAPs per ton of ODP by biodegradation in the wastewater treatment plant.

(ii) The following calculation shall be performed to determine the HAP destruction efficiency by biodegradation in the wastewater treatment plant:

eCFR graphic er13ap04.093.gif

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Where:

HAPd = HAP destruction efficiency of wastewater treatment plant (pounds of HAPs per ton of ODP);

RMEfr = flow rate of raw mill effluent (millions of gallons per day);

RMEc = HAP concentration of raw mill effluent (milligrams per liter);

PPCfr = flow rate of pulping process condensates (millions of gallons per day);

PPCc = HAP concentration of pulping process condensates (milligrams per liter);

ABDfr = flow rate of anaerobic basin discharge (millions of gallons per day);

ABDc = HAP concentration of anaerobic basin discharge (milligrams per liter); and

ODPr = rate of production of oven dried pulp (tons per day).

(5) Monitoring requirements and parameter ranges. (i) The owner or operator shall install, calibrate, operate, and maintain according to the manufacturer's specifications a continuous monitoring system (CMS, as defined in §63.2), using a continuous recorder, to monitor the following parameters:

(A) Evaporator indirect contact condenser vent temperature;

(B) Pulping process condensates flow rate;

(C) Wastewater treatment plant effluent flow rate; and

(D) Production rate of ODP.

(ii) The owner or operator shall additionally monitor, on a daily basis, in each of the four anaerobic basins, the ratio of volatile acid to alkalinity (VA/A ratio). The owner or operator shall use the test methods identified for determining acidity and alkalinity as specified in 40 CFR 136.3, Table 1B.

(iii) The temperature of the evaporator indirect contact condenser vent shall be maintained at or below 140 °F on a continuous basis.

(iv) The VA/A ratio in each of the four anaerobic basins shall be maintained at or below 0.5 on a continuous basis.

(A) The owner or operator shall measure the methanol concentration of the outfall of any basin, using NCASI Method DI/MEOH 94.03 (incorporated by reference, see §63.14), when the VA/A ratio of that basin exceeds the following:

(1) 0.38, or

(2) The highest VA/A ratio at which the outfall of any basin has previously measured non-detect for methanol, using NCASI Method DI/MEOH 94.03 (incorporated by reference, see §63.14).

(B) If the outfall of that basin measures detect for methanol, the owner or operator shall verify compliance with the emission standard specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section by conducting a performance test pursuant to the requirements specified in paragraph (b)(8) of this section.

(v) The owner or operator may seek to establish or reestablish the parameter ranges, and/or the parameters required to be monitored as provided in paragraphs (b)(5)(i) through (v) of this section, by following the provisions of §63.453(n)(1) through (4).

(6) Standards and monitoring requirements for each enclosure and closed-vent system. (i) The owner or operator shall comply with the design and operational requirements specified in paragraphs (b)(6)(ii) through (iv) of this section, and the monitoring requirements of paragraphs (b)(6)(v) through (x) of this section for each enclosure and closed-vent system used for collecting and routing of HAP emissions as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(ii) Each enclosure shall be maintained at negative pressure at each enclosure or hood opening as demonstrated by the procedures specified in §63.457(e). Each enclosure or hood opening closed during the initial performance test shall be maintained in the same closed and sealed position as during the performance test at all times except when necessary to use the opening for sampling, inspection, maintenance, or repairs.

(iii) Each component of the closed-vent system that is operated at positive pressure shall be designed for and operated with no detectable leaks as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per million by volume above background, as measured by the procedures specified in §63.457(d).

(iv) Each bypass line in the closed-vent system that could divert vent streams containing HAPs to the atmosphere without meeting the routing requirements specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall comply with either of the following requirements:

(A) On each bypass line, the owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a flow indicator that provides a record of the presence of gas stream flow in the bypass line at least once every 15 minutes. The flow indicator shall be installed in the bypass line in such a way as to indicate flow in the bypass line; or

(B) For bypass line valves that are not computer controlled, the owner or operator shall maintain the bypass line valve in the closed position with a car seal or seal placed on the valve or closure mechanism in such a way that the valve or closure mechanism cannot be opened without breaking the seal.

(v) For each enclosure opening, the owner or operator shall perform, at least once every 30 days, a visual inspection of the closure mechanism specified in paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section to ensure the opening is maintained in the closed position and sealed.

(vi) For each closed-vent system required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the owner or operator shall perform a visual inspection every 30 days and at other times as requested by the Administrator. The visual inspection shall include inspection of ductwork, piping, enclosures, and connections to covers for visible evidence of defects.

(vii) For positive pressure closed-vent systems, or portions of closed-vent systems, the owner or operator shall demonstrate no detectable leaks as specified in paragraph (b)(6)(iii) of this section, measured initially and annually by the procedures in §63.457(d).

(viii) For each enclosure that is maintained at negative pressure, the owner or operator shall demonstrate initially and annually that it is maintained at negative pressure as specified in §63.457(e).

(ix) For each valve or closure mechanism as specified in paragraph (b)(6)(iv)(B) of this section, the owner or operator shall perform an inspection at least once every 30 days to ensure that the valve is maintained in the closed position and the emissions point gas stream is not diverted through the bypass line.

(x) If an inspection required by paragraph (b)(6) of this section identifies visible defects in ductwork, piping, enclosures, or connections to covers required by paragraph (b)(6) of this section, or if an instrument reading of 500 parts per million by volume or greater above background is measured, or if the enclosure openings are not maintained at negative pressure, then the following corrective actions shall be taken as soon as follows:

(A) A first effort to repair or correct the closed-vent system shall be made as soon as practicable but no later than 5 calendar days after the problem is identified.

(B) The repair or corrective action shall be completed no later than 15 calendar days after the problem is identified.

(7) Standards and monitoring requirements for the pulping process condensates closed collection system. (i) The owner or operator shall comply with the design and operational requirements specified in paragraphs (b)(7)(ii) through (iii) of this section, and monitoring requirements of paragraph (b)(7)(iv) for the equipment systems in paragraph (b)(3) of this section used to route the pulping process condensates in a closed collection system.

(ii) Each closed collection system shall meet the individual drain system requirements specified in §§63.960, 63.961, and 63.962, except that the closed vent systems shall be designed and operated in accordance with paragraph (b)(6) of this section, instead of in accordance with §63.693 as specified in §63.692(a)(3)(ii), (b)(3)(ii)(A), and (b)(3)(ii)(B)(5)(iii); and

(iii) If a condensate tank is used in the closed collection system, the tank shall meet the following requirements:

(A) The fixed roof and all openings (e.g., access hatches, sampling ports, gauge wells) shall be designed and operated with no detectable leaks as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 parts per million above background, and vented into a closed-vent system that meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(6) of this section and routed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section; and

(B) Each opening shall be maintained in a closed, sealed position (e.g., covered by a lid that is gasketed and latched) at all times that the tank contains pulping process condensates or any HAPs removed from a pulping process condensate stream except when it is necessary to use the opening for sampling, removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair.

(iv) For each pulping process condensate closed collection system used to comply with paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the owner or operator shall perform a visual inspection every 30 days and shall comply with the inspection and monitoring requirements specified in §63.964 except for the closed-vent system and control device inspection and monitoring requirements specified in §63.964(a)(2).

(8) Quarterly performance testing. (i) The owner or operator shall, within 45 days after the beginning of each quarter, conduct a performance test.

(ii) The owner or operator shall use NCASI Method DI/HAPS-99.01 (incorporated by reference, see §63.14) to collect a grab sample and determine the HAP concentration of the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, and Anaerobic Basin Discharge for the quarterly performance test conducted during the first quarter each year.

(iii) For each of the remaining three quarters, the owner or operator may use NCASI Method DI/MEOH 94.03 (incorporated by reference, see §63.14) as a surrogate to collect and determine the HAP concentration of the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, and Anaerobic Basin Discharge.

(iv) The sample used to determine the HAP or Methanol concentration in the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, or Anaerobic Basin Discharge shall be a composite of four grab samples taken evenly spaced over an eight hour time period.

(v) The Raw Mill Effluent grab samples shall be taken from the raw mill effluent composite sampler.

(vi) The Pulping Process Condensates grab samples shall be taken from a line tap on the closed condensate collection system prior to discharge into the wastewater treatment plant.

(vii) The Anaerobic Basic Discharge grab samples shall be taken subsequent to the confluence of the four anaerobic basin discharges.

(viii) The flow rate of the Raw Mill Effluent, Pulping Process Condensates, and Anaerobic Basin Discharge, and the production rate of ODP shall be averaged over eight hours.

(ix) The data collected as specified in paragraphs (b)(5) and (b)(8) of this section shall be used to determine the HAP destruction efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant as specified in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section.

(x) The HAP destruction efficiency shall be at least as great as that specified by paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section.

(9) Recordkeeping requirements. (i) The owner or operator shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements as specified in Table 1 of subpart S of part 63 as it pertains to §63.10.

(ii) The owner or operator shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements as specified in §63.454(b).

(iii) The owner or operator shall comply with the recordkeeping requirements as specified in §63.453(d).

(10) Reporting requirements. (i) Each owner or operator shall comply with the reporting requirements as specified in Table 1 of §63.10.

(ii) Each owner or operator shall comply with the reporting requirements as specified in §63.455(d).

(11) Violations. (i) Failure to comply with any applicable provision of this part shall constitute a violation.

(ii) Periods of excess emissions shall not constitute a violation provided the time of excess emissions divided by the total process operating time in a semi-annual reporting period does not exceed one percent. All periods of excess emission shall be reported, and shall include:

(iii) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(11)(ii) of this section, any excess emissions that present an imminent threat to public health or the environment, or may cause serious harm to public health or the environment, shall constitute a violation.

[66 FR 34124, June 27, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 52538, Oct. 16, 2001; 69 FR 19740, Apr. 13, 2004; 77 FR 55713, Sept. 11, 2012]

Table 1 to Subpart S of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart Sa

ReferenceApplies to
subpart S
Comment
63.1(a)(1)-(3)Yes
63.1(a)(4)YesSubpart S (this table) specifies applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to subpart S.
63.1(a)(5)NoSection reserved.
63.1(a)(6)Yes
63.1(a)(7)-(9)NoSections reserved.
63.1(a)(10)NoSubpart S and other cross-referenced subparts specify calendar or operating day.
63.1(a)(11)-(12)Yes
63.1(b)(1)NoSubpart S specifies its own applicability.
63.1(b)(2)NoSection reserved.
63.1(b)(3)Yes
63.1(c)(1)-(2)Yes
63.1(c)(3)-(4)NoSections reserved.
63.1(c)(5)Yes
63.1(d)NoSection reserved.
63.1(e)Yes
63.2Yes
63.3Yes
63.4(a)(1)-(2)Yes
63.4(a)(3)-(5)NoSections reserved.
63.4(b)Yes
63.4(c)Yes
63.5(a)Yes
63.5(b)(1)Yes
63.5(b)(2)NoSection reserved.
63.5(b)(3)-(4)Yes
63.5(b)(5)NoSection reserved.
63.5(b)(6)Yes
63.5(c)NoSection reserved.
63.5(d)Yes
63.5(e)Yes
63.5(f)Yes
63.6(a)Yes
63.6(b)(1)-(5)NoSubpart S specifies compliance dates for sources subject to subpart S.
63.6(b)(6)NoSection reserved.
63.6(b)(7)NoSubpart S specifies compliance dates for sources subject to subpart S.
63.6(c)(1)-(2)NoSubpart S specifies compliance dates for sources subject to subpart S.
63.6(c)(3)-(4)NoSections reserved.
63.6(c)(5)NoSubpart S specifies compliance dates for sources subject to subpart S.
63.6(d)NoSection reserved.
63.6(e)(1)(i)NoSee §63.453(q) for general duty requirement.
63.6(e)(1)(ii)No
63.6(e)(1)(iii)Yes
63.6(e)(2)NoSection reserved.
63.6(e)(3)No
63.6(f)(1)No
63.6(f)(2)-(3)Yes
63.6(g)Yes
63.6(h)(1)-(2)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.6(h)(3)NoSection reserved.
63.6(h)(4)-(9)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.6(i)(1)-(14)Yes
63.6(i)(15)NoSection reserved.
63.6(i)(16)Yes
63.6(j)Yes
63.7(a)Yes
63.7(b)Yes
63.7(c)Yes
63.7(d)Yes
63.7(e)(1)NoReplaced with §63.457(o), which specifies performance testing conditions under subpart S.
63.7(e)(2)-(4)Yes
63.7(f)Yes
63.7(g)(1)Yes
63.7(g)(2)NoSection reserved.
63.7(g)(3)Yes
63.7(h)Yes
63.8(a)(1)-(2)Yes
63.8(a)(3)NoSection reserved.
63.8(a)(4)Yes
63.8(b)(1)Yes
63.8(b)(2)NoSubpart S specifies locations to conduct monitoring.
63.8(b)(3)Yes
63.8(c)(1)-(c)(1)(i)NoSee §63.453(q) for general duty requirement (which includes monitoring equipment).
63.8(c)(1)(ii)Yes
63.8(c)(1)(iii)No
63.8(c)(2)-(3)Yes
63.8(c)(4)NoSubpart S allows site specific determination of monitoring frequency in §63.453(n)(4).
63.8(c)(5)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.8(c)(6)-(8)Yes
63.8(d)(1)-(2)Yes
63.8(d)(3)Yes, except for last sentence, which refers to an SSM planSSM plans are not required
63.8(e)Yes
63.8(f)(1)-(5)Yes
63.8(f)(6)NoSubpart S does not specify relative accuracy test for CEMs.
63.8(g)Yes
63.9(a)Yes
63.9(b)(1)-(2)YesInitial notifications must be submitted within one year after the source becomes subject to the relevant standard.
63.9(b)(3)NoSection reserved.
63.9(b)(4)-(5)Yes
63.9(c)Yes
63.9(d)NoSpecial compliance requirements are only applicable to kraft mills.
63.9(e)Yes
63.9(f)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.9(g)(1)Yes
63.9(g)(2)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.9(g)(3)NoSubpart S does not specify relative accuracy tests, therefore no notification is required for an alternative.
63.9(h)(1)-(3)Yes
63.9(h)(4)NoSection reserved.
63.9(h)(5)-(6)Yes
63.9(i)Yes
63.9(j)Yes
63.10(a)Yes
63.10(b)(1)Yes
63.10(b)(2)(i)No
63.10(b)(2)(ii)NoSee §63.454(g) for recordkeeping of (1) occurrence and duration and (2) actions taken during malfunction.
63.10(b)(2)(iii)Yes
63.10(b)(2)(iv)-(v)No
63.10(b)(2)(vi)-(xiv)Yes
63.10(b)(3)Yes
63.10(c)(1)Yes
63.10(c)(2)-(4)NoSections reserved.
63.10(c)(5)-(8)Yes
63.10(c)(9)NoSection reserved.
63.10(c)(10)-(11)NoSee §63.454(g) for malfunction recordkeeping requirements.
63.10(c)(12)-(14)Yes
63.10(c)(15)No
63.10(d)(1)-(2)Yes
63.10(d)(3)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.10(d)(4)Yes
63.10(d)(5)NoSee §63.455(g) for malfunction reporting requirements.
63.10(e)(1)Yes
63.10(e)(2)(i)Yes
63.10(e)(2)(ii)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.10(e)(3)Yes
63.10(e)(4)NoPertains to continuous opacity monitors that are not part of this standard.
63.10(f)Yes
63.11-63.15Yes

aWherever subpart A specifies “postmark” dates, submittals may be sent by methods other than the U.S. Mail (e.g., by fax or courier). Submittals shall be sent by the specified dates, but a postmark is not required.

[77 FR 55713, Sept. 11, 2012]



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