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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of July 25, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 61—NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS


Subpart L—National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants


Contents
§61.130   Applicability, designation of sources, and delegation of authority.
§61.131   Definitions.
§61.132   Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.
§61.133   Standard: Light-oil sumps.
§61.134   Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.
§61.135   Standard: Equipment leaks.
§61.136   Compliance provisions and alternative means of emission limitation.
§61.137   Test methods and procedures.
§61.138   Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
§61.139   Provisions for alternative means for process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.

Source: 54 FR 38073, Sept. 14, 1989, unless otherwise noted.

§61.130   Applicability, designation of sources, and delegation of authority.

(a) The provisions of this subpart apply to each of the following sources at furnace and foundry coke by-product recovery plants: tar decanters, tar storage tanks, tar-intercepting sumps, flushing-liquor circulation tanks, light-oil sumps, light-oil condensers, light-oil decanters, wash-oil decanters, wash-oil circulation tanks, naphthalene processing, final coolers, final-cooler cooling towers, and the following equipment that are intended to operate in benzene service: pumps, valves, exhausters, pressure relief devices, sampling connection systems, open-ended valves or lines, flanges or other connectors, and control devices or systems required by §61.135.

(b) The provisions of this subpart also apply to benzene storage tanks, BTX storage tanks, light-oil storage tanks, and excess ammonia-liquor storage tanks at furnace coke by-product recovery plants.

(c) In delegating implementation and enforcement authority to a State under section 112 of the Act, the authorities contained in paragraph (d) of this section shall be retained by the Administrator and not transferred to a State.

(d) Authorities that will not be delegated to States: §61.136(d).

[54 FR 51699, Dec. 15, 1989, as amended at 56 FR 47406, Sept. 19, 1991]

§61.131   Definitions.

As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them in the Act, in subpart A of part 61, and in subpart V of part 61. The following terms shall have the specific meanings given them:

Annual coke production means the coke produced in the batteries connected to the coke by-product recovery plant over a 12-month period. The first 12-month period concludes on the first December 31 that comes at least 12 months after the effective date or after the date of initial startup if initial startup is after the effective date.

Benzene storage tank means any tank, reservoir, or container used to collect or store refined benzene.

BTX storage tank means any tank, reservoir, or container used to collect or store benzene-toluene-xylene or other light-oil fractions.

Car seal means a seal that is placed on the device used to change the position of a valve (e.g., from open to closed) such that the position of the valve cannot be changed without breaking the seal and requiring the replacement of the old seal, once broken, with a new seal.

Coke by-product recovery plant means any plant designed and operated for the separation and recovery of coal tar derivatives (by-products) evolved from coal during the coking process of a coke oven battery.

Equipment means each pump, valve, exhauster, pressure relief device, sampling connection system, open-ended valve or line, and flange or other connector in benzene service.

Excess ammonia-liquor storage tank means any tank, reservoir, or container used to collect or store a flushing liquor solution prior to ammonia or phenol recovery.

Exhauster means a fan located between the inlet gas flange and outlet gas flange of the coke oven gas line that provides motive power for coke oven gases.

Foundry coke means coke that is produced from raw materials with less than 26 percent volatile material by weight and that is subject to a coking period of 24 hours or more. Percent volatile material of the raw materials (by weight) is the weighted average percent volatile material of all raw materials (by weight) charged to the coke oven per coking cycle.

Foundry coke by-product recovery plant means a coke by-product recovery plant connected to coke batteries whose annual coke production is at least 75 percent foundry coke.

Flushing-liquor circulation tank means any vessel that functions to store or contain flushing liquor that is separated from the tar in the tar decanter and is recirculated as the cooled liquor to the gas collection system.

Furnace coke means coke produced in by-product ovens that is not foundry coke.

Furnace coke by-product recovery plant means a coke by-product recovery plant that is not a foundry coke by-product recovery plant.

In benzene service means a piece of equipment, other than an exhauster, that either contains or contacts a fluid (liquid or gas) that is at least 10 percent benzene by weight or any exhauster that either contains or contacts a fluid (liquid or gas) at least 1 percent benzene by weight as determined by the provisions of §61.137(b). The provisions of §61.137(b) also specify how to determine that a piece of equipment is not in benzene service.

Light-oil condenser means any unit in the light-oil recovery operation that functions to condense benzene-containing vapors.

Light-oil decanter means any vessel, tank, or other type of device in the light-oil recovery operation that functions to separate light oil from water downstream of the light-oil condenser. A light-oil decanter also may be known as a light-oil separator.

Light-oil storage tank means any tank, reservoir, or container used to collect or store crude or refined light-oil.

Light-oil sump means any tank, pit, enclosure, or slop tank in light-oil recovery operations that functions as a wastewater separation device for hydrocarbon liquids on the surface of the water.

Naphthalene processing means any operations required to recover naphthalene including the separation, refining, and drying of crude or refined naphthalene.

Non-regenerative carbon adsorber means a series, over time, of non-regenerative carbon beds applied to a single source or group of sources, where non-regenerative carbon beds are carbon beds that are either never regenerated or are moved from their location for regeneration.

Process vessel means each tar decanter, flushing-liquor circulation tank, light-oil condenser, light-oil decanter, wash-oil decanter, or wash-oil circulation tank.

Regenerative carbon adsorber means a carbon adsorber applied to a single source or group of sources, in which the carbon beds are regenerated without being moved from their location.

Semiannual means a 6-month period; the first semiannual period concludes on the last day of the last full month during the 180 days following initial startup for new sources; the first semiannual period concludes on the last day of the last full month during the 180 days after the effective date of the regulation for existing sources.

Tar decanter means any vessel, tank, or container that functions to separate heavy tar and sludge from flushing liquor by means of gravity, heat, or chemical emulsion breakers. A tar decanter also may be known as a flushing-liquor decanter.

Tar storage tank means any vessel, tank, reservoir, or other type of container used to collect or store crude tar or tar-entrained naphthalene, except for tar products obtained by distillation, such as coal tar pitch, creosotes, or carbolic oil. This definition also includes any vessel, tank, reservoir, or container used to reduce the water content of the tar by means of heat, residence time, chemical emulsion breakers, or centrifugal separation. A tar storage tank also may be known as a tar-dewatering tank.

Tar-intercepting sump means any tank, pit, or enclosure that serves to receive or separate tars and aqueous condensate discharged from the primary cooler. A tar-intercepting sump also may be known as a primary-cooler decanter.

Vapor incinerator means any enclosed combustion device that is used for destroying organic compounds and does not necessarily extract energy in the form of steam or process heat.

Wash-oil circulation tank means any vessel that functions to hold the wash oil used in light-oil recovery operations or the wash oil used in the wash-oil final cooler.

Wash-oil decanter means any vessel that functions to separate, by gravity, the condensed water from the wash oil received from a wash-oil final cooler or from a light-oil scrubber.

[54 FR 38073, Sept. 14, 1989, as amended at 56 FR 47406, Sept. 19, 1991]

§61.132   Standard: Process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.

(a)(1) Each owner or operator of a furnace or a foundry coke byproduct recovery plant shall enclose and seal all openings on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting sump.

(2) The owner or operator shall duct gases from each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting sump to the gas collection system, gas distribution system, or other enclosed point in the by-product recovery process where the benzene in the gas will be recovered or destroyed. This control system shall be designed and operated for no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background and visual inspections, as determined by the methods specified in §61.245(c). This system can be designed as a closed, positive pressure, gas blanketing system.

(i) Except, the owner or operator may elect to install, operate, and maintain a pressure relief device, vacuum relief device, an access hatch, and a sampling port on each process vessel, tar storage tank, and tar-intercepting sump. Each access hatch and sampling port must be equipped with a gasket and a cover, seal, or lid that must be kept in a closed position at all times, unless in actual use.

(ii) The owner or operator may elect to leave open to the atmosphere the portion of the liquid surface in each tar decanter necessary to permit operation of a sludge conveyor. If the owner or operator elects to maintain an opening on part of the liquid surface of the tar decanter, the owner or operator shall install, operate, and maintain a water leg seal on the tar decanter roof near the sludge discharge chute to ensure enclosure of the major portion of liquid surface not necessary for the operation of the sludge conveyor.

(b) Following the installation of any control equipment used to meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall monitor the connections and seals on each control system to determine if it is operating with no detectable emissions, using Method 21 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) and procedures specified in §61.245(c), and shall visually inspect each source (including sealing materials) and the ductwork of the control system for evidence of visible defects such as gaps or tears. This monitoring and inspection shall be conducted on a semiannual basis and at any other time after the control system is repressurized with blanketing gas following removal of the cover or opening of the access hatch.

(1) If an instrument reading indicates an organic chemical concentration more than 500 ppm above a background concentration, as measured by Method 21, a leak is detected.

(2) If visible defects such as gaps in sealing materials are observed during a visual inspection, a leak is detected.

(3) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected.

(4) A first attempt at repair of any leak or visible defect shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(c) Following the installation of any control system used to meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall conduct a maintenance inspection of the control system on an annual basis for evidence of system abnormalities, such as blocked or plugged lines, sticking valves, plugged condensate traps, and other maintenance defects that could result in abnormal system operation. The owner or operator shall make a first attempt at repair within 5 days, with repair within 15 days of detection.

(d) Each owner or operator of a furnace coke by-product recovery plant also shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (a)-(c) of this section for each benzene storage tank, BTX storage tank, light-oil storage tank, and excess ammonia-liquor storage tank.

[54 FR 38073, Sept. 14, 1989, as amended at 65 FR 62157, Oct. 17, 2000]

§61.133   Standard: Light-oil sumps.

(a) Each owner or operator of a light-oil sump shall enclose and seal the liquid surface in the sump to form a closed system to contain the emissions.

(1) Except, the owner or operator may elect to install, operate, and maintain a vent on the light-oil sump cover. Each vent pipe must be equipped with a water leg seal, a pressure relief device, or vacuum relief device.

(2) Except, the owner or operator may elect to install, operate, and maintain an access hatch on each light-oil sump cover. Each access hatch must be equipped with a gasket and a cover, seal, or lid that must be kept in a closed position at all times, unless in actual use.

(3) The light-oil sump cover may be removed for periodic maintenance but must be replaced (with seal) at completion of the maintenance operation.

(b) The venting of steam or other gases from the by-product process to the light-oil sump is not permitted.

(c) Following the installation of any control equipment used to meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator shall monitor the connections and seals on each control system to determine if it is operating with no detectable emissions, using Method 21 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) and the procedures specified in §61.245(c), and shall visually inspect each source (including sealing materials) for evidence of visible defects such as gaps or tears. This monitoring and inspection shall be conducted semiannually and at any other time the cover is removed.

(1) If an instrument reading indicates an organic chemical concentration more than 500 ppm above a background concentration, as measured by Method 21, a leak is detected.

(2) If visible defects such as gaps in sealing materials are observed during a visual inspection, a leak is detected.

(3) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected.

(4) A first attempt at repair of any leak or visible defect shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

[54 FR 38073, Sept. 14, 1989, as amended at 65 FR 62157, Oct. 17, 2000]

§61.134   Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

(a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke by-product recovery plants.

§61.135   Standard: Equipment leaks.

(a) Each owner or operator of equipment in benzene service shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V, except as provided in this section.

(b) The provisions of §61.242-3 and §61.242-9 of subpart V do not apply to this subpart.

(c) Each piece of equipment in benzene service to which this subpart applies shall be marked in such a manner that it can be distinguished readily from other pieces of equipment in benzene service.

(d) Each exhauster shall be monitored quarterly to detect leaks by the methods specified in §61.245(b) except as provided in §61.136(d) and paragraphs (e)-(g) of this section.

(1) If an instrument reading of 10,000 ppm or greater is measured, a leak is detected.

(2) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but no later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as provided in §61.242-10 (a) and (b). A first attempt at repair shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(e) Each exhauster equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that prevents leakage of process fluids to the atmosphere is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section provided the following requirements are met:

(1) Each exhauster seal system is:

(i) Operated with the barrier fluid at a pressure that is greater than the exhauster stuffing box pressure; or

(ii) Equipped with a barrier fluid system that is connected by a closed vent system to a control device that complies with the requirements of §61.242-11; or

(iii) Equipped with a system that purges the barrier fluid into a process stream with zero benzene emissions to the atmosphere.

(2) The barrier fluid is not in benzene service.

(3) Each barrier fluid system shall be equipped with a sensor that will detect failure of the seal system, barrier fluid system, or both.

(4)(i) Each sensor as described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section shall be checked daily or shall be equipped with an audible alarm.

(ii) The owner or operator shall determine, based on design considerations and operating experience, a criterion that indicates failure of the seal system, the barrier fluid system, or both.

(5) If the sensor indicates failure of the seal system, the barrier system, or both (based on the criterion determined under paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section), a leak is detected.

(6)(i) When a leak is detected, it shall be repaired as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 calendar days after it is detected, except as provided in §61.242-10.

(ii) A first attempt at repair shall be made no later than 5 calendar days after each leak is detected.

(f) An exhauster is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section if it is equipped with a closed vent system capable of capturing and transporting any leakage from the seal or seals to a control device that complies with the requirements of §61.242-11 except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section.

(g) Any exhauster that is designated, as described in §61.246(e) for no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, is exempt from the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section if the exhauster:

(1) Is demonstrated to be operating with no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background, as measured by the methods specified in §61.245(c); and

(2) Is tested for compliance with paragraph (g)(1) of this section initially upon designation, annually, and at other times requested by the Administrator.

(h) Any exhauster that is in vacuum service is excluded from the requirements of this subpart if it is identified as required in §61.246(e)(5).

§61.136   Compliance provisions and alternative means of emission limitation.

(a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall demonstrate compliance with the requirements of §§61.132 through 61.135 for each new and existing source, except as provided under §§61.243-1 and 61.243-2.

(b) Compliance with this subpart shall be determined by a review of records, review of performance test results, inspections, or any combination thereof, using the methods and procedures specified in §61.137.

(c) On the first January 1 after the first year that a plant's annual coke production is less than 75 percent foundry coke, the coke by-product recovery plant becomes a furnace coke by-product recovery plant and shall comply with 61.132(d). Once a plant becomes a furnace coke by-product recovery plant, it will continue to be considered a furnace coke by-product recovery plant, regardless of the coke production in subsequent years.

(d)(1) An owner or operator may request permission to use an alternative means of emission limitation to meet the requirements in §§61.132, 61.133, and 61.135 of this subpart and §§61.242-2, -5, -6, -7, -8, and -11 of subpart V. Permission to use an alternative means of emission limitation shall be requested as specified in §61.12(d).

(2) When the Administrator evaluates requests for permission to use alternative means of emission limitation for sources subject to §§61.132 and 61.133 (except tar decanters) the Administrator shall compare test data for the means of emission limitation to a benzene control efficiency of 98 percent. For tar decanters, the Administrator shall compare test data for the means of emission limitation to a benzene control efficiency of 95 percent.

(3) For any requests for permission to use an alternative to the work practices required under §61.135, the provisions of §61.244(c) shall apply.

§61.137   Test methods and procedures.

(a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with the requirements in §61.245 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart V.

(b) To determine whether or not a piece of equipment is in benzene service, the methods in §61.245(d) shall be used, except that, for exhausters, the percent benzene shall be 1 percent by weight, rather than the 10 percent by weight described in §61.245(d).

§61.138   Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

(a) The following information pertaining to the design of control equipment installed to comply with §§61.132 through 61.134 shall be recorded and kept in a readily accessible location:

(1) Detailed schematics, design specifications, and piping and instrumentation diagrams.

(2) The dates and descriptions of any changes in the design specifications.

(b) The following information pertaining to sources subject to §61.132 and sources subject to §61.133 shall be recorded and maintained for 2 years following each semiannual (and other) inspection and each annual maintenance inspection:

(1) The date of the inspection and the name of the inspector.

(2) A brief description of each visible defect in the source or control equipment and the method and date of repair of the defect.

(3) The presence of a leak, as measured using the method described in §61.245(c). The record shall include the date of attempted and actual repair and method of repair of the leak.

(4) A brief description of any system abnormalities found during the annual maintenance inspection, the repairs made, the date of attempted repair, and the date of actual repair.

(c) Each owner or operator of a source subject to §61.135 shall comply with §61.246.

(d) For foundry coke by-product recovery plants, the annual coke production of both furnace and foundry coke shall be recorded and maintained for 2 years following each determination.

(e)(1) An owner or operator of any source to which this subpart applies shall submit a statement in writing notifying the Administrator that the requirements of this subpart and 40 CFR 61, subpart V, have been implemented.

(2) In the case of an existing source or a new source that has an initial startup date preceding the effective date, the statement is to be submitted within 90 days of the effective date, unless a waiver of compliance is granted under §61.11, along with the information required under §61.10. If a waiver of compliance is granted, the statement is to be submitted on a date scheduled by the Administrator.

(3) In the case of a new source that did not have an initial startup date preceding the effective date, the statement shall be submitted with the application for approval of construction, as described under §61.07.

(4) The statement is to contain the following information for each source:

(i) Type of source (e.g., a light-oil sump or pump).

(ii) For equipment in benzene service, equipment identification number and process unit identification: percent by weight benzene in the fluid at the equipment; and process fluid state in the equipment (gas/vapor or liquid).

(iii) Method of compliance with the standard (e.g., “gas blanketing,” “monthly leak detection and repair,” or “equipped with dual mechanical seals”). This includes whether the plant plans to be a furnace or foundry coke by-product recovery plant for the purposes of §61.132(d).

(f) A report shall be submitted to the Administrator semiannually starting 6 months after the initial reports required in §61.138(e) and §61.10, which includes the following information:

(1) For sources subject to §61.132 and sources subject to §61.133,

(i) A brief description of any visible defect in the source or ductwork,

(ii) The number of leaks detected and repaired, and

(iii) A brief description of any system abnormalities found during each annual maintenance inspection that occurred in the reporting period and the repairs made.

(2) For equipment in benzene service subject to §61.135(a), information required by §61.247(b).

(3) For each exhauster subject to §61.135 for each quarter during the semiannual reporting period,

(i) The number of exhausters for which leaks were detected as described in §61.135 (d) and (e)(5),

(ii) The number of exhausters for which leaks were repaired as required in §61.135 (d) and (e)(6),

(iii) The results of performance tests to determine compliance with §61.135(g) conducted within the semiannual reporting period.

(4) A statement signed by the owner or operator stating whether all provisions of 40 CFR part 61, subpart L, have been fulfilled during the semiannual reporting period.

(5) For foundry coke by-product recovery plants, the annual coke production of both furnace and foundry coke, if determined during the reporting period.

(6) Revisions to items reported according to paragraph (e) of this section if changes have occurred since the initial report or subsequent revisions to the initial report.

Note: Compliance with the requirements of §61.10(c) is not required for revisions documented under this paragraph.

(g) In the first report submitted as required in §61.138(e), the report shall include a reporting schedule stating the months that semiannual reports shall be submitted. Subsequent reports shall be submitted according to that schedule unless a revised schedule has been submitted in a previous semiannual report.

(h) An owner or operator electing to comply with the provisions of §§61.243-1 and 61.243-2 shall notify the Administrator of the alternative standard selected 90 days before implementing either of the provisions.

(i) An application for approval of construction or modification, as required under §§61.05(a) and 61.07, will not be required for sources subject to 61.135 if:

(1) The new source complies with §61.135, and

(2) In the next semiannual report required by §61.138(f), the information described in §61.138(e)(4) is reported.

[55 FR 38073, Sept. 14, 1990; 55 FR 14037, Apr. 13, 1990]

§61.139   Provisions for alternative means for process vessels, storage tanks, and tar-intercepting sumps.

(a) As an alternative means of emission limitation for a source subject to §61.132(a)(2) or §61.132(d), the owner or operator may route gases from the source through a closed vent system to a carbon adsorber or vapor incinerator that is at least 98 percent efficient at removing benzene from the gas stream.

(1) The provisions of §61.132(a)(1) and §61.132(a) (2)(i) and (ii) shall apply to the source.

(2) The seals on the source and closed vent system shall be designed and operated for no detectable emissions, as indicated by an instrument reading of less than 500 ppm above background and visual inspections, as determined by the methods specified in §61.245(c).

(3) The provisions of §61.132(b) shall apply to the seals and closed vent system.

(b) For each carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall adhere to the following practices:

(1) Benzene captured by each carbon adsorber shall be recycled or destroyed in a manner that prevents benzene from being emitted to the atmosphere.

(2) Carbon removed from each carbon adsorber shall be regenerated or destroyed in a manner that prevents benzene from being emitted to the atmosphere.

(3) For each regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall initiate regeneration of the spent carbon bed and vent the emissions from the source to a regenerated carbon bed no later than when the benzene concentration or organic vapor concentration level in the adsorber outlet vent reaches the maximum concentration point, as determined in §61.139(h).

(4) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall replace the carbon at the scheduled replacement time, or as soon as practicable (but not later than 16 hours) after an exceedance of the maximum concentration point is detected, whichever is sooner.

(i) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, the scheduled replacement time means the day that is estimated to be 90 percent of the demonstrated bed life, as defined in §61.139(h)(5).

(ii) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, an exceedance of the maximum concentration point shall mean any concentration greater than or equal to the maximum concentration point as determined in §61.139(h).

(c) Compliance with the provisions of this section shall be determined as follows:

(1) For each carbon adsorber and vapor incinerator, the owner or operator shall demonstrate compliance with the efficiency limit by a compliance test as specified in §61.13 and §61.139(g). If a waiver of compliance has been granted under §61.11, the deadline for conducting the initial compliance test shall be incorporated into the terms of the waiver. The benzene removal efficiency rate for each carbon adsorber and vapor incinerator shall be calculated as in the following equation:

eCFR graphic 61-70a.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E=percent removal of benzene.

Caj=concentration of benzene in vents after the control device, parts per million (ppm).

Cbi=concentration of benzene in vents before the control device, ppm.

Qaj = volumetric flow rate in vents after the control device, standard cubic meters/minute (scm/min) [standard cubic feet/minute (scf/min)].

Qbi = volumetric flow rate in vents before the control device, scm/min (scf/min).

m=number of vents after the control device.

n=number of vents after the control device.

(2) Compliance with all other provisions in this section shall be determined by inspections or the review of records and reports.

(d) For each regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall install and operate a monitoring device that continuously indicates and records either the concentration of benzene or the concentration level of organic compounds in the outlet vent of the carbon adsorber. The monitoring device shall be installed, calibrated, maintained and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.

(1) Measurement of benzene concentration shall be made according to §61.139(g)(2).

(2) All measurements of organic compound concentration levels shall be reasonable indicators of benzene concentration.

(i) The monitoring device for measuring organic compound concentration levels shall be based on one of the following detection principles: Infrared absorption, flame ionization, catalytic oxidation, photoionization, or thermal conductivity.

(ii) The monitoring device shall meet the requirements of part 60, appendix A, Method 21, sections 2, 3, 4.1, 4.2, and 4.4. For the purpose of the application of Method 21 to this section, the words “leak definition” shall be the maximum concentration point, which would be estimated until it is established under §61.139(h). The calibration gas shall either be benzene or methane and shall be at a concentration associated with 125 percent of the expected organic compound concentration level for the carbon adsorber outlet vent.

(e) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall monitor either the concentration of benzene or the concentration level of organic compounds at the outlet vent of the adsorber. The monitoring device shall be calibrated, operated and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.

(1) Measurements of benzene concentration shall be made according to §61.139(g)(2). The measurement shall be conducted over at least one 5-minute interval during which flow into the carbon adsorber is expected to occur.

(2) All measurements of organic compound concentration levels shall be reasonable indicators of benzene concentration.

(i) The monitoring device for measuring organic compound concentration levels shall meet the requirements of paragraphs §61.139(d)(2) (i) and (ii).

(ii) The probe inlet of the monitoring device shall be placed at approximately the center of the carbon adsorber outlet vent. The probe shall be held there for at least 5 minutes during which flow into the carbon adsorber is expected to occur. The maximum reading during that period shall be used as the measurement.

(3) Monitoring shall be performed at least once within the first 7 days after replacement of the carbon bed occurs, and monthly thereafter until 10 days before the scheduled replacement time, at which point monitoring shall be done daily, except as specified in paragraphs (e)(4) and (e)(5) of this section.

(4) If an owner or operator detects an exceedance of the maximum concentration point during the monthly monitoring or on the first day of daily monitoring as prescribed in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, then, after replacing the bed, the owner or operator shall begin the daily monitoring of the replacement carbon bed on the day after the last scheduled monthly monitoring before the exceedance was detected, or 10 days before the exceedance was detected, whichever is longer.

(5) If an owner or operator detects an exceedance of the maximum concentration point during the daily monitoring as prescribed in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, except on the first day, then, after replacing the bed, the owner or operator shall begin the daily monitoring of the replacement carbon bed 10 days before the exceedance was detected.

(6) If the owner or operator is monitoring on the schedule required in paragraph (e)(4) or paragraph (e)(5) of this section, and the scheduled replacement time is reached without exceeding the maximum concentration point, the owner or operator may return to the monitoring schedule in paragraph (e)(3) of this section for subsequent carbon beds.

Note: This note provides an example of the monitoring schedules in paragraphs (e)(3), (e)(4) and (e)(5) of this section. Assume that the scheduled replacement time for a non-regenerative carbon adsorber is the 105th day after installation. According to the monitoring schedule in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, initial monitoring would be done within 7 days after installation, monthly monitoring would be done on the 30th, 60th and 90th days, and daily monitoring would begin on the 95th day after installation. Now assume that an exceedance of the maximum concentration point is detected on the 90th day after installation. On the replacement carbon bed, the owner or operator would begin daily monitoring on the 61st day after installation (i.e., the day after the last scheduled monthly monitoring before the exceedance was detected), according to the requirements in paragraph (e)(4) of this section. If, instead, the exceedance were detected on the first bed on the 95th day, the daily monitoring of the replacement bed would begin on the 85th day after installation (i.e., 10 days before the point in the cycle where the exceedance was detected); this is a second example of the requirements in paragraph (e)(4) of this section. Finally, assume that an exceedance of the maximum concentration point is detected on the 100th day after the first carbon adsorber was installed. According to paragraph (e)(5) of this section, daily monitoring of the replacement bed would begin on the 90th day after installation (i.e., 10 days earlier than when the exceedance was detected on the previous bed). In all of these examples, the initial monitoring of the replacement bed within 7 days of installation and the monthly monitoring would proceed as set out in paragraph (e)(3) of this section until daily monitoring was required.

(f) For each vapor incinerator, the owner or operator shall comply with the monitoring requirements specified below:

(1) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5 °C, whichever is greater.

(i) Where a vapor incinerator other than a catalytic incinerator is used, the temperature monitoring device shall be installed in the firebox.

(ii) Where a catalytic incinerator is used, temperature monitoring devices shall be installed in the gas stream immediately before and after the catalyst bed.

(2) Comply with paragraph (f)(2)(i), paragraph (f)(2)(ii), or paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section.

(i) Install, calibrate, maintain and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a flow indicator that provides a record of vent stream flow to the incinerator at least once every hour for each source. The flow indicator shall be installed in the vent stream from each source at a point closest to the inlet of each vapor incinerator and before being joined with any other vent stream.

(ii) Install, calibrate, maintain and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications a flow indicator that provides a record of vent stream flow away from the vapor incinerator at least once every 15 minutes. The flow indicator shall be installed in each bypass line, immediately downstream of the valve that, if opened, would divert the vent stream away from the vapor incinerator.

(iii) Where a valve that opens a bypass line is secured in the closed position with a car seal or a lock-and-key configuration, a flow indicator is not required. The owner or operator shall perform a visual inspection at least once every month to check the position of the valve and the condition of the car seal or lock-and-key configuration. The owner or operator shall also record the date and duration of each time that the valve was opened and the vent stream diverted away from the vapor incinerator.

(g) In conducting the compliance tests required in §61.139(c), and measurements specified in §61.139(d)(1), (e)(1) and (h)(3)(ii), the owner or operator shall use as reference methods the test methods and procedures in appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, or other methods as specified in this paragraph, except as specified in §61.13.

(1) For compliance tests, as described in §61.139(c)(1), the following provisions apply.

(i) All tests shall be run under representative emission concentration and vent flow rate conditions. For sources with intermittent flow rates, representative conditions shall include typical emission surges (for example, during the loading of a storage tank).

(ii) Each test shall consist of three separate runs. These runs will be averaged to yield the volumetric flow rates and benzene concentrations in the equation in §61.139(c)(1). Each run shall be a minimum of 1 hour.

(A) For each regenerative carbon adsorber, each run shall take place in one adsorption cycle, to include a minimum of 1 hour of sampling immediately preceding the initiation of carbon bed regeneration.

(B) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, all runs can occur during one adsorption cycle.

(iii) The measurements during the runs shall be paired so that the inlet and outlet to the control device are measured simultaneously.

(iv) Method 1 or 1A shall be used as applicable for locating measurement sites.

(v) Method 2, 2A, or 2D shall be used as applicable for measuring vent flow rates.

(vi) Method 18 shall be used for determining the benzene concentrations (Caj and Cbi). Either the integrated bag sampling and analysis procedure or the direct interface procedure may be used. A separation column constructed of stainless steel, 1.83 m by 3.2 mm, containing 10 percent 1,2,3-tris (2-cyanoethoxy) propane (TECP) on 80/100 mesh Chromosorb P AW, with a column temperature of 80 °C, a detector temperature of 225 °C, and a flow rate of approximately 20 ml/min, may produce adequate separations. The analyst can use other columns, provided that the precision and accuracy of the analysis of benzene standards is not impaired. The analyst shall have available for review information confirming that there is adequate resolution of the benzene peak.

(A) If the integrated bag sampling and analysis procedure is used, the sample rate shall be adjusted to maintain a constant proportion to vent flow rate.

(B) If the direct interface sampling and analysis procedure is used, then each performance test run shall be conducted in intervals of 5 minutes. For each interval “t,” readings from each measurement shall be recorded, and the flow rate (Qaj or Qbi) and the corresponding benzene concentration (Caj or Cbi) shall be determined. The sampling system shall be constructed to include a mixing chamber of a volume equal to 5 times the sampling flow rate per minute. Each analysis performed by the chromatograph will then represent an averaged emission value for a 5-minute time period. The vent flow rate readings shall be timed to account for the total sample system residence time. A dual column, dual detector chromatograph can be used to achieve an analysis interval of 5 minutes. The individual benzene concentrations shall be vent flow rate weighted to determine sample run average concentrations. The individual vent flow rates shall be time averaged to determine sample run average flow rates.

(2) For testing the benzene concentration at the outlet vent of the carbon adsorber as specified under §§61.139(d)(1), (e)(1) and (h)(3)(ii), the following provisions apply.

(i) The measurement shall be conducted over one 5-minute period.

(ii) The requirements in §61.139(g)(1)(i) shall apply to the extent practicable.

(iii) The requirements in §61.139(g)(1)(vi) shall apply. Section 7.2 of method 18 shall be used as described in §61.139(g)(1)(vi)(B) for benzene concentration measurements.

(h) For each carbon adsorber, the maximum concentration point shall be expressed either as a benzene concentration or organic compound concentration level, whichever is to be indicated by the monitoring device chosen under §61.139 (d) or (e).

(1) For each regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall determine the maximum concentration point at the following times:

(i) No later than the deadline for the initial compliance test as specified in §61.139(c)(1);

(ii) At the request of the Administrator; and

(iii) At any time chosen by the owner or operator.

(2) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator shall determine the maximum concentration point at the following times:

(i) On the first carbon bed to be installed in the adsorber;

(ii) At the request of the Administrator;

(iii) On the next carbon bed after the maximum concentration point has been exceeded (before the scheduled replacement time) for each of three previous carbon beds in the adsorber since the most recent determination; and

(iv) At any other time chosen by the owner or operator.

(3) The maximum concentration point for each carbon adsorber shall be determined through the simultaneous measurement of the outlet of the carbon adsorber with the monitoring device and Method 18, except as allowed in paragraph (h)(4) of this section.

(i) Several data points shall be collected according to a schedule determined by the owner or operator. The schedule shall be designed to take frequent samples near the expected maximum concentration point.

(ii) Each data point shall consist of one 5-minute benzene concentration measurement using Method 18 as specified in §61.139(g)(2), and of a simultaneous measurement by the monitoring device. The monitoring device measurement shall be conducted according to §61.139 (d) or (e), whichever is applicable.

(iii) The maximum concentration point shall be the concentration level, as indicated by the monitoring device, for the last data point at which the benzene concentration is less than 2 percent of the average value of the benzene concentration at the inlet to the carbon adsorber during the most recent compliance test.

(4) If the maximum concentration point is expressed as a benzene concentration, the owner or operator may determine it by calibrating the monitoring device with benzene at a concentration that is 2 percent of the average benzene concentration measured at the inlet to the carbon adsorber during the most recent compliance test. The reading on the monitoring device corresponding to the calibration concentration shall be the maximum concentration point. This method of determination would affect the owner or operator as follows:

(i) For a regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator is exempt from the provisions in paragraph (h)(3) of this section.

(ii) For a non-regenerative carbon adsorber, the owner or operator is required to collect the data points in paragraph (h)(3) of this section with only the monitoring device, and is exempt from the simultaneous Method 18 measurement.

(5) For each non-regenerative carbon adsorber, the demonstrated bed life shall be the carbon bed life, measured in days from the time the bed is installed until the maximum concentration point is reached, for the carbon bed that is used to determine the maximum concentration point.

(i) The following recordkeeping requirements are applicable to owners and operators of control devices subject to §61.139. All records shall be kept updated and in a readily accessible location.

(1) The following information shall be recorded for each control device for the life of the control device:

(i) The design characteristics of the control device and a list of the source or sources vented to it.

(ii) For each carbon absorber, a plan for the method for handling captured benzene and removed carbon to comply with paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(iii) The dates and descriptions of any changes in the design specifications or plan.

(iv) For each carbon adsorber for which organic compounds are monitored as provided under §61.139 (d) and (e), documentation to show that the measurements of organic compound concentrations are reasonable indicators of benzene concentrations.

(2) For each compliance test as specified in §61.139(c)(1), the date of the test, the results of the test, and other data needed to determine emissions shall be recorded as specified in §61.13(g) for at least 2 years or until the next compliance test on the control device, whichever is longer.

(3) For each vapor incinerator, the average firebox temperature of the incinerator (or the average temperature upstream and downstream of the catalyst bed for a catalytic incinerator), measured and averaged over the most recent compliance test shall be recorded for at least 2 years or until the next compliance test on the incinerator, whichever is longer.

(4) For each carbon adsorber, for each determination of a maximum concentration point as specified in §61.139(h), the date of the determination, the maximum concentration point, and data needed to make the determination shall be recorded for at least 2 years or until the next maximum concentration point determination on the carbon adsorber, whichever is longer.

(5) For each carbon absorber, the dates of and data from the monitoring required in §61.139(d) and (e), the date and time of replacement of each carbon bed, the date of each exceedance of the maximum concentration point, and a brief description of the corrective action taken shall be recorded for at least 2 years. Also, the occurrences when the captured benzene or spent carbon are not handled as required in §61.139(b)(1) and (2) shall be recorded for at least 2 years.

(6) For each vapor incinerator, the data from the monitoring required in §61.139(f)(1), the dates of all periods of operation during which the parameter boundaries established during the most recent compliance test are exceeded, and a brief description of the corrective action taken shall be recorded for at least 2 years. A period of operation during which the parameter boundaries are exceeded is a 3-hour period of operation during which:

(i) For each vapor incinerator other than a catalytic incinerator, the average combustion temperature is more than 28 °C (50 °F) below the average combustion temperature during the most recent performance test.

(ii) For each catalytic incinerator, the average temperature of the vent stream immediately before the catalyst bed is more than 28 °C (50 °F) below the average temperature of the vent stream during the most recent performance test, or the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed is less than 80 percent of the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed during the most recent performance test.

(7) For each vapor incinerator, the following shall be recorded for at least 2 years:

(i) If subject to §61.139(f)(2)(i), records of the flow indication, and of all periods when the vent stream is diverted from the vapor incinerator or has no flow rate.

(ii) If subject to §61.139(f)(2)(ii), records of the flow indication, and of all periods when the vent stream is diverted from the vapor incinerator.

(iii) If subject to §61.139(f)(2)(iii), records of the conditions found during each monthly inspection, and of each period when the car seal is broken, when the valve position is changed, or when maintenance on the bypass line valve is performed.

(j) The following reporting requirements are applicable to owners or operators of control devices subject to §61.139:

(1) Compliance tests shall be reported as specified in §61.13(f).

(2) The following information shall be reported as part of the semiannual reports required in §61.138(f).

(i) For each carbon adsorber:

(A) The date and time of detection of each exceedance of the maximum concentration point and a brief description of the time and nature of the corrective action taken.

(B) The date of each time that the captured benzene or removed carbon was not handled as required in §61.139 (b)(1) and (2), and a brief description of the corrective action taken.

(C) The date of each determination of the maximum concentration point, as described in §61.139(h), and a brief reason for the determination.

(ii) For each vapor incinerator, the date and duration of each exceedance of the boundary parameters recorded under §61.139(i)(6) and a brief description of the corrective action taken.

(iii) For each vapor incinerator, the date and duration of each period specified as follows:

(A) Each period recorded under §61.139(i)(7)(i) when the vent stream is diverted from the control device or has no flow rate;

(B) Each period recorded under §61.139(i)(7)(ii) when the vent stream is diverted from the control device; and

(C) Each period recorded under §61.139(i)(7)(iii) when the vent stream is diverted from the control device, when the car seal is broken, when the valve is unlocked, or when the valve position has changed.

(iv) For each vapor incinerator, the owner or operator shall specify the method of monitoring chosen under paragraph (f)(2) of this section in the first semiannual report. Any time the owner or operator changes that choice, he shall specify the change in the first semiannual report following the change.

[56 FR 47407, Sept. 19, 1991, as amended at 64 FR 7467, Feb. 12, 1999; 65 FR 62157, Oct. 17, 2000]



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