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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of October 21, 2014

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter A → Part 1


Title 26: Internal Revenue


PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


Contents

Exempt Organizations

§1.501(a)-1   Exemption from taxation.
§1.501(a)-1T   Exemption from taxation (temporary).
§1.501(c)(2)-1   Corporations organized to hold title to property for exempt organizations.
§1.501(c)(3)-1   Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals.
§1.501(c)(3)-1T   Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals (temporary).
§1.501(c)(4)-1   Civic organizations and local associations of employees.
§1.501(c)(5)-1   Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.
§1.501(c)(6)-1   Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade.
§1.501(c)(7)-1   Social clubs.
§1.501(c)(8)-1   Fraternal beneficiary societies.
§1.501(c)(9)-1   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations, in general.
§1.501(c)(9)-2   Membership in a voluntary employees' beneficiary association; employees; voluntary association of employees.
§1.501(c)(9)-3   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; life, sick, accident, or other benefits.
§1.501(c)(9)-4   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; inurement.
§1.501(c)(9)-5   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements.
§1.501(c)(9)-6   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; benefits includible in gross income.
§1.501(c)(9)-7   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.
§1.501(c)(9)-8   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; effective date.
§1.501(c)(10)-1   Certain fraternal beneficiary societies.
§1.501(c)(12)-1   Local benevolent life insurance associations, mutual irrigation and telephone companies, and like organizations.
§1.501(c)(13)-1   Cemetery companies and crematoria.
§1.501(c)(14)-1   Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.
§1.501(c)(15)-1   Mutual insurance companies or associations.
§1.501(c)(16)-1   Corporations organized to finance crop operations.
§1.501(c)(17)-1   Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.
§1.501(c)(17)-2   General rules.
§1.501(c)(17)-3   Relation to other sections of the Code.
§1.501(c)(18)-1   Certain funded pension trusts.
§1.501(c)(19)-1   War veterans organizations.
§1.501(c)(21)-1   Black lung trusts—certain terms.
§1.501(c)(21)-2   Same—trust instrument.
§1.501(c)(29)-1T   CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary).
§1.501(d)-1   Religious and apostolic associations or corporations.
§1.501(e)-1   Cooperative hospital service organizations.
§1.501(h)-1   Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.
§1.501(h)-2   Electing the expenditure test.
§1.501(h)-3   Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.
§1.501(k)-1   Communist-controlled organizations.
§1.502-1   Feeder organizations.
§1.503(a)-1   Denial of exemption to certain organizations engaged in prohibited transactions.
§1.503(b)-1   Prohibited transactions.
§1.503(c)-1   Future status of organizations denied exemption.
§1.503(d)-1   Cross references.
§1.503(e)-1   Special rules.
§1.503(e)-2   Requirements.
§1.503(e)-3   Effective dates.
§1.503(e)-4   Disallowance of charitable deductions for certain gifts made before January 1, 1970.
§1.503(f)-1   Loans by employers who are prohibited from pledging assets.
§1.504-1   Attempts to influence legislation; certain organizations formerly described in section 501(c)(3) denied exemption.
§1.504-2   Certain transfers made to avoid section 504(a).
§1.505(c)-1T   Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under paragraphs (9), (17) and (20) of Section 501(c) (temporary).

Private Foundations

§1.507-1   General rule.
§1.507-2   Special rules; transfer to, or operation as, public charity.
§1.507-3   Special rules; transferee foundations.
§1.507-4   Imposition of tax.
§1.507-5   Aggregate tax benefit; in general.
§1.507-6   Substantial contributor defined.
§1.507-7   Value of assets.
§1.507-8   Liability in case of transfers.
§1.507-9   Abatement of taxes.
§1.508-1   Notices.
§1.508-2   Disallowance of certain charitable, etc., deductions.
§1.508-3   Governing instruments.
§1.508-4   Effective date.
§1.509(a)-1   Definition of private foundation.
§1.509(a)-2   Exclusion for certain organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A).
§1.509(a)-3   Broadly, publicly supported organizations.
§1.509(a)-4   Supporting organizations.
§1.509(a)-4T   Supporting organizations (temporary).
§1.509(a)-5   Special rules of attribution.
§1.509(a)-6   Classification under section 509(a).
§1.509(a)-7   Reliance by grantors and contributors to section 509(a) (1), (2), and (3) organizations.
§1.509(b)-1   Continuation of private foundation status.
§1.509(c)-1   Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.
§1.509(d)-1   Definition of support
§1.509(e)-1   Definition of gross investment income.

Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations

§1.511-1   Imposition and rates of tax.
§1.511-2   Organizations subject to tax.
§1.511-3   Provisions generally applicable to the tax on unrelated business income.
§1.511-4   Minimum tax for tax preferences.
§1.512(a)-1   Definition.
§1.512(a)-2   Definition applicable to taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967.
§1.512(a)-3   [Reserved]
§1.512(a)-4   Special rules applicable to war veterans organizations.
§1.512(a)-5T   Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations described in paragraphs (9), (17) or (20) of Section 501(c) (temporary).
§1.512(b)-1   Modifications.
§1.512(c)-1   Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.
§1.513-1   Definition of unrelated trade or business.
§1.513-2   Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967.
§1.513-3   Qualified convention and trade show activity.
§1.513-4   Certain sponsorship not unrelated trade or business.
§1.513-5   Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.
§1.513-6   Certain hospital services not unrelated trade or business.
§1.513-7   Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.
§1.514(a)-1   Unrelated debt-financed income and deductions.
§1.514(a)-2   Business lease rents and deductions for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.
§1.514(b)-1   Definition of debt-financed property.
§1.514(c)-1   Acquisition indebtedness.
§1.514(c)-2   Permitted allocations under section 514(c)(9)(E).
§1.514(d)-1   Basis of debt-financed property acquired in corporate liquidation.
§1.514(e)-1   Allocation rules.
§1.514(f)-1   Definition of business lease.
§1.514(g)-1   Business lease indebtedness.

Farmers' Cooperatives

§1.521-1   Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations; requirements for exemption under section 521.
§1.522-1   Tax treatment of farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations exempt under section 521.
§1.522-2   Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522.
§1.522-3   Patronage dividends, rebates, or refunds; treatment as to cooperative associations entitled to tax treatment under section 522.
§1.522-4   Taxable years affected.
§1.527-1   Political organizations; generally.
§1.527-2   Definitions.
§1.527-3   Exempt function income.
§1.527-4   Special rules for computation of political organization taxable income.
§1.527-5   Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization.
§1.527-6   Inclusion of certain amounts in the gross income of an exempt organization which is not a political organization.
§1.527-7   Newsletter funds.
§1.527-8   Effective date; filing requirements; and miscellaneous provisions.
§1.527-9   Special rule for principal campaign committees.

Homeowners Associations

§1.528-1   Homeowners associations.
§1.528-2   Organized and operated to provide for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and care of association property.
§1.528-3   Association property.
§1.528-4   Substantiality test.
§1.528-5   Source of income test.
§1.528-6   Expenditure test.
§1.528-7   Inurement.
§1.528-8   Election to be treated as a homeowners association.
§1.528-9   Exempt function income.
§1.528-10   Special rules for computation of homeowners association taxable income and tax.

Corporations Used To Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders

§1.531-1   Imposition of tax.
§1.532-1   Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax.
§1.533-1   Evidence of purpose to avoid income tax.
§1.533-2   Statement required.
§1.534-1   Burden of proof as to unreasonable accumulations generally.
§1.534-2   Burden of proof as to unreasonable accumulations in cases before the Tax Court.
§1.534-3   Jeopardy assessments in Tax Court cases.
§1.535-1   Definition.
§1.535-2   Adjustments to taxable income.
§1.535-3   Accumulated earnings credit.
§1.536-1   Short taxable years.
§1.537-1   Reasonable needs of the business.
§1.537-2   Grounds for accumulation of earnings and profits.
§1.537-3   Business of the corporation.

Personal Holding Companies

§1.541-1   Imposition of tax.
§1.542-1   General rule.
§1.542-2   Gross income requirement.
§1.542-3   Stock ownership requirement.
§1.542-4   Corporations filing consolidated returns.
§1.543-1   Personal holding company income.
§1.543-2   Limitation on gross income and personal holding company income in transactions involving stocks, securities, and commodities.
§1.544-1   Constructive ownership.
§1.544-2   Constructive ownership by reason of indirect ownership.
§1.544-3   Constructive ownership by reason of family and partnership ownership.
§1.544-4   Options.
§1.544-5   Convertible securities.
§1.544-6   Constructive ownership as actual ownership.
§1.544-7   Option rule in lieu of family and partnership rule.
§1.545-1   Definition.
§1.545-2   Adjustments to taxable income.
§1.545-3   Special adjustment to taxable income.
§1.547-1   General rule.
§1.547-2   Requirements for deficiency dividends.
§1.547-3   Claim for credit or refund.
§1.547-4   Effect on dividends paid deduction.
§1.547-5   Deduction denied in case of fraud or wilful failure to file timely return.
§1.547-6   Suspension of statute of limitations and stay of collection.
§1.547-7   Effective date.

Foreign Personal Holding Companies

§1.551-1   General rule.
§1.551-2   Amount included in gross income.
§1.551-3   Deduction for obligations of the United States and its instrumentalities.
§1.551-4   Information in return.
§1.551-5   Effect on capital account of foreign personal holding company and basis of stock in hands of shareholders.
§1.552-1   Definition of foreign personal holding company.
§1.552-2   Gross income requirement.
§1.552-3   Stock ownership requirement.
§1.552-4   Certain excluded banks.
§1.552-5   United States shareholder of excluded bank.
§1.553-1   Foreign personal holding company income.
§1.554-1   Stock ownership.
§1.555-1   General rule.
§1.555-2   Additions to gross income.
§1.556-1   Definition.
§1.556-2   Adjustments to taxable income.
§1.556-3   Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income.

Deduction for Dividends Paid

§1.561-1   Deduction for dividends paid.
§1.561-2   When dividends are considered paid.
§1.562-1   Dividends for which the dividends paid deduction is allowable.
§1.562-2   Preferential dividends.
§1.562-3   Distributions by a member of an affiliated group.
§1.563-1   Accumulated earnings tax.
§1.563-2   Personal holding company tax.
§1.563-3   Dividends considered as paid on last day of taxable year.
§1.564-1   Dividend carryover.
§1.565-1   General rule.
§1.565-2   Limitations.
§1.565-3   Effect of consent.
§1.565-4   Consent dividends and other distributions.
§1.565-5   Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.
§1.565-6   Definitions.

Banking Institutions

§1.581-1   Banks.
§1.581-2   Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.
§1.581-3   Definition of bank prior to September 28, 1962.
§1.582-1   Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to securities held by financial institutions.
§1.584-1   Common trust funds.
§1.584-2   Income of participants in common trust fund.
§1.584-3   Computation of common trust fund income.
§1.584-4   Admission and withdrawal of participants in the common trust fund.
§1.584-5   Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds.
§1.584-6   Net operating loss deduction.
§1.585-1   Reserve for losses on loans of banks.
§1.585-2   Addition to reserve.
§1.585-3   Special rules.
§1.585-4   Reorganizations and asset acquisitions.
§1.585-5   Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks.
§1.585-6   Recapture method of changing from the reserve method of section 585.
§1.585-7   Elective cut-off method of changing from the reserve method of section 585.
§1.585-8   Rules for making and revoking elections under §§1.585-6 and 1.585-7.
§1.586-1   Reserve for losses on loans of small business investment companies, etc.
§1.586-2   Addition to reserve.

Mutual Savings Banks, Etc.

§1.591-1   Deduction for dividends paid on deposits.
§1.592-1   Repayment of certain loans by mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.
§1.593-1   Additions to reserve for bad debts.
§1.593-2   Additions to reserve for bad debts where surplus, reserves, and undivided profits equal or exceed 12 percent of deposits or withdrawable accounts.
§1.593-3   Taxable years affected.
§1.593-4   Organizations to which section 593 applies.
§1.593-5   Addition to reserves for bad debts.
§1.593-6   Pre-1970 addition to reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans.
§1.593-6A   Post-1969 addition to reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans.
§1.593-7   Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.
§1.593-8   Allocation of pre-1952 surplus to opening balance of reserve for losses on qualifying real property loans.
§1.593-10   Certain distributions to shareholders by a domestic building and loan association.
§1.593-11   Qualifying real property loan and nonqualifying loan defined.
§1.594-1   Mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business.
§1.595-1   Treatment of foreclosed property by certain creditors.
§1.596-1   Limitation on dividends received deduction.
§1.597-1   Definitions.
§1.597-2   Taxation of Federal financial assistance.
§1.597-3   Other rules.
§1.597-4   Bridge Banks and Agency Control.
§1.597-5   Taxable Transfers.
§1.597-6   Limitation on collection of income tax.
§1.597-7   Effective date.
§1.597-8   Transitional rules for Federal financial assistance.

Bank Affiliates

§1.601-1   Special deduction for bank affiliates.

Natural Resources

§1.611-0   Regulatory authority.
§1.611-1   Allowance of deduction for depletion.
§1.611-2   Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.
§1.611-3   Rules applicable to timber.
§1.611-4   Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes.
§1.611-5   Depreciation of improvements.
§1.612-1   Basis for allowance of cost depletion.
§1.612-2   Allowable capital additions in case of mines.
§1.612-3   Depletion; treatment of bonus and advanced royalty.
§1.612-4   Charges to capital and to expense in case of oil and gas wells.
§1.612-5   Charges to capital and to expense in case of geothermal wells.
§1.613-1   Percentage depletion; general rule.
§1.613-2   Percentage depletion rates.
§1.613-3   Gross income from the property.
§1.613-4   Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.
§1.613-5   Taxable income from the property.
§1.613-6   Statement to be attached to return when depletion is claimed on percentage basis.
§1.613-7   Application of percentage depletion rates provided in section 613(b) to certain taxable years ending in 1954.
§1.613A-0   Limitations on percentage depletion in the case of oil and gas wells; table of contents.
§1.613A-1   Post-1974 limitations on percentage depletion in case of oil and gas wells; general rule.
§1.613A-2   Exemption for certain domestic gas wells.
§1.613A-3   Exemption for independent producers and royalty owners.
§1.613A-4   Limitations on application of §1.613A-3 exemption.
§1.613A-5   Election under section 613A(c)(4).
§1.613A-6   Recordkeeping requirements.
§1.613A-7   Definitions.
§1.614-0   Introduction.
§1.614-1   Definition of property.
§1.614-2   Election to aggregate separate operating mineral interests under section 614(b) prior to its amendment by Revenue Act of 1964.
§1.614-3   Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines.
§1.614-4   Treatment under the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 with respect to separate operating mineral interests for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1964, in the case of oil and gas wells.
§1.614-5   Special rules as to aggregating nonoperating mineral interests.
§1.614-6   Rules applicable to basis, holding period, and abandonment losses where mineral interests have been aggregated or combined.
§1.614-7   Extension of time for performing certain acts.
§1.614-8   Elections with respect to separate operating mineral interests for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963, in the case of oil and gas wells.
§1.615-1   Pre-1970 exploration expenditures.
§1.615-2   Deduction of pre-1970 exploration expenditures in the year paid or incurred.
§1.615-3   Election to defer pre-1970 exploration expenditures.
§1.615-4   Limitation of amount deductible.
§1.615-5   Time for making election with respect to returns due on or before May 2, 1960.
§1.615-6   Election to deduct under section 615.
§1.615-7   Effect of transfer of mineral property.
§1.615-8   Termination of section 615.
§1.615-9   Notification under Tax Reform Act of 1969.
§1.616-1   Development expenditures.
§1.616-2   Election to defer.
§1.616-3   Time for making election with respect to returns due on or before May 2, 1960.
§1.617-1   Exploration expenditures.
§1.617-2   Limitation on amount deductible.
§1.617-3   Recapture of exploration expenditures.
§1.617-4   Treatment of gain from disposition of certain mining property.

Exclusions From Gross Income

§1.621-1   Payments to encourage exploration, development, and mining for defense purposes.

Sales and Exchanges

§1.631-1   Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.
§1.631-2   Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.
§1.631-3   Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.
§1.632-1   Tax on sale of oil or gas properties.

Mineral Production Payments

§1.636-1   Treatment of production payments as loans.
§1.636-2   Production payments retained in leasing transactions.
§1.636-3   Definitions.
§1.636-4   Effective dates of section 636.

Continental Shelf Areas

§1.638-1   Continental Shelf areas.
§1.638-2   Effective date.
§§1.639-1.640   [Reserved]

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805, unless otherwise noted.

Section 1.501(c)(29)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 501(c)(29)(B)(i).

Sections 1.504-1 and 1.504-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 504(b).

Section1.514(c)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 514(c)(9)(E)(iii).

Section1.527-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 527(h)(2)(B)(i).

Section1.585-5 through 1.585-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 585(b)(3).

Section1.597-1 through 1.597-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 597 and 1502.

Section1.597-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 597.

Source: T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, unless otherwise noted.

Exempt Organizations

General Rule

§1.501(a)-1   Exemption from taxation.

(a) In general; proof of exemption. (1) Section 501(a) provides an exemption from income taxes for organizations which are described in section 501 (c) or (d) and section 401(a), unless such organization is a feeder organization (see section 502), or unless it engages in a transaction described in section 503. However, the exemption does not extend to unrelated business taxable income of such an organization (see part III (Section 511 and following), subchapter F, chapter 1 of the Code).

(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1T(a)(2).

(3) An organization claiming exemption under section 501(a) and described in any paragraph of section 501(c) (other than section 501(c)(1) shall file the form of application prescribed by the Commissioner and shall include thereon such information as required by such form and the instructions issued with respect thereto. For rules relating to the obtaining of a determination of exempt status by an employees' trust described in section 401(a), see the regulations under section 401.

(b) Additional proof by particular classes of organizations. (1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1T(b)(1).

(2) In addition to the information specifically called for by this section, the Commissioner may require any additional information deemed necessary for a proper determination of whether a particular organization is exempt under section 501(a), and when deemed advisable in the interest of an efficient administration of the internal revenue laws, he may in the cases of particular types of organizations prescribe the form in which the proof of exemption shall be furnished.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1T(b)(3).

(c) Private shareholder or individual defined. The words private shareholder or individual in section 501 refer to persons having a personal and private interest in the activities of the organization.

(d) Requirement of annual returns. For the annual return requirements of organizations exempt under section 501(a), see section 6033 and §1.6033-1.

(e) Certain Puerto Rican pension, etc., trusts. Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1973, section 1022(i)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) (88 Stat. 942) provides that trusts under certain Puerto Rican pension, etc., plans (as defined under P.R. Laws Ann. tit. 13, section 3165, and the articles thereunder), all of the participants of which are residents of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are to be treated only for purposes of section 501(a) as trusts described in section 401(a). The practical effect of section 1022(i)(1) is to exempt these trusts from U.S. income tax on income from their U.S. investments. For purposes of section 1022(i)(1), the term residents of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico means bona fide residents of Puerto Rico, and persons who perform labor or services primarily within the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, regardless of residence for other purposes, and the term participants is restricted to current employees who are not excluded under the eligibility provisions of the plan.

(f) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1T(f).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34619, Aug. 16, 1976; T.D. 7859, 47 FR 54298, Dec. 2, 1982; T.D. 9674, 79 FR 37631, July 2, 2014]

§1.501(a)-1T   Exemption from taxation (temporary).

(a)(1) [Reserved] For further guidance see §1.501(a)-1(a)(1).

(2) An organization, other than an employees' trust described in section 401(a), is not exempt from tax merely because it is not organized and operated for profit. In order to establish its exemption, it is necessary that every such organization claiming exemption file an application form as set forth below with the appropriate office as designated by the Commissioner in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, forms or instructions to the applicable forms. Subject only to the Commissioner's inherent power to revoke rulings, including with retroactive effect as permitted under section 7805(b), because of a change in the law or regulations or for other good cause, an organization that has been determined by the Commissioner (or previously by a district director) to be exempt under section 501(a) or the corresponding provision of prior law may rely upon such determination so long as there are no substantial changes in the organization's character, purposes, or methods of operation. An organization that has been determined to be exempt under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or prior law is not required to secure a new determination of exemption merely because of the enactment of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 unless affected by substantive changes in law made by such Code.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1(a)(3).

(b) Additional proof by particular classes of organizations. (1) Unless otherwise prescribed by applicable regulations or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, organizations mentioned below shall submit with and as a part of their applications the following information:

(i) Mutual insurance companies shall submit copies of the policies or certificates of membership issued by them.

(ii) In the case of title holding companies described in section 501(c)(2), if the organization for which title is held has not been specifically notified in writing by the Internal Revenue Service that it is held to be exempt under section 501(a), the title holding company shall submit the information indicated herein as necessary for a determination of the status of the organization for which title is held.

(iii) An organization described in section 501(c)(3) shall submit with, and as a part of, an application filed after July 26, 1959, a detailed statement of its proposed activities.

(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1(b)(2).

(3) An organization claiming to be specifically exempted by section 6033(a) from filing annual returns shall submit with and as a part of its application (or in such other manner as is prescribed in guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin) a statement of all the facts on which it bases its claim.

(c) through (e) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(a)-1(c) through (e).

(f) Effective/applicability date. (1) Paragraphs (a)(2), (b)(1), and (b)(3) of this section apply on and after July 1, 2014.

(2) Expiration date. Paragraphs (a)(2), (b)(1), and (b)(3) of this section expire on or before June 30, 2017.

[T.D. 9674, 79 FR 37631, July 2, 2014; 79 FR 41886, July 18, 2014]

§1.501(c)(2)-1   Corporations organized to hold title to property for exempt organizations.

(a) A corporation described in section 501(c)(2) and otherwise exempt from tax under section 501(a) is taxable upon its unrelated business taxable income. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, see §1.511-2(c)(4). Since a corporation described in section 501(c)(2) cannot be exempt under section 501(a) if it engages in any business other than that of holding title to property and collecting income therefrom, it cannot have unrelated business taxable income as defined in section 512 other than income which is treated as unrelated business taxable income solely because of the applicability of section 512(a)(3)(C); or debt financed income which is treated as unrelated business taxable income solely because of section 514; or certain interest, annuities, royalties, or rents which are treated as unrelated business taxable income solely because of section 512(b) (3)(B)(ii) or (13). Similarly, exempt status under section 501(c)(2) shall not be affected where certain rents from personal property leased with real property are treated as unrelated business taxable income under section 512(b)(3)(A)(ii) solely because such rents attributable to such personal property are more than incidental when compared to the total rents received or accrued under the lease, or under section 512(b)(3)(B)(i) solely because such rents attributable to such personal property exceed 50 percent of the total rents received or accrued under the lease.

(b) A corporation described in section 501(c)(2) cannot accumulate income and retain its exemption, but it must turn over the entire amount of such income, less expenses, to an organization which is itself exempt from tax under section 501(a).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7658, 45 FR 33972, May 21, 1980]

§1.501(c)(3)-1   Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals.

(a) Organizational and operational tests. (1) In order to be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(3), an organization must be both organized and operated exclusively for one or more of the purposes specified in such section. If an organization fails to meet either the organizational test or the operational test, it is not exempt.

(2) The term exempt purpose or purposes, as used in this section, means any purpose or purposes specified in section 501(c)(3), as defined and elaborated in paragraph (d) of this section.

(b) Organizational test—(1) In general. (i) An organization is organized exclusively for one or more exempt purposes only if its articles of organization (referred to in this section as its articles) as defined in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph:

(a) Limit the purposes of such organization to one or more exempt purposes; and

(b) Do not expressly empower the organization to engage, otherwise than as an insubstantial part of its activities, in activities which in themselves are not in furtherance of one or more exempt purposes.

(ii) In meeting the organizational test, the organization's purposes, as stated in its articles, may be as broad as, or more specific than, the purposes stated in section 501(c)(3). Therefore, an organization which, by the terms of its articles, is formed for literary and scientific purposes within the meaning of section 501(c)(3) of the Code shall, if it otherwise meets the requirements in this paragraph, be considered to have met the organizational test. Similarly, articles stating that the organization is created solely to receive contributions and pay them over to organizations which are described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from taxation under section 501(a)) are sufficient for purposes of the organizational test. Moreover, it is sufficient if the articles set for the purpose of the organization to be the operation of a school for adult education and describe in detail the manner of the operation of such school. In addition, if the articles state that the organization is formed for charitable purposes, such articles ordinarily shall be sufficient for purposes of the organizational test (see subparagraph (5) of this paragraph for rules relating to construction of terms).

(iii) An organization is not organized exclusively for one or more exempt purposes if its articles expressly empower it to carry on, otherwise than as an insubstantial part of its activities, activities which are not in furtherance of one or more exempt purposes, even though such organization is, by the terms of such articles, created for a purpose that is no broader than the purposes specified in section 501(c)(3). Thus, an organization that is empowered by its articles to engage in a manufacturing business, or to engage in the operation of a social club does not meet the organizational test regardless of the fact that its articles may state that such organization is created for charitable purposes within the meaning of section 501(c)(3) of the Code.

(iv) In no case shall an organization be considered to be organized exclusively for one or more exempt purposes, if, by the terms of its articles, the purposes for which such organization is created are broader than the purposes specified in section 501(c)(3). The fact that the actual operations of such an organization have been exclusively in furtherance of one or more exempt purposes shall not be sufficient to permit the organization to meet the organizational test. Similarly, such an organization will not meet the organizational test as a result of statements or other evidence that the members thereof intend to operate only in furtherance of one or more exempt purposes.

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance see §1.501(c)(3)-1T(b)(1)(v).

(2) Articles of organization. For purposes of this section, the term articles of organization or articles includes the trust instrument, the corporate charter, the articles of association, or any other written instrument by which an organization is created.

(3) Authorization of legislative or political activities. An organization is not organized exclusively for one or more exempt purposes if its articles expressly empower it:

(i) To devote more than an insubstantial part of its activities to attempting to influence legislation by propaganda or otherwise; or

(ii) Directly or indirectly to participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office; or

(iii) To have objectives and to engage in activities which characterize it as an action organization as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

The terms used in subdivisions (i), (ii), and (iii) of this subparagraph shall have the meanings provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. An organization's articles will not violate the provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section even though the organization's articles expressly empower it to make the election provided for in section 501(h) with respect to influencing legislation and, only if it so elects, to make lobbying or grass roots expenditures that do not normally exceed the ceiling amounts prescribed by section 501(h)(2) (B) and (D).

(4) Distribution of assets on dissolution. An organization is not organized exclusively for one or more exempt purposes unless its assets are dedicated to an exempt purpose. An organization's assets will be considered dedicated to an exempt purpose, for example, if, upon dissolution, such assets would, by reason of a provision in the organization's articles or by operation of law, be distributed for one or more exempt purposes, or to the Federal Government, or to a State or local government, for a public purpose, or would be distributed by a court to another organization to be used in such manner as in the judgment of the court will best accomplish the general purposes for which the dissolved organization was organized. However, an organization does not meet the organizational test if its articles or the law of the State in which it was created provide that its assets would, upon dissolution, be distributed to its members or shareholders.

(5) Construction of terms. The law of the State in which an organization is created shall be controlling in construing the terms of its articles. However, any organization which contends that such terms have under State law a different meaning from their generally accepted meaning must establish such special meaning by clear and convincing reference to relevant court decisions, opinions of the State attorney-general, or other evidence of applicable State law.

(6) [Reserved] For further guidance see §1.501(c)(3)-1T(b)(6).

(c) Operational test—(1) Primary activities. An organization will be regarded as operated exclusively for one or more exempt purposes only if it engages primarily in activities which accomplish one or more of such exempt purposes specified in section 501(c)(3). An organization will not be so regarded if more than an insubstantial part of its activities is not in furtherance of an exempt purpose.

(2) Distribution of earnings. An organization is not operated exclusively for one or more exempt purposes if its net earnings inure in whole or in part to the benefit of private shareholders or individuals. For the definition of the words private shareholder or individual, see paragraph (c) of §1.501(a)-1.

(3) Action organizations. (i) An organization is not operated exclusively for one or more exempt purposes if it is an action organization as defined in subdivisions (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this subparagraph.

(ii) An organization is an action organization if a substantial part of its activities is attempting to influence legislation by propaganda or otherwise. For this purpose, an organization will be regarded as attempting to influence legislation if the organization:

(a) Contacts, or urges the public to contact, members of a legislative body for the purpose of proposing, supporting, or opposing legislation; or

(b) Advocates the adoption or rejection of legislation.

The term legislation, as used in this subdivision, includes action by the Congress, by any State legislature, by any local council or similar governing body, or by the public in a referendum, initiative, constitutional amendment, or similar procedure. An organization will not fail to meet the operational test merely because it advocates, as an insubstantial part of its activities, the adoption or rejection of legislation. An organization for which the expenditure test election of section 501(h) is in effect for a taxable year will not be considered an action organization by reason of this paragraph (c)(3)(ii) for that year if it is not denied exemption from taxation under section 501(a) by reason of section 501(h).

(iii) An organization is an action organization if it participates or intervenes, directly or indirectly, in any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office.

The term candidate for public office means an individual who offers himself, or is proposed by others, as a contestant for an elective public office, whether such office be national, State, or local. Activities which constitute participation or intervention in a political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to a candidate include, but are not limited to, the publication or distribution of written or printed statements or the making of oral statements on behalf of or in opposition to such a candidate.

(iv) An organization is an action organization if it has the following two characteristics: (a) Its main or primary objective or objectives (as distinguished from its incidental or secondary objectives) may be attained only by legislation or a defeat of proposed legislation; and (b) it advocates, or campaigns for, the attainment of such main or primary objective or objectives as distinguished from engaging in nonpartisan analysis, study, or research and making the results thereof available to the public. In determining whether an organization has such characteristics, all the surrounding facts and circumstances, including the articles and all activities of the organization, are to be considered.

(v) An action organization, described in subdivisions (ii) or (iv) of this subparagraph, though it cannot qualify under section 501(c)(3), may nevertheless qualify as a social welfare organization under section 501(c)(4) if it meets the requirements set out in paragraph (a) of §1.501(c)(4)-1.

(d) Exempt purposes—(1) In general. (i) An organization may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) if it is organized and operated exclusively for one or more of the following purposes:

(a) Religious,

(b) Charitable,

(c) Scientific,

(d) Testing for public safety,

(e) Literary,

(f) Educational, or

(g) Prevention of cruelty to children or animals.

(ii) An organization is not organized or operated exclusively for one or more of the purposes specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph unless it serves a public rather than a private interest. Thus, to meet the requirement of this subdivision, it is necessary for an organization to establish that it is not organized or operated for the benefit of private interests such as designated individuals, the creator or his family, shareholders of the organization, or persons controlled, directly or indirectly, by such private interests.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the requirement of paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section that an organization serve a public rather than a private interest:

Example 1. (i) O is an educational organization the purpose of which is to study history and immigration. O's educational activities include sponsoring lectures and publishing a journal. The focus of O's historical studies is the genealogy of one family, tracing the descent of its present members. O actively solicits for membership only individuals who are members of that one family. O's research is directed toward publishing a history of that family that will document the pedigrees of family members. A major objective of O's research is to identify and locate living descendants of that family to enable those descendants to become acquainted with each other.

(ii) O's educational activities primarily serve the private interests of members of a single family rather than a public interest. Therefore, O is operated for the benefit of private interests in violation of the restriction on private benefit in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section. Based on these facts and circumstances, O is not operated exclusively for exempt purposes and, therefore, is not described in section 501(c)(3).

Example 2. (i) O is an art museum. O's principal activity is exhibiting art created by a group of unknown but promising local artists. O's activity, including organized tours of its art collection, promotes the arts. O is governed by a board of trustees unrelated to the artists whose work O exhibits. All of the art exhibited is offered for sale at prices set by the artist. Each artist whose work is exhibited has a consignment arrangement with O. Under this arrangement, when art is sold, the museum retains 10 percent of the selling price to cover the costs of operating the museum and gives the artist 90 percent.

(ii) The artists in this situation directly benefit from the exhibition and sale of their art. As a result, the principal activity of O serves the private interests of these artists. Because O gives 90 percent of the proceeds from its sole activity to the individual artists, the direct benefits to the artists are substantial and O's provision of these benefits to the artists is more than incidental to its other purposes and activities. This arrangement causes O to be operated for the benefit of private interests in violation of the restriction on private benefit in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section. Based on these facts and circumstances, O is not operated exclusively for exempt purposes and, therefore, is not described in section 501(c)(3).

Example 3. (i) O is an educational organization the purpose of which is to train individuals in a program developed by P, O's president. The program is of interest to academics and professionals, representatives of whom serve on an advisory panel to O. All of the rights to the program are owned by Company K, a for-profit corporation owned by P. Prior to the existence of O, the teaching of the program was conducted by Company K. O licenses, from Company K, the right to conduct seminars and lectures on the program and to use the name of the program as part of O's name, in exchange for specified royalty payments. Under the license agreement, Company K provides O with the services of trainers and with course materials on the program. O may develop and copyright new course materials on the program but all such materials must be assigned to Company K without consideration if and when the license agreement is terminated. Company K sets the tuition for the seminars and lectures on the program conducted by O. O has agreed not to become involved in any activity resembling the program or its implementation for 2 years after the termination of O's license agreement.

(ii) O's sole activity is conducting seminars and lectures on the program. This arrangement causes O to be operated for the benefit of P and Company K in violation of the restriction on private benefit in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, regardless of whether the royalty payments from O to Company K for the right to teach the program are reasonable. Based on these facts and circumstances, O is not operated exclusively for exempt purposes and, therefore, is not described in section 501(c)(3).

(iv) Since each of the purposes specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is an exempt purpose in itself, an organization may be exempt if it is organized and operated exclusively for any one or more of such purposes. If, in fact, an organization is organized and operated exclusively for an exempt purpose or purposes, exemption will be granted to such an organization regardless of the purpose or purposes specified in its application for exemption. For example, if an organization claims exemption on the ground that it is educational, exemption will not be denied if, in fact, it is charitable.

(2) Charitable defined. The term charitable is used in section 501(c)(3) in its generally accepted legal sense and is, therefore, not to be construed as limited by the separate enumeration in section 501(c)(3) of other tax-exempt purposes which may fall within the broad outlines of charity as developed by judicial decisions. Such term includes: Relief of the poor and distressed or of the underprivileged; advancement of religion; advancement of education or science; erection or maintenance of public buildings, monuments, or works; lessening of the burdens of Government; and promotion of social welfare by organizations designed to accomplish any of the above purposes, or (i) to lessen neighborhood tensions; (ii) to eliminate prejudice and discrimination; (iii) to defend human and civil rights secured by law; or (iv) to combat community deterioration and juvenile delinquency. The fact that an organization which is organized and operated for the relief of indigent persons may receive voluntary contributions from the persons intended to be relieved will not necessarily prevent such organization from being exempt as an organization organized and operated exclusively for charitable purposes. The fact that an organization, in carrying out its primary purpose, advocates social or civic changes or presents opinion on controversial issues with the intention of molding public opinion or creating public sentiment to an acceptance of its views does not preclude such organization from qualifying under section 501(c)(3) so long as it is not an action organization of any one of the types described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(3) Educational defined—(i) In general. The term educational, as used in section 501(c)(3), relates to:

(a) The instruction or training of the individual for the purpose of improving or developing his capabilities; or

(b) The instruction of the public on subjects useful to the individual and beneficial to the community.

An organization may be educational even though it advocates a particular position or viewpoint so long as it presents a sufficiently full and fair exposition of the pertinent facts as to permit an individual or the public to form an independent opinion or conclusion. On the other hand, an organization is not educational if its principal function is the mere presentation of unsupported opinion.

(ii) Examples of educational organizations. The following are examples of organizations which, if they otherwise meet the requirements of this section, are educational:

Example 1. An organization, such as a primary or secondary school, a college, or a professional or trade school, which has a regularly scheduled curriculum, a regular faculty, and a regularly enrolled body of students in attendance at a place where the educational activities are regularly carried on.
Example 2. An organization whose activities consist of presenting public discussion groups, forums, panels, lectures, or other similar programs. Such programs may be on radio or television.
Example 3. An organization which presents a course of instruction by means of correspondence or through the utilization of television or radio.
Example 4. useums, zoos, planetariums, symphony orchestras, and other similar organizations.

(4) Testing for public safety defined. The term testing for public safety, as used in section 501(c)(3), includes the testing of consumer products, such as electrical products, to determine whether they are safe for use by the general public.

(5) Scientific defined. (i) Since an organization may meet the requirements of section 501(c)(3) only if it serves a public rather than a private interest, a scientific organization must be organized and operated in the public interest (see subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph). Therefore, the term scientific, as used in section 501(c)(3), includes the carrying on of scientific research in the public interest. Research when taken alone is a word with various meanings; it is not synonymous with scientific; and the nature of particular research depends upon the purpose which it serves. For research to be scientific, within the meaning of section 501(c)(3), it must be carried on in furtherance of a scientific purpose. The determination as to whether research is scientific does not depend on whether such research is classified as fundamental or basic as contrasted with applied or practical. On the other hand, for purposes of the exclusion from unrelated business taxable income provided by section 512(b)(9), it is necessary to determine whether the organization is operated primarily for purposes of carrying on fundamental, as contrasted with applied, research.

(ii) Scientific research does not include activities of a type ordinarily carried on as an incident to commercial or industrial operations, as, for example, the ordinary testing or inspection of materials or products or the designing or construction of equipment, buildings, etc.

(iii) Scientific research will be regarded as carried on in the public interest:

(a) If the results of such research (including any patents, copyrights, processes, or formulae resulting from such research) are made available to the public on a nondiscriminatory basis;

(b) If such research is performed for the United States, or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, or for a State or political subdivision thereof; or

(c) If such research is directed toward benefiting the public. The following are examples of scientific research which will be considered as directed toward benefiting the public, and, therefore, which will be regarded as carried on in the public interest: (1) Scientific research carried on for the purpose of aiding in the scientific education of college or university students; (2) scientific research carried on for the purpose of obtaining scientific information, which is published in a treatise, thesis, trade publication, or in any other form that is available to the interested public; (3) scientific research carried on for the purpose of discovering a cure for a disease; or (4) scientific research carried on for the purpose of aiding a community or geographical area by attracting new industry to the community or area or by encouraging the development of, or retention of, an industry in the community or area. Scientific research described in this subdivision will be regarded as carried on in the public interest even though such research is performed pursuant to a contract or agreement under which the sponsor or sponsors of the research have the right to obtain ownership or control of any patents, copyrights, processes, or formulae resulting from such research.

(iv) An organization will not be regarded as organized and operated for the purpose of carrying on scientific research in the public interest and, consequently, will not qualify under section 501(c)(3) as a scientific organization, if:

(a) Such organization will perform research only for persons which are (directly or indirectly) its creators and which are not described in section 501(c)(3), or

(b) Such organization retains (directly or indirectly) the ownership or control of more than an insubstantial portion of the patents, copyrights, processes, or formulae resulting from its research and does not make such patents, copyrights, processes, or formulae available to the public. For purposes of this subdivision, a patent, copyright, process, or formula shall be considered as made available to the public if such patent, copyright, process, or formula is made available to the public on a nondiscriminatory basis. In addition, although one person is granted the exclusive right to the use of a patent, copyright, process, or formula, such patent, copyright, process, or formula shall be considered as made available to the public if the granting of such exclusive right is the only practicable manner in which the patent, copyright, process, or formula can be utilized to benefit the public. In such a case, however, the research from which the patent, copyright, process, or formula resulted will be regarded as carried on in the public interest (within the meaning of subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph) only if it is carried on for a person described in subdivision (iii)(b) of this subparagraph or if it is scientific research described in subdivision (iii)(c) of this subparagraph.

(v) The fact that any organization (including a college, university, or hospital) carries on research which is not in furtherance of an exempt purpose described in section 501(c)(3) will not preclude such organization from meeting the requirements of section 501(c)(3) so long as the organization meets the organizational test and is not operated for the primary purpose of carrying on such research (see paragraph (e) of this section, relating to organizations carrying on a trade or business). See paragraph (a)(5) of §1.513-2, with respect to research which constitutes an unrelated trade or business, and section 512(b) (7), (8), and (9), with respect to income derived from research which is excludable from the tax on unrelated business income.

(vi) The regulations in this subparagraph are applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1960.

(e) Organizations carrying on trade or business—(1) In general. An organization may meet the requirements of section 501(c)(3) although it operates a trade or business as a substantial part of its activities, if the operation of such trade or business is in furtherance of the organization's exempt purpose or purposes and if the organization is not organized or operated for the primary purpose of carrying on an unrelated trade or business, as defined in section 513. In determining the existence or nonexistence of such primary purpose, all the circumstances must be considered, including the size and extent of the trade or business and the size and extent of the activities which are in furtherance of one or more exempt purposes. An organization which is organized and operated for the primary purpose of carrying on an unrelated trade or business is not exempt under section 501(c)(3) even though it has certain religious purposes, its property is held in common, and its profits do not inure to the benefit of individual members of the organization. See, however, section 501(d) and §1.501(d)-1, relating to religious and apostolic organizations.

(2) Taxation of unrelated business income. For provisions relating to the taxation of unrelated business income of certain organizations described in section 501(c)(3), see sections 511 to 515, inclusive, and the regulations thereunder.

(f) Interaction with section 4958—(1) Application process. An organization that applies for recognition of exemption under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) must establish its eligibility under this section. The Commissioner may deny an application for exemption for failure to establish any of section 501(c)(3)'s requirements for exemption. Section 4958 does not apply to transactions with an organization that has failed to establish that it satisfies all of the requirements for exemption under section 501(c)(3). See §53.4958-2.

(2) Substantive requirements for exemption still apply to applicable tax-exempt organizations described in section 501(c)(3)—(i) In general. Regardless of whether a particular transaction is subject to excise taxes under section 4958, the substantive requirements for tax exemption under section 501(c)(3) still apply to an applicable tax-exempt organization (as defined in section 4958(e) and §53.4958-2) described in section 501(c)(3) whose disqualified persons or organization managers are subject to excise taxes under section 4958. Accordingly, an organization will no longer meet the requirements for tax-exempt status under section 501(c)(3) if the organization fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b), (c) or (d) of this section. See §53.4958-8(a).

(ii) Determination of whether revocation of tax-exempt status is appropriate when section 4958 excise taxes also apply. In determining whether to continue to recognize the tax-exempt status of an applicable tax-exempt organization (as defined in section 4958(e) and §53.4958-2) described in section 501(c)(3) that engages in one or more excess benefit transactions (as defined in section 4958(c) and §53.4958-4) that violate the prohibition on inurement under section 501(c)(3), the Commissioner will consider all relevant facts and circumstances, including, but not limited to, the following—

(A) The size and scope of the organization's regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes before and after the excess benefit transaction or transactions occurred;

(B) The size and scope of the excess benefit transaction or transactions (collectively, if more than one) in relation to the size and scope of the organization's regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes;

(C) Whether the organization has been involved in multiple excess benefit transactions with one or more persons;

(D) Whether the organization has implemented safeguards that are reasonably calculated to prevent excess benefit transactions; and

(E) Whether the excess benefit transaction has been corrected (within the meaning of section 4958(f)(6) and §53.4958-7), or the organization has made good faith efforts to seek correction from the disqualified person(s) who benefited from the excess benefit transaction.

(iii) All factors will be considered in combination with each other. Depending on the particular situation, the Commissioner may assign greater or lesser weight to some factors than to others. The factors listed in paragraphs (f)(2)(ii)(D) and (E) of this section will weigh more heavily in favor of continuing to recognize exemption where the organization discovers the excess benefit transaction or transactions and takes action before the Commissioner discovers the excess benefit transaction or transactions. Further, with respect to the factor listed in paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(E) of this section, correction after the excess benefit transaction or transactions are discovered by the Commissioner, by itself, is never a sufficient basis for continuing to recognize exemption.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section. For purposes of each example, assume that O is an applicable tax-exempt organization (as defined in section 4958(e) and §53.4958-2) described in section 501(c)(3). The examples read as follows:

Example 1. (i) O was created as a museum for the purpose of exhibiting art to the general public. In Years 1 and 2, O engages in fundraising and in selecting, leasing, and preparing an appropriate facility for a museum. In Year 3, a new board of trustees is elected. All of the new trustees are local art dealers. Beginning in Year 3 and continuing to the present, O uses a substantial portion of its revenues to purchase art solely from its trustees at prices that exceed fair market value. O exhibits and offers for sale all of the art it purchases. O's Form 1023, “Application for Recognition of Exemption,” did not disclose the possibility that O would purchase art from its trustees.

(ii) O's purchases of art from its trustees at more than fair market value constitute excess benefit transactions between an applicable tax-exempt organization and disqualified persons under section 4958. Therefore, these transactions are subject to the applicable excise taxes provided in that section. In addition, O's purchases of art from its trustees at more than fair market value violate the proscription against inurement under section 501(c)(3) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The application of the factors in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to these facts is as follows. Beginning in Year 3, O does not engage primarily in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes because a substantial portion of O's activities consists of purchasing art from its trustees and dealing in such art in a manner similar to a commercial art gallery. The size and scope of the excess benefit transactions collectively are significant in relation to the size and scope of any of O's ongoing activities that further exempt purposes. O has been involved in multiple excess benefit transactions, namely, purchases of art from its trustees at more than fair market value. O has not implemented safeguards that are reasonably calculated to prevent such improper purchases in the future. The excess benefit transactions have not been corrected, nor has O made good faith efforts to seek correction from the disqualified persons who benefited from the excess benefit transactions (the trustees). The trustees continue to control O's Board. Based on the application of the factors to these facts, O is no longer described in section 501(c)(3) effective in Year 3.

Example 2. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that in Year 4, O's entire board of trustees resigns, and O no longer offers all exhibited art for sale. The former board is replaced with members of the community who are not in the business of buying or selling art and who have skills and experience running charitable and educational programs and institutions. O promptly discontinues the practice of purchasing art from current or former trustees, adopts a written conflicts of interest policy, adopts written art valuation guidelines, hires legal counsel to recover the excess amounts O had paid its former trustees, and implements a new program of activities to further the public's appreciation of the arts.

(ii) O's purchases of art from its former trustees at more than fair market value constitute excess benefit transactions between an applicable tax-exempt organization and disqualified persons under section 4958. Therefore, these transactions are subject to the applicable excise taxes provided in that section. In addition, O's purchases of art from its trustees at more than fair market value violate the proscription against inurement under section 501(c)(3) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The application of the factors in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to these facts is as follows. In Year 3, O does not engage primarily in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes. However, in Year 4, O elects a new board of trustees comprised of individuals who have skills and experience running charitable and educational programs and implements a new program of activities to further the public's appreciation of the arts. As a result of these actions, beginning in Year 4, O engages in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes. The size and scope of the excess benefit transactions that occurred in Year 3, taken collectively, are significant in relation to the size and scope of O's regular and ongoing exempt function activities that were conducted in Year 3. Beginning in Year 4, however, as O's exempt function activities grow, the size and scope of the excess benefit transactions that occurred in Year 3 become less and less significant as compared to the size and scope of O's regular and ongoing exempt function activities. O was involved in multiple excess benefit transactions in Year 3. However, by discontinuing its practice of purchasing art from its current and former trustees, by replacing its former board with independent members of the community, and by adopting a conflicts of interest policy and art valuation guidelines, O has implemented safeguards that are reasonably calculated to prevent future violations. In addition, O has made a good faith effort to seek correction from the disqualified persons who benefited from the excess benefit transactions (its former trustees). Based on the application of the factors to these facts, O continues to meet the requirements for tax exemption under section 501(c)(3).

Example 3. (i) O conducts educational programs for the benefit of the general public. Since its formation, O has employed its founder, C, as its Chief Executive Officer. Beginning in Year 5 of O's operations and continuing to the present, C caused O to divert significant portions of O's funds to pay C's personal expenses. The diversions by C significantly reduced the funds available to conduct O's ongoing educational programs. The board of trustees never authorized C to cause O to pay C's personal expenses from O's funds. Certain members of the board were aware that O was paying C's personal expenses. However, the board did not terminate C's employment and did not take any action to seek repayment from C or to prevent C from continuing to divert O's funds to pay C's personal expenses. C claimed that O's payments of C's personal expenses represented loans from O to C. However, no contemporaneous loan documentation exists, and C never made any payments of principal or interest.

(ii) The diversions of O's funds to pay C's personal expenses constitute excess benefit transactions between an applicable tax-exempt organization and a disqualified person under section 4958. Therefore, these transactions are subject to the applicable excise taxes provided in that section. In addition, these transactions violate the proscription against inurement under section 501(c)(3) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The application of the factors in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to these facts is as follows. O has engaged in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes both before and after the excess benefit transactions occurred. However, the size and scope of the excess benefit transactions engaged in by O beginning in Year 5, collectively, are significant in relation to the size and scope of O's activities that further exempt purposes. Moreover, O has been involved in multiple excess benefit transactions. O has not implemented any safeguards that are reasonably calculated to prevent future diversions. The excess benefit transactions have not been corrected, nor has O made good faith efforts to seek correction from C, the disqualified person who benefited from the excess benefit transactions. Based on the application of the factors to these facts, O is no longer described in section 501(c)(3) effective in Year 5.

Example 4. (i) O conducts activities that further exempt purposes. O uses several buildings in the conduct of its exempt activities. In Year 1, O sold one of the buildings to Company K for an amount that was substantially below fair market value. The sale was a significant event in relation to O's other activities. C, O's Chief Executive Officer, owns all of the voting stock of Company K. When O's board of trustees approved the transaction with Company K, the board did not perform due diligence that could have made it aware that the price paid by Company K to acquire the building was below fair market value. Subsequently, but before the IRS commences an examination of O, O's board of trustees determines that Company K paid less than the fair market value for the building. Thus, O concludes that an excess benefit transaction occurred. After the board makes this determination, it promptly removes C as Chief Executive Officer, terminates C's employment with O, and hires legal counsel to recover the excess benefit from Company K. In addition, O promptly adopts a conflicts of interest policy and new contract review procedures designed to prevent future recurrences of this problem.

(ii) The sale of the building by O to Company K at less than fair market value constitutes an excess benefit transaction between an applicable tax-exempt organization and a disqualified person under section 4958 in Year 1. Therefore, this transaction is subject to the applicable excise taxes provided in that section. In addition, this transaction violates the proscription against inurement under section 501(c)(3) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The application of the factors in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to these facts is as follows. O has engaged in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes both before and after the excess benefit transaction occurred. Although the size and scope of the excess benefit transaction were significant in relation to the size and scope of O's activities that further exempt purposes, the transaction with Company K was a one-time occurrence. By adopting a conflicts of interest policy and new contract review procedures and by terminating C, O has implemented safeguards that are reasonably calculated to prevent future violations. Moreover, O took corrective actions before the IRS commenced an examination of O. In addition, O has made a good faith effort to seek correction from Company K, the disqualified person who benefited from the excess benefit transaction. Based on the application of the factors to these facts, O continues to be described in section 501(c)(3).

Example 5. (i) O is a large organization with substantial assets and revenues. O conducts activities that further its exempt purposes. O employs C as its Chief Financial Officer. During Year 1, O pays $2,500 of C's personal expenses. O does not make these payments pursuant to an accountable plan, as described in §53.4958-4(a)(4)(ii). In addition, O does not report any of these payments on C's Form W-2, “Wage and Tax Statement,” or on a Form 1099-MISC, “Miscellaneous Income,” for C for Year 1, and O does not report these payments as compensation on its Form 990, “Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax,” for Year 1. Moreover, none of these payments can be disregarded as nontaxable fringe benefits under §53.4958-4(c)(2) and none consisted of fixed payments under an initial contract under §53.4958-4(a)(3). C does not report the $2,500 of payments as income on his individual Federal income tax return for Year 1. O does not repeat this reporting omission in subsequent years and, instead, reports all payments of C's personal expenses not made under an accountable plan as income to C.

(ii) O's payment in Year 1 of $2,500 of C's personal expenses constitutes an excess benefit transaction between an applicable tax-exempt organization and a disqualified person under section 4958. Therefore, this transaction is subject to the applicable excise taxes provided in that section. In addition, this transaction violates the proscription against inurement in section 501(c)(3) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The application of the factors in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to these facts is as follows. O engages in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes. The payment of $2,500 of C's personal expenses represented only a de minimis portion of O's assets and revenues; thus, the size and scope of the excess benefit transaction were not significant in relation to the size and scope of O's activities that further exempt purposes. The reporting omission that resulted in the excess benefit transaction in Year 1 occurred only once and is not repeated in subsequent years. Based on the application of the factors to these facts, O continues to be described in section 501(c)(3).

Example 6. (i) O is a large organization with substantial assets and revenues. O furthers its exempt purposes by providing social services to the population of a specific geographic area. O has a sizeable workforce of employees and volunteers to conduct its work. In Year 1, O's board of directors adopted written procedures for setting executive compensation at O. O's executive compensation procedures were modeled on the procedures for establishing a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness under §53.4958-6. In accordance with these procedures, the board appointed a compensation committee to gather data on compensation levels paid by similarly situated organizations for functionally comparable positions. The members of the compensation committee were disinterested within the meaning of §53.4958-6(c)(1)(iii). Based on its research, the compensation committee recommended a range of reasonable compensation for several of O's existing top executives (the Top Executives). On the basis of the committee's recommendations, the board approved new compensation packages for the Top Executives and timely documented the basis for its decision in board minutes. The board members were all disinterested within the meaning of §53.4958-6(c)(1)(iii). The Top Executives were not involved in setting their own compensation. In Year 1, even though payroll expenses represented a significant portion of O's total operating expenses, the total compensation paid to O's Top Executives represented only an insubstantial portion of O's total payroll expenses. During a subsequent examination, the IRS found that the compensation committee relied exclusively on compensation data from organizations that perform similar social services to O. The IRS concluded, however, that the organizations were not similarly situated because they served substantially larger geographic regions with more diverse populations and were larger than O in terms of annual revenues, total operating budget, number of employees, and number of beneficiaries served. Accordingly, the IRS concluded that the compensation committee did not rely on “appropriate data as to comparability” within the meaning of §53.4958-6(c)(2) and, thus, failed to establish the rebuttable presumption of reasonableness under §53.4958-6. Taking O's size and the nature of the geographic area and population it serves into account, the IRS concluded that the Top Executives' compensation packages for Year 1 were excessive. As a result of the examination, O's board added new members to the compensation committee who have expertise in compensation matters and also amended its written procedures to require the compensation committee to evaluate a number of specific factors, including size, geographic area, and population covered by the organization, in assessing the comparability of compensation data. O's board renegotiated the Top Executives' contracts in accordance with the recommendations of the newly constituted compensation committee on a going forward basis. To avoid potential liability for damages under state contract law, O did not seek to void the Top Executives' employment contracts retroactively to Year 1 and did not seek correction of the excess benefit amounts from the Top Executives. O did not terminate any of the Top Executives.

(ii) O's payments of excessive compensation to the Top Executives in Year 1 constituted excess benefit transactions between an applicable tax-exempt organization and disqualified persons under section 4958. Therefore, these payments are subject to the applicable excise taxes provided under that section, including second-tier taxes if there is no correction by the disqualified persons. In addition, these payments violate the proscription against inurement under section 501(c)(3) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The application of the factors in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to these facts is as follows. O has engaged in regular and ongoing activities that further exempt purposes both before and after the excess benefit transactions occurred. The size and scope of the excess benefit transactions, in the aggregate, were not significant in relation to the size and scope of O's activities that further exempt purposes. O engaged in multiple excess benefit transactions. Nevertheless, prior to entering into these excess benefit transactions, O had implemented written procedures for setting the compensation of its top management that were reasonably calculated to prevent the occurrence of excess benefit transactions. O followed these written procedures in setting the compensation of the Top Executives for Year 1. Despite the board's failure to rely on appropriate comparability data, the fact that O implemented and followed these written procedures in setting the compensation of the Top Executives for Year 1 is a factor favoring continued exemption. The fact that O amended its written procedures to ensure the use of appropriate comparability data and renegotiated the Top Executives' compensation packages on a going-forward basis are also factors favoring continued exemption, even though O did not void the Top Executives' existing contracts and did not seek correction from the Top Executives. Based on the application of the factors to these facts, O continues to be described in section 501(c)(3).

(3) Applicability. The rules in paragraph (f) of this section will apply with respect to excess benefit transactions occurring after March 28, 2008.

(g) Applicability of regulations in this section. The regulations in this section are, except as otherwise expressly provided, applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after July 26, 1959. For the rules applicable with respect to taxable years beginning before July 27, 1959, see 26 CFR (1939) 39.101(6)-1 (Regulations 118) as made applicable to the Code by Treasury Decision 6091, approved August 16, 1954 (19 FR 5167; C.B. 1954-2, 47).

(h) [Reserved] For further guidance see §1.501(c)(3)-1T(h).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6525, 26 FR 189, Jan. 11, 1961; T.D. 6939, 32 FR 17661, Dec. 12, 1967; T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34620, Aug. 16, 1976; T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35587, Aug. 31, 1990; T.D. 9390, 73 FR 16521, Mar. 28, 2008; T.D. 9390, 73 FR 23069, Apr. 29, 2008; T.D. 9674, 79 FR 37631, July 2, 2014]

§1.501(c)(3)-1T   Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals (temporary).

(a) through (b)(1)(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance see §1.501(c)(3)-1(a) through (b)(1)(iv).

(v) Unless otherwise prescribed by applicable regulations or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin, an organization must, in order to establish its exemption, submit a detailed statement of its proposed activities with and as a part of its application for exemption (see paragraph (b) of §1.501(a)-1).

(b)(2) through (b)(5) [Reserved] For further guidance see §1.501(c)(3)-1(b)(2) through (b)(5).

(6) Applicability of the organizational test. A determination by the Commissioner that an organization is described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt under section 501(a) will not be granted after July 26, 1959, regardless of when the application is filed, unless such organization meets the organizational test prescribed by this paragraph (b)(6). If, before July 27, 1959, an organization has been determined by the Commissioner or district director to be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) or in a corresponding provision of prior law and such determination has not been revoked before such date, the fact that such organization does not meet the organizational test prescribed by this paragraph (b)(6) shall not be a basis for revoking such determination. Accordingly, an organization that has been determined to be exempt before July 27, 1959, and which does not seek a new determination of exemption is not required to amend its articles of organization to conform to the rules of this paragraph (b)(6), but any organization that seeks a determination of exemption after July 26, 1959, must have articles of organization that meet the rules of this paragraph (b)(6). For the rules relating to whether an organization determined to be exempt before July 27, 1959, is organized exclusively for one or more exempt purposes, see 26 CFR (1939) 39.101(6)-1 (Regulations 118) as made applicable to the Code by Treasury Decision 6091, approved August 16, 1954 (19 FR 5167; CB 1954-2, 47).

(c) through (g) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.501(c)(3)-1(c) through (g).

(h) Effective/applicability date. (1) Paragraphs (b)(1)(v) and (b)(6) of this section apply on and after July 1, 2014.

(2) Expiration date. Paragraphs (b)(1)(v) and (b)(6) of this section expire on or before June 30, 2017.

[T.D. 9674, 79 FR 37631, July 2, 2014; 79 FR 39311, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 41886, July 18, 2014]

§1.501(c)(4)-1   Civic organizations and local associations of employees.

(a) Civic organizations—(1) In general. A civic league or organization may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(4) if—

(i) It is not organized or operated for profit; and

(ii) It is operated exclusively for the promotion of social welfare.

(2) Promotion of social welfare—(i) In general. An organization is operated exclusively for the promotion of social welfare if it is primarily engaged in promoting in some way the common good and general welfare of the people of the community. An organization embraced within this section is one which is operated primarily for the purpose of bringing about civic betterments and social improvements. A social welfare organization will qualify for exemption as a charitable organization if it falls within the definition of charitable set forth in paragraph (d)(2) of §1.501(c)(3)-1 and is not an action organization as set forth in paragraph (c)(3) of §1.501(c)(3)-1.

(ii) Political or social activities. The promotion of social welfare does not include direct or indirect participation or intervention in political campaigns on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office. Nor is an organization operated primarily for the promotion of social welfare if its primary activity is operating a social club for the benefit, pleasure, or recreation of its members, or is carrying on a business with the general public in a manner similar to organizations which are operated for profit. See, however, section 501(c)(6) and §1.501(c)(6)-1, relating to business leagues and similar organizations. A social welfare organization that is not, at any time after October 4, 1976, exempt from taxation as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) may qualify under section 501(c)(4) even though it is an action organization described in §1.501(c)(3)-1(c)(3)(ii) or (iv), if it otherwise qualifies under this section. For rules relating to an organization that is, after October 4, 1976, exempt from taxation as an organization described in section 501(c)(3), see section 504 and §1.504-1.

(b) Local associations of employees. Local associations of employees described in section 501(c)(4) are expressly entitled to exemption under section 501(a). As conditions to exemption, it is required (1) that the membership of such an association be limited to the employees of a designated person or persons in a particular municipality, and (2) that the net earnings of the association be devoted exclusively to charitable, educational, or recreational purposes. The word local is defined in paragraph (b) of §1.501(c)(12)-1. See paragraph (d) (2) and (3) of §1.501(c)(3)-1 with reference to the meaning of charitable and educational as used in this section.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, as amended by T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35588, Aug. 31, 1990]

§1.501(c)(5)-1   Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

(a) The organizations contemplated by section 501(c)(5) as entitled to exemption from income taxation are those which:

(1) Have no net earnings inuring to the benefit of any member, and

(2) Have as their objects the betterment of the conditions of those engaged in such pursuits, the improvement of the grade of their products, and the development of a higher degree of efficiency in their respective occupations.

(b)(1) General rule. An organization is not an organization described in section 501(c)(5) if the principal activity of the organization is to receive, hold, invest, disburse or otherwise manage funds associated with savings or investment plans or programs, including pension or other retirement savings plans or programs.

(2) Exception. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall not apply to an organization which—

(i) Is established and maintained by another labor organization described in section 501(c)(5) (determined without regard to this paragraph (b)(2));

(ii) Is not directly or indirectly established or maintained in whole or in part by one or more—

(A) Employers;

(B) Governments or agencies or instrumentalities thereof; or

(C) Government controlled entities;

(iii) Is funded by membership dues from members of the labor organization described in this paragraph (b)(2) and earnings thereon; and

(iv) Has not at any time after September 2, 1974 (the date of enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93-406, 88 Stat. 829) provided for, permitted or accepted employer contributions.

(3) Example. The principles of this paragraph (b) are illustrated by the following example:

Example. Trust A is organized in accordance with a collective bargaining agreement between labor union K and multiple employers. Trust A forms part of a plan that is established and maintained pursuant to the agreement and which covers employees of the signatory employers who are members of K. Representatives of both the employers and K serve as trustees. A receives contributions from the employers who are subject to the agreement. Retirement benefits paid to K's members as specified in the agreement are funded exclusively by the employers' contributions and accumulated earnings. A also provides information to union members about their retirement benefits and assists them with administrative tasks associated with the benefits. Most of A's activities are devoted to these functions. From time to time, A also participates in the renegotiation of the collective bargaining agreement. A's principal activity is to receive, hold, invest, disburse, or otherwise manage funds associated with a retirement savings plan. In addition, A does not satisfy all the requirements of the exception described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. (For example, A accepts contributions from employers.) Therefore, A is not a labor organization described in section 501(c)(5).

(c) Organizations described in section 501(c)(5) and otherwise exempt from tax under section 501(a) are taxable upon their unrelated business taxable income. See part II (section 511 and following), subchapter F, chapter 1 of the Code, and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, as amended by T.D. 8726, 62 FR 40449, July 29, 1997]

§1.501(c)(6)-1   Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade.

A business league is an association of persons having some common business interest, the purpose of which is to promote such common interest and not to engage in a regular business of a kind ordinarily carried on for profit. It is an organization of the same general class as a chamber of commerce or board of trade. Thus, its activities should be directed to the improvement of business conditions of one or more lines of business as distinguished from the performance of particular services for individual persons. An organization whose purpose is to engage in a regular business of a kind ordinarily carried on for profit, even though the business is conducted on a cooperative basis or produces only sufficient income to be self-sustaining, is not a business league. An association engaged in furnishing information to prospective investors, to enable them to make sound investments, is not a business league, since its activities do not further any common business interest, even though all of its income is devoted to the purpose stated. A stock or commodity exchange is not a business league, a chamber of commerce, or a board of trade within the meaning of section 501(c)(6) and is not exempt from tax. Organizations otherwise exempt from tax under this section are taxable upon their unrelated business taxable income. See part II (section 511 and following), subchapter F, chapter 1 of the Code, and the regulations thereunder.

§1.501(c)(7)-1   Social clubs.

(a) The exemption provided by section 501(a) for organizations described in section 501(c)(7) applies only to clubs which are organized and operated exclusively for pleasure, recreation, and other nonprofitable purposes, but does not apply to any club if any part of its net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder. In general, this exemption extends to social and recreation clubs which are supported solely by membership fees, dues, and assessments. However, a club otherwise entitled to exemption will not be disqualified because it raises revenue from members through the use of club facilities or in connection with club activities.

(b) A club which engages in business, such as making its social and recreational facilities available to the general public or by selling real estate, timber, or other products, is not organized and operated exclusively for pleasure, recreation, and other nonprofitable purposes, and is not exempt under section 501(a). Solicitation by advertisement or otherwise for public patronage of its facilities is prima facie evidence that the club is engaging in business and is not being operated exclusively for pleasure, recreation, or social purposes. However, an incidental sale of property will not deprive a club of its exemption.

§1.501(c)(8)-1   Fraternal beneficiary societies.

(a) A fraternal beneficiary society is exempt from tax only if operated under the lodge system or for the exclusive benefit of the members so operating. Operating under the lodge system means carrying on its activities under a form of organization that comprises local branches, chartered by a parent organization and largely self-governing, called lodges, chapters, or the like. In order to be exempt it is also necessary that the society have an established system for the payment to its members or their dependents of life, sick, accident, or other benefits.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7061, 35 FR 14770, Sept. 23, 1970]

§1.501(c)(9)-1   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations, in general.

To be described in section 501(c)(9) an organization must meet all of the following requirements:

(a) The organization is an employees' association,

(b) Membership in the association is voluntary,

(c) The organization provides for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits to its members or their dependents or designated beneficiaries, and substantially all of its operations are in furtherance of providing such benefits, and

(d) No part of the net earnings of the organization inures, other than by payment of the benefits referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

[T.D. 7750, 45 FR 1721, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-2   Membership in a voluntary employees' beneficiary association; employees; voluntary association of employees.

(a) Membership—(1) In general. The membership of an organization described in section 501(c)(9) must consist of individuals who become entitled to participate by reason of their being employees and whose eligibility for membership is defined by reference to objective standards that constitute an employment-related common bond among such individuals. Typically, those eligible for membership in an organization described in section 501(c)(9) are defined by reference to a common employer (or affiliated employers), to coverage under one or more collective bargaining agreements (with respect to benefits provided by reason of such agreement(s)), to membership in a labor union, or to membership in one or more locals of a national or international labor union. For example, membership in an association might be open to all employees of a particular employer, or to employees in specified job classifications working for certain employers at specified locations and who are entitled to benefits by reason of one or more collective bargaining agreements. In addition, employees of one or more employers engaged in the same line of business in the same geographic locale will be considered to share an employment-related bond for purposes of an organization through which their employers provide benefits. Employees of a labor union also will be considered to share an employment-related common bond with members of the union, and employees of an association will be considered to share an employment-related common bond with members of the association. Whether a group of individuals is defined by reference to a permissible standard or standards is a question to be determined with regard to all the facts and circumstances, taking into account the guidelines set forth in this paragraph. Exemption will not be denied merely because the membership of an association includes some individuals who are not employees (within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section), provided that such individuals share an employment-related bond with the employee-members. Such individuals may include, for example, the proprietor of a business whose employees are members of the association. For purposes of the preceding two sentences, an association will be considered to be composed of employees if 90 percent of the total membership of the association on one day of each quarter of the association's taxable year consists of employees (within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section).

(2) Restrictions—(i) In general. Eligibility for membership may be restricted by geographic proximity, or by objective conditions or limitations reasonably related to employment, such as a limitation to a reasonable classification of workers, a limitation based on a reasonable minimum period of service, a limitation based on maximum compensation, or a requirement that a member be employed on a full-time basis. Similarly, eligibility for benefits may be restricted by objective conditions relating to the type or amount of benefits offered. Any objective criteria used to restrict eligibility for membership or benefits may not, however, be selected or administered in a manner that limits membership or benefits to officers, shareholders, or highly compensated employees of an employer contributing to or otherwise funding the employees' association. Similarly, eligibility for benefits may not be subject to conditions or limitations that have the effect of entitling officers, shareholders, or highly compensated employees of an employer contributing to or otherwise funding the employees' association to benefits that are disproportionate in relation to benefits to which other members of the association are entitled. See §1.501(c)(9)-4(b). Whether the selection or administration of objective conditions has the effect of providing disproportionate benefits to officers, shareholders, or highly compensated employees generally is to be determined on the basis of all the facts and circumstances.

(ii) Generally permissible restrictions or conditions. In general the following restrictions will not be considered to be inconsistent with §1.501(c)(9)-2(a)(2)(i) or §1.501(c)(9)-4(b):

(A) In the case of an employer-funded organization, a provision that excludes or has the effect of excluding from membership in the organization or participation in a particular benefit plan employees who are members of another organization or covered by a different plan, funded or contributed to by the employer, to the extent that such other organization or plan offers similar benefits on comparable terms to the excluded employees.

(B)  In the case of an employer funded-organization, a provision that excludes from membership, or limits the type or amount of benefits provided to, individuals who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement which the Secretary of Labor finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers, if there is evidence that the benefit or benefits provided by the organization were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers.

(C)  Restrictions or conditions on eligibility for membership or benefits that are determined through collective bargaining, by trustees designated pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement, or by the collective bargaining agents of the members of an association or trustees named by such agent or agents.

(D)  The allowance of benefits only on condition that a member or recipient contribute to the cost of such benefits, or the allowance of different benefits based solely on differences in contributions, provided that those making equal contributions are entitled to comparable benefits.

(E)  A requirement that a member (or a member's dependents) meet a reasonable health standard related to eligibility for a particular benefit.

(F)  The provision of life benefits in amounts that are a uniform percentage of the compensation received by the individual whose life is covered.

(G) The provision of benefits in the nature of wage replacement in the event of disability in amounts that are a uniform percentage of the compensation of the covered individuals (either before or after taking into account any disability benefits provided through social security or any similar plan providing for wage replacement in the event of disability).

(3) Examples.   The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement entered into by X Corporation and W, a labor union which represents all of X Corporation's hourly-paid employees, the X Corporation Union Benefit Plan is established to provide life insurance benefits to employees of X represented by W. The Plan is funded by contributions from X, and is jointly administered by X and W. In order to provide its non-unionized employees with comparable life insurance benefits, X also establishes and funds the X Corporation Life Insurance Trust. The Trust will not be ineligible for exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(9) solely because membership is restricted to those employees of X who are not members of W.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that the life insurance benefit provided to the non-unionized employees of X differs from the life insurance benefit provided to the unionized employees of X pursuant to the collective bargaining agreement. The trust will not be ineligible for exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(9) solely because the life insurance benefit provided to X's nonunionized employees is not same as the life insurance benefit provided to X's unionized employees.
Example 3. S corporation established a plan to provide health benefits to all its employees. In accordance with the provisions of the plan each employee may secure insurance coverage by making an election under which the employee agrees to contribute periodically to the plan an amount which is determined solely by whether the employee elects a high option coverage or a low option coverage and on whether the employee is unmarried or has a family. As an alternative, the employee may elect high or low options, self only or self and family, coverage through a local prepaid group medical plan. The contributions required of those electing the prepaid group medical plan also vary with the type of coverage selected, and differ from those required of employees electing insurance. The difference between the amount contributed by employees electing the various coverages and the actual cost of purchasing the coverage is made up through contributions by S to the plan, and under the plan, S provides approximately the same proportion of the cost for each coverage. To fund the plan, S established an arrangement in the nature of a trust under applicable local law and contributes all employee contributions, and all amounts which by the terms of the plan it is required to contribute, to the trust. The terms of the plan do not provide for disproportionate benefits to the employees of S and will not be considered inconsistent with §1.501(c)(9)-2(a)(2)(i).
Example 4. The facts are the same as in Example 3 except that, for those employees or former employees covered by Medicare, the plan provides a distinct coverage which supplements Medicare benefits. Eligibility for Medicare is an objective condition relating to a type of benefit offered, and the provision of separate coverage for those eligible for Medicare will not be considered inconsistent with §1.501(c)(9)-2(a)(2)(i).

(b) Meaning of employee. Whether an individual is an employee is determined by reference to the legal and bona fide relationship of employer and employee. The term employee includes the following:

(1) An individual who is considered an employee:

(i) For employment tax purposes under subtitle C of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder, or

(ii) For purposes of a collective bargaining agreement,

whether or not the individual could qualify as an employee under applicable common law rules. This would include any person who is considered an employee for purposes of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, 61 Stat. 136, as amended, 29 U.S.C. 141 (1979).

(2) An individual who became entitled to membership in the association by reason of being or having been an employee. Thus, an individual who would otherwise qualify under this paragraph will continue to qualify as an employee even though such individual is on leave of absence, works temporarily for another employer or as an independent contractor, or has been terminated by reason of retirement, disability or layoff. For example, an individual who in the normal course of employment is employed intermittently by more than one employer in an industry characterized by short-term employment by several different employers will not, by reason of temporary unemployment, cease to be an employee within the meaning of this paragraph.

(3) The surviving spouse and dependents of an employee (if, for purposes of the 90-percent test of §1.501(c)(9)-2(a)(1) they are considered to be members of the association).

(c) Description of voluntary association of employees—(1) Association. To be described in section 501(c)(9) and this section there must be an entity, such as a corporation or trust established under applicable local law, having an existence independent of the member-employees or their employer.

(2) Voluntary. Generally, membership in an association is voluntary if an affirmative act is required on the part of an employee to become a member rather than the designation as a member due to employee status. However, an association shall be considered voluntary although membership is required of all employees, provided that the employees do not incur a detriment (for example, in the form of deductions from pay) as the result of membership in the association. An employer is not deemed to have imposed involuntary membership on the employee if membership is required as the result of a collective bargaining agreement or as an incident of membership in a labor organization.

(3) Of employees. To be described in this section, an organization must be controlled—

(i) By its membership,

(ii) By independent trustee(s) (such as a bank), or

(iii) By trustees or other fiduciaries at least some of whom are designated by, or on behalf of, the membership. Whether control by or on behalf of the membership exists is a question to be determined with regard to all of the facts and circumstances, but generally such control will be deemed to be present when the membership (either directly or through its representative) elects, appoints or otherwise designates a person or persons to serve as chief operating officer(s), administrator(s), or trustee(s) of the organization. For purposes of this paragraph an organization will be considered to be controlled by independent trustees if it is an employee welfare benefit plan, as defined in section 3(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), and, as such, is subject to the requirements of parts 1 and 4 of subtitle B, title I of ERISA. Similarly, a plan will be considered to be controlled by its membership if it is controlled by one or more trustees designated pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement (whether or not the bargaining agent of the represented employees bargained for and obtained the right to participate in selecting the trustees).

(4) Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. X, a labor union, represents all the hourly-paid employees of Y Corporation. A health insurance benefit plan was established by X and Y as the result of a collective bargaining agreement entered into by them. The plan established the terms and conditions of membership in, and the benefits to be provided by, the plan. In accordance with the terms of the agreement, Y Corporation is obligated to establish a trust fund and make contributions thereto at specified rates. The trustees, some of whom are designated by X and some by Y, are authorized to hold and invest the assets of the trust and to make payments on instructions issued by Y Corporation in accordance with the conditions contained in the plan. The interdependent benefit plan agreement and trust indenture together create a voluntary employees' beneficiary association over which the employees posses the requisite control through the trustees designated by their representative, X.
Example 2. Z Corporation unilaterally established an educational benefit plan for its employees. The purpose of the plan is to provide payments for job-related educational or training courses, such as apprenticeship training programs, for Z Corporation employees, according to objective criteria set forth in the plan. Z establishes a separate bank account which it uses to fund payments to the plan. Contributions to the account are to be made at the discretion of and solely by Z Corporation, which also administers the plan and retains control over the assets in the fund. Z Corporation's educational benefit plan and the related account do not constitute an association having an existence independent of Z Corporation and therefore do not constitute a voluntary employees' beneficiary association.
Example 3. A, an individual, is the incorporator and chief operating officer of Lawyers' Beneficiary Association (LBA). LBA is engaged in the business of providing medical benefits to members of the Association and their families. Membership is open only to practicing lawyers located in a particular metropolitan area who are neither self-employed nor partners in a law firm. Membership in LBA is solicited by insurance agents under the control of X Corporation (owned by A) which, by contract with LBA, is the exclusive sales agent. Medical benefits are paid from a trust account containing periodic contributions paid by the members, together with proceeds from the investment of those contributions. Contribution and benefit levels are set by LBA. The members of LBA do not hold meetings, have no right to elect officers or directors of the Association, and no right to replace trustees. Collectively, the subscribers for medical benefits from LBA cannot be said to control the association and membership is neither more than nor different from the purchase of an insurance policy from a stock insurance company. LBA is not a voluntary employees' beneficiary association.
Example 4. U corporation unilaterally established a plan to provide benefits to its employees. In accordance with the provisions of the plan, each employee may secure insurance or benefit coverage by making an election under which the employee agrees to contribute to the plan an amount which is determined solely by whether the employee elects a high option coverage or a low option coverage and on whether the employee elects self only or self and family coverage. The difference between the amount contributed by employees electing the various coverages and the actual cost of the coverage is made up through contributions by U to the plan. To fund the plan, U established an arrangement in the nature of a trust under applicable local law and contributed all employee contributions, and all amounts which by the term of the plan it was required to provide to the plan, to the trust. The trust constitutes an employee welfare benefit plan within the meaning of, and subject to relevant requirements of, ERISA. It will be considered to meet the requirements of §1.501(c)(9)-2(c)(3).

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1723, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-3   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; life, sick, accident, or other benefits.

(a) In general. The life, sick, accident, or other benefits provided by a voluntary employees' beneficiary association must be payable to its members, their dependents, or their designated beneficiaries. For purposes of section 501(c)(9), dependent means the member's spouse; any child of the member or the member's spouse who is a minor or a student (within the meaning of section 151(e)(4)); any other minor child residing with the member; and any other individual who an association, relying on information furnished to it by a member, in good faith believes is a person described in section 152(a). Life, sick, accident, or other benefits may take the form of cash or noncash benefits. A voluntary employees' beneficiary association is not operated for the purpose of providing life, sick, accident, or other benefits unless substantially all of its operations are in furtherance of the provision of such benefits. Further, an organization is not described in this section if it systematically and knowingly provides benefits (of more than a de minimis amount) that are not permitted by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section.

(b) Life benefits. The term life benefits means a benefit (including a burial benefit or a wreath) payable by reason of the death of a member or dependent. A life benefit may be provided directly or through insurance. It generally must consist of current protection, but also may include a right to convert to individual coverage on termination of eligibility for coverage through the association, or a permanent benefit as defined in, and subject to the conditions in, the regulations under section 79. A life benefit also includes the benefit provided under any life insurance contract purchased directly from an employee-funded association by a member or provided by such an association to a member. The term life benefit does not include a pension, annuity or similar benefit, except that a benefit payable by reason of the death of an insured may be settled in the form of an annuity to the beneficiary in lieu of a lump-sum death benefit (whether or not the contract provides for settlement in a lump sum).

(c) Sick and accident benefits. The term sick and accident benefits means amounts furnished to or on behalf of a member or a member's dependents in the event of illness or personal injury to a member or dependent. Such benefits may be provided through reimbursement to a member or a member's dependents for amounts expended because of illness or personal injury, or through the payment of premiums to a medical benefit or health insurance program. Similarly, a sick and accident benefit includes an amount paid to a member in lieu of income during a period in which the member is unable to work due to sickness or injury. Sick benefits also include benefits designed to safeguard or improve the health of members and their dependents. Sick and accident benefits may be provided directly by an association to or on behalf of members and their dependents, or may be provided indirectly by an association through the payment of premiums or fees to an insurance company, medical clinic, or other program under which members and their dependents are entitled to medical services or to other sick and accident benefits. Sick and accident benefits may also be furnished in noncash form, such as, for example, benefits in the nature of clinical care services by visiting nurses, and transportation furnished for medical care.

(d) Other benefits. The term other benefits includes only benefits that are similar to life, sick, or accident benefits. A benefit is similar to a life, sick, or accident benefit if:

(1) It is intended to safeguard or improve the health of a member or a member's dependents, or

(2) It protects against a contingency that interrupts or impairs a member's earning power.

(e) Examples of other benefits. Paying vacation benefits, providing vacation facilities, reimbursing vacation expenses, and subsidizing recreational activities such as athletic leagues are considered other benefits. The provision of child-care facilities for preschool and school-age dependents are also considered other benefits. The provision of job readjustment allowances, income maintenance payments in the event of economic dislocation, temporary living expense loans and grants at times of disaster (such as fire or flood), supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section 501(c)(17)(D)(i) of the Code), severance benefits (under a severance pay plan within the meaning of 29 CFR 2510.3-2(b)) and education or training benefits or courses (such as apprentice training programs) for members, are considered other benefits because they protect against a contingency that interrupts earning power. Personal legal service benefits which consist of payments or credits to one or more organizations or trusts described in section 501(c)(20) are considered other benefits. Except to the extent otherwise provided in these regulations, as amended from time to time, other benefits also include any benefit provided in the manner permitted by paragraphs (5) et seq. of section 302(c) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, 61 Stat. 136, as amended, 29 U.S.C. 186(c) (1979).

(f) Examples of nonqualifying benefits. Benefits that are not described in paragraphs (d) or (e) of this section are not other benefits. Thus, other benefits do not include the payment of commuting expenses, such as bridge tolls or train fares, the provision of accident or homeowner's insurance benefits for damage to property, the provision of malpractice insurance, or the provision of loans to members except in times of distress (as permitted by §1.501(c)(9)-3(e)). Other benefits also do not include the provision of savings facilities for members. The term other benefits does not include any benefit that is similar to a pension or annuity payable at the time of mandatory or voluntary retirement, or a benefit that is similar to the benefit provided under a stock bonus or profit-sharing plan. For purposes of section 501(c)(9) and these regulations, a benefit will be considered similar to that provided under a pension, annuity, stock bonus or profit-sharing plan if it provides for deferred compensation that becomes payable by reason of the passage of time, rather than as the result of an unanticipated event. Thus, for example, supplemental unemployment benefits, which generally become payable by reason of unanticipated layoff, are not, for purposes of these regulations, considered similar to the benefit provided under a pension, annuity, stock bonus or profit-sharing plan.

(g) Examples. The provisions of this section may be further illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. V was organized in connection with a vacation plan created pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement between M, a labor union, which represents certain hourly paid employees of T corporation, and T. The agreement calls for the payment by T to V of a specified sum per hour worked by T employees who are covered by the collective bargaining agreement. T includes the amounts in the covered employees' wages and withholds income and FICA taxes. The amounts are paid by T to V to provide vacation benefits provided under the collective bargaining agreement. Generally, each covered employee receives a check in payment of his or her vacation benefit during the year following the year in which contributions were made by T to V. The amount of the vacation benefit is determined by reference to the contributions during the prior year to V by T on behalf of each employee, and is distributed in cash to each such employee. If the earnings on investments by V during the year preceding distribution are sufficient after deducting the expenses of administering the plan, each recipient of a vacation benefit is paid an amount, in addition to the contributions on his or her behalf, equal to his/her ratable share of the net earnings of V during such year. The plan provides a vacation benefit that constitutes an eligible other benefit described in section 501(c)(9) and §1.501(c)(9)-3(e).
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that each covered employee of T is entitled, at his or her discretion, to contribute up to an additional $1,000 each year to V, which agrees in respect of such sum to pay interest at a stated rate from the time of contribution until the time at which the contributing employee's vacation benefit is distributed. In addition, each employee may elect to leave all or a portion of his/her distributable benefit on deposit past the time of distribution, in which case interest will continue to accrue. Because the plan more closely resembles a savings arrangement than a vacation plan, the benefit payable to the covered employees of T is not a vacation benefit and is not an eligible other benefit described in section 501(c)(9) and §1.501(c)(9)-3 (d) or (e).

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1724, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-4   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; inurement.

(a) General rule. No part of the net earnings of an employees' association may inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual other than through the payment of benefits permitted by §1.501(c)(9)-3. The disposition of property to, or the performance of services for, a person for less than the greater of fair market value or cost (including indirect costs) to the association, other than as a life, sick, accident or other permissible benefit, constitutes prohibited inurement. Generally, the payment of unreasonable compensation to the trustees or employees of the association, or the purchase of insurance or services for amounts in excess of their fair market value from a company in which one or more of the association's trustees, officers or fiduciaries has an interest, will constitute prohibited inurement. Whether prohibited inurement has occurred is a question to be determined with regard to all of the facts and circumstances, taking into account the guidelines set forth in this section. The guidelines and examples contained in this section are not an exhaustive list of the activities that may constitute prohibited inurement, or the persons to whom the association's earnings could impermissibly inure. See §1.501(a)-1(c).

(b) Disproportionate benefits. For purposes of subsection (a), the payment to any member of disproportionate benefits, where such payment is not pursuant to objective and nondiscriminatory standards, will not be considered a benefit within the meaning of §1.501(c)(9)-3 even though the benefit otherwise is one of the type permitted by that section. For example, the payment to highly compensated personnel of benefits that are disproportionate in relation to benefits received by other members of the association will constitute prohibited inurement. Also, the payment to similarly situated employees of benefits that differ in kind or amount will constitute prohibited inurement unless the difference can be justified on the basis of objective and reasonable standards adopted by the association or on the basis of standards adopted pursuant to the terms of a collective bargaining agreement. In general, benefits paid pursuant to standards or subject to conditions that do not provide for disproportionate benefits to officers, shareholders, or highly compensated employees will not be considered disproportionate. See §1.501(c)(9)-2(a) (2) and (3).

(c) Rebates. The rebate of excess insurance premiums, based on the mortality or morbidity experience of the insurer to which the premiums were paid, to the person or persons whose contributions were applied to such premiums, does not constitute prohibited inurement. A voluntary employees' beneficiary association may also make administrative adjustments strictly incidental to the provision of benefits to its members.

(d) Termination of plan or dissolution of association. It will not constitute prohibited inurement if, on termination of a plan established by an employer and funded through an association described in section 501(c)(9), any assets remaining in the association, after satisfaction of all liabilities to existing beneficiaries of the plan, are applied to provide, either directly or through the purchase of insurance, life, sick, accident or other benefits within the meaning of §1.501(c)(9)-3 pursuant to criteria that do not provide for disproportionate benefits to officers, shareholders, or highly compensated employees of the employer. See §1.501(c)(9)-2(a)(2). Similarly, a distribution to members upon the dissolution of the association will not constitute prohibited inurement if the amount distributed to members are determined pursuant to the terms of a collective bargaining agreement or on the basis of objective and reasonable standards which do not result in either unequal payments to similarly situated members or in disproportionate payments to officers, shareholders, or highly compensated employees of an employer contributing to or otherwise funding the employees' association. Except as otherwise provided in the first sentence of this paragraph, if the association's corporate charter, articles of association, trust instrument, or other written instrument by which the association was created, as amended from time to time, provides that on dissolution its assets will be distributed to its members' contributing employers, or if in the absence of such provision the law of the state in which the association was created provides for such distribution to the contributing employers, the association is not described in section 501(c)(9).

(e) Example. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Employees A, B and C, members of the X voluntary employees' beneficiary association, are unemployed. They receive unemployment benefits from X. Those to A include an amount in addition to those provided to B and C, to provide for A's retraining. B has been found pursuant to objective and reasonable standards not to qualify for the retraining program. C, although eligible for retraining benefits has declined. X's additional payment to A for retraining does not constitute prohibited inurement.

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1725, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-5   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; recordkeeping requirements.

(a) Records. In addition to such other records which may be required (for example, by section 512(a)(3) and the regulations thereunder), every organization described in section 501(c)(9) must maintain records indicating the amount contributed by each member and contributing employer, and the amount and type of benefits paid by the organization to or on behalf of each member.

(b) Cross reference. For provisions relating to annual information returns with respect to payments, see section 6041 and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1725, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-6   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; benefits includible in gross income.

(a) In general. Cash and noncash benefits realized by a person on account of the activities of an organization described in section 501(c)(9) shall be included in gross income to the extent provided in the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, including, but not limited to, sections 61, 72, 101, 104 and 105 of the Code and regulations thereunder.

(b) Availability of statutory exclusions from gross income. The availability of any statutory exclusion from gross income with respect to contributions to, or the payment of benefits from, an organization described in section 501(c)(9) is determined by the statutory provision conferring the exclusion, and the regulations and rulings thereunder, not by whether an individual is eligible for membership in the organization or by the permissibility of the benefit paid. Thus, for example, if a benefit is paid by an employer-funded organization described in section 501(c)(9) to a member who is not an employee, a statutory exclusion from gross income that is available only for employees would be unavailable in the case of a benefit paid to such individual. Similarly, the fact that, for example, under some circumstances educational benefits constitute other benefits does not of itself mean that such benefits are eligible for the exclusion of either section 117 or section 127 of the Code.

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1725, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-7   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.

The term voluntary employees' beneficiary association in section 501(c)(9) of the Internal Revenue Code is not necessarily coextensive with the term employees' beneficiary association as used in section 3(4) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(4), and the requirements which an organization must meet to be an employees' beneficiary association within the meaning of section 3(4) of ERISA are not necessarily identical to the requirements that an organization must meet in order to be a voluntary employees' beneficiary association within the meaning of section 501(c)(9) of the Code.

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1725, Jan. 7, 1981]

§1.501(c)(9)-8   Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; effective date.

(a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of §§1.501(c)(9)-1 through 1.501(c)(9)-7 shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1954.

(b) Pre-1970 taxable years. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, section 501(c)(9)(B) (relating to the requirement that 85 percent or more of the association's income consist of amounts collected from members and contributed by employers), as in effect for such years, shall apply.

(c) Existing associations. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d), the provisions of §1.501(c)(9)-2(a)(1) and (c)(3) shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980.

(d) Collectively-bargained plans. In the case of a voluntary employees' beneficiary association which receives contributions from one or more employers pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements in effect on December 31, 1980, the provisions of §§1.501(c)(9)-1 through 1.501(c)(9)-5 shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after the date on which the agreement terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after December 31, 1980).

(e) Election. Notwithstanding paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, an organization may choose to be subject to all or a portion of one or more of the provisions of these regulations for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1954.

[T.D. 7750, 46 FR 1725, Jan. 7, 1981; 46 FR 11971, Feb. 12, 1981]

§1.501(c)(10)-1   Certain fraternal beneficiary societies.

(a) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, an organization will qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(10) if it:

(1) Is a domestic fraternal beneficiary society order, or association, described in section 501(c)(8) and the regulations thereunder except that it does not provide for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits to its members, and

(2) Devotes its net earnings exclusively to religious, charitable, scientific, literary, educational, and fraternal purposes

Any organization described in section 501(c)(7), such as, for example, a national college fraternity, is not described in section 501(c)(10) and this section.

[T.D. 7172, 37 FR 5618, Mar. 17, 1972]

§1.501(c)(12)-1   Local benevolent life insurance associations, mutual irrigation and telephone companies, and like organizations.

(a) An organization described in section 501(c)(12) must receive at least 85 percent of its income from amounts collected from members for the sole purpose of meeting losses and expenses. If an organization issues policies for stipulated cash premiums, or if it requires advance deposits to cover the cost of the insurance and maintains investments from which more than 15 percent of its income is derived, it is not entitled to exemption. On the other hand, an organization may be entitled to exemption, although it makes advance assessments for the sole purpose of meeting future losses and expenses, provided that the balance of such assessments remaining on hand at the end of the year is retained to meet losses and expenses or is returned to members.

(b) The phrase of a purely local character applies to benevolent life insurance associations, and not to the other organizations specified in section 501(c)(12). It also applies to any organization seeking exemption on the ground that it is an organization similar to a benevolent life insurance association. An organization of a purely local character is one whose business activities are confined to a particular community, place, or district, irrespective, however, of political subdivisions. If the activities of an organization are limited only by the borders of a State it cannot be considered to be purely local in character.

(c) For taxable years of a mutual or cooperative telephone company beginning after December 31, 1974, the 85 percent member-income test described in paragraph (a) of this section is applied without taking into account income received or accrued from another telephone company for the performance of communication services involving the completion of long distance calls to, from, or between members of the mutual or cooperative telephone company. For example, if, in one year, a cooperative telephone company receives $85x from its members for telephone calls, $15x as interest income, and $20x as credits under long distance interconnection agreements with other telephone companies for the performance of communication services involving the completion of long distance calls to, from, or between the cooperative's members (whether or not the credits may be offset, in whole or in part, by amounts due the other companies under the interconnection agreements), the member-income fraction is calculated without taking into account, either in the numerator or denominator, the $20x credits received from the other telephone companies. In this example, the 85 percent member-income test is satisfied because at least 85 percent

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of the cooperative's total income is derived from member income.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, as amended at 44 FR 59523, Oct. 16, 1979]

§1.501(c)(13)-1   Cemetery companies and crematoria.

(a) Nonprofit mutual cemetery companies. A nonprofit cemetery company may be entitled to exemption if it is owned by and operated exclusively for the benefit of its lot owners who hold such lots for bona fide burial purposes and not for the purpose of fesale. A mutual cemetery company which also engages in charitable activities, such as burial of paupers, will be regarded as operating in conformity with this standard. Further, the fact that a mutual cemetery company limits its membership to a particular class of individuals, such as members of a family, will not affect its status as mutual so long as all the other requirements of section 501(c)(13) are met.

(b) Nonprofit cemetery companies and crematoria. Any nonprofit corporation, chartered solely for the purpose of the burial, or (for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970) the cremation of bodies, and not permitted by its charter to engage in any business not necessarily incident to that purpose, is exempt from income tax, provided that no part of its net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

(c) Preferred stock—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, a cemetery company or crematorium is not described in section 501(c)(13) if it issues preferred stock on or after November 28, 1978.

(2) Transitional rule for preferred stock issued prior to November 28, 1978. In the case of preferred stock issued prior to November 28, 1978, a cemetery company or crematorium which issued such stock shall not fail to be exempt from income tax solely because it issued preferred stock which entitled the holders to dividends at a fixed rate, not exceeding the legal rage of interest in the State of incorporation or 8 percent per annum, whichever is greater, on the value of the consideration for which the stock was issued, if its articles of incorporation require:

(i) That the preferred stock be retired at par as rapidly as funds therefor become available from operations, and

(ii) That all funds not required for the payment of dividends upon or for the retirement of preferred stock be used by the company for the care and inprovement of the cemetery property. The term legal rate of interest shall mean the rate of interest prescribed by law in the State of incorporation which prevails in the absence of an agreement between contracting parties fixing a rate.

(3) Transitional rule for preferred stock issued on or after November 28, 1978. In the case of preferred stok issued on or after November 28, 1978, a cemetery company or crematorium shall not fail to be exempt from income tax if its articles of incorporation and the preferred stock meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) and if such stock is issued pursuant to a plan which has been reduced to writing and adopted prior to November 28, 1978. The adoption of the plan must be shown by the acts of the duly constituted responsible officers and appear upon the official records of the cemetery company or crematorium.

(d) Sales to exempt cemetery companies and crematoria. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section (relating to transitional rules for preferred stock), no person may have any interest in the net earnings of a tax-exempt cemetery company or crematorium. Thus, a cemetery company or crematorium is not exempt from tax if property is transferred to such organization in exchange for an interest in the net earnings of the organization so long as such interest remains outstanding. An interest in a cemetery company or crematorium that constitutes an equity interest within the meaning of section 385 will be considered an interest in the net earnings of the cemetery. However, an interest in a cemetery company or crematorium that does not constitute an equity interest within the meaning of section 385 may nevertheless constitute an interest in the net earning of the organization. Thus, for example, a bond or other evidence of indebtedness issued by a cemetery company or crematorium which provides for a fixed rate of interest but which, in addition, provides for additional interest payments contingent upon the revenues or income of the organization is considered an interest in the net earnings of the organization. Similarly, a convertible debt obligation issued by a cemetery company or crematorium after July 7, 1975, is considered an interest in the net earnings of the organization.

[T.D. 7698, 45 FR 33972, May 21, 1980]

§1.501(c)(14)-1   Credit unions and mutual insurance funds.

Credit unions (other than Federal credit unions described in section 501(c)(1)) without capital stock, organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, are exempt from tax under section 501(a). Corporations or associations without capital stock organized before September 1, 1951 and operated for mutual purposes and without profit for the purpose of providing reserve funds for, and insurance of, shares or deposits in:

(a) Domestic building and loan associations as defined in section 7701(a)(19),

(b) Cooperative banks without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, or

(c) Mutual savings banks not having capital stock represented by shares

are also exempt from tax under section 501(a). In addition, corporations or associations of the type described in the preceding sentence which were organized on or after September 1, 1951, but before September 1, 1957, are exempt from tax under section 501(a) for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1959.

[T.D. 6493, 25 FR 9219, Sept. 27, 1960]

§1.501(c)(15)-1   Mutual insurance companies or associations.

(a) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962. An insurance company or association described in section 501(c)(15) is exempt under section 501(a) if it is a mutual company or association (other than life or marine) or if it is a mutual interinsurer or reciprocal underwriter (other than life or marine) and if the gross amount received during the taxable year from the sum of the following items does not exceed $150,000:

(1) The gross amount of income during the taxable year from:

(i) Interest (including tax-exempt interest and partially tax-exempt interest), as described in §1.61-7. Interest shall be adjusted for amortization of premium and accrual of discount in accordance with the rules prescribed in section 822(d)(2) and the regulations thereunder.

(ii) Dividends, as described in §1.61-9.

(iii) Rents and royalties, as described in §1.61-8.

(iv) The entering into of any lease, mortgage, or other instrument or agreement from which the company may derive interest, rents, or royalties.

(v) The alteration or termination of any instrument or agreement described in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph.

(2) The gross income from any trade or business (other than an insurance business) carried on by the company or association, or by a partnership of which the company or association is a partner.

(3) Premiums (including deposits and assessments).

(b) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1954, and before January 1, 1963. An insurance company or association described in section 501(c)(15) and paragraph (a) of this section is exempt under section 501(a) if the gross amount received during the taxable year from the sum of the items described in paragraph (a) (1), (2), and (3) of this section does not exceed $75,000.

(c) No double inclusion of income. In computing the gross income from any trade or business (other than an insurance business) carried on by the company or association, or by a partnership of which the company or association is a partner, any item described in section 822(b)(1) (A), (B), or (C) and paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not be considered as gross income arising from the conduct of such trade or business, but shall be taken into account under section 822(b)(1) (A), (B), or (C) and paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(d) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and before January 1, 1955. An insurance company or association described in section 501(c)(15) is exempt under section 501(a) if it is a mutual company or association (other than life or marine) or if it is a mutual interinsurer or reciprocal underwriter (other than life or marine) and if the gross amount received during the taxable year from the sum of the following items does not exceed $75,000:

(1) The gross amount of income during the taxable year from—

(i) Interest (including tax-exempt interest and partially tax-exempt interest), as described in §1.61-7. Interest shall be adjusted for amortization of premium and accrual of discount in accordance with the rules prescribed in section 822(d)(2) and §1.822-3.

(ii) Dividends, as described in §1.61-9.

(iii) Rents (but excluding royalties), as described in §1.61-8.

(2) Premiums (including deposits and assessments).

(e) Exclusion of capital gains. Gains from sales or exchanges of capital assets to the extent provided in subchapter P (section 1201 and following, relating to capital gains and losses), chapter 1 of the Code, shall be excluded from the amounts described in this section.

[T.D. 6662, 28 FR 6972, July 29, 1963]

§1.501(c)(16)-1   Corporations organized to finance crop operations.

A corporation organized by a farmers' cooperative marketing or purchasing association, or the members thereof, for the purpose of financing the ordinary crop operations of such members or other producers is exempt, provided the marketing or purchasing association is exempt under section 521 and the financing corporation is operated in conjunction with the marketing or purchasing association. The provisions of §1.521-1 relating to a reserve or surplus and to capital stock shall also apply to corporations coming under this section.

§1.501(c)(17)-1   Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

(a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment benefit trust may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(17) if the requirements of subparagraphs (2) through (6) of this paragraph are satisfied.

(2) The trust is a valid, existing trust under local law and is evidenced by an executed written document.

(3) The trust is part of a written plan established and maintained by an employer, his employees, or both the employer and his employees, solely for the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section 501(c)(17)(D) and paragraph (b)(1) of §1.501(c)(17)-1).

(4) The trust is part of a plan which provides that the corpus and income of the trust cannot (in the taxable year, and at any time thereafter, before the satisfaction of all liabilities to employees covered by the plan) be used for, or diverted to, any purpose other than the providing of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. Thus, if the plan provides for the payment of any benefits other than supplemental unemployment compensation benefits as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the trust will not be entitled to exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(17). However, the payment of any necessary or appropriate expenses in connection with the administration of a plan providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits shall be considered a payment to provide such benefits and shall not affect the qualification of the trust.

(5) The trust is part of a plan whose eligibility conditions and benefits do not discriminate in favor of employees who are officers, shareholders, persons whose principal duties consist of supervising the work of other employees, or highly compensated employees. See sections 401(a)(3)(B) and 401(a)(4) and §§1.401-3 and 1.401-4. However, a plan is not discriminatory within the meaning of section 501(c)(17)(A)(iii), relating to the requirement that the benefits paid under the plan be nondiscriminatory, merely because the benefits received under the plan bear a uniform relationship to the total compensation, or the basic or regular rate of compensation, of the employees covered by the plan. Accordingly, the benefits provided for highly paid employees may be greater than the benefits provided for lower paid employees if the benefits are determined by reference to their compensation; but, in such a case, the plan will not qualify if the benefits paid to the higher paid employees bear a larger ratio to their compensation than the benefits paid to the lower paid employees bear to their compensation. In addition, section 501(c)(17)(B) sets forth certain other instances in which a plan will not be considered discriminatory (see paragraph (c) of §1.501(c)(17)-2).

(6) The trust is part of a plan which requires that benefits are to be determined according to objective standards. Thus, a plan may provide similarly situated employees with benefits which differ in kind and amount, but may not permit such benefits to be determined solely in the discretion of the trustees.

(b) Meaning of terms. The following terms are defined for purposes of section 501(c)(17):

(1) Supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. The term supplemental unemployment compensation benefits means only:

(i) Benefits paid to an employee because of his involuntary separation from the employment of the employer, whether or not such separation is temporary, but only when such separation is one resulting directly from a reduction in force, the discontinuance of a plant or operation, or other similar conditions; and

(ii) Sick and accident benefits subordinate to the benefits described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.

(2) Employee. The term employee means an individual whose status is that of an employee under the usual common-law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship. The term employee also includes an individual who qualifies as an employee under the State or Federal unemployment compensation law covering his employment, whether or not such an individual could qualify as an employee under such common-law rules.

(3) Involuntary separation from the employment of the employer. Whether a separation from the employment of the employer occurs is a question to be decided with regard to all the facts and circumstances. However, for purposes of section 501(c)(17), the term separation includes both a temporary separation and a permanent severance of the employment relationship. Thus, for example, an employee may be separated from the employment of his employer even though at the time of separation it is believed that he will be reemployed by the same employer. Whether or not an employee is involuntarily separated from the employment of the employer is a question of fact. However, normally, an employee will not be deemed to have separated himself voluntarily from the employment of his employer merely because his collective bargaining agreement provides for the termination of his services upon the happening of a condition subsequent and that condition does in fact occur. For example, if the collective bargaining agreement provides that the employer may automate a given department and thereby dislocate several employees, the fact that the employees' collective bargaining agent has consented to such a condition will not render any employee's subsequent unemployment for such cause voluntary.

(4) Other similar conditions. Involuntary separation directly resulting from other similar conditions includes, for example, involuntary separation from the employment of the employer resulting from cyclical, seasonal, or technological causes. Some causes of involuntary separation from the employment of the employer which are not similar to those enumerated in section 501(c)(17)(D)(i) are separation for disciplinary reasons or separation because of age.

(5) Subordinate sick and accident benefits. In general, a sick and accident benefit payment is an amount paid to an employee in the event of his illness or personal injury (whether or not such illness or injury results in the employee's separation from the service of his employer). In addition, the phrase sick and accident benefits includes amounts provided under the plan to reimburse an employee for amounts he expends because of the illness or injury of his spouse or a dependent (as defined in section 152). Sick and accident benefits may be paid by a trust described in section 501(c)(17) only if such benefits are subordinate to the separation payments provided under the plan of which the trust forms a part. Whether the sick and accident benefits provided under a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan are subordinate to the separation benefits provided under such plan is a question to be decided with regard to all the facts and circumstances.

[T.D. 6972, 33 FR 12900, Sept. 12, 1968]

§1.501(c)(17)-2   General rules.

(a) Supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. Supplemental unemployment compensation benefits as defined in section 501(c)(17)(D) and paragraph (b)(1) of §1.501(c)(17)-1 may be paid in a lump sum or installments. Such benefits may be paid to an employee who has, subsequent to his separation from the employment of the employer, obtained other part-time, temporary, or permanent employment. Furthermore, such payments may be made in cash, services, or property. Thus, supplemental unemployment compensation benefits provided to involuntarily separated employees may include, for example, the following: Furnishing of medical care at an established clinic, furnishing of food, job training and schooling, and job counseling. If such benefits are furnished in services or property, the fair market value of the benefits must satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A)(iii), relating to nondiscrimination as to benefits. However, supplemental unemployment compensation benefits may be provided only to an employee and only under circumstances described in paragraph (b)(1) of §1.501(c)(17)-1. Thus, a trust described in section 501(c)(17) may not provide, for example, for the payment of a death, vacation, or retirement benefit.

(b) Sick and accident benefits. If a trust described in section 501(c)(17) provides for the payment of sick and accident benefits, such benefits may only be provided for employees who are eligible for receipt of separation benefits under the plan of which the trust is a part. However, the sick and accident benefits need not be provided for all the employees who are eligible for receipt of separation benefits, so long as the plan does not discriminate in favor of persons with respect to whom discrimination is proscribed in section 501(c)(17)(A) (ii) and (iii). Furthermore, the portion of the plan which provides for the payment of sick and accident benefits must satisfy the nondiscrimination requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) (ii) and (iii) without regard to the portion of the plan which provides for the payment of benefits because of involuntary separation.

(c) Correlation with other plans. (1) In determining whether a plan meets the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) (ii) and (iii), any benefits provided under any other plan shall not be taken into consideration except in the particular instances enumerated in section 501(c)(17)(B) (i), (ii), and (iii). In general, these three exceptions permit a plan providing for the payment of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits to satisfy the nondiscrimination requirements in section 501(c)(17)(A) (ii) and (iii) if the plan is able to satisfy such requirements when it is correlated with one or more of the plans described in section 501(c)(17)(B).

(2) Under section 501(c)(17)(B)(i), a plan will not be considered discriminatory merely because the benefits under the plan which are first determined in a nondiscriminatory manner (within the meaning of section 501(c)(17)(A)) are then reduced by any sick, accident, or unemployment compensation benefits received under State or Federal law, or are reduced by a portion of these benefits if determined in a nondiscriminatory manner. Under this exception, a plan may, for example, satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A)(iii) if it provides for the payment of an unemployment benefit and the amount of such benefit is determined as a percentage of the employee's compensation which is then reduced by any unemployment benefit which the employee receives under a State plan. In addition, a plan could provide for the reduction of such a plan benefit by a percentage of the State benefit. Furthermore, a plan may also satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) if it provides for the payment to an employee of an amount which when added to any State unemployment benefit equals a percentage of the employee's compensation.

(3) Under section 501(c)(17)(B)(ii), a plan will not be considered discriminatory merely because the plan provides benefits only for employees who are not eligible to receive sick, accident, or unemployment compensation benefits under State or Federal law. In such a case, however, the benefits provided under the plan seeking to satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17) must be the same benefits, or a portion of the same benefits if determined in a nondiscriminatory manner, which such ineligible employees would receive under State or Federal law if they were eligible for such benefits. Under this exception, for example, an employer may establish a plan only for employees who have exhausted their benefits under the State law, and, if the plan provides for such employees the same benefits which they would receive under the State plan, the State plan and the plan of the employer will be considered as one plan in determining whether the requirements relating to nondiscrimination in section 501(c)(17)(A) are satisfied. Furthermore, such a plan could also qualify even though it does not provide all of the benefits provided under the State plan. Thus, a plan could provide for the payment of a reduced amount of the benefits, or for the payment of only certain of the types of benefits, provided by the State plan. For example, if the State plan provides for the payment of sick, accident, and separation benefits, the plan of the employer may provide for the payment of only separation benefits, or for the payment of an amount equal to only one-half of the State provided benefit. However, if a plan provides benefits for employees who are not eligible to receive the benefits provided under a State plan and such benefits are greater or of a different type than those under the State plan, the plan of the employer must satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) without regard to the benefits and coverage provided by the State plan.

(4) Under section 501(c)(17)(B)(iii), a plan is not considered discriminatory merely because the plan provides benefits only for employees who are not eligible to receive benefits under another plan which satisfies the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) and which is funded solely by contributions of the employer. In such a case, the plan seeking to qualify under section 501(c)(17) must provide the same benefits, or a portion of such benefits if determined in a nondiscriminatory manner, as are provided for the employees under the plan funded solely by employer contributions. Furthermore, this exception only applies if the employees eligible to receive benefits under both plans would satisfy the requirements in section 501(c)(17)(A)(ii), relating to nondiscrimination as to coverage. The plan of the employer which is being correlated with the plan seeking to satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17) may be a plan which forms part of a voluntary employees' beneficiary association described in section 501(c)(9), if such plan satisfies all the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A). Under this exception, for example, if an employer has established a plan providing for the payment of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits for his hourly wage employees and such plan satisfies the requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) (even though the plan forms part of a voluntary employees' beneficiary association described in section 501(c)(9)), the salaried employees of such employee may establish a plan for themselves, and, if such plan provides for the same benefits as the plan covering hourly-wage employees, both plans may be considered as one plan in determining whether the plan covering the salaried employees satisfies the requirement that is be nondiscriminatory as to coverage. The foregoing example would also be applicable if the benefits provided for the salaried employees were funded solely or in part by employer contributions.

(d) Permanency of the plan. A plan providing for the payment of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits contemplates a permanent as distinguished from a temporary program. Thus, although there may be reserved the right to change or terminate the plan, and to discontinue contributions thereunder, the abandonment of the plan for any reason other than business necessity within a few years after it has taken effect will be evidence that the plan from its inception was not a bona fide program for the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits to employees. Whether or not a particular plan constitutes a permanent arrangement will be determined by all of the surrounding facts and circumstances. However, merely because a collective bargaining agreement provides that a plan may be modified at the termination of such agreement, or that particular provisions of the plan are subject to renegotiation during the duration of such agreement, does not necessarily imply that the plan is not a permanent arrangement. Moreover, the fact that the plan provides that the assets remaining in the trust after the satisfaction of all liabilities (including contingent liabilities) under the plan may be returned to the employer does not imply that the plan is not a permanent arrangement nor preclude the trust from qualifying under section 501(c)(17).

(e) Portions of years. A plan must satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17) throughout the entire taxable year of the trust in order for the trust to be exempt for such year. However, section 501(c)(17)(C) provides that a plan will satisfy the nondiscrimination as to classification requirements of section 501(c)(17)(A) if on at least one day in each quarter of the taxable year of the trust it satisfies such requirements.

(f) Several trusts constituting one plan. Several trusts may be designated as constituting part of one plan which is intended to satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17), in which case all of such trusts taken as a whole must meet the requirements of such section. The fact that a combination of trusts fails to satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17) as one plan does not prevent such of the trusts as satisfy the requirements of section 501(c)(17) from qualifying for exemption under that section.

(g) Plan of several employers. A trust forming part of a plan of several employers, or the employees of several employers, will be a supplemental unemployment benefit trust described in section 501(c)(17) if all the requirements of that section are otherwise satisfied.

(h) Investment of trust funds. No specific limitations are provided in section 501(c)(17) with respect to investments which may be made by the trustees of a trust qualifying under that section. Generally, the contributions may be used by the trustees to purchase any investments permitted by the trust agreement to the extent allowed by local law. However, the tax-exempt status of the trust will be forfeited if the investments made by the trustees constitute prohibited transactions within the meaning of section 503. See section 503 and the regulations thereunder. In addition, such a trust will be subject to tax under section 511 with respect to any unrelated business taxable income (as defined in section 512) realized by it from its investments. See sections 511 to 515, inclusive, and the regulations thereunder.

(i) Allocations. If a plan which provides sick and accident benefits is financed solely by employer contributions to the trust, and such sick and accident benefits are funded by payment of premiums on an accident or health insurance policy (whether on a group or individual basis) or by contributions to a separate fund which pays such sick and accident benefits, the plan must specify that portion of the contributions to be used to fund such benefits. If a plan which is financed in whole or in part by employee contributions provides sick and accident benefits, the plan must specify the portion, if any, of employee contributions allocated to the cost of funding such benefits, and must allocate the cost of funding such benefits between employer contributions and employee contributions.

(j) Required records and returns. Every trust described in section 501(c)(17) must maintain records indicating the amount of separation benefits and sick and accident benefits which have been provided to each employee. If a plan is financed, in whole or in part, by employee contributions to the trust, the trust must maintain records indicating the amount of each employee's total contributions allocable to separation benefits. In addition, every trust described in section 501(c)(17) which makes one or more payments totaling $600 or more in 1 year to an individual must file an annual information return in the manner described in paragraph (b)(1) of §1.6041-2. However, if the payments from such trust are subject to income tax withholding under section 3402(o) and the regulations thereunder, the trust must file, in lieu of such annual information return, the returns of income tax withheld from wages required by section 6011 and the regulations thereunder. In such circumstances, the trust must also furnish the statements to the recipients of trust distributions required by section 6051 and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 6972, 33 FR 12901, Sept. 12, 1968, as amended by T.D. 7068, 35 FR 17328, Nov. 11, 1970]

§1.501(c)(17)-3   Relation to other sections of the Code.

(a) Taxability of benefit distributions—(1) Separation benefits. If the separation benefits described in section 501(c)(17)(D)(i) are funded entirely by employer contributions, then the full amount of any separation benefit payment received by an employee is includible in his gross income under section 61(a). If any such separation benefit is funded by both employer and employee contributions, or solely by employee contributions, the amount of any separation benefit payment which is includible in the gross income of the employee is the amount by which such distribution and any prior distributions of such separation payments exceeds the employee's total contributions to fund such separation benefits.

(2) Sick and accident benefits. Any benefit payment received from the trust under the part of the plan, if any, which provides for the payment of sick and accident benefits must be included in gross income under section 61(a), unless specifically excluded under section 104 or 105 and the regulations thereunder. See section 105(b) and §1.105-2 for benefit payments expended for medical care, benefit payments in excess of actual medical expenses, and benefit payments which an employee is entitled to receive irrespective of whether or not he incurs expenses for medical care. See section 213 and §1.213-1(g) for benefit payments representing reimbursement for medical expenses paid in prior years. See §1.501(c)(17)-2(i) for the requirement that a trust described in section 501(c)(17) which receives employee contributions must be part of a written plan which provides for the allocation of the cost of funding sick and accident benefits.

(b) Exemption as a voluntary employees' beneficiary association. Section 501(c)(17)(E) contemplates that a trust forming part of a plan providing for the payment of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits may, if it qualifies, apply for exemption from income tax under section 501(a) either as a voluntary employees' beneficiary association described in section 501(c)(9) or as a trust described in section 501(c)(17).

(c) Returns. A trust which is described in section 501(c)(17) and which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) must file a return in accordance with section 6033 and the regulations thereunder. If such a trust realizes any unrelated business taxable income, as defined in section 512, the trust is also required to file a return with respect to such income.

(d) Effective date. Section 501(c)(17) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1959, and shall apply to supplemental unemployment benefit trusts regardless of when created or organized.

[T.D. 6972, 33 FR 12902, Sept. 12, 1968]

§1.501(c)(18)-1   Certain funded pension trusts.

(a) In general. Organizations described in section 501(c)(18) are trusts created before June 25, 1959, forming part of a plan for the payment of benefits under a pension plan funded only by contributions of employees. In order to be exempt, such trusts must also meet the requirements set forth in section 501(c)(18) (A), (B), and (C), and in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Requirements for qualification. A trust described in section 501(c)(18) must meet the following requirements:

(1) Local law. The trust must be a valid, existing trust under local law, and must be evidenced by an executed written document.

(2) Funding. The trust must be funded solely from contributions of employees who are members of the plan. For purposes of this section, the term contributions of employees shall include earnings on, and gains derived from, the assets of the trust which were contributed by employees.

(3) Creation before June 25, 1959—(i) In general. The trust must have been created before June 25, 1959. A trust created before June 25, 1959 is described in section 501(c)(18) and this section even though changes in the makeup of the trust have occurred since that time so long as these are not fundamental changes in the character of the trust or in the character of the beneficiaries of the trust. Increases in the beneficiaries of the trust by the addition of employees in the same or related industries, whether such additions are of individuals or of units (such as local units of a union) will generally not be considered a fundamental change in the character of the trust. A merger of a trust created after June 25, 1959 into a trust created before such date is not in itself a fundamental change in the character of the latter trust if the two trusts are for the benefit of employees of the same or related industries.

(ii) Examples. The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Assume that trust C, for the benefit of members of participating locals of National Union X, was established in 1950 and adopted by 29 locals before June 25, 1959. The subsequent adoption of trust C by additional locals of National Union X in 1962 will not constitute a fundamental change in the character of trust C, since such subsequent adoption is by employees in a related industry.
Example 2. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that in 1965 National Union X merged with National Union Y, whose members are engaged in trades related to those engaged in by X's members. Assume further that trust D, the employee funded pension plan and fund for employees of Y, was subsequently merged into trust C. The merger of trust D into trust C would not in itself constitute a fundamental change in the character of trust C, since both C and D are for the benefit of employees of related industries.

(4) Payment of benefits. The trust must provide solely for the payment of pension or retirement benefits to its beneficiaries. For purposes of this section, the term retirement benefits is intended to include customary and incidental benefits, such as death benefits within the limits permissible under section 401.

(5) Diversion. The trust must be part of a plan which provides that, before the satisfaction of all liabilities to employees covered by the plan, the corpus and income of the trust cannot (within the taxable year and at any time thereafter) be used for, or diverted to, any purpose other than the providing of pension or retirement benefits. Payment of expenses in connection with the administration of a plan providing pension or retirement benefits shall be considered a payment to provide such benefits and shall not affect the qualification of the trust.

(6) Discrimination. The trust must be part of a plan whose eligibility conditions and benefits do not discriminate in favor of employees who are officers, shareholders, persons whose principal duties consist of supervising the work of other employees, or highly compensated employees. See sections 401(a)(3)(B) and 401(a)(4) and §§1.401-3 and 1.401-4. However, a plan is not discriminatory within the meaning of section 501(c)(18) merely because the benefits received under the plan bear a uniform relationship to the total compensation, or the basic or regular rate of compensation, of the employees covered by the plan. Accordingly, the benefits provided for highly paid employees may be greater than the benefits provided for lower paid employees if the benefits are determined by reference to their compensation; but, in such a case, the plan will not qualify if the benefits paid to the higher paid employees are a larger portion of compensation than the benefits paid to lower paid employees.

(7) Objective standards. The trust must be part of a plan which requires that benefits be determined according to objective standards. Thus, while a plan may provide similarly situated employees with benefits which differ in kind and amount, these benefits may not be determined solely in the discretion of the trustees.

(c) Effective date. The provisions of section 501(c)(18) and this section shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

[T.D. 7172, 37 FR 5618, Mar. 17, 1972]

§1.501(c)(19)-1   War veterans organizations.

(a) In general. (1) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, a veterans post or organization which is organized in the United States or any of its possessions may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(19) if the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section are met and if no part of its net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. Paragraph (b) of this section contains the membership requirements such a post or organization must meet in order to qualify under section 501(c)(19). Paragraph (c) of this section outlines the purposes, at least one of which such a post or organization must have in order to so qualify.

(2) In addition, an auxiliary unit or society described in paragraph (d) of this section of such a veterans post or organization and a trust or foundation described in paragraph (e) of this section for such post or organization may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(19).

(b) Membership requirements. (1) In order to be described in section 501(c)(19) under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, an organization must meet the membership requirements of section 501(c)(19)(B) and this paragraph. There are two requirements that must be met under this paragraph. The first requirement is that at least 75 percent of the members of the organization must be war veterans. For purposes of this section the term war veterans means persons, whether or not present members of the United States Armed Forces, who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States during a period of war (including the Korean and Vietnam conflicts).

(2) The second requirement of this paragraph is that at least 97.5 percent of all members of the organization must be described in one or more of the following categories:

(i) War veterans,

(ii) Present or former members of the United States Armed Forces,

(iii) Cadets (including only students in college or university ROTC programs or at Armed Services academies), or

(iv) Spouses, widows, or widowers of individuals referred to in paragraph (b)(2) (i), (ii) or (iii) of this section.

(c) Exempt purposes. In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) and (b) of this section, in order to be described in section 501(c)(19) under paragraph (a)(1) of this section an organization must be operated exclusively for one or more of the following purposes:

(1) To promote the social welfare of the community as defined in §1.501(c)(4)-1(a)(2).

(2) To assist disabled and needy war veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces and their dependents, and the widows and orphans of deceased veterans,

(3) To provide entertainment, care, and assistance to hospitalized veterans or members of the Armed Forces of the United States,

(4) To carry on programs to perpetuate the memory of deceased veterans and members of the Armed Forces and to comfort their survivors,

(5) To conduct programs for religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or educational purposes,

(6) To sponsor or participate in activities of a patriotic nature,

(7) To provide insurance benefits for their members or dependents of their members or both, or

(8) To provide social and recreational activities for their members.

(d) Auxiliary units or societies for war veterans organizations. A unit or society may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(19) and paragraph (a)(2) of this section if it is an auxiliary unit or society of a post or organization of war veterans described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A unit or society is an auxiliary unit or society or such a post or organization if it meets the following requirements:

(1) It is affiliated with, and organized in accordance with, the bylaws and regulations formulated by an organization described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section,

(2) At least 75 percent of its members are either war veterans, or spouses of war veterans, or are related to a war veteran within two degrees of consanguinity (i.e., grandparent, brother, sister, grandchild, represent the most distant allowable relationships),

(3) All of its members are either members of an organization described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, or spouses of a member of such an organization or are related to a member of such an organization, within two degrees of consanguinity, and

(4) No part of its net earnings inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

(e) Trusts or foundations. A trust or foundation may be exempt as an organization described in section 501(c)(19) and paragraph (a)(2) of this section if it is a trust or foundation for a post or organization of war veterans described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A trust or foundation is a trust or foundation for such a post or organization if it meets the following requirements:

(1) The trust or foundation is in existence under local law and, if organized for charitable purposes, has a dissolution provision described in §1.501(c)(3)-1(b)(4).

(2) The corpus or income cannot be diverted or used other than for the funding of a post or organization of war veterans described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, for section 170(c)(4) purposes, or as an insurance set aside (as defined in §1.512(a)-4(b)).

(3) The trust income is not unreasonably accumulated and, if the trust or foundation is not an insurance set aside, a substantial portion of the income is in fact distributed to such post or organization or for section 170(c)(4) charitable purposes, and

(4) It is organized exclusively for one or more of those purposes enumerated in paragraph (c) of this section.

[T.D. 7438, 41 FR 44392, Oct. 8, 1976]

§1.501(c)(21)-1   Black lung trusts—certain terms.

(a) Created or organized in the United States. A trust is not created or organized in the United States unless it is maintained at all times as a domestic trust in the United States. For this purpose, section 7701(a)(9) limits the term United States to the District of Columbia and States of the United States.

(b) Insurance company. The term insurance company means an insurance, surety, bonding or other company whose liability for the kinds of claims to which section 501(c)(21)(A)(i) applies is as an insurer or guarantor of the liabilities of another.

(c) Black Lung Acts. The term Black Lung Acts includes any State law providing compensation for disability or death due to pneumoconiosis even though the State law compensates for other kinds of injuries. In such a case, section 501(c)(21) applies only to the extent that the liability is attributable to disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. For this purpose, the term pneumoconiosis has the same meaning as it has under federal law. See 30 U.S.C. 902.

(d) Insurance exclusively covering such liability. The term insurance exclusively covering such liability includes insurance that covers risk for liabilities in addition to the liabilities to which section 501(c)(21)(A)(i) applies. In such a case, payment for premiums may be made from the trust only to the extent of that portion of the premiums that has been separately allocated and stated by the insurer as attributable solely to coverage of the liabilities to which section 501(c)(21)(A)(i) applies.

(e) Administrative and other incidental expenses. The term administrative and other incidental expenses means expenditures that are appropriate and helpful to the trust making them in carrying out the purposes for which its assets may be used under section 501(c)(21)(B). The term includes any exicse tax imposed on the trust under section 4952 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures) and reasonable expenses, such as legal expenses, incurred by the trust in connection with an assertion against the trust of liability for a taxable expenditure. The term does not include an excise tax imposed on the trustee or on other disqualified persons under section 4951 (relating to taxes on self-dealing) or under section 4953 (relating to tax on excess contributions to black lung benefit trusts) or any expenses incurred in connection with the assertion of these taxes other than expenses that are treated as part of reasonable compensation under section 4951(d)(2)(C). See §§53.4941 (d)-2(f)(3) and (d)-3(c) for interpretations of similar provisions under section 4941(d)(2)(E), relating to reasonable compensation for private foundation disqualified persons.

(f) Public debt securities of the United States. The term public debt securities of the United States means obligations that are taken into consideration for purposes of the public debt limit. See, for example 31 U.S.C. 757b.

(g) Obligations of a State or local government. The term obligations of a State or local government means the obligations of a State or local governmental unit the interest on which is exempt from tax under section 103(a). See §1.103-1(a).

(h) Time or demand deposits. The term time or demand deposits includes checking accounts, savings accounts, certificates of deposit or other time or demand deposits. The term does not include common or collective trust funds such as a common trust fund as defined in section 584.

[44 FR 52197, Sept. 7, 1979]

§1.501(c)(21)-2   Same—trust instrument.

As trust does not meet the requirements of section 501(c)(21) if it is not established and maintained pursuant to a written instrument. The trust instrument must definitely and affirmatively prohibit a diversion or use of trust assets that is not permitted under section 501(c)(21)(B) or section 4953(c), whether by operation or natural termination of the trust, by power of revocation or amendment by the happening of a contingency by collateral arrangement, or by any other means. No particular form for the trust instrument is required. A trust may meet the requirements of section 501(c)921) although the trust instrument fails to contain provisions the effects of which are to prohibit acts that are subject to section 4951 (relating to taxes on self-dealing), section 4952 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures) or the retention of contributions subject to section 4953 (relating to tax on excess contributions to black lung benefit trusts).

[44 FR 52197, Sept. 7, 1979]

§1.501(c)(29)-1T   CO-OP Health Insurance Issuers (temporary).

(a) Organizations must notify the Commissioner that they are applying for recognition of section 501(c)(29) status. An organization will not be treated as described in section 501(c)(29) unless the organization has given notice to the Commissioner that it is applying for recognition as an organization described in section 501(c)(29) in the manner prescribed by the Commissioner in published guidance.

(b) Effective date of recognition of section 501(c)(29) status. An organization may be recognized as an organization described in section 501(c)(29) as of a date prior to the date of the notice required by paragraph (a) of this section if the notice is given in the manner and within the time prescribed by the Commissioner and the organization's purposes and activities prior to giving such notice were consistent with the requirements for exempt status under section 501(c)(29). However, an organization may not be recognized as an organization described in section 501(c)(29) before the later of its formation or March 23, 2010.

(c) Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section are effective on February 7, 2012.

(d) Expiration date. The applicability of this section expires on February 6, 2015.

[T.D. 9574, 77 FR 6006, Feb. 7, 2012]

§1.501(d)-1   Religious and apostolic associations or corporations.

(a) Religious or apostolic associations or corporations are described in section 501(d) and are exempt from taxation under section 501(a) if they have a common treasury or community treasury, even though they engage in business for the common benefit of the members, provided each of the members includes (at the time of filing his return) in his gross income his entire pro rata share, whether distributed or not, of the net income of the association or corporation for the taxable year of the association or corporation ending with or during his taxable year. Any amount so included in the gross income of a member shall be treated as a dividend received.

(b) For annual return requirements of organizations described in section 501(d), see section 6033 and paragraph (a)(5) of §1.6033-1.

§1.501(e)-1   Cooperative hospital service organizations.

(a) General rule. Section 501(e) is the exclusive and controlling section under which a cooperative hospital service organization can qualify as a charitable organization. A cooperative hospital service organization which meets the requirements of section 501(e) and this section shall be treated as an organization described in section 501(c)(3), exempt from taxation under section 501(a), and referred to in section 170(b)(1)(A) (iii) (relating to percentage limitations on charitable contributions). In order to qualify for tax exempt status, a cooperative hospital service organization must—

(1) Be organized and operated on a cooperative basis,

(2) Perform, on a centralized basis, only one or more specifically enumerated services which, if performed directly by a tax exempt hospital, would constitute activities in the exercise or performance of the purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption, and

(3) Perform such service or services solely for two or more patron-hospitals as described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(b) Organized and operated on a cooperative basis—(1) In general. In order to meet the requirements of section 501(e), the organization must be organized and operated on a cooperative basis (whether or not under a specific statute on cooperatives) and must allocate or pay all of its net earnings within 812 months after the close of the taxable year to its patron-hospitals on the basis of the percentage of its services performed for each patron. To allocate its net earnings to its patron-hospitals, the organization must make appropriate bookkeeping entries and provide timely written notice to each patron-hospital disclosing to the patron-hospital the amount allocated to it on the books of the organization. For the recordkeeping requirements of a section 501(e) organization, see §1.521-1(a)(1).

(2) Percentage of services defined. The percentage of services performed for each patron-hospital may be determined on the basis of either the value or the quantity of the services provided by the organization to the patron-hospital, provided such basis is realistic in terms of the actual cost of the services to the organization.

(3) Retention of net earnings. Exemption will not be denied a cooperative hospital service organization solely because the organization, instead of paying all net earnings to its patron-hospitals, retains an amount for such purposes as retiring indebtedness, expanding the services of the organization, or for any other necessary purpose and allocates such amounts to its patrons. However, such funds may not be accumulated beyond the reasonably anticipated needs of the organization. See, §1.537-1(b). Whether there is an improper accumulation of funds depends upon the particular circumstances of each case. Moreover, where an organization retains net earnings for necessary purposes, the organization's records must show each patron's rights and interests in the funds retained. For purposes of this paragraph, the term net earnings does not include capital contributions to the organization and such contributions need not satisfy the allocation or payment requirements.

(4) Nonpatronage and other income. An organization described in section 501(e) may, in addition to net earnings, receive membership dues and related membership assessment fees, gifts, grants and income from nonpatronage sources such as investment of retained earnings. However, such an organization cannot be exempt if it engages in any business other than that of providing the specified services, described in paragraph (c), for the specified patron-hospitals, described in paragraph (d). Thus, an organization described in section 501(e) generally cannot have unrelated business taxable income as defined in section 512, although it may earn certain interest, annuities, royalties, and rents which are excluded from unrelated business taxable income because of the modifications contained in sections 512(b) (1), (2) or (3). An organization described in section 501(e) may, however, have debt-financed income which is treated as unrelated business taxable income solely because of the applicability of section 514. In addition, exempt status under section 501(e) will not be affected where rent from personal property leased with real property is treated as unrelated business taxable income under section 512(b)(3)(A)(ii) solely because the rent attributable to the personal property is more than incidental or under section 512(b)(3)(B)(i) solely because the rent attributable to the personal property exceeds 50 percent of the total rent received or accrued under the lease. Exemption will not be affected solely because the determination of the amount of rent depends in whole or in part on the income or profits derived from the property leased. See, section 512(b)(3)(B)(ii). An organization described in section 501(e) may also derive nonpatronage income from sources that are incidental to the conduct of its exempt purposes or functions. For example, income derived from the operation of a cafeteria or vending machines primarily for the convenience of its employees or the disposition of by-products in substantially the same state they were in on completion of the exempt function (e.g., the sale of silver waste produced in the processing of x-ray film) will not be considered unrelated business taxable income. See, section 513(a)(2) and §1.513-1(d)(4)(ii). The nonpatronage and other income permitted under this subparagraph (4) must be allocated or paid as provided in subparagraph (1) or retained as provided in subparagraph (3).

(5) Stock ownership—(i) Capital stock of organization. An organization does not meet the requirements of section 501(e) unless all of the organization's outstanding capital stock, if there is such stock, is held solely by its patron-hospitals. However, no amount may be paid as dividends on the capital stock of the organization. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term capital stock includes common stock (whether voting or nonvoting), preferred stock, or any other form evidencing a proprietary interest in the organization.

(ii) Stock ownership as a condition for obtaining credit. If by statutory requirement a cooperative hospital service organization must be a shareholder in a United States or state chartered corporation as a condition for obtaining credit from that corporate-lender, the ownership of shares and the payment of dividends thereon will not for such reason be a basis for the denial of exemption to the organization. See, e.g., National Consumer Cooperative Bank, 12 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.

(c) Scope of services—(1) Permissible services. An organization meets the requirements of section 501(e) only if the organization performs, on a centralized basis, one or more of the following services and only such services: data processing, purchasing (including the purchasing and dispensing of drugs and pharmaceuticals to patron-hospitals), warehousing, billing and collection, food, clinical (including radiology), industrial engineering (including the installation, maintenance and repair of biomedical and similar equipment), laboratory, printing, communications, record center, and personnel (including recruitment, selection, testing, training, education and placement of personnel) services. An organization is not described in section 501(e) if, in addition to or instead of one or more of these specified services, the organization performs any other service (other than services referred to under paragraph (b)(4) that are incidental to the conduct of exempt purposes or functions).

(2) Illustration. The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example.

Example. An organization performs industrial engineering services on a cooperative basis solely for patron-hospitals each of which is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from taxation under section 501(a). However, in addition to this service, the organization operates laundry services for its patron-hospitals. This cooperative organization does not meet the requirements of this paragraph because it performs laundry services not specified in this paragraph.

(d) Patron-hospitals—(1) Defined. Section 501(e) only applies if the organization performs its services solely for two or more patron-hospitals each of which is—

(i) An organization described in section 501(c)(3) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a),

(ii) A constituent part of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) and which, if organized and operated as a separate entity, would constitute an organization described in section 501(c)(3), or

(iii) Owned and operated by the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, or a possession of the United States, or a political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing.

(2) Business with nonvoting patron-hospitals. Exemption will not be denied a cooperative hospital service organization solely because the organization (whether organized on a stock or membership basis) transacts business with patron-hospitals which do not have voting rights in the organization and therefore do not participate in the decisions affecting the operation of the organization. Where the organization has both patron-hospitals with voting rights and patron-hospitals without such rights, the organization must provide at least 50 percent of its services to patron-hospitals with voting rights in the organization. Thus, the percentage of services provided to nonvoting patrons may not exceed the percentage of such services provided to voting patrons. A patron-hospital will be deemed to have voting rights in the cooperative hospital service organization if the patron-hospital may vote directly on matters affecting the operation of the organization or if the patron-hospital may vote in the election of cooperative board members. Notwithstanding that an organization may have both voting and nonvoting patron-hospitals, patronage refunds must nevertheless be allocated or paid to all patron-hospitals solely on the basis specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) Services to other organizations. An organization does not meet the requirements of section 501(e) if, in addition to performing services for patron-hospitals (entities described in subdivisions (i), (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (1)), the organization performs any service for any other organization. For example, a cooperative hospital service organization is not exempt if it performs services for convalescent homes for children or the aged, vocational training facilities for the handicapped, educational institutions which do not provide hospital care in their facilities, and proprietary hospitals. However, the provision of the specified services between or among cooperative hospital service organizations meeting the requirements of section 501(e) and this section is permissible. Also permissible is the provision of the specified services to entities which are not patron-hospitals, but only if such services are de minimis and are mandated by a governmental unit as, for example, a condition for licensing.

(e) Effective dates. An organization, other than an organization performing clinical services, may meet the requirements of section 501(e) and be a tax exempt organization for taxable years ending after June 28, 1968. An organization performing clinical services may meet the requirements of section 501(e) and be a tax exempt organization for taxable years ending after December 31, 1976. However, pursuant to the authority contained in section 7805(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, these regulations shall not become effective with respect to an organization which has received a ruling or determination letter from the Internal Revenue Service recognizing its exemption under section 501(e) until January 2, 1987.

[T.D. 8100, 51 FR 31615, Sept. 4, 1986; 51 FR 33593, Sept. 22, 1986]

§1.501(h)-1   Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

(a) Scope. (1) There are certain requirements an organization must meet in order to be a charity described in section 501(c)(3). Among other things, section 501(c)(3) states that “no substantial part of the activities of [a charity may consist of] carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is called the substantial part test.

(2) Under section 501(h), many public charities may elect the expenditure test as a substitute for the substantial part test. The expenditure test is described in section 501(h) and this §1.501(h). A public charity is any charity that is not a private foundation under section 509(a). (Unlike a public charity, a private foundation may not make any lobbying expenditures: If a private foundation does make a lobbying expenditure, it is subject to an excise tax under section 4945). Section 1.501(h)-2 lists which public charities are eligible to make the expenditure test election. Section 1.501(h)-2 also provides information about how a public charity makes and revokes the election to be covered by the expenditure test.

(3) A public charity that makes the election may make lobbying expenditures within specified dollar limits. If an electing public charity's lobbying expenditures are within the dollar limits determined under section 4911(c), the electing public charity will not owe tax under section 4911 nor will it lose its tax exempt status as a charity by virtue of section 501(h). If, however, that electing public charity's lobbying expenditures exceed its section 4911 lobbying limit, the organization is subject to an excise tax on the excess lobbying expenditures. Further, under section 501(h), if an electing public charity's lobbying expenditures normally are more than 150 percent of its section 4911 lobbying limit, the organization will cease to be a charity described in section 501(c)(3).

(4) A public charity that elects the expenditure test may nevertheless lose its tax exempt status if it is an action organization under §1.501(c)(3)-1(c)(3)(iii) or (iv). A public charity that does not elect the expenditure test remains subject to the substantial part test. The substantial part test is applied without regard to the provisions of section 501(h) and 4911 and the related regulations.

(b) Effective date. The provisions of §1.501(h)-1 through §1.501(h)-3, are effective for taxable years beginning after August 31, 1990. An election made before August 31, 1990, under the provisions of §7.0(c)(4) or the instructions to Form 5768, will be effective under these regulations without again filing Form 5768.

[T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35588, Aug. 31, 1990]

§1.501(h)-2   Electing the expenditure test.

(a) In general. The election to be governed by section 501(h) may be made by an eligible organization (as described in paragraph (b) of this section) for any taxable year of the organization beginning after December 31, 1976, other than the first taxable year for which a voluntary revocation of the election is effective (see paragraph (d) of this section). The election is made by filing a completed Form 5768, Election/Revocation of Election by an Eligible Section 501(c)(3) Organization to Make Expenditures to Influence Legislation, with the appropriate Internal Revenue Service Center listed on that form. Under section 501(h)(6), the election is effective with the beginning of the taxable year in which the form is filed. For example, if an eligible organization whose taxable year is the calendar year files Form 5768 on December 31, 1979, the organization is governed by section 501(h) for its taxable year beginning January 1, 1979. Once made, the expenditure test election is effective (without again filing Form 5768) for each succeeding taxable year for which the organization is an eligible organization and which begins before a notice of revocation is filed under paragraph (d) of this section.

(b) Organizations eligible to elect the expenditure test—(1) In general. For purposes of section 501(h) and the regulations thereunder, an organization is an eligible organization for a taxable year if, for that taxable year, it is—

(i) Described in section 501(c)(3) (determined, in any year for which an election is in effect, without regard to the substantial part test of section 501(c)(3)),

(ii) Described in section 501(h)(4) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and

(iii) Not a disqualified organization described in section 501(h)(5) and paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(2) Certain organizations listed. An organization is described in section 501(h)(4) and this paragraph (b)(2) if it is an organization described in—

(i) Section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) (relating to educational institutions),

(ii) Section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii) (relating to hospitals and medical research organizations),

(iii) Section 170(b)(1)(A)(iv) (relating to organizations supporting government schools),

(iv) Section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) (relating to organizations publicly supported by charitable contributions),

(v) Section 509(a)(2) (relating to organizations publicly supported by admissions, sales, etc.), or

(vi) Section 509(a)(3) (relating to organizations supporting public charities), except that for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2), section 509(a)(3) shall be applied without regard to the last sentence of section 509(a).

(3) Disqualified organizations. An organization is a disqualified organization described in section 501(h)(5) and this paragraph (b)(3) if the organization is—

(i) Described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(i) (relating to churches),

(ii) An integrated auxiliary of a church or of a convention or association of churches see (§1.6033-2(g)(5)), or

(iii) Described in section 501(c)(3) and affiliated (within the meaning of §56.4911-7) with one or more organizations described in paragraph (b)(3) (i) or (ii) of this section.

(4) Other organizations ineligible to elect. Under section 501(h)(4), certain organizations, although not disqualified organizations, are not eligible to elect the expenditure test. For example, organizations described in section 509(a)(4) are not listed in section 501(h)(4) and therefore are not eligible to elect. Similarly, private foundations (within the meaning of section 509(a)) are not eligible to elect. For the treatment of expenditures by a private foundation for the purpose of carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to influence legislation, see §53.4945-2.

(c) New organizations. A newly created organization may submit Form 5768 to elect the expenditure test under section 501(h) before it is determined to be an eligible organization and may submit Form 5768 at the time it submits its application for recognition of exemption (Form 1023). If the newly created organization is determined to be an eligible organization, the election will be effective under the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, that is, with the beginning of the taxable year in which the Form 5768 is filed by the eligible organization. However, if a newly created organization is determined by the Service not to be an eligible organization, the organization's election will not be effective and the substantial part test will apply from the effective date of its section 501(c)(3) classification.

(d) Voluntary revocation of expenditure test election—(1) Revocation effective. An organization may voluntarily revoke an expenditure test election by filing a notice of voluntary revocation with the appropriate Internal Revenue Service Center listed on Form 5768. Under section 501(h)(6)(B), a voluntary revocation is effective with the beginning of the first taxable year after the taxable year in which the notice is filed. If an organization voluntarily revokes its election, the substantial part test of section 501(c)(3) will apply with respect to the organization's activities in attempting to influence legislation beginning with the taxable year for which the voluntary revocation is effective.

(2) Re-election of expenditure test. If an organization's expenditure test election is voluntarily revoked, the organization may again make the expenditure test election, effective no earlier than for the taxable year following the first taxable year for which the revocation is effective.

(3) Example. X, an organization whose taxable year is the calendar year, plans to voluntarily revoke its expenditure test election effective beginning with its taxable year 1985. X must file its notice of voluntary revocation on Form 5768 after December 31, 1983, and before January 1, 1985. If X files a notice of voluntary revocation on December 31, 1984, the revocation is effective beginning with its taxable year 1985. The organization may again elect the expenditure test by filing Form 5768. Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the election may not be made for taxable year 1985. Under paragraph (a) of this section, a new expenditure test election will be effective for taxable years beginning with taxable year 1986, if the Form 5768 is filed after December 31, 1985, and before January 1, 1987.

(e) Involuntary revocation of expenditure test election. If, while an election by an eligible organization is in effect, the organization ceases to be an eligible organization, its election is automatically revoked. The revocation is effective with the beginning of the first full taxable year for which it is determined that the organization is not an eligible organization. If an organization's expenditure test election is involuntarily revoked under this paragraph (e) but the organization continues to be described in section 501(c)(3), the substantial part test of section 501(c)(3) will apply with respect to the organization's activities in attempting to influence legislation beginning with the first taxable year for which the involuntary revocation is effective.

(f) Supersession. This section supersedes §7.0(c)(4) of the Temporary Income Tax Regulations under the Tax Reform Act of 1976, effective August 31, 1990.

[T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35588, Aug. 31, 1990]

§1.501(h)-3   Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 501(h) for determining whether an organization that has elected the expenditure test and that is not a member of an affiliated group of organizations (as defined in §56.4911-7(e)) either normally makes lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying ceiling amount or normally makes grass roots expenditures in excess of its grass roots ceiling amount. Under section 501(h) and this section, an organization that has elected the expenditure test and that normally makes expenditures in excess of the corresponding ceiling amount will cease to be exempt from tax under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3). For similar rules relating to members of an affiliated group of organizations, see §56.4911-9.

(b) Loss of exemption—(1) In general. Under section 501(h)(1), an organization that has elected the expenditure test shall be denied exemption from taxation under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) for the taxable year following a determination year if—

(i) The sum of the organization's lobbying expenditures for the base years exceeds 150 percent of the sum of its lobbying nontaxable amounts for the base years, or (ii) The sum of the organization's grass roots expenditures for its base years exceeds 150 percent of the sum of its grass roots nontaxable amounts for the base years.

The organization thereafter shall not be exempt from tax under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) unless, pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, the organization reapplies for recognition of exemption and is recognized as exempt.

(2) Special exception for organization's first election. For the first, second, or third consecutive determination year for which an organization's first expenditure test election is in effect, no determination is required under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and the organization will not be denied exemption from tax by reason of section 501(h) and this section if, taking into account as base years only those years for which the expenditure test election is in effect—

(i) The sum of the organization's lobbying expenditures for such base years does not exceed 150 percent of the sum of its lobbying nontaxable amounts for the same base years, and

(ii) The sum of the organization's grass roots expenditure for those base years does not exceed 150 percent of the sum of its grass roots nontaxable amounts for such base years. If an organization does not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b)(2), paragraph (b)(1) of this section will apply.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) The term lobbying expenditures means lobbying expenditures as defined in section 4911(c)(1) or section 4911(f)(4)(A) and §56.4911-2(a).

(2) The term lobbying nontaxable amount is defined in §56.4911-1(c)(1).

(3) An organization's lobbying ceiling amount is 150 percent of the organization's lobbying nontaxable amount for a taxable year.

(4) The term grass roots expenditures means expenditures for grass roots lobbying communications as defined in section 4911(c)(3) or section 4911(f)(4)(A) and §§56.4911-2 and 56.4911-3.

(5) The term grass roots nontaxable amount is defined in §56.4911-1(c)(2).

(6) An organization's grass roots ceiling amount is 150 percent of the organization's grass roots nontaxable amount for a taxable year.

(7) In general, the term base years means the determination year and the three taxable years immediately preceding the determination year. The base years, however, do not include any taxable year preceding the taxable year for which the organization is first treated as described in section 501(c)(3).

(8) A taxable year is a determination year if it is a year for which the expenditure test election is in effect, other than the taxable year for which the organization is first treated as described in section 501(c)(3).

(d) Reapplication for recognition of exemption—(1) Time of application. An organization that is denied exemption from taxation under section 501(a) by reason of section 501(h) and this section may apply on Form 1023 for recognition of exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) for any taxable year following the first taxable year for which exemption is so denied. See paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section for material to be included with an application described in the preceding sentence.

(2) Section 501(h) calculation. An application described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section must demonstrate that the organization would not be denied exemption from taxation under section 501(a) by reason of section 501(h) if the expenditure test election has been in effect for all of its last taxable year ending before the application is made by providing the calculations, described either in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section or in §56.4911-9(b), that would have applied to the organization for that year.

(3) Operations not disqualifying. An application described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section must include information that demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the organization will not knowingly operate in a manner that would disqualify the organization for tax exemption under section 501(c)(3) by reason of attempting to influence legislation.

(4) Reelection of expenditure test. If an organization is denied exemption from tax for a taxable year by reason of section 501(h) and this section, and thereafter is again recognized as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) pursuant to this paragraph (d), it may again elect the expenditure test under section 501(h) in accordance with §1.501(h)-2(a).

(e) Examples. The provisions of this section are illustrated by the following examples, which also illustrate the operation of the tax imposed by section 4911.

Example 1. (1) The following table contains information used in this example concerning organization X.
YearExempt purpose expenditures (EPE)CalculationLobbying
Nontaxable amount (LNTA)Lobbying expenditures (LE)
1979$400,000(20% of $400,000=)$80,000$100,000
1980300,000(20% of $300,000=)60,000100,000
1981600,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $100,000=)115,000120,000
1982500,000(20% of $500,000=)100,000100,000
Totals1,800,000355,000420,000
(2) Organization X, whose taxable year is the calendar year, was organized in 1971. X first made the expenditure test election under section 501(h) effective for taxable years beginning with 1979 and has not revoked the election. None of X's lobbying expenditures for its taxable years 1979 through 1982 are grass roots expenditures. Under section 4911(a) and §56.4911-1(a), X must determine for each year for which the expenditure test election is effective whether it is liable for the 25 percent excise tax imposed by section 4911(a) on excess lobbying expenditures. X is liable for this tax for each of its taxable years 1979, 1980, and 1981, because in each year its lobbying expenditures exceeded its lobbying nontaxable amount for the year. For 1979, the tax imposed by section 4911(a) is $5,000 {25%×($100,000−$80,000)=$5,000}. For 1980, the tax is $10,000. For 1981, the tax is $1,250.

(3) The taxable years 1979 through 1981 are all determination years under paragraph (c)(8) of this section. On its annual return for determination year 1979, the first year of its first election, X can demonstrate, under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, that its lobbying expenditures during 1979 ($100,000) do not exceed 150 percent of its lobbying nontaxable amount for 1979 ($120,000). For determination year 1980, under paragraph (b)(2), X can demonstrate that the sum of its lobbying expenditures for 1979 and 1980 ($200,000) does not exceed 150 percent of the sum of its lobbying nontaxable amounts for 1979 and 1980 ($210,000). For 1981, under paragraph (b)(2), X can demonstrate that the sum of its lobbying expenditures for 1979, 1980, and 1981 ($320,000) does not exceed 150 percent of the sum of its lobbying nontaxable amounts for 1979, 1980, and 1981 ($382,500). For each of the determination years 1979, 1980, and 1981, the first three years of its first election, X satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(2). Accordingly, no determination under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is required for those years, and X is not denied tax exemption by reason of section 501(h).

(4) Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, X must determine for its determination year 1982 whether it has normally made lobbying expenditures in excess of the lobbying ceiling amount. This determination takes into account expenditures in base years 1979 through 1982. The sum of X's lobbying expenditures for the base years ($420,000) does not exceed 150 percent of the sum of the lobbying nontaxable amounts for the base years (150%×$355,000=$532,500). Accordingly, X is not denied tax exemption by reason of section 501(h).

Example 2. (1) The following table contains information used in this example concerning W.
YearExempt purpose expenditures (EPE) (dollars)CalculationLobbying nontaxable amount (LNTA) (dollars)Lobbying expenditures (LE) (dollars)Grass roots nontaxable amount (25 percent of LNTA) (dollars)Grass roots expenditures (dollars)
1979700,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $200,000=)130,000120,00032,50030,000
1980800,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $300,000=)145,000100,00036,25060,000
1981800,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $300,000=)145,000100,00036,25065,000
1982900,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $400,000=)160,000150,00040,00065,000
Total3,200,000580,000470,000145,000220,000
(2) Organization W, whose taxable year is the calendar year, made the expenditure test election under section 501(h) effective for taxable years beginning with 1979 and has not revoked the election. W has been treated as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) for each of its taxable years beginning within its taxable year 1974.

(3) Under section 4911(a) and §56.4911-1(a), W must determine for each year for which the expenditure test election is effective whether it is liable for the 25 percent excise tax imposed by section 4911(a) on excess lobbying expenditures. In 1980, 1981, and 1982, W has excess lobbying expenditures because its grass roots expenditures in each of those years exceeded its grass roots nontaxable amount for the year. Therefore, W is liable for the excise tax under section 4911(a) for those years. The tax imposed by section 4911(a) for 1980 is $5,937.50 {25%×($60,000−$36,250)= $5,937.50}. For 1981, the tax is $7,187.50. For 1982, the tax is $6,250.

(4) On its annual return for its determination years 1979, 1980, and 1981, the first three years of its first election, W demonstrates that it satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Accordingly, no determination under paragraph (b)(1) of this section is required for those years, and W is not denied tax exemption by reason of section 501(h).

(5) On its annual return for its determination year 1982, W must determine under paragraph (b)(1) whether it has normally made lobbying expenditures or grass roots expenditures in excess of the corresponding ceiling amount. This determination takes into account expenditures in base years 1979 through 1982. The sum of W's lobbying expenditures for the base years ($470,000) does not exceed 150% of the sum of W's lobbying nontaxable amounts for those years (150%×$580,000=$870,000). However, the sum of W's grass roots expenditures for the base years ($220,000) does exceed 150% of the sum of W's grass roots nontaxable amonts for those years (150%×$145,000=$217,500). Under section 501(h), W is denied tax exemption under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) for its taxable year 1983. For its taxable year 1984 and any taxable year thereafter, W is exempt from tax as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) only if W applies for recognition of its exempt status under paragraph (d) of this section and is recognized as exempt from tax.

Example 3. (1) The following table contains information used in this example concerning organization Y.
Taxable YearExempt purpose expenditures (EPE) (dollars)CalculationLobbying nontaxable amount (LNTA) (dollars)Lobbying expenditures (LE)(dollars)Grass roots nontaxable amount (25 percent of LNTA)(dollars)Grass roots expenditures (dollars)
1977700,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $200,000=)130,000182,00032,50030,000
1978800,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $300,000=)145,000224,75036,25035,000
Subtotal1,500,000275,000406,75068,75065,000
1979900,000(20% of $500,000+15% of $400,000=)160,000264,00040,00050,000
Totals:2,400,000435,000670,750108,750115,000
(2) Organization Y, whose taxable year is the calendar year, was first treated as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) on February 1, 1977. Y made the expenditure test election under section 501(h) effective for taxable years beginning with 1977 and has not revoked the election.

(3) For 1977, Y has excess lobbying expenditures of $52,000 because its lobbying expenditures ($182,000) exceed its lobbying nontaxable amount ($130,000) for the taxable year. Accordingly, Y is liable for the 25 percent excise tax imposed by section 4911(a). The amount of the tax is $13,000 [25%×($182,000−$130,000)=$13,000].

(4) For 1978, Y again has excess lobbying expenditures and is again liable for the 25 percent excise tax imposed by section 4911(a). The amount of the tax is $19,937.50 [25%×($224,750−$145,000)=$19,937.50].

(5) For 1979, Y's lobbying expenditures ($264,000) exceed its lobbying nontaxable amount ($160,000) by $104,000, and its grass roots expenditures ($50,000) exceed its grass roots nontaxable amount ($40,000) by $10,000. Under §56.4911-1(b), Y's excess lobbying expenditures are the greater of $104,000 or $10,000. The amount of the tax, therefore, is $26,000 [25%×$104,000=$26,000].

(6) Under paragraph (c)(8) of this section, 1977 is not a determination year because it is the first year for which the organization is treated as described in section 501(c)(3). For 1977, Y need not determine whether it has normally made lobbying expenditures or grass roots expenditures in excess of the corresponding ceiling amount for purposes of determining whether it is denied exemption under section 501(h) for its taxable year 1978.

(7) For determination year 1978, Y must determine whether it has normally made lobbying or grass roots expenditures in excess of the corresponding ceiling amount, taking into account expenditures for the base years 1977 and 1978. For Y, the determination under paragraph (b)(2) of this section considers the same base years as the determination under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and is, therefore, redundant. Accordingly, Y proceeds to determine, under (b)(1), whether it is denied exemption. Y's grass roots expenditures for 1977 and 1978 ($65,000) did not exceed 150 percent of the sum of its grass roots nontaxable amounts for those years ($103,125). Y's lobbying expenditures for 1977 and 1978 ($406,750) did not exceed 150% of its lobbying nontaxable amount for those years (150%×$275,000=$412,500). Therefore, Y is not denied tax exemption under section 501(h) for its taxable year 1979.

(8) For determination year 1979, the sum of Y's grass roots expenditures in base years 1977, 1978, and 1979 does not exceed 150 percent of its grass roots nontaxable amount (calculation omitted). However, the sum of Y's lobbying expenditures for the base years ($670,750) does exceed 150% of the sum of the lobbying nontaxable amounts for those years (150%×$435,000=$652,500). Since Y was not described in section 501(c)(3) prior to 1977, only the years 1977, 1978, and 1979 may be considered in determining whether Y has normally made lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying ceiling. Therefore, Y determines that it has normally made lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying ceiling. Under section 501(h), Y is denied tax exemption under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) for its taxable year 1980. For its taxable year 1981, and any taxable year thereafter, Y is exempt from tax as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) only if Y applies for recognition of its exempt status under paragraph (d) of this section and is recognized as exempt from tax.

Example 4. Organization M made the expenditure test election under section 501(h) effective for taxable years beginning with 1977 and has not revoked the election. M has $500,000 of exempt purpose expenditures during each of the years 1981 through 1984. In addition, during each of those years, M spends $75,000 for direct lobbying and $25,000 for grass roots lobbying. Since the amount expended for M's lobbying (both total lobbying and grass roots lobbying) is within the respective nontaxable expenditure limitations, M is not liable for the 25 percent excise tax imposed under section 4911(a) upon excess lobbying expenditures, nor is M denied tax-exempt status by reason of section 501 (h).
Example 5. Assume the same facts as in Example 4, except that, on behalf of M, numerous unpaid volunteers conduct substantial lobbying activities with no reimbursement. Since the substantial lobbying activities of the unpaid volunteers are not counted towards the expenditure limitations and the amount expended for M's lobbying is within the respective nontaxable expenditure limitations, M is not liable for the 25 percent excise tax under section 4911, nor is M denied tax-exempt status by reason of section 501(h).

[T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35589, Aug. 31, 1990]

§1.501(k)-1   Communist-controlled organizations.

Under section 11(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 790(b)), as amended, which is made applicable to the Code by section 7852(b) of that Code, no organization is entitled to exemption under sections 501(a) or 521(a) for any taxable year if at any time during such year such organization is registered under section 7 of such Act or if there is in effect a final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board established by section 12 of such Act requiring such organization to register under section 7 of such Act, or determining that it is a Communist-infiltrated organization.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960; redesignated by T.D. 8100, 51 FR 31615, Sept. 4, 1986]

§1.502-1   Feeder organizations.

(a) In the case of an organization operated for the primary purpose of carrying on a trade or business for profit, exemption is not allowed under section 501 on the ground that all the profits of such organization are payable to one or more organizations exempt from taxation under section 501. In determining the primary purpose of an organization, all the circumstances must be considered, including the size and extent of the trade or business and the size and extent of those activities of such organization which are specified in the applicable paragraph of section 501.

(b) If a subsidiary organization of a tax-exempt organization would itself be exempt on the ground that its activities are an integral part of the exempt activities of the parent organization, its exemption will not be lost because, as a matter of accounting between the two organizations, the subsidiary derives a profit from its dealings with its parent organization, for example, a subsidiary organization which is operated for the sole purpose of furnishing electric power used by its parent organization, a tax-exempt educational organization, in carrying on its educational activities. However, the subsidiary organization is not exempt from tax if it is operated for the primary purpose of carrying on a trade or business which would be an unrelated trade or business (that is, unrelated to exempt activities) if regularly carried on by the parent organization. For example, if a subsidiary organization is operated primarily for the purpose of furnishing electric power to consumers other than its parent organization (and the parent's tax-exempt subsidiary organizations), it is not exempt since such business would be an unrelated trade or business if regularly carried on by the parent organization. Similarly, if the organization is owned by several unrelated exempt organizations, and is operated for the purpose of furnishing electric power to each of them, it is not exempt since such business would be an unrelated trade or business if regularly carried on by any one of the tax-exempt organizations. For purposes of this paragraph, organizations are related only if they consist of:

(1) A parent organization and one or more of its subsidiary organizations; or

(2) Subsidiary organizations having a common parent organization

An exempt organization is not related to another exempt organization merely because they both engage in the same type of exempt activities.

(c) In certain cases an organization which carries on a trade or business for profit but is not operated for the primary purpose of carrying on such trade or business is subject to the tax imposed under section 511 on its unrelated business taxable income.

(d) Exception—(1) Taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970. For purposes of section 502 and this section, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, the term trade or business does not include the rental by an organization of its real property (including personal property leased with the real property).

(2) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969. For purposes of section 502 and this section, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, the term trade or business does not include:

(i) The deriving of rents described in section 512(b)(3)(A),

(ii) Any trade or business in which substantially all the work in carrying on such trade or business is performed for the organization without compensation, or

(iii) Any trade or business (such as a thrift shop) which consists of the selling of merchandise, substantially all of which has been received by the organization as gifts or contributions

For purposes of the exception described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, if the rents derived by an organization would not be excluded from unrelated business income pursuant to section 512(b)(3) and the regulations thereunder, the deriving of such rents shall be considered a trade or business.

(3) Cross references and special rules. (i) For determination of when rents are excluded from the tax on unrelated business income see section 512(b)(3) and the regulations thereunder.

(ii) The rules contained in §1.513-1(e)(1) shall apply in determining whether a trade or business is described in section 502(b)(2) and subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph.

(iii) The rules contained in §1.513-1(e)(3) shall apply in determining whether a trade or business is described in section 502(b)(3) and subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, No. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6662, 28 FR 6973, July 29, 1963; T.D. 7033, 35 FR 19997, Dec. 31, 1970]

§1.503(a)-1   Denial of exemption to certain organizations engaged in prohibited transactions.

(a)(1) Prior to January 1, 1970, section 503 applies to those organizations described in sections 501(c)(3), 501(c)(17), and section 401(a) except:

(i) A religious organization (other than a trust);

(ii) An educational organization which normally maintains a regular faculty and curriculum and normally has a regularly enrolled body of pupils or students in attendance at the place where its educational activities are regularly carried on;

(iii) An organization which normally receives a substantial part of its support (exclusive or income received in the exercise or performance by such organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501(a)) from the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof or from direct of indirect contributions from the general public,

(iv) An organization which is operated, supervised, controlled or principally supported by a religious organization (other than a trust) which is itself not subject to the provisions of this section; and

(v) An organization the principal purposes or functions of which are the providing of medical or hospital care or medical education or medical research or agricultural research.

(2) Effective January 1, 1907, and prior to January 1, 1975, section 503 shall apply only to organizations described in section 501(c) (17) or (18) or section 401(a).

(3) Effective January 1, 1975, section 503 shall apply only to organization described in section 501(c) (17) or (18) or described in section 401(a) and referred to in section 4975(g) (2) or (3).

(b) The prohibited transactions enumerated in section 503(b) are in addition to and not in limitation of the restrictions contained in section 501(c) (3), (17), or (18) or section 401(a). Even though an organization has not engaged in any of the prohibited transactions referred to in section 503(b), it still may not qualify for tax exemptions in view of the general provisions of section 501(c) (3), (17), or (18) or section 401(a). Thus, if a trustee or other fiduciary of the organization (whether or not he is also a creater or such organization) enters into a transaction with the organization, such transaction will be closely scrutinized in the light of the fiduciary principle requiring undivided loyalty to ascertain whether the organization is in fact being operated for the stated exempt purpose.

(c) An organization—(1) Described in section 501(c)(3) which after July 1, 1950, but before January 1, 1970, has engaged in any prohibited transaction as defined in section 503(b), unless it is excepted by the provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section;

(2) Described in section 401(a) and referred to in section 4975(g) (2) or (3) which after March 1, 1954, has engaged in any prohibited transaction as defined in section 503(b);

(3) Described in section 401(a) and not referred to in section 4975(g) (2) or (3) which after March 1, 1954, but before January 1, 1975, has engaged in any prohibited transaction as defined in section 503(b) or which after December 31, 1962, but before January 1, 1975, has engaged in any prohibited transaction as defined in section 503(g) prior to its repeal by section 2003(b)(5) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 978);

(4) Described in section 501(c)(17) which after December 31, 1959, has engaged in any prohibited transaction as defined in section 503(b); or

(5) Described in section 501(c)(18) which after December 31, 1969, has engaged in any prohibited transaction described in section 503(b)

Shall not be exempt from taxation under section 501(a) for any taxable year subsequent to the taxable year in which there is mailed to it a notice in writing by the Commissioner that it has engaged in such prohibited transactions. Such notification by the Commissioner shall be by registered or certified mail to the last known name and address of the organization. However, notwithstanding the requirement of notification by the Commissioner, the exemption shall be denied with respect to any taxable year if such organization during or prior to such taxable year commenced the prohibited transaction with the purpose of diverting income or corpus from its exempt purposes and such transaction involved a substantial party of the income or corpus of such organization. For the purpose of this section, the term taxable year means the established annual accounting period of the organization; or, if the organization has no such established annual accounting period, the taxable year of the organizations means a calendar year. See 26 CFR §1.503(j)-1 (rev. as of Apr. 1, 1974) for provisions relating to the definition of prohibited transactions in the case of trusts benefitting certain owner-employees after December 31, 1962, but prior to January 1, 1975. See also section 2003 (c)(1)(B) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 978) in the case of an organization described in section 401(a) with respect to which a disqualified person elects to pay a tax in the amount and manner provided with respect to the tax imposed by section 4975 of the Code so that the organization may avoid denial of exemption under section 503. For further guidance regarding the definition of last known address, see §301.6212-2 of this chapter.

(d) The application of section 503(b) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A creates a foundation in 1954 ostensibly for educational purposes. B, a trustee, accumulates the foundation's income from 1957 until 1959 and then uses a substantial part of this accumulated income to send A's children to college. The foundation would lose its exemption for the taxable years 1957 through 1959 and for subsequent taxable years until it regains its exempt status.
Example 2. If under the facts in Example 1 such private benefit was the purpose of the foundation from its inception, such foundation is not exempt by reason of the general provisions of section 501(c)(3), without regard to the provisions of section 503, for all years since its inception, that is, for the taxable years 1954 through 1959 and subsequent taxable years, since under section 501(c)(3) the organization must be organized and operated exclusively for exempt purposes. See §1.501(c)(3)-1.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34621, Aug. 16, 1976, as amended by T.D. 8939, 66 FR 2819, Jan. 12, 2001]

§1.503(b)-1   Prohibited transactions.

(a) In general. The term prohibited transaction means any transaction set forth in section 503(b) engaged in by any organization described in paragraph (a) of §1.503(a)-1. Whether a transaction is a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances of the particular case. This section is intended to deny tax-exempt status to such organizations which engage in certain transactions which inure to the private advantage of (1) the creator of such organization (if it is a trust); (2) any substantial contributor to such organization; (3) a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of an individual who is such creator of or such substantial contributor to such organization; or (4) a corporation controlled, as set forth in section 503(b), by such creator or substantial contributor.

(b) Loans as prohibited transactions under section 503(b)(1)—(1) Adequate security. For the purposes of section 503(b)(1), which treats as prohibited transactions certain loans by an organization without receipt of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest, the term adequate security means something in addition to and supporting a promise to pay, which is so pledged to the organization that it may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, the value and liquidity of which security is such that it may reasonably be anticipated that loss of principal or interest will not result from the loan. Mortgages or liens on property, accommodation endorsements of those financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, and stock or securities issued by corporations other than the borrower may constitute security for a loan to the persons or organizations described in section 503(b). Stock of a borrowing corporation does not constitute adequate security. A borrower's evidence of indebtedness, irrespective of its name, is not security for a loan, whether or not it was issued directly to the exempt organization. However, if any such evidence of indebtedness provides for security that may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, there may be adequate security for such loan. If an organization subject to section 503(b) purchases debentures issued by a person specified in section 503(b), the purchase is considered, for purposes of section 503(b)(1), as a loan made by the purchaser to the issuer on the date of such purchase. For example, if an exempt organization subject to section 503(b) makes a purchase through a registered security exchange of debentures issued by a person described in section 503(b), and owned by an unknown third party, the purchase will be considered as a loan to the issuer by the purchaser. For rules relating to loan of funds to, or investment of funds in stock or securities of, persons described in section 503(b) by an organization described in section 401(a), see paragraph (b)(5) of §1.401-1.

(2) Effective dates. The effective dates for the application of the definition of adequate security in paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph are:

(i) March 15, 1956, for loans (other than debentures) made after March 15, 1956;

(ii) January 31, 1957, for loans (other than debentures) made before March 16, 1956, and continued after January 31, 1957;

(iii) November 8, 1956, for debentures which were purchased after November 8, 1956;

(iv) December 1, 1958, for debentures which were purchased before November 9, 1956, and held after December 1, 1958;

(v) If an employees' pension, stock bonus, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a) made a loan before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, and which would constitute a prohibited transaction if made on or after March 1, 1954, the loan shall not constitute a prohibited transaction if held until maturity (determined without regard to any extension or renewal thereof);

(vi) January 1, 1960, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, described in section 501 (c)(17);

(vii) January 1, 1970, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by employees' contribution pension plan trusts described in section 501(c)(18).

(3) Certain exceptions to section 503(b)(1). See section 503(e) and §1.503(e)-1, 1.503(e)-2, and 1.503(e)-3 for special rules providing that certain obligations acquired by trusts described in section 401(a) or section 501(c) (17) or (18) shall not be treated as loans made without the receipt of adequate security for purposes of section 503(b)(1). See section 503(f) and §1.503(f)-1 for an exception to the application of sections 503(b)(1) for certain loans made by employees' trusts described in section 401(a).

(c) Examples. The principles of this section are illustrated by the following examples: (Assume that section 503 (e) and (f) are not applicable.)

Example 1. A, creator of an exempt trust subject to section 503, borrows $100,000 from such trust in 1960, giving his unsecured promissory note. The net worth of A is $1,000,000. The net worth of A is not security for such loan and the transaction is a prohibited transaction. If, however, the note is secured by a mortgage on property of sufficient value, or is accompanied by acceptable collateral of sufficient value, or carries with it the secondary promise of repayment by an accommodation endorser financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, it may be adequately secured. However, subordinated debentures bonds of a partnership which are guaranteed by the general partners are not adequately secured since the general partners are liable for the firm's debt and their guaranty adds no additional security.
Example 2. Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that A's promissory note in the amount of $100,000 to the trust is secured by property which has a fair market value of $75,000. A's promissory note secured to the extent of $75,000 is not adequately secured within the meaning of section 503(b)(1) since the security at the time of the transaction must be sufficient to repay the indebtedness, interest, and charges which may pertain thereto.
Example 3. Corporation M, a substantial contributor to an exempt organization subject to section 503, borrows $150,000 from such organization in 1960, giving its promissory note accompanied by stock of the borrowing corporation with a fair market value of $200,000. Since promissory notes and debentures have priority over stock in the event of liquidation of the corporation, stock of a borrowing corporation is not adequate security. Likewise, debenture bonds which are convertible on default into voting stock of the issuing corporation do not constitute adequate security under section 503(b)(1).
Example 4. B, creator of an exempt trust subject to section 503, borrows $100,000 from such trust in 1960, giving his secured promissory note at the rate of 3 percent interest. The prevailing rate of interest charged by financial institutions in the community where the transaction takes place is 5 percent for a loan of the same duration and similarly secured. The loan by the trust to the grantor is a prohibited transaction since section 503(b)(1) requires both adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest. Further, a promise to repay the loan plus a percentage of future profits which may be greater than the prevailing rate of interest does not meet the reasonable rate of interest requirement.
Example 5. N Corporation, a substantial contributor to an exempt organization subject to section 503 borrows $50,000 on or after March 16, 1956, from the organization. If the loan is not adequately secured, the organization has committed a prohibited transaction at the time the loan was made. If the loan had been made on or before March 15, 1956, and is continued after January 31, 1957, it must be adequately secured on February 1, 1957, or it will be considered a prohibited transaction on that date. However, if the exempt organization were an employees' trust, described in section 401(a), and the loan were made before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, it would not have to be adequately secured on February 1, 1957. Moreover, if the exempt organization were a supplemental unemployment benefit trust, described in section 501(c)(17), and the loan were made before January 1, 1960, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1959, it would not have to be adequately secured on January 1, 1960.
Example 6. An exempt organization subject to section 503 purchases a debenture issued by O Corporation, which is a substantial contributor to the organization. The organization purchases the debenture in an arm's length transaction from a third person on or after November 9, 1956. The purchase is considered as a loan by the organization to O Corporation. The loan must be adequately secured when it is made, or it is considered as a prohibited transaction at that time. If the organization purchased the debenture before November 9, 1956, and holds it after December 1, 1958, the debenture must be adequately secured on December 2, 1958, or it will then be considered as a prohibited transaction. However, if the organization were an employees' trust described in section 401(a), and if the debenture were purchased before March 1, 1954, and its maturity date is after December 31, 1955, the debenture does not have to be adequately secured. Moreover, if the organization were an employees' contribution pension plan trust described in section 501(c)(18), and if the debenture were purchased before January 1, 1970, and its maturity date is after December 31, 1969, the debenture does not have to be adequately secured.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34621, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.503(c)-1   Future status of organizations denied exemption.

(a) Any organization described in section 501(c) (3), (17), or (18), or an employees' trust described in section 401(a), which is denied exemption under section 501(a) by reason of the provisions of section 503(a), may file, in any taxable year following the taxable year in which notice of denial was issued, a claim for exemption. In the case of organizations described in section 501(c) (3), (17), or (18), the appropriate exemption application shall be used for this purpose, and shall be filed with the district director. In the case of an enmployees' trust described in section 401(a), the information described in §1.404(a)-2 shall be submitted with a letter claiming exemption. All employees' trust described in section 401(a) shall submit this information to the district director with whom a request for a determination as to its qualification under section 401 and exemption under section 501 may be submitted under paragraph (s) of §601.201 of this chapter (Statement of Procedural Rules). A claim for exemption must contain or have attached to it, in addition to the information generally required of such an organization claiming exemption as an organization described in section 501(c) (17), or (18), or section 401(a) (or section 501(c)(3) prior to January 1, 1970), a written declaration made under the penalities of perjury by principal officer of such organization authorized to make such declaration that the organization will not knowingly again engage in a prohibited transaction, (as defined in section 503(b) (or 4975(c) if such section applies to such organization)). In the case of section 501(c)(3) organizations which have lost their exemption after December 31, 1969, pursuant to section 503, a claim for exemption must contain or have attached to it a written agreement made under penalities of perjury by a principal officer of such organization authorized to make such agreement that the organization will not violate the provisions of chapter 42. In addition, such organization must comply with the rules for governing instruments as prescribed in §1.508-3. See §1.501(a)-1 for proof of exemption requirements in general.

(b) If the Commissioner is satisfied that such organization will not knowingly again engage in a prohibited transaction (as defined under section 503(b) or 4975(c), as applicable to such organization) or in the case of a section 501(c)(3) organization, will not violate the provisions of chapter 42, and the organization also satisfied all the other requirements under section 501(c) (3), (17), or (18), or section 401(a), the organization will be so notified in writing. In such case the organization will be exempt (subject to the provisions of section 501(c)(3), or sections 501(c) (17), (18) or 401(a), and 503, and 504 when applicable) with respect to the taxable years subsequent to the taxable year in which the claim described in section 503(c) is filed. Section 503 contemplates that an organization denied exemption because of the terms of such section will be subject to taxation for at least one full taxable year. For the purpose of this section, the term taxable year means the established annual accounting period of the organization; or, if the organization has no such established annual accounting period, the taxable year of the organization means the calendar year.

(c) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, the denial of an exemption pursuant to this section, for a taxable year prior to January 1, 1970, of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) shall not cause such organization to cease to be described in section 501(c)(3) for purposes of part II of subchapter F, chapter 1 and for purposes of the application of chapter 42 taxes.

(d) In the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(3), which has lost its exemption pursuant to section 503, and which has not notified the Commissioner that it is applying for recognition of its exempt status under section 508(a) and this section, no gift or contribution made after December 31, 1969, which would otherwise be deductible under section 170, 642(c), or 545(b)(2) shall be allowed as a deduction. For rules relating to the denial of deductions with respect to gifts or contributions made before January 1, 1970, see, §1.503(e)-4.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34622, Aug. 16, 1976, as amended by T.D. 7896, 48 FR 23817, May 27, 1983]

§1.503(d)-1   Cross references.

For provisions relating to loans described in section 503(b)(1) by a trust described in section 401(a), see §1.503(b)-1 and section 503 (e) and (f) and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34623, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.503(e)-1   Special rules.

(a) In general. (1) Section 503(e) provides that for purposes of section 503(b)(1) (relating to loans made without the receipt of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest) the acquisition of a bond, debenture, note, or certificate or other evidence of indebtedness shall not be treated as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security if certain requirements are met. Those requirements are described in §1.503(e)-2.

(2) Section 503(e) does not affect the requirement in section 503(b)(1) of a reasonable rate of interest. Thus, although the acquistion of a certificate of indebtedness which meets all of the requirements of section 503(e) and of §1.503(e)-2 will not be considered as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security, the acquisition of such an indebtedness does consitute a prohibited transaction if the indebtedness does not bear a reasonable rate of interest.

(3) The provisions of section 503(e) do not limit the effect of section 401(a) and §1.401-2, section 501(c)(17)(A)(i), or section 501(c)(18)(A), all relating to the use of diversion of corpus or incopme of the respective employee trusts. Furthermore, the provisions of section 503(e) do not limit the effect of any of the provisions of section 503 other than section 503(b)(1). Thus, for example, although a loan made by employees' trust described in section 503(a)(1)(B) meets all the requirements of section 503(e) and therefore is not treated as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security, such an employees' trust making such a loan will lose its exempt status if the loan is not considered as made for the exclusive benefit of the employees or their beneficiaries. Similarly, a loan which meets the requirements of section 503(e) will constitute a prohibited transaction within the meaning of section 503(b)(6) if it results in a substantial diversion of the trust's income or corpus to a person described in section 503(b).

(b) Definitions. For purposes of section 503(e):

(1) The term obligation means bond, debenture, note, or certificate or other evidence of indebtedness.

(2) The term issuer includes any person described in section 503(b) who issues an obligation.

(3)(i) The term person independent of the issuer means a person who is not related to the issuer by blood, by marriage, or by reason of any substantial business interests. Persons who will be considered not to be independent of the issuer include but are not limited to:

(a) The spouse, ancestor, lineal descendant, or brother or sister (whether by whole or half blood) of an individual who is the issuer of an obligation;

(b) A corporation controlled directly or indirectly by an individual who is the issuer, or directly or indirectly by the spouse, ancestor, lineal descendant, or brother or sister (whether by whole or half blood) of an individual who is the issuer;

(c) A corporation which directly or indirectly controls, or is controlled by, a corporate issuer;

(d) A controlling shareholder of a corporation which is the issuer, or which controls the issuer;

(e) An officer, director, or other employee of the issuer, of a corporation controlled by the issuer, or of a corporation which controls the issuer;

(f) A fiduciary of any trust created by the issuer, by a corporation which controls the issuer, or by a corporation which is controlled by the issuer; or

(g) A corporation controlled by a person who controls a corporate issuer.

(ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, the term control means, with respect to a corporation, direct or indirect ownership of 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all voting stock or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock. If the aggregate amount of stock in a corporation owned by an individual and by the spouse, ancestors, lineal descendants, brothers and sisters (whether by whole of half blood) of the individual is 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all voting stock or is 50 percent or more of the total value of all classes of stock, then each of these persons shall be considered as the controlling shareholder of the corporation.

(iii) In determining family relationships for purposes of paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, a legally adopted child of an individual shall be treated as a child of such individual by blood.

(4) The term issue means all the obligations of an issuer which are offered for sale on substantially the same terms. Obligations shall be considered offered for sale on substantially the same terms if such obligation would, at the same time and under the same circumstances, be traded on the market at the same price. On the other hand, if the terms on which obligations are offered for sale differ in such manner as would cause such obligations to be traded on the market at different prices, then such obligations are not part of the same issue. The following are examples of terms which, if different, would cause obligations to be traded on the market at different prices: (i) Interest rate; (ii) Maturity date; (iii) Collateral; and (iv) Conversion provisions

The fact that obligations are offered for sale on different dates will not preclude such obligations from being part of the same issue if they all mature on the same date and if the terms on which they are offered for sale are otherwise the same, since such obligations would, at the same time and under the same conditions, be traded on the market at the same price. Obligations shall not be considered part of the same issue merely because they are part of the same authorization or because they are registered as part of the same issue with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34623, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.503(e)-2   Requirements.

(a) In general. The requirements which must be met under section 503(e) for an obligation not to be treated as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security for purposes of section 503(b)(1) are described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. For purposes of this section, the term employee trust shall mean any of the three kinds of organizations described in section 503(a)(1).

(b) Methods of acquisition—(1) In general. The employee trust must acquire the obligation of the market, by purchase from an underwriter, or by purchase from the issuer, in the manner described in subparagraph (2), (3), or (4) of this paragraph.

(2) On the market. (i) An obligation is acquired on the market when it is purchased through a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or when it is purchased in an over-the-counter transaction. For purposes of the preceding sentence, securities purchased through an exchange which is not a national securities exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission shall be treated as securities purchased in an over-the-counter transaction.

(ii)(a) If the obligation is listed on a national securities exchange registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it must be purchased through such an exchange or in an over-the-counter transaction at a price not greater than the price of the obligation prevailing on such an exchange at the time of the purchase by the employee trust.

(b) For purposes of section 503(e), the price of the obligation prevailing at the time of the purchase means the price which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation. In the case of an obligation purchased through a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the price paid for the obligation will be considered the prevailing price of the obligation. In the case of an obligation purchased in an over-the-counter transaction, the prevailing price may be the price at which the last sale of the obligation was affected on such national securities exchange immediately before the employee trust's purchase of such obligation on the same day or may be the mean between the highest and lowest prices at which sales were effected on such exchange on the same day or on the immediately preceding day or on the last day during which there were sales of such obligation or may be a price determined by any other method which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation.

(iii)(a) If the obligation is not listed on a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it must be purchased in an over-the-counter transaction at a price not greater than the offering price for the obligation as established by current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer.

(b) For purposes of section 503(e) the offering price for the obligation at the time of the purchase means the price which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation. The offering price may be the price at which the last sale of the obligation to a person independent of the issuer was effected immediately before the employee trust's purchase of such obligation on the same day or may be the mean between the highest and lowest prices at which sales to persons independent of the issuer were effected on the same day or on the last day during which they were sales of such obligation or may be a price determinated by any other method which accurately reflects the market value of the obligation. The offering price for an obligation must be a valid price for the amount of the obligations which the trust is purchasing. For example, if an employees' trust described in section 503(a)(1)(B) purchases 1,000 bonds of the employer corporation at the offering price established by current prices for a lot of 10 such bonds, such offering price may not be a valid price for 1,000 bonds and the purchase may therefore not meet the requirements of this subdivision. For a purchase of an obligation to qualify under this subdivision, there must be sufficient current prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer to establish accurately the current value of the obligation. Thus, if there are no current prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer, an over-the-counter transaction will not qualify under this subparagraph even though the obligation was purchased in an arms's length transaction from a person independent of the issuer.

(iv) For purposes of this section, an over-the-counter transaction is one not executed on a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. An over-the-counter transaction may be made through a dealer or an exchange which is not such a national securities exchange or may be made directly from the seller to the purchaser.

(3) From an underwriter. An obligation may be purchased from an underwriter if it is purchased at a price not greater than:

(i) The public offering price for the obligation as set forth in a prospectus or offering circular filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or

(ii) The price at which a substantial portion of the issue including such obligation is acquired by persons independent of the issuer

whichever is the lesser price. For purposes of this subparagraph, a portion of the issue will be considered substantial if the purchasers of such portion by persons independent of the issuer are sufficient to establish that fair market value of the obligations included in such issue. In determining whether the purchases are sufficient to establish the fair market value, all the surrounding facts and circumstances will be considered, including the number of independent purchasers, the aggregate amount purchased by each such independent purchaser, and the number of transactions. In the case of a large issue, purchases of a small percentage of the outstanding obligations may be considered purchases of a substantial portion of the issue; whereas, in the case of a small issue, purchases of a larger percentage of the outstanding obligations will ordinarily be required. The requirement in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section contemplates purchase of the obligations by persons independent of the issuer contemporaneously with the purchase by the employee trust. If a substantial portion has been purchased at different prices, the price of the portion may be based on the average of such prices, and if several substantial portions have been sold to persons independent of the issuer, the price of any of the substantial portions may be used for pusposes of this subparagraph.

(4) From the issuer. An obligation may be purchased directly from the issuer at a price not greater than the price paid currently for a substantial portion of the same issue by persons independent of the issuer. This requirement contemplates purchase of a substantial portion of the same issue by persons independent of the issuer contemporaneously with the purchase by the employee trust. For purposes of this subparagraph, a portion of the issue will be considered substantial if the purchases of such portion by persons independent of the issuer are sufficient to establish the fair market value of the obligations included in such issue. In determining whether the purchases are sufficient to establish the fair market value, all the surrounding facts and circumstances will be considered, including the number of independent purchasers, the aggregage amount purchased by each such independent purchaser, and the number of transactions. In the case of a large issue, purchases of a small percentage of the outstanding obligations may be considered purchases of a substantial portion of the issue; whereas, in the case of a small issue, purchases of a larger percentage of the outstanding obligations will ordinarily be required. The price paid for a substantial portion of the issue may be determined in the manner privided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(c) Limitations on holdings of obligations. (1) Immediately following acquisition of the obligation by the employee trust:

(i) Not more than 25 percent of the aggregate amount of the obligations issued in such issue and outstanding immediately after acquisition by the trust may be held by the trust, and

(ii) At least 50 percent of such aggregate amount must be held by persons independent of the issuer.

(2)(i) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, an obligation is not considered as outstanding if it is held by the issuer. For example, if an obligation which has been issued and outstanding is repurchased and held by the issuer, without cancellation or retirement, such an obligation is not considered outstanding.

(ii) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amounts of the obligations held by the trust and by persons independent of the issuer shall be computed on the basis of the face amount of the obligations.

(d) Limitation on amount invested in obligations. (1)(i) Immediately following acquisition of the obligation, not more 25 percent of the assets of the employee trust may be invested in all obligations of all persons described in section 503(b). For purposes of determining the amount of the trust's assets which are invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b) immediately following acquisition of the obligation, those obligations shall be valued as follows:

(a) Those obligations included in the acquisition in respect of which the percentage test in the first sentence of this subdivision is being applied shall be valued at their adjusted basis, as provided in section 1011, relating to adjusted basis for determining gain or loss; and

(b) All other obligations of persons described in section 503(b) which were part of the trust's assets immediately before the acquisition of the obligations described in (d)(1)(i)(a) of this section shall be valued at their fair market value on the day that the obligations described in (d)(1)(i)(a) of this section were acquired. For purposes of determining the total amount of the assets of the trust (including obligations of persons described in section 503(b)), there shall be used the fair market value of those assets on the day the obligation is acquired.

(ii) The application of the rules in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. On February 1, 1960, an exempt employees' trust described in section 401(a) purchases unsecured debentures issued by the employer corporation for $1,000. At the time of this purchase, such debentures have a fair market value of $1,200. Immediately after the purchase of such unsecured debentures, the assets of the trust consist of the following:
   CostFair market value on Feb. 1, 1960
(a) Assets other than obligations of persons described in sec. 503(b)$5,000$7,800
(b) Obligations of persons described in sec. 503(b) acquired before Feb. 1, 19605001,000
(c) Unsecured debentures of employer purchased on Feb. 1, 19601,0001,200
Immediately following acquisition of the unsecured debentures by the trust, the percent of the assets of the trust that are invested in all obligations of all persons described in section 503(b) is computed as follows:
(1) Obligations of persons described in section 503(b) acquired before Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at fair market value)$1,000
(2) Unsecured debentures of employer purchased on Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at cost)1,000
(3) Total amount of trust's assets invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b) ((1) plus (2))2,000
(4) Assets of the trust other than obligations of persons described in section 503(b) (valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960)7,800
(5) Obligations of persons described in section 503(b) acquired before Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960)1,000
(6) Unsecured debentures of employer purchased on Feb. 1, 1960 (valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960)$1,200
(7) Total assets of the trust valued at fair market value on Feb. 1, 1960 (sum of (4), (5), and (6))10,000
(8) Percent of assets of the trust invested in all obligations of all persons described in section 503(b) immediately following purchase of unsecured debentures on Feb. 1, 1960 ((3)÷(7), that is, $2,000÷$10,000)20%

(2) In determining for purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the amount invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b), there shall be included amounts invested in any obligations issued by any such person, irrespective of whether the obligation is secured, and irrespective of whether the obligation meets the conditions of section 503(e) or section 503(f). Obligations of persons described in section 503(b) other than the issuer of the obligation to which section 503(e) applies are also included within the 25 percent limitation. For example, if on February 19, 1959, an exempt employees' trust described in section 401(a) purchases unsecured debentures issued by the employer corporation in a transaction effected on the New York Stock Exchange, and if immediately after the purchase 10 percent of the trust's assets is invested in such debentures and 20 percent of its assets is invested in a loan made with adequate security on January 12, 1959, to the wholly-owned subsidiary of the employer corporation, then the purchase of the employer's debentures will not qualify under section 503(e), since 30 percent of the trust's assets are then invested in obligations of persons described in section 503(b).

(e) Change of terms of an obligation. A change in terms of an obligation is considered as the acquisition of a new obligation. If such new obligation is not adequately secured, the requirements of section 503(e) must be met at the time the terms of the obligation are changed for such section to be applicable to such new loan.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34624, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.503(e)-3   Effective dates.

(a) Section 503(e) and §§1.503(e)-1 and 1.503(e)-3 are effective in the case of an employees' trust described in section 401(a) for taxable years ending after March 15, 1956. Thus, if during a taxable year ending before March 16, 1956, an employees' trust made a loan which meets the requirements of section 503(e), such loan will not be treated as made without the receipt of adequate security and will not cause the loss of exemption for taxable years ending after March 15, 1956, although such loan was not considered adequately secured when made. (However, section 503 does not apply to organizations described in section 401(a) not referred to in section 4975(g) (2) or (3) for transactions occurring after December 31, 1974.)

(b)(1) In the case of obligations acquired by an employees' trust described in section 401(a) before September 2, 1958, which were held on that date, the requirements described in paragraphs (c) and (d) of §1.503(e)-2 which were not satisfied immediately following the acquisition shall be treated as satisfied at that time if those requirements would have been satisfied had the obligations been acquired on September 2, 1958. For example, on January 3, 1955, an employees' trust described in section 401(a) purchased through the New York Stock Exchange unsecured debentures issued by the employer corporation. Under section 503(e) the acquisition of such debentures by the trust will not be treated for taxable years ending after March 15, 1956, as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security if the debentures were held by the employees' trust on September 2, 1958, and if the requirements of paragraphs (c) and (d) of §1.503(e)-2 which were not met on January 3, 1955, were met on September 2, 1958, as if that date were the date of acquisition.

(2) In the case of obligations acquired before September 2, 1958, which were not held by the employees' trust described in section 401(a) on that date, only the requirements described in paragraph (b) of §1.503(e)-2 must be satisfied for section 503(e) to be applicable to such acquisition. For example, if on December 5, 1956, an employees' trust lent money to the employer corporation by purchasing a debenture issued by the employer and if the trust sold the debenture on August 1, 1958, such loan would not be treated as made without the receipt of adequate security if the requirement described in paragraph (b) of §1.503(e)-2 was met on December 5, 1956.

(c) Section 503(e) and §§1.503(e)-1 and 1.503(e)-2 are effective in the case of trusts described in section 501(c)(17) with respect to loans made, renewed, or, in the case of demand loans, continued after December 31, 1959, and in the case of trusts described in section 501(c)(18) with respect to loans made, renewed or, in the case of demand loans, continued after December 31, 1969.

(d) See paragraph (b)(2) of §1.503(b)-1 for the effective dates for the application of the definition of adequate security.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34626, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.503(e)-4   Disallowance of charitable deductions for certain gifts made before January 1, 1970.

Paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section shall apply only to gifts or contributions made before January 1, 1970, to an organization described in section 501(c)(3). For rules relating to the denial of deductions with respect to gifts or contributions made after December 31, 1969, see §1.503(c)-1(d).

(a) No gift or contribution which would otherwise be allowable as a charitable or other deductions under section 170, 642(c), or 545(b)(2) shall be allowed as a deduction if made to an organization described in section 501(c)(3) which at the time the gift or contribution is made is not exempt under section 501(a) by reason of the provisions of section 503.

(b) If an organization which is described in section 501(c)(3) is not exempt because it engaged in a prohibited transaction involving a substantial part of its income of corpus with the purpose of diverting its income or corpus from its exempt purposes, and if the organization receives a gift or contribution during, or prior to, its taxable year in which such prohibited transaction occurred, then a deduction by the donor with respect to the gift or contribution shall not be disallowed under section 503(b) unless the donor (or any member of his family if the donor is an individual) is a party to such prohibited transaction. For the purpose of the preceding sentence family is defined in section 267(c)(4) and includes brothers and sisters, whether by whole or half blood, spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants. See the regulations under section 267(c).

(c) The application of §1.503(e)-4 may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. In 1954, Corporation M, which files its income tax returns on the calendar year basis, creates a foundation purportedly for charitable purposes and deducts from its gross income for that year the amount of the gift to the foundation. Corporation M makes additional gifts to this foundation in 1955, 1956, and 1957, and takes charitable deductions for such years. B, an individual, also contributes to the foundation in 1955, 1956, and 1957, and takes charitable deductions for such years. In 1955, the foundation commences purposely to divert its corpus to the benefit of Corporation M, and a substantial amount of such corpus is so diverted by the close of the taxable year 1956. For 1955 and subsequent taxable years, the exemption allowed the foundation as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) is denied by reason of the provisions of section 503(a). Both Corporation M and individual B would be disallowed any deduction for the contributions made during 1957 to the foundation. Moreover, the charitable deductions taken by Corporation M for contributions to the foundation in the years 1955 and 1956 would also be disallowed since Corporation M was a party to the prohibited transactions. If the facts and surrounding cuircumstances indicate that the contribution in 1954 by Corporation M was for the purpose of the prohibited transaction, then the charitable deduction for the year 1954 shall also be disallowed with respect to Corporation M, since the prohibited transaction would then have commenced with the making of such contribution and the exemption allowed the foundation would then be denied for 1954 by reason of the provisions of §1.503(e)-4. B's deductions for his contributions for the years 1955 and 1956 will not be disallowed since he was not a party to the prohibited transaction.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34626, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.503(f)-1   Loans by employers who are prohibited from pledging assets.

(a) In general. (1) Section 503(f) provides that section 503(b)(1) shall not apply to a loan made to the employer by an employees' trust described in section 401(a) if the loan bears a reasonable rate of interest and certain conditions are met. Section 503(f) also applies to the renewal of loans to the employer and, in the case of demand loans, to the continuation of such loans.

(2) The provisions of section 503(f) do not limit the effect of section 401(a) and §1.401-2, relating to use or diversion of corpus or income of an employees' trust, or the effect of any of the provisions of section 503 other than section 503(b)(1). Consequently, although a loan made by an employees' trust described in section 503(a)(1)(B) meets all the requirements of section 503(f) and therefore is not treated as a loan made without the receipt of adequate security, an employees' trust making such a loan will lose its exempt status if the loan is not considered as made for the exclusive benefit of the employees or their beneficiaries. Similarly, a loan which meets the requirements of section 503(f) will constitute a prohibited transaction within the meaning of section 503(b)(6) if it results in a substantial diversion of the trust's income or corpus to a person described in section 503(b).

(b) Conditions. (1) Section 503(f) applies to a loan only if, with respect to the making or renewal of the loan, the conditions described in paragraphs (b) (2), (3), and (4) of this section are met. For purpose of this paragraph, the mere continuance of a demand loan is not considered as the making or renewal of such a loan.

(2) The employer must be prohibited (at the time of the making or renewal of the loan) by any law of the United States or regulations thereunder from directly or indirectly pledging, as security for such a loan, a particular class or classes of his assets the value of which (at such time) represents more than one-half of the value of all his assets. If a loan is made or renewed when the employer is prohibited by a law of the United States (or the regulations thereunder) from pledging a class of his assets, the qualification of such a loan under section 503(f) will not be affected by a subsequent change in such law or regulations permitting the employer to pledge such assets, unless such loan is renewed after such change. See section 8(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (15 U.S.C. 78h(a)), which prohibits certain persons from pledging a class of assets as security for loans, and 12 CFR 220.5(a) (credit by brokers, dealers, and members of national securities exchanges).

(3) The making or renewal, as the case may be, must be approved in writing as an investment which is consistent with the exempt purposes of the trust by a trustee who is independent of the employer, and such written approval must not have been previously refused by any other such trustee. A trustee is independent of the employer, for purposes of this subparagraph, if he is entirely free of influence or controlled by the employer. For example, if the employer is a partnership, then a partner in such partnership, or a member of a partner's family would not be considered independent of the employer. Similarly, an employee of the employer would not be considered independent of the employer. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term trustee means, with respect to any trust for which there are two trustees who are independent of the employer, both of such trustees and, with respect to any trust for which there are more than two such independent trustees, a majority of the trustees independent of the employer.

(4)(i) Immediately following the making or renewal, as the case may be, the aggregate amount lent by the trust to the employer, without the receipt of adequate security must not exceed 25 percent of the value of all the assets of the trust.

(ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, the determination as to whether any amount lent by the trust to the employer is a loan made without the receipt of adequate security shall be made without regard to section 503(e). Thus, if an employees' trust makes a loan on January 2, 1959, to the employer without adequate security (but which loan is not considered as made without adquate security under section 503(e)), and if immediately after making such loan 10 percent of the value of all its assets is invested in such loan, then the trust may on that day invest not more than an additional 15 percent of its assets in a loan which would be considered made without adequate security if it were not for the provisions of section 503(f).

(iii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, in determining the value of all the assets of the trust, there shall be used the fair market value of those assets on the day of the making or renewal.

(c) Reasonable rate of interest. Section 503(f) only applies if, in addition to meeting the conditions described in paragraph (b) of this section, the loan bears a reasonable rate of interest when it is made, renewed, or, in the case of demand loans, during the period of its existence.

(d) Change of terms of loan. A change in the terms of a loan (including a reduction in the security for a loan) is considered as the making of a new loan. If such a new loan is not adequately secured, the requirements of section 503(f) must be met at the time the terms of the loan are changed for such section to be applicable to such new loan.

(e) Effective date. (1) This section and section 503(f) are effective for taxable years ending after September 2, 1958, but only with respect to periods after such date. Thus, if a loan was made on or before September 2, 1958, without the receipt of adequate security and if, when such loan was made, it met all of the requirements of section 503(f) and this section, then the loan is not subject to section 503(b)(1) after September 2, 1958, and would not consitite a prohibited transaction after that date because of a lack of adequate security.

(2) See paragraph (b)(2) of §1.503(b)-1 for the effective dates for application of the definition of adequate security.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34626, Aug. 16, 1976]

§1.504-1   Attempts to influence legislation; certain organizations formerly described in section 501(c)(3) denied exemption.

Section 504(a) and this section apply to an organization that is exempt from taxation at any time after October 4, 1976, as an organization described in section 501(c)(3), and that ceases to be described in that section because it—

(a) Is an action organization within the meaning of §1.501(c)(3)-1(c)(3)(ii) or (iv), on account of activities occurring after October 4, 1976, or

(b) Is denied exemption under the provisions of section 501(h) (see §1.501(h)-3 or §56.4911-9).

This section does not apply, however, to an organization that was described in section 501(h)(5) and §1.501(h)-2(b)(3) (relating generally to churches) for its taxable year immediately preceding the first taxable year for which it is no longer an organization described in section 501(c)(3). An organization to which section 504(a) and this section apply shall not be treated as described in section 501(c)(4) at any time after the organization ceases to be described in section 501(c)(3). Further, an organization denied treatment as an organization described in section 501(c)(4) under this section may not be treated as an organization described in section 501(c) other than as an organization described in section 501(c)(3). For rules relating to recognition of exemption after exemption is denied under section 501(h), §1.501(h)-3(d).

[T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35592, Aug. 31, 1990]

§1.504-2   Certain transfers made to avoid section 504(a).

(a) Scope. Under section 504(b), a transfer described in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section to an organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) may result in loss of exemption by the transferee unless the Commissioner determines, under paragraph (e) of this section, that the original transfer did not effect an avoidance of section 504(a). For purposes of this section, the term transfer includes any use by, or for the benefit of, the recipient of the transfer, but does not include any transfer made for adequate and full consideration.

(b) Transferor and transferee commonly controlled—(1) Loss of exemption. A transfer is described in this paragraph (b) if it is described in paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(6). The transferee of a transfer described in this paragraph will cease to be exempt from tax under section 501(a), unless the provisions of paragraph (e) of this section apply.

(2) Transferor organization. A transfer is described in this paragraph (b)(2) only if it is from an organization that—

(i) Is or was described in section 501(c)(3), but not in section 501(h)(5), and

(ii) Is determined to be an “action” organization (as defined in §1.501(c)(3)-1(c)(3)(ii) or (iv)), or is denied exemption from tax by reason of section 501(h) and either §1.501(h)-3 or §56.4911-9.

(3) Transferor and transferee commonly controlled. A transfer is described in this paragraph (b)(3) only if, at the time of the transfer or at any time during the transferee's ten taxable years following the year in which the transfer was made, the transferee is controlled (directly or indirectly), as defined in paragraph (f) of this section, by the same person or persons who control the transferor.

(4) Time of transfer. A transfer is described in this paragraph (b)(4) only if the transfer is made—

(i) After the date that is 24 months before the earliest of the effective date of the determination under section 501(h) that the transferor is not exempt, the effective date of the Commissioner's determination that the transferor is an “action” organization (as defined in §1.501(c)(3)(ii) or (iv)), or the date on which the Commissioner proposes to treat it as no longer described in section 501(c)(3), and

(ii) Before the transferor again is recognized as an organization described in section 501(c)(3).

(5) Transferee. A transfer is described in this paragraph (b)(5) only if the transferee is exempt from tax under section 501(a) but the transferee is neither—

(i) An organization described in section 501(c)(3), nor

(ii) An organization described in section 401(a) to which the transferor contributes as an employer.

(6) Amount of transfer. A transfer is described in this paragraph (b)(6) only if the amount of the transfer exceeds the lesser of 30 percent of the net fair market value of the transferor's assets or 50 percent of the net fair market value of the transferee's assets, computed immediately before the transfer. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(6)—

(i) The amount of a transfer by a transferor is the sum of the amounts transferred to any number of transferees in any number of transfers, all of which are described in paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(5) of this section, and the time of the transfer is the time of the first transfer so taken into account; and

(ii) The amount of a transfer to a transferee is the sum of the amounts transferred by a transferor to the transferee in any number of transfers, all of which are described in paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(5) of this section, and the time of the transfer is the time of the first transfer so taken into account.

(c) Other transfers—(1) Transfers included. A transfer is described in this paragraph (c) if it would be described in paragraph (b) of this section except that either—

(i) The amount of the transfer is less than the amount determined in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, or

(ii) The transferor and transferee are not commonly controlled as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, or

(iii) The transferee is an organization described in sections 501(c)(3) and 501(h)(4).

(2) Loss of exemption. The transferee of a transfer described in this paragraph (c) will cease to be exempt under section 501(a) if the Commissioner determines on all the facts and circumstances that the transfer effected an avoidance of section 504(a). In determining whether a transfer effected an avoidance of section 504(a), the Commissioner may consider whether the transferee engages, or has engaged, in attempts to influence legislation and may also consider any factors enumerated in paragraph (e) of this section.

(d) Date of loss of exempt status. A transferee of a transfer described in paragraph (b), (c)(1)(ii), or (c)(1)(iii) of this section will cease to be exempt from tax under section 501(a) on the date that all requirements of paragraph (b), (c)(1)(ii), or (c)(1)(iii) (other than the determination by the Commissioner) are satisfied. A transferee of a transfer described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section will cease to be exempt from tax under section 501(a) on the date of the last transfer preceding notification of the transferee that the Commissioner proposes to treat the transferee as other than an exempt organization.

(e) Transfers not in avoidance of section 504(a). Notwithstanding paragraph (b) of this section, if, based on all the facts and circumstances, the Commissioner determines that a transfer described in paragraph (b) did not effect an avoidance of section 504(a), the transferee will not be denied exemption from tax by reason of section 504(b) and this section. In making the determination called for in the preceding sentence, the Commissioner may consider all relevant factors including:

(1) Whether enforceable and effective conditions on the transfer preclude use of any of the transferred assets for any purpose that, if it were a substantial part of an organization's activities, would be inconsistent with exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(3);

(2) In the absence of conditions described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, whether the transferred assets are used exclusively for purposes that are consistent with the transferor's exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(3);

(3) Whether the assets transferred would be describe in §53.4942(a)(-2(c)(3) before, as well as after, the transfer if both the transferor and transferee were private foundations;

(4) Whether and to what extent the transfer would satisfy the provisions of §1.507-2(a) (7) and (8) if the transferor were a private foundation;

(5) Whether all of the transferred assets have been expended during a period when the transferee was not controlled (directly or indirectly) by the same person or persons who controlled the transferor; and

(6) Whether the entire amount of the transferred assets were in turn transferred, before the close of the transferee's taxable year following the taxable year in which the transferred assets were received, to one or more organizations described in section 507(b)(1)(A) none of which are controlled (directly or indirectly) by the same persons who control either the original transferor or transferee.

(f) Control. For purposes of section 504 and the regulations thereunder—

(1) The transferor will be presumed to control any organization with which it is affiliated within the meaning of §56.4911-7(a), or would be if both organizations were described in section 501(c)(3), and

(2) The transferee will be treated as controlled (directly of indirectly) by the same person or persons who control the transferor if the transferee would be treated as controlled under §53.4942(a)-3(a)(3), for which purpose the transferor shall be treated as a private foundation.

[T.D. 8308, 55 FR 35592, Aug. 31, 1990]

§1.505(c)-1T   Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under paragraphs (9), (17) and (20) of Section 501(c) (temporary).

Q-1: What does section 505(c) of the Internal Revenue Code provide?

A-1: Section 505(c) provides that an organization will not be recognized as exempt under section 501(c)(9) as a voluntary employees' beneficiary association, under section 501(c)(17) as a trust forming part of a plan providing for the payment of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits, or under section 501(c)(20) as a trust forming part of a qualified group legal services plan unless notification is given to the Internal Revenue Service. The notification required of a trust created pursuant to section 501(c)(20) and forming part of a qualified group legal services plan is set forth in Q&A-2. The notification required of an organization organized after July 18, 1984, and applying for exempt status as an organization described in section 501(c) (9) or (17) is set forth in Q&A-3 through Q&A-8. The notification required of an organization organized on or before July 18, 1984, and claiming exemption as an organization described in section 501(c) (9) or (17) is set forth in Q&A-9 through Q&A-11. However, an organization that has previously notified the Internal Revenue Service of its claim to exemption under section 501(c) (9), (17), or (20) or its claim to exemption under those sections pursuant to another provision of the Code, is not required, under section 505(c), to submit a renotification (See Q&A-2 and Q&A-12).

Section 501(c)(20) Trusts

Q-2: What is the notice required of a trust created pursuant to section 501(c)(20) and forming part of a qualified group legal services plan under section 120?

A-2: (a) A trust claiming exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(20) will be recognized as exempt if the exclusive function of the trust is to form part of a qualified group legal services plan or plans. Exemption of the trust under section 501(c)(20) will generally be dependent upon and coextensive with recognition of the plan as a qualified group legal services plan. Therefore, a trust organized pursuant to section 501(c)(20) after July 18, 1984, need not file a separate notice with the Internal Revenue Service of its claim to exemption because the notice required by section 120(c)(4) will suffice for purposes of section 505(c), provided a copy of the trust instrument is filed with the Form 1024 submitted by the group legal services plan. If the trust instrument has not been filed with the Form 1024 submitted by the group legal services plan, the trust must comply with (and exemption will be dependent upon) the filing applicable to a trust organized on or before July 18, 1984. For the notice required and effective dates of exemption of a qualified group legal services plan under section 120, see §1.120-3.

(b) A trust organized on or before July 18, 1984, that claims exempt status as a trust described in section 501(c)(20) and that forms part of a qualified group legal services plan which has been recognized as exempt under section 120, must file a copy of its trust instrument with the Internal Revenue Service before February 4, 1987. If a copy of the trust instrument is filed within the time provided, the trust's exemption will be recognized retroactively to the date the qualified group legal services plan was recognized as exempt under section 120. However, if a copy of the trust instrument is filed after the time provided, exemption will be recognized only for the period after the copy of the trust instrument is filed with the Internal Revenue Service. See Q&A-7 for a further discussion of date of filing. A trust that has previously filed a copy of its trust instrument with the Service need not refile that document.

Section 501(c)(9) and (17) Organizations Organized After July 18, 1984

Q-3: What is the notice required of an organization or trust, organized after July 18, 1984, that is applying for recognition of tax exempt status under section 501(c) (9) or (17)?

A-3: An organization or trust that is organized after July 18, 1984, will not be treated as described in paragraphs (9) or (17) of section 501(c), unless the organization notifies the Internal Revenue Service that it is applying for recognition of exemption. In addition, unless the required notice is given in the manner and within the time prescribed by these regulations, an organization will not be treated as exempt for any period before the giving of the required notice. The notice is filed by submitting a properly completed and executed Form 1024, “Application for Recognition of Exemption Under Section 501(a) or for Determination Under Section 120” together with the additional information required under Q&A-4 and Q&A-5. The notice is filed with the district director for the key district in which the organization's principal place of business or principal office is located.

The notice may be filed by either the plan administrator (as defined in section 414(g)) or the trustee. The Internal Revenue Service will not accept a Form 1024 for any organization or trust before such entity has been organized.

Q-4: What information, in addition to the information required by Form 1024, must be submitted by an organization or trust seeking recognition of exemption under section 501(c) (9) or (17)?

A-4: A notice will not be considered complete unless, in addition to a properly completed and executed Form 1024, the organization or trust submits a full description of the benefits available to participants under section 501(c) (9) or (17). Moreover, both the terms and conditions of eligibility for membership and the terms and conditions of eligibility for benefits must be set forth. This information may be contained in a separate document, such as a plan document, or it may be contained in the creating document of the entity (e.g., the articles of incorporation or association, or a trust indenture). For benefits provided through a policy or policies of insurance, all such policies must be included with the notice. Where individual policies of insurance are provided to the participants, single exemplar copies, typical of policies generally issued to participants, are acceptable, provided they adequately describe all forms of insurance available to participants. In providing a full description of the benefits available, the benefits provided must be sufficiently described so that each benefit is definitely determinable. A benefit is definitely determinable if the amount of the benefit, its duration, and the persons eligible to receive it are ascertainable from the plan document or other instrument. Thus, a benefit is not definitely determinable if the rules governing either its amount, its duration, or its recipients are not ascertainable from the plan document or other instrument but are instead subject to the discretion of a person or committee. Likewise, a benefit is not definitely determinable if the amount for any individual is based upon a percentage share of any item that is within the discretion of the employer. However, a disability benefit will not fail to be considered definitely determinable merely because the determination of whether an individual is disabled is made under established guidelines by an authorized person or committee.

Q-5: What is the notice required of collectively bargained plans?

A-5: If an organization or trust claiming exemption under section 501(c) (9) or (17) is organized and maintained pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employer, only one Form 1024 is required to be filed for the organization or trust, regardless of the number of employers originally participating in the agreement. Moreover, once a Form 1024 is filed pursuant to a collective bargaining areement, an additional Form 1024 is not required to be filed by an employer who thereafter participates in that agreement. When benefits are provided pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement, the notice will not be considered complete unless, in addition to a properly completed and executed Form 1024, a copy of the collective bargaining agreement is also submitted together with the additional information delineated in Q&A-4.

Q-6: When must the required notice be filed by an organization or trust, organized after July 18, 1984, that seeks recognition of exemption under section 501(c) (9) or (17)?

A-6: An organization or trust applying for exemption must file the required notice by the later of February 4, 1987 or 15 months from the end of the month in which the organization or trust was organized. An extension of time for filing the required notice may be granted by the district director if the request is submitted before the end of the applicable period and it is demonstrated that additional time is needed.

Q-7: What is the effective date of exemption for a new organization or trust, organized after July 18, 1984, that has submitted the required notice?

A-7: If the required notice is filed within the time provided by these regulations, the organization's exemption will be recognized retroactively to the date the organization was organized, provided its purpose, organization and operation (including compliance with the applicable nondiscrimination requirements) during the period prior to the date of the determination letter are in accordance with the applicable law. However, if the required notice is filed after the time provided by these regulations, exemption will be recognized only for the period after the application is filed with the Internal Revenue Service. The date of filing is the date of the United States postmark on the cover in which an exemption application is mailed or, if no postmark appears on the cover, the date the application is stamped as received by the Service. If an extension for filing the required notice has been granted to the organization, a notice filed on or before the last day specified in the extension will be considered timely and not the otherwise applicable date under Q&A-6.

Q-8: What is the effect on exemption of the filing of an incomplete notice?

A-8: Although a properly completed and executed Form 1024 together with the required additional information (See Q&A-4 and Q&A-5) must be submitted to satisfy the notice required by section 505(c), the failure to file, within the time specified, all of the information necessary to complete such notice will not alone be sufficient to deny recognition of exemption from the date of organization to the date the completed information is submitted to the Service. If the notice which is filed with the Service within the required time is substantially complete, and the organization supplies the necessary additional information requested by the Service within the additional time allowed, the original notice will be considered timely. However, if the notice is not substantially complete or the additional information is not provided within the additional time allowed, exemption will be recognized only from the date of filing of the additional information.

Section 501(c)(9) and (17) Organizations Organized on or Before July 18, 1984

Q-9: What is the notice required of an organization or trust organized on or before July 18, 1984, that claims exempt status as an organization described in section 501(c) (9) or (17)?

A-9: Section 505(c) provides a special rule for existing organizations and trusts organized on or before July 18, 1984. Such an organization or trust will not be treated as described in paragraphs (9) or (17) of section 501(c) unless the organization or trust notifies the Internal Revenue Service in the manner and within the time prescribed in these regulations that it is claiming exemption under the particular section. The type of notice, the manner for filing that notice, and the additional information required is the same as that set forth in Q&A-3 through Q&A-5 for new organizations.

Q-10: When must the required notice be filed by an organization or trust organized on or before July 18, 1984?

A-10: An organization or trust organized on or before July 18, 1984, that claims exempt status as an organization described in section 501(c) (9) or (17), must file the required notice before February 4, 1987. An extension of time for filing the required notice may be granted by the district director if the request is submitted before the due date of the notice and it is demonstrated that additional time is needed.

Q-11: What is the effective date of exemption for an organization or trust organized on or before July 18, 1984, that has submitted the required notice?

A-11: If the required notice is filed within the time provided by these regulations, the organization's exemption will be recognized retroactively to the date the organization was organized, provided its purpose, organization and operation (including compliance with the applicable nondiscrimination requirements) during the period prior to the date of the determination letter are in accordance with the applicable law. If, on the other hand, the required notice is filed after the time provided by these regulations, exemption will be recognized only for the period after the notice is received by the Internal Revenue Service. See Q&A-7 for a further discussion of date of filing. See also Q&A-8 for the effect on exemption of a notice that has been timely filed but is incomplete.

Exceptions to Notice Requirement

Q-12: Are any organizations or trusts claiming recognition of exemption as an organization described in section 501(c) (9) or (17) excepted from the notice requirement of section 505(c)?

A-12: An organization or trust that has previously notified the Internal Revenue Service of its claim to exemption by filing Form 1024 is not required, under section 505(c), to renotify the Service. Thus, an organization that has filed a Form 1024 that is pending with the Service need not refile that form. Also, an organization that has received a ruling or determination letter from the Service recognizing its exemption from taxation need not submit the notification required by section 505(c).

[T.D. 8073, 51 FR 4330, Feb. 4, 1986]

Private Foundations

§1.507-1   General rule.

(a) In general. Except as provided in §1.507-2, the status of any organization as a private foundation shall be terminated only if:

(1) Such organization notifies the district director of its intent to accomplish such termination, or

(2)(i) With respect to such organization, there have been either willful repeated acts (or failures to act), or a willful and flagrant act (or failure to act), giving rise to liability for tax under chapter 42, and

(ii) The Commissioner notifies such organization that, by reason of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, such organization is liable for the tax imposed by section 507(c)

and either such organization pays the tax imposed by section 507(c) (or any portion not abated under section 507(g)) or the entire amount of such tax is abated under section 507(g).

(b) Termination under section 507(a)(1). (1) In order to terminate its private foundation status under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, an organization must submit a statement to the district director of its intent to terminate its private foundation status under section 507(a)(1). Such statement must set forth in detail the computation and amount of tax imposed under section 507(c). Unless the organization requests abatement of such tax pursuant to section 507(g), full payment of such tax must be made at the time the statement is filed under section 507(a)(1). An organization may request the abatement of all of the tax imposed under section 507(c), or may pay any part thereof and request abatement of the unpaid portion of the amount of tax assessed. If the organization requests abatement of the tax imposed under section 507(c) and such request is denied, the organization must pay such tax in full upon notification by the Internal Revenue Service that such tax will not be abated. For purposes of subtitle F of the Code, the statement described in this subparagraph, once filed, shall be treated as a return.

(2) Termination of private foundation status under section 507(a)(1) does not relieve a private foundation, or any disqualified person with respect thereto, of liability for tax under chapter 42 with respect to acts or failures to act prior to termination or for any additional taxes imposed for failure to correct such acts or failures to act. See subparagraph (8) of this paragraph as to the possible imposition of transferee liability in cases not involving termination of private foundation status.

(3) In the case of an organization which has terminated its private foundation status under section 507(a) and continues in operation thereafter, if such organization wishes to be treated as described in section 501(c)(3), then pursuant to section 509(c) and §1.509(c)-1 such organization must apply for recognition of exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) in accordance with the provisions of section 508(a).

(4) See §53.4947-1(c)(7) of this chapter as to the application of section 507(a) to certain split-interest trusts.

(5) For purposes of section 508(d)(1), the Internal Revenue Service shall make notice to the public (such as by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin) of any notice received from a private foundation pursuant to section 507(a)(1) or of any notice given to a private foundation pursuant to section 507(a)(2).

(6) If a private foundation transfers all or part of its assets to one or more other private foundations (or one or more private foundations and one or more section 509(a) (1), (2), (3), or (4) organizations) pursuant to a transfer described in section 507(b)(2) and §1.507-3(c), such transferor foundation will not have terminated its private foundation status under section 507(a)(1). See §1.507-3, however, for the special rules applicable to private foundations participating in section 507(b)(2) transfers.

(7) Neither a transfer of all of the assets of a private foundation nor a significant disposition of assets (as defined in §1.507-3(c)(2)) by a private foundation (whether or not any portion of such significant disposition of assets is made to another private foundation) shall be deemed to result in a termination of the transferor private foundation under section 507(a) unless the transferor private foundation elects to terminate pursuant to section 507(a)(1) or section 507(a)(2) is applicable. Thus, if a private foundation transfers all of its assets to one or more persons, but less than all of its net assets to one or more organizations described in section 509(a)(1) which have been in existence and so described for a continuous period of 60 calendar months, for purposes of this paragraph such transferor foundation will not be deemed by reason of such transfer to have terminated its private foundation status under section 507 (a) or (b) unless section 507(a)(2) is applicable. Such foundation will continue to be treated as a private foundation for all purposes. For example, if a private foundation transfers all of its net assets to a section 509(a)(2) organization in 1971 and receives a bequest in 1973, the bequest will be regarded as having been made to a private foundation and the foundation will be subject to the provisions of chapter 42 with respect to such funds. If a private foundation makes a transfer of all of its net assets to a section 509(a) (2) or (3) organization, for example, it must retain sufficient income or assets to pay the tax imposed under section 4940 for that portion of its taxable year prior to such transfer. For additional rules applicable to a transfer by a private foundation of all of its net assets to a section 509(a)(1) organization which has not been in existence and so described for a continuous period of 60 calendar months, see §1.507-3(e).

(8) If a private foundation makes a transfer described in subparagraph (7) of this paragraph and prior to, or in connection with, such transfer, liability for any tax under chapter 42 is incurred by the transferor foundation, transferee liability may be applied against the transferee organization for payment of such taxes. For purposes of this subparagraph, liability for any tax imposed under chapter 42 for failure to correct any act or failure to act shall be deemed incurred on the date on which the act or failure to act giving rise to the initial tax liability occurred.

(9) A private foundation which transfers all of its net assets is required to file the annual information return required by section 6033, and the foundation managers are required to file the annual report of a private foundation required by section 6056, for the taxable year in which such transfer occurs. However, neither such foundation nor its foundation managers will be required to file such returns for any taxable year following the taxable year in which the last of any such transfers occurred, if at no time during the subsequent taxable years in question the foundation has either legal or equitable title to any assets or engages in any activity.

(c) Involuntary termination under section 507(a)(2). (1) For purposes of section 507(a)(2)(A), the term willful repeated acts (or failures to act) means at least two acts or failures to act both of which are voluntary, conscious, and intentional.

(2) For purposes of section 507(a)(2)(A), a willful and flagrant act (or failure to act) is one which is voluntarily, consciously, and knowingly committed in violation of any provision of chapter 42 (other than section 4940 or 4948(a)) and which appears to a reasonable man to be a gross violation of any such provision.

(3) An act (or failure to act) may be treated as an act (or failure to act) by the private foundation for purposes of section 507(a)(2) even though tax is imposed upon one or more foundation managers rather than upon the foundation itself.

(4) For purposes of section 507(a)(2), the failure to correct the act or acts (or failure or failures to act) which gave rise to liability for tax under any section of chapter 42 by the close of the correction period for such section may be a willful and flagrant act (or failure to act).

(5) No motive to avoid the restrictions of the law or the incurrence of any tax is necessary to make an act (or failure to act) willful. However, a foundation's act (or failure to act) is not willful if the foundation (or a foundation manager, if applicable) does not know that it is an act of self-dealing, a taxable expenditure, or other act (or failure to act) to which chapter 42 applies. Rules similar to the regulations under chapter 42 (see, for example, §53.4945-1(a)(2)(iii) of this chapter) shall apply in determining whether a foundation or a foundation manager knows that an act (or failure to act) is an act of self-dealing a taxable expenditure or other such act (or failure to act).

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28157, Dec. 21, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7290, 38 FR 31833, Nov. 19, 1973]

§1.507-2   Special rules; transfer to, or operation as, public charity.

(a) Transfer to public charities—(1) General rule. Under section 507(b)(1)(A) a private foundation, with respect to which there have not been either willful repeated acts (or failures to act) or a willful and flagrant act (or failure to act) giving rise to liability for tax under Chapter 42, may terminate its private foundation status by distributing all of its net assets to one or more organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than in clauses (vii) and (viii)) each of which has been in existence and so described for a continuous period of at least 60 calendar months immediately preceding such distribution. Because section 507(a) does not apply to such a termination, a private foundation which makes such a termination is not required to give the notification described in section 507(a)(1). A private foundation that terminates its private foundation status under section 507(b)(1)(A) does not incur tax under section 507(c) and, therefore, no abatement of such tax under section 507(g) is required.

(2) Effect of current ruling. A private foundation seeking to terminate its private foundation status pursuant to section 507(b)(1)(A) may rely on a ruling or determination letter issued to a potential distributee organization that such distributee organization is an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(i), 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), 170(b)(1)(A)(iii), 170(b)(1)(A)(iv), 170(b)(1)(A)(v), or 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) in accordance with the provisions of §1.509(a)-7.

(3) Organizations described in more than one clause of section 170(b)(1)(A). For purposes of this paragraph and section 507(b)(1)(A), the parenthetical term “other than in clauses (vii) and (viii)” shall refer only to an organization that is described only in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vii) or section 170(b)(1)(A) (viii). Thus, an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(i), 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), 170(b)(1)(A)(iii), 170(b)(1)(A)(iv), 170(b)(1)(A)(v), or 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) will not be precluded from being a distributee described in section 507(b)(1)(A) merely because it also appears to meet the description of an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vii) or section 170(b)(1)(A)(viii).

(4) Applicability of Chapter 42 to foundations terminating under section 507(b)(1)(A). An organization that terminates its private foundation status pursuant to section 507(b)(1)(A) will remain subject to the provisions of Chapter 42 until the distribution of all of its net assets to distributee organizations described in section 507(b)(1)(A) has been completed.

(5) Return required from organizations terminating private foundation status under section 507(b)(1)(A)—(i) An organization that terminates its private foundation status under section 507(b)(1)(A) is required to file a return under the provisions of section 6043(b).

(ii) An organization that terminates its private foundation status under section 507(b)(1)(A) is not required to comply with section 6104(d) for the taxable year in which such termination occurs.

(6) Distribution of net assets. A private foundation will meet the requirement to “distribute all of its net assets” within the meaning of section 507(b)(1)(A) only if it transfers all of its right, title, and interest in and to all of its net assets to one or more organizations referred to in section 507(b)(1)(A).

(7) Effect of restrictions and conditions upon distributions of net assets—(i) In general. In order to effectuate a transfer of “all of its right, title, and interest in and to all of its net assets” within the meaning of paragraph (a)(6) of this section, a transferor private foundation may not impose any material restriction or condition that prevents the transferee organization referred to in section 507(b)(1)(A) (herein sometimes referred to as the “public charity”) from freely and effectively employing the transferred assets, or the income derived therefrom, in furtherance of its exempt purposes. Whether or not a particular condition or restriction imposed upon a transfer of assets is material (within the meaning of this paragraph (a)(7)) must be determined from all of the facts and circumstances of the transfer. Some of the more significant facts and circumstances to be considered in making such a determination are—

(A) Whether the public charity (including a participating trustee, custodian, or agent in the case of a community trust) is the owner in fee of the assets it receives from the private foundation;

(B) Whether such assets are to be held and administered by the public charity in a manner consistent with one or more of its exempt purposes;

(C) Whether the governing body of the public charity has the ultimate authority and control over such assets, and the income derived therefrom; and

(D) Whether, and to what extent, the governing body of the public charity is organized and operated so as to be independent from the transferor.

(ii) Independent governing body. As provided in paragraph (a)(7)(i)(D) of this section, one of the more significant facts and circumstances to be considered in making the determination whether a particular condition or restriction imposed upon a transfer of assets is material within the meaning of this paragraph (a)(7) is whether, and the extent to which, the governing body is organized and operated so as to be independent from the transferor. In turn, the determination as to such factor must be determined from all of the facts and circumstances. Some of the more significant facts and circumstances to be considered in making such a determination are—

(A) Whether, and to what extent, members of the governing body are comprised of persons selected by the transferor private foundation or disqualified persons with respect thereto or are themselves such disqualified persons;

(B) Whether, and to what extent, members of the governing body are selected by public officials acting in their capacities as such; and

(C) How long a period of time each member of the governing body may serve in such capacity. In the case of a transfer that is to a community trust, the community trust shall meet this paragraph (a)(7)(ii)(C) if—

(1) Its governing body is comprised of members who may serve a period of not more than ten consecutive years; and

(2) Upon completion of a period of service (beginning before or after the date of transfer), no member may serve again within a period consisting of the lesser of five years or the number of consecutive years the member has immediately completed serving.

(iii) Factors not adversely affecting determination. The presence of some or all of the following factors will not be considered as preventing the transferee “from freely and effectively employing the transferred assets, or the income derived therefrom, in furtherance of its exempt purposes” (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(7)(i) of this section):

(A) Name. The fund is given a name or other designation which is the same as or similar to that of the transferor private foundation or otherwise memorializes the creator of the foundation or his family.

(B) Purpose. The income and assets of the fund are to be used for a designated purpose or for one or more particular section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) organization, and such use is consistent with the charitable, educational, or other basis for the exempt status of the public charity under section 501(c)(3).

(C) Administration. The transferred assets are administered in an identifiable or separate fund, some or all of the principal of which is not to be distributed for a specified period, if the public charity (including a participating trustee, custodian, or agent in the case of a community trust) is the legal and equitable owner of the fund and the governing body exercises ultimate and direct authority and control over such fund, as, for example, a fund to endow a chair at a university or a medical research fund at a hospital. In the case of a community trust, the transferred assets must be administered in or as a component part of the community trust within the meaning of §1.170A-9(f)(11).

(D) Restrictions on disposition. The transferor private foundation transfers property the continued retention of which by the transferee is required by the transferor if such retention is important to the achievement of charitable or other similar purposes in the community because of the peculiar features of such property, as, for example, where a private foundation transfers a woodland preserve which is to be maintained by the public charity as an arboretum for the benefit of the community. Such a restriction does not include a restriction on the disposition of an investment asset or the distribution of income.

(iv) Adverse factors. The presence of any of the following factors will be considered as preventing the transferee “from freely and effectively employing the transferred assets, or the income derived therefrom, in furtherance of its exempt purposes” (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(7)(i) of this section):

(A) Distributions. (1) With respect to distributions made after April 19, 1977, the transferor private foundation, a disqualified person with respect thereto, or any person or committee designated by, or pursuant to the terms of an agreement with, such a person (hereinafter referred to as donor), reserves the right, directly or indirectly, to name (other than by designation in the instrument of transfer of particular section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) organizations) the persons to which the transferee public charity must distribute, or to direct the timing of such distributions (other than by direction in the instrument of transfer that some or all of the principal, as opposed to specific assets, not be distributed for a specified period) as, for example, by a power of appointment. The IRS will examine carefully whether the seeking of advice by the transferee from, or the giving of advice by, any donor after the assets have been transferred to the transferee constitutes an indirect reservation of a right to direct such distributions. In any such case, the reservation of such a right will be considered to exist where the only criterion considered by the public charity in making a distribution of income or principal from a donor's fund is advice offered by the donor. Whether there is a reservation of such a right will be determined from all of the facts and circumstances, including, but not limited to, the factors contained in paragraphs (a)(7)(iv)(A)(2) and (a)(7)(iv)(A)(3) of this section.

(2) The presence of some or all of the following factors will indicate that the reservation of a right to direct distributions does not exist:

(i) There has been an independent investigation by the staff of the public charity evaluating whether the donor's advice is consistent with specific charitable needs most deserving of support by the public charity (as determined by the public charity).

(ii) The public charity has promulgated guidelines enumerating specific charitable needs consistent with the charitable purposes of the public charity and the donor's advice is consistent with such guidelines.

(iii) The public charity has instituted an educational program publicizing to donors and other persons the guidelines enumerating specific charitable needs consistent with the charitable purposes of the public charity.

(iv) The public charity distributes funds in excess of amounts distributed from the donor's fund to the same or similar types of organizations or charitable needs as those recommended by the donor.

(v) The public charity's solicitations (written or oral) for funds specifically state that such public charity will not be bound by advice offered by the donor.

(3) The presence of some or all of the following factors will indicate the reservation of a right to direct distributions does exist:

(i) The solicitations (written or oral) of funds by the public charity state or imply, or a pattern of conduct on the part of the public charity creates an expectation, that the donor's advice will be followed.

(ii) The advice of a donor (whether or not restricted to a distribution of income or principal from the donor's trust or fund) is limited to distributions of amounts from the donor's fund, and the factors described in paragraph (a)(7)(iv)(A)(2)(i) or paragraph (a)(7)(iv)(A)(2)(ii) of this section are not present.

(iii) Only the advice of the donor as to distributions of such donor's fund is solicited by the public charity and no procedure is provided for considering advice from persons other than the donor with respect to such fund.

(iv) For the taxable year and all prior taxable years the public charity follows the advice of all donors with respect to their funds substantially all of the time.

(B) Other action or withholding of action. The terms of the transfer agreement, or any expressed or implied understanding, required the public charity to take or withhold action with respect to the transferred assets which is not designed to further one or more of the exempt purposes of the public charity, and such action or withholding of action would, if performed by the transferor private foundation with respect to such assets, have subjected the transferor to tax under Chapter 42 (other than with respect to the minimum investment return requirement of section 4942(e)).

(C) Assumption of leases, contractual obligations, or liabilities. The public charity assumes leases, contractual obligations, or liabilities of the transferor private foundation, or takes the assets thereof subject to such liabilities (including obligations under commitments or pledges to donees of the transferor private foundation), for purposes inconsistent with the purposes or best interests of the public charity, other than the payment of the transferor's Chapter 42 taxes incurred prior to the transfer to the public charity to the extent of the value of the assets transferred.

(D) Retention of investment assets. The transferee public charity is required by any restriction or agreement (other than a restriction or agreement imposed or required by law or regulatory authority), express or implied, to retain any securities or other investment assets transferred to it by the private foundation. In a case where such transferred assets consistently produce a low annual return of income, the IRS will examine carefully whether the transferee is required by any such restriction or agreement to retain such assets.

(E) Right of first refusal. An agreement is entered into in connection with the transfer of securities or other property which grants directly or indirectly to the transferor private foundation or any disqualified person with respect thereto a right of first refusal with respect to the transferred securities or other property when and if disposed of by the public charity, unless such securities or other property was acquired by the transferor private foundation subject to such right of first refusal prior to October 9, 1969.

(F) Relationships. An agreement is entered into between the transferor private foundation and the transferee public charity which establishes irrevocable relationships with respect to the maintenance or management of assets transferred to the public charity, such as continuing relationships with banks, brokerage firms, investment counselors, or other advisors with regard to the investments or other property transferred to the public charity (other than a relationship with a trustee, custodian, or agent for a community trust acting as such). The transfer of property to a public charity subject to contractual obligations which were established prior to November 11, 1976, between the transferor private foundation and persons other than disqualified persons with respect to such foundation will not be treated as prohibited under the preceding sentence, but only if such contractual obligations were not entered into pursuant to a plan to terminate the private foundation status of the transferor under section 507(b)(1)(A) and if the continuation of such contractual obligations is in the best interests of the public charity.

(G) Other conditions. Any other condition is imposed on action by the public charity which prevents it from exercising ultimate control over the assets received from the transferor private foundation for purposes consistent with its exempt purposes.

(v) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (a)(7) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. The M Private Foundation transferred all of its net assets to the V Cancer Institute, a public charity described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii). Prior to the transfer, M's activities consisted of making grants to hospitals and universities to further research into the causes of cancer. Under the terms of the transfer, V is required to keep M's assets in a separate fund and use the income and principal to further cancer research. Although the assets may be used only for a limited purpose, this purpose is consistent with and in furtherance of V's exempt purposes, and does not prevent the transfer from being a distribution for purposes of section 507(b)(1)(A).
Example 2. The N Private Foundation transferred all of its net assets to W University, a public charity described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii). Under the terms of the transfer, W is required to use the income and principal to endow a chair at the university to be known as the “John J. Doe Memorial Professorship,” named after N's creator. Although the transferred assets are to be used for a specified purpose by W, this purpose is in furtherance of W's exempt educational purposes, and there are no conditions on investment or reinvestment of the principal or income. The use of the name of the foundation's creator for the chair is not a restriction which would prevent the transfer from being a distribution for purposes of section 507(b)(1)(A).
Example 3. The O Private Foundation transferred all of its net assets to X Bank as trustee for the Q Community Trust, a community trust that is a public charity described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi). Under the terms of the transfer, X is to hold the assets in trust for Q and is directed to distribute the income annually to the Y Church, a public charity described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(i). The distribution of income to Y Church is consistent with Q's exempt purposes. If the trust created by this transfer otherwise meets the requirements of §1.170A-9(f)(11) as a component part of the Q Community Trust, the assets transferred by O to X will be treated as distributed to one or more public charities within the meaning of section 507(b)(1)(A). The direction to distribute the income to Y Church meets the conditions of paragraph (a)(7)(iii)(B) of this section and will therefore not disqualify the transfer under section 507(b)(1)(A).
Example 4. (i) The P Private Foundation transferred all of its net assets to Z Bank as trustee for the R Community Trust, a community trust that is a public charity described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi). Under the terms of the transfer, Z is to hold the assets in trust for R and distribute the income to those public charities described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(i) through (b)(1)(A)(vi) that are designated by B, the creator of P. R's governing body has no authority during B's lifetime to vary B's direction. Under the terms of the transfer, it is intended that Z retain the transferred assets in their present form for a period of 20 years, or until the date of B's death if it occurs before the expiration of such period. Upon the death of B, R will have the power to distribute the income to such public charities as it selects and may dispose of the corpus as it sees fit.

(ii) Under paragraph (a)(7)(iv)(A) or paragraph (a)(7)(iv)(D) of this section, as a result of the restrictions imposed with respect to the transferred assets, there has been no distribution of all P's net assets within the meaning of section 507(b)(1)(A) at the time of the transfer. In addition, P has not transferred its net assets to a component part of R Community Trust, but rather to a separate trust described in §1.170A-9(f)(12).

(b) Operation as a public charity—(1) In general. Under section 507(b)(1)(B), an organization can terminate its private foundation status if the organization—

(i) Meets the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2) or section 509(a)(3) for a continuous period of 60 calendar months beginning with the first day of any taxable year that begins after December 31, 1969;

(ii) In compliance with section 507(b)(1)(B)(ii) and paragraph (b)(3) of this section, properly notifies the IRS, in such manner as may be provided by published guidance, publication, form or instructions, before the commencement of such 60-month period, that it is terminating its private foundation status; and

(iii) Properly establishes immediately after the expiration of such 60-month period that such organization has complied with the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2) or section 509(a)(3) during the 60-month period, in the manner described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(2) Relationship of section 507(b)(1)(B) to sections 507(a), 507(c), and 507(g). Because section 507(a) does not apply to a termination described in section 507(b)(1)(B), a private foundation's notification that it is commencing a termination pursuant to section 507(b)(1)(B) will not be treated as a notification described in section 507(a) even if the private foundation does not successfully terminate its private foundation status pursuant to section 507(b)(1)(B). A private foundation that terminates its private foundation status under section 507(b)(1)(B) does not incur tax under section 507(c) and, therefore, no abatement of such tax under section 507(g) is required.

(3) Notification of termination. In order to comply with the requirements under section 507(b)(1)(B)(ii), an organization shall before the commencement of the 60-month period under section 507(b)(1)(B)(i) notify the IRS, in such manner as may be provided by published guidance, publication, form or instructions, of its intention to terminate its private foundation status. Such notification shall contain the following information—

(i) The name and address of the private foundation;

(ii) Its intention to terminate its private foundation status;

(iii) The Code section under which it seeks classification (section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2) or section 509(a)(3));

(iv) If section 509(a)(1) is applicable, the clause of section 170(b)(1)(A) involved;

(v) The date its regular taxable year begins; and

(vi) The date of commencement of the 60-month period.

(4) Establishment of termination. In order to comply with the requirements under section 507(b)(1)(B)(iii), an organization shall within 90 days after the expiration of the 60-month period file such information with the IRS, in such manner as may be provided by published guidance, publication, form or instructions, as is necessary to make a determination as to the organization's status as an organization described under section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2) or section 509(a)(3) and the related regulations. See paragraph (c) of this section as to the information required to be submitted under this paragraph (b)(4).

(5) Incomplete information. The failure to supply, within the required time, all of the information required by paragraph (b)(3) or paragraph (b)(4) of this section is not alone sufficient to constitute a failure to satisfy the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B). If the information that is submitted within the required time is incomplete and the organization supplies the necessary additional information at the request of the Commissioner within the additional time period allowed by him, the original submission will be considered timely.

(6) Application of special rules and filing requirements. An organization that has terminated its private foundation status under section 507(b)(1)(B) is not required to comply with the special rules set forth in sections 508(a) and 508(b). Such organization is also not required to file a return under the provisions of section 6043(b) by reason of termination of its private foundation status under the provisions of section 507(b)(1)(B).

(7) Extension of time to assess deficiencies. If a private foundation files a notification (described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section) that it intends to begin a 60-month termination pursuant to section 507(b)(1)(B) and does not file a request for an advance ruling pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, such private foundation may file with the notification described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section a consent under section 6501(c)(4) to the effect that the period of limitation upon assessment under section 4940 for any taxable year within the 60-month termination period shall not expire prior to one year after the date of expiration of the time prescribed by law for the assessment of a deficiency for the last taxable year within the 60-month period. Such consents, if filed, will ordinarily be accepted by the Commissioner. See paragraph (e)(3) of this section for an illustration of the procedure required to obtain a refund of the tax imposed by section 4940 in a case where such a consent is not in effect.

(c) Sixty-month terminations—(1) Method of determining normal sources of support. (i) In order to meet the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B) for the 60-month termination period as a section 509(a)(1) or section 509(a)(2) organization, an organization must meet the requirements of section 509(a)(1) or section 509(a)(2), as the case may be, for a continuous period of at least 60 calendar months. In determining whether an organization seeking status under section 509(a)(1) as an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iv) or section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) or under section 509(a)(2) normally meets the requirements set forth under such sections, support received in taxable years prior to the commencement of the 60-month period shall not be taken into consideration, except as otherwise provided in this section.

(ii) For purposes of section 507(b)(1)(B), an organization will be considered to be a section 509(a)(1) organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) for a continuous period of 60 calendar months only if the organization satisfies the provisions of §1.170A-9(f), other than §1.170A-9(f)(4)(v), based upon aggregate data for such entire period. The calculation of public support shall be made over the period beginning with the date of the commencement of the 60-month period, and ending with the last day of the 60-month period.

(iii) For purposes of section 507(b)(1)(B), an organization will be considered to be a section 509(a)(2) organization only if such organization meets the support requirements set forth in sections 509(a)(2)(A) and 509(a)(2)(B) and the related regulations, other than §1.509(a)-3(d), for the continuous period of 60 calendar months prescribed under section 507(b)(1)(B). The calculation of public support shall be made over the period beginning with the date of the commencement of the 60-month period, and ending with the last day of the 60-month period.

(2) Organizational and operational tests. In order to meet the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B) for the 60-month termination period as an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(i), 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), 170(b)(1)(A)(iii), 170(b)(1)(A)(iv), or 170(b)(1)(A)(v) or section 509(a)(3), as the case may be, an organization must meet the requirements of the applicable provisions for a continuous period of at least 60 calendar months. For purposes of section 507(b)(1)(B), an organization will be considered to be such an organization only if it satisfies the requirements of the applicable provision (including with respect to section 509(a)(3), the organizational and operational test set forth in section 509(a)(3)(A)) at the commencement of such 60-month period and continuously thereafter during such period.

(d) Advance rulings for 60-month terminations—(1) In general. An organization that files the notification required by section 507(b)(1)(B)(ii) that it is commencing a 60-month termination may obtain an advance ruling from the Commissioner that it can be expected to satisfy the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B)(i) during the 60-month period. Such an advance ruling may be issued if the organization can reasonably be expected to meet the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B)(i) during the 60-month period. The issuance of a ruling will be discretionary with the Commissioner.

(2) Basic consideration. In determining whether an organization can reasonably be expected (within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1) of this section) to meet the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B)(i) for the 60-month period, the basic consideration is whether its organizational structure (taking into account any revisions made prior to the beginning of the 60-month period), current or proposed programs or activities, actual or intended method of operation, and current or projected sources of support are such as to indicate that the organization is likely to satisfy the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) and paragraph (c) of this section during the 60-month period. In making such a determination, all pertinent facts and circumstances shall be considered.

(3) Reliance by grantors and contributors. For purposes of sections 170, 545(b)(2), 642(c), 4942, 4945, 4966, 2055, 2106(a)(2), and 2522, grants or contributions to an organization which has obtained a ruling referred to in this paragraph will be treated as made to an organization described in section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3), as the case may be, until the IRS publishes notice that such advance ruling is being revoked (such as by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin). However, a grantor or contributor may not rely on such an advance ruling if the grantor or contributor was responsible for, or aware of, the act or failure to act that resulted in the organization's failure to meet the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3), or acquired knowledge that the IRS had given notice to such organization that its advance ruling would be revoked. Prior to the making of any grant or contribution which allegedly will not result in the grantee's failure to meet the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3), a potential grantee organization may request a ruling whether such grant or contribution may be made without such failure. A request for such ruling may be filed by the grantee organization with the IRS. The issuance of such ruling will be at the sole discretion of the Commissioner. The organization must submit all information necessary to make a determination on the factors referred to in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. If a favorable ruling is issued, such ruling may be relied upon by the grantor or contributor of the particular contribution in question for purposes of sections 170, 507, 545(b)(2), 642(c), 4942, 4945, 4966, 2055, 2106(a)(2), and 2522.

(4) Reliance by organization. An organization obtaining an advance ruling pursuant to this paragraph cannot rely on such a ruling. Consequently, if the organization does not pay the tax imposed by section 4940 for any taxable year or years during the 60-month period, and it is subsequently determined that such tax is due for such year or years (because the organization did not in fact complete a successful termination pursuant to section 507(b)(1)(B) and was not treated as an organization described in section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) for such year or years), the organization is liable for interest in accordance with section 6601 if any amount of tax under section 4940 has not been paid on or before the last date prescribed for payment. However, because any failure to pay such tax during the 60-month period (or prior to the revocation of such ruling) is due to reasonable cause, the penalty under section 6651 with respect to the tax imposed by section 4940 shall not apply.

(5) Extension of time to assess deficiencies. The advance ruling described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall be issued only if such organization's request for an advance ruling is filed with a consent under section 6501(c)(4) to the effect that the period of limitations upon assessment under section 4940 for any taxable year within the advance ruling period shall not expire prior to one year after the date of the expiration of the time prescribed by law for the assessment of a deficiency for the last taxable year within the 60-month period.

(e) Effect on grantors or contributors and on the organization itself—(1) Effect of satisfaction of requirements for termination; treatment during the termination period. In the event that an organization satisfies the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B) for termination of its private foundation status during the continuous 60-month period, such organization shall be treated for such entire 60-month period in the same manner as an organization described in section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3), as the case may be.

(2) Failure to meet termination requirements—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section, any organization that fails to satisfy the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B) for termination of its private foundation status during the continuous 60-month period shall be treated as a private foundation for the entire 60-month period, for purposes of sections 507 through 509 and Chapter 42, and grants or contributions to such an organization shall be treated as made to a private foundation for purposes of sections 170, 507(b)(1)(A), 4942, and 4945.

(ii) Certain 60-month terminations. Notwithstanding paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, if an organization fails to satisfy the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) for the continuous 60-month period but does satisfy the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3), as the case may be, for any taxable year or years during such 60-month period, the organization shall be treated as a section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) organization for such taxable year or years, and grants or contributions made during such taxable year or years shall be treated as made to an organization described in section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3). In addition, sections 507 through 509 and Chapter 42 shall not apply to such organization for any taxable year within such 60-month period for which it does meet such requirements. For purposes of determining whether an organization satisfies the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) for any taxable year in the 60-month period, the calculation of public support shall be made over the period beginning with the date of the commencement of the 60-month period, and ending with the last day of the taxable year being tested. The organization shall not be treated as a section 509(a)(1) or section 509(a)(2) organization for any taxable year during the 60-month period solely by reason of having met a public support test for the preceding year. In addition, the transition rules in §§1.170-9(f)(14)(iii) and 1.509(a)-3(n)(iii) shall not apply.

(iii) Aggregate tax benefit. For purposes of section 507(d), the organization's aggregate tax benefit resulting from the organization's section 501(c)(3) status shall continue to be computed from the date from which such computation would have been made, but for the notice filed under section 507(b)(1)(B)(ii), except that any taxable year within such 60-month period for which such organization meets the requirements of section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(2), or section 509(a)(3) shall be excluded from such computations.

(iv) Excess business holdings. See section 4943 and the related regulations for rules relating to decreases in a private foundation's holdings in a business enterprise which are caused by the foundation's failure to terminate its private foundation status after giving the notification for termination under section 507(b)(1)(B)(ii).

(3) Example. The provisions of this paragraph (e) may be illustrated by the following example:

Example 1. Y, a calendar year private foundation, notifies the IRS that it intends to terminate its private foundation status by converting into a publicly supported organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) and that its 60-month termination period will commence on January 1, 2010. Y does not obtain a ruling described in paragraph (d) of this section. Based upon its support for 2010, Y does not qualify as a publicly supported organization within the meaning of §1.170A-9(f) and this paragraph for 2010. Consequently, in order to avoid the risks of penalties and interest if Y fails to terminate within the 60-month period, Y files its 2010 return as a private foundation and pays the tax imposed by section 4940. Because a consent (described in paragraph (b)(7) of this section), which would prevent the period of limitations for all years in the 60-month period from expiring, is not in effect, in order to be able to file a claim for refund, Y and the IRS must agree to extend the period of limitation for all taxes imposed under Chapter 42 for 2010. Based on the aggregate data for the entire 60-month period (2010 through 2014), Y does qualify as a publicly-supported organization for the entire 60-month period. Consequently, Y is treated as a publicly-supported organization for the entire 60-month period. Y files a claim for refund for the taxes paid under section 4940 for 2010, and such taxes are refunded.

(f) Effective/applicability date—(1) Effective date. These regulations are effective on September 8, 2011.

(2) Applicability date. The regulations in this section shall apply to tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2008. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, and beginning before January 1, 2008, see §1.507-2 (as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2008).

[T.D. 9549, 76 FR 55760, Sept. 8, 2011]

§1.507-3   Special rules; transferee foundations.

(a) General rule. (1) For purposes of part II, subchapter F, chapter 1 of the Code, in the case of a transfer of assets of any private foundation to another private foundation pursuant to any liquidation, merger, redemption, recapitalization, or other adjustment, organization, or reorganization, the transferee organization shall not be treated as a newly created organization. Thus, in the case of a significant disposition of assets to one or more private foundations within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section, the transferee organization shall not be treated as a newly created organization. A transferee organization to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as possessing those attributes and characteristics of the transferor organization which are described in subparagraphs (2), (3), and (4) of this paragraph.

(2)(i) A transferee organization to which this paragraph applies shall succeed to the aggregate tax benefit of the transferor organization in an amount determined as follows: Such amount shall be an amount equal to the amount of such aggregate tax benefit multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the fair market value of the assets (less encumbrances) transferred to such transferee and the denominator of which is the fair market value of the assets of the transferor (less encumbrances) immediately before the transfer. Fair market value shall be determined as of the time of the transfer.

(ii) Notwithstanding subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, a transferee organization which is not effectively controlled (within the meaning of §1.482-1(a)(3)), directly or indirectly, by the same person or persons who effectively control the transferor organization shall not succeed to an aggregate tax benefit in excess of the fair market value of the assets transferred at the time of the transfer.

(iii) This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Pursuant to a transfer described in section 507(b)(2), F, a private foundation, transfers to G, a private foundation, all of its assets, which have a fair market value of $400,000. Immediately before the transfer F's aggregate tax benefit was $200,000, and G's aggregate tax benefit was $300,000. After the transfer G's aggregate tax benefit is $500,000 ($200,000+$300,000).
Example 2. Pursuant to a transfer described in section 507(b)(2), M, a private foundation, transfers all of its assets, which immediately prior to the transfer have a fair market value of $100,000. The assets were transferred to the following organizations at the following fair market values (determined at the time of transfer) $40,000 to N, a private foundation, $30,000 to O, a private foundation, and $30,000 to P, an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi). Immediately before the transfer M's aggregate tax benefit was $50,000. Therefore, N succeeds to M's aggregate tax benefit to the extent of $20,000 ($50,000×$40,000/$100,000) and O succeeds to M's aggregate tax benefit to the extent of $15,000 ($50,000×$30,000/$100,000). The remaining $15,000 of M's aggregate tax benefit is retained by M as M has not terminated under section 507.
Example 3. Assume the same facts as in Example 2 except that the transfers were made as follows: M transferred $30,000 to N on January 1, 1972, $40,000 to P on July 1, 1972, and $30,000 to O on December 31, 1972. Further, assume that the fair market value of the assets and the aggregate tax benefit do not change during 1972 and that O is not effectively controlled (directly or indirectly) by the same person or persons who effectively control M. N succeeds to M's aggregate tax benefit to the extent of $15,000 ($50,000×$30,000/$100,000). However, since $40,000 of the remaining $70,000 ($100,000−$30,000) of assets of M was transferred to P on July 1, 1972, immediately before the transfer to O, the fair market value of the assets held by M is $30,000 ($70,000−$40,000). On the other hand, because P is not a private foundation, M's aggregate tax benefit immediately before the transfer to O remains $35,000 ($50,000−$15,000). Therefore, before applying subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, O would succeed to $35,000 ($35,000×$30,000/$30,000) of M's aggregate tax benefit. However, applying subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph since M transferred only $30,000 to O, O shall succeed to only $30,000 of M's aggregate tax benefit. The remaining $5,000 ($35,000−$30,000) of M's aggregate tax benefit is retained by M as M has not terminated under section 507.

(3) For purposes of section 507(d)(2), in the event of a transfer of assets described in section 507(b)(2), any person who is a substantial contributor (within the meaning of section 507(d)(2)) with respect to the transferor foundation shall be treated as a substantial contributor with respect to the transferee foundation, regardless of whether such person meets the $5,000-two percent test with respect to the transferee organization at any time. If a private foundation makes a transfer described in section 507(b)(2) to two or more transferee private foundations, any person who is a substantial contributor with respect to the transferor foundation prior to such transfer shall be considered a substantial contributor with respect to each transferee private foundation.

(4) If a private foundation incurs liability for one or more of the taxes imposed under chapter 42 (or any penalty resulting therefrom) prior to, or as a result of, making a transfer of assets described in section 507(b)(2) to one or more private foundations, in any case where transferee liability applies each transferee foundation shall be treated as receiving the transferred assets subject to such liability to the extent that the transferor foundation does not satisfy such liability.

(5) Except as provided in subparagraph (9) of this paragraph, a private foundation is required to meet the distribution requirements of section 4942 for any taxable year in which it makes a section 507(b)(2) transfer of all or part of its net assets to another private foundation. Such transfer shall itself be counted toward satisfaction of such requirements to the extent the amount transferred meets the requirements of section 4942(g). However, where the transferor has disposed of all of its assets, the recordkeeping requirements of section 4942(g)(3)(B) shall not apply during any period in which it has no assets. Such requirements are applicable for any taxable year other than a taxable year during which the transferor has no assets.

(6) For purposes of section 4943(c) (4), (5), and (6), whenever a private foundation makes a section 507(b)(2) transfer of all or part of its net assets to another private foundation, the applicable period of time described in section 4943(c) (4), (5), or (6) shall include both the period during which the transferor foundation held such assets and the period during which the transferee foundation holds such assets.

(7) Except as provided in subparagraph (9) of this paragraph, where the transferor has disposed of all of its assets, during any period in which the transferor has no assets, section 4945 (d)(4) and (h) shall not apply to the transferee or the transferor with respect to any expenditure responsibility grants made by the transferor. However, the exception contained in this subparagraph shall not apply with respect to any information reporting requirements imposed by section 4945 and the regulations thereunder for any year in which any such transfer is made.

(8)(i) Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph or subparagraph (6) or (9) of this paragraph or whenever a private foundation makes a transfer of assets described in section 507(b)(2) to one or more private foundations, the transferee foundation:

(a) Will not be treated as being in existence prior to January 1, 1970, with respect to any transferred assets;

(b) Will not be treated as holding the transferred assets prior to January 1, 1970; and

(c) Will not be treated as having engaged in, or become subject to, any transaction, lease, contract, or other obligation with respect to the transferred assets prior to January 1, 1970.

(ii) Notwithstanding subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, the provisions enumerated in (a) through (g) of this subdivision shall apply to the transferee foundation with respect to the assets transferred to the same extent and in the same manner that they would have applied to the transferor foundation had the transfer described in section 507(b)(2) not been effected:

(a) Section 4940(c)(4)(B) and the regulations thereunder with respect to basis of property,

(b) Section 4942(f)(4) and the regulations thereunder with respect to distributions of income,

(c) Section 101(l)(2) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 533), as amended by sections 1301 and 1309 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1713, 1729), with respect to the provisions of section 4941,

(d) Section 101(l)(3)(A) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 534) with respect to the provisions of section 4942, but only if the transferor qualified for the application of such section immediately before the transfer, and at least 85 percent of the fair market value of the net assets of the transferee immediately after the transfer was received pursuant to the transfer,

(e) Section 101(l)(3) (B) through (E) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 534) with respect to the provisions of section 4942,

(f) Section 101(l)(5) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 535) with respect to the provisions of section 4945, and

(g) Section 101(l)(6) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 535) with respect to the provisions of section 508(e).

(9) (i) If a private foundation transfers all of its net assets to one or more private foundations which are effectively controlled (within the meaning of §1.482-1(a)(3)), directly or indirectly, by the same person or persons which effectively controlled the transferor private foundation, for purposes of chapter 42 (section 4940 et seq.) and part II of subchapter F of chapter 1 of the Code (sections 507 through 509) such a transferee private foundation shall be treated as if it were the transferor. However, where proportionality is appropriate, such a transferee private foundation shall be treated as if it were the transferor in the proportion which the fair market value of the assets (less encumbrances) transferred to such transferee bears to the fair market value of the assets (less encumbrances) of the transferor immediately before the transfer.

(ii) Subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall not apply to the requirements under sections 6033, 6056, and 6104 which must be complied with by the transferor private foundation, nor to the requirement under section 6043 that the transferor file a return with respect to its liquidation, dissolution, or termination.

(iii) This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. The trustees of X charitable trust, a private foundation, form the Y charitable corporation, also a private foundation, in order to facilitate the conduct of their activities. The trustees of X are also the directors of Y. Y has the same charitable purposes as X. All of the assets of X are transferred to Y, and Y continues to carry on X's charitable activities. Under such circumstances, Y shall be treated as if it were X for the purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph. Thus, for example, Y will be permitted to take advantage of any special rules or savings provisions with respect to chapter 42 to the same extent as X could have if X had continued in existence.
Example 2. A and B are the trustees of the P charitable trust, a private foundation, and are the only substantial contributors to P. On July 1, 1973, in order to facilitate accomplishment of diverse charitable purposes, A and B create and control the R Foundation, the S Foundation and the T Foundation and transfer the net assets of P to R, S, and T. As of the end of 1973, P has an outstanding grant to Foundation W and has been required to exercise expenditure responsibility with respect to this grant under sections 4945 (d)(4) and (h). Under these circumstances, R, S, and T shall each be treated as if they are P in the proportion the fair market value of the assets transferred to each bears to the fair market value of the assets of P immediately before the transfer. Since R, S, and T are treated as P, absent a specific provision for exercising expenditure responsibility with respect to the grant to W, each of them is required to exercise expenditure responsibility with respect to such grant. If, as a part of the transfer to R, P assigned, and R assumed, P's duties with respect to the expenditure responsibility grant to W, only R would be required to exercise expenditure responsibility with respect to the grant to W. Since R, S, and T are treated as P rather than as recipients of expenditure responsibility grants, there are no expenditure responsibility requirements which must be exercised under sections 4945 (d)(4) and (h) with respect to the transfers of assets to R, S, and T.

(10) For certain rules relating to filing requirements where a private foundation has transferred all its net assets, see §1.507-1(b)(9).

(b) Status of transferee organization under section 507(b)(2). Since a transfer of assets pursuant to any liquidation, merger, redemption, recapitalization, or other adjustment, organization or reorganization to an organization not described in section 501(c)(3) (other than an organization described in section 509(a)(4)) or 4947 is a taxable expenditure under section 4945(d)(5), in order for such a transfer of assets not to be a taxable expenditure, it must be to an organization described in section 501(c)(3) (other than an organization described in section 509(a)(4)) or treated as described in section 501(c)(3) under section 4947. See §53.4945-6(c)(3) of this chapter. Consequently, unless such a transferee is an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3), the transferee is a private foundation and the rules of section 507(b)(2) and paragraph (a) of this section apply. On the other hand, if such a transfer of assets is made to a transferee organization which is not described in either section 501(c)(3) (other than an organization described in section 509(a)(4)) or 4947, and in order to correct the making of a taxable expenditure, such assets are transferred to a private foundation, section 507(b)(2) and paragraph (a) of this section shall apply as if the transfer of assets had been made directly to such private foundation.

(c) Section 507(b)(2) transfers. (1) A transfer of assets is described in section 507(b)(2) if it is made by a private foundation to another private foundation pursuant to any liquidation, merger, redemption, recapitalization, or other adjustment, organization, or reorganization. This shall include any organization or reorganization described in subchapter C of chapter 1. For purposes of section 507(b)(2), the terms other adjustment, organization, or reorganization shall include any partial liquidation or any other significant disposition of assets to one or more private foundations, other than transfers for full and adequate consideration or distributions out of current income. For purposes of this paragraph, a distribution out of current income shall include any distribution described in section 4942(h)(1) (A) and (B).

(2) The term significant disposition of assets to one or more private foundations shall include any disposition for a taxable year where the aggregate of:

(i) The dispositions to one or more private foundations for the taxable year, and

(ii) Where any disposition to one or more private foundations for the taxable year is part of a series of related dispositions made during prior taxable years, the total of the related dispositions made during such prior taxable years, is 25 percent or more of the fair market value of the net assets of the foundation at the beginning of the taxable year (in the case of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph) or at the beginning of the first taxable year in which any of the series of related dispositions was made (in the case of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph). A significant disposition of assets may occur in a single taxable year (as in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph) or over the course of two or more taxable years (as in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph). The determination whether a significant disposition has occurred through a series of related distributions (within the meaning of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph) will be made on the basis of all the facts and circumstances of the particular case. However, if one or more persons who are disqualified persons (within the meaning of section 4946) with respect to the transferor private foundation are also disqualified persons with respect to any of the transferee private foundations, such fact shall be evidence that the transfer is part of a series of related dispositions (within the meaning of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph). In the case of a series of related dispositions described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, each transferee private foundation shall (on any date) be subject to the provisions of section 507(b)(2) (with respect to all such dispositions made to it on or before such date) to the extent described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(3) A private foundation which fails to meet the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(A) for a taxable year may be required to file a return under section 6043(b) by reason of a transfer of assets to one or more sections 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) organizations. Hence, such filing does not necessarily mean that a section 507(b)(2) transfer has occurred. See §1.6043-3(f)(1).

(4) This paragraph applies to any section 507(b)(2) transfer made by a private foundation referred to in section 170(b)(1)(E) (i), (ii), or (iii).

(5) The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M is a private foundation on the calendar year basis. It has net assets worth $100,000 as of January 1, 1971. In 1971, in addition to distributions out of current income, M transfers $10,000 to N, $10,000 to O, and $10,000 to P. N, O, and P are all private foundations. Under subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph, M has made a significant disposition of its assets in 1971 since M has disposed of more than 25 percent of its net assets (with respect to the fair market value of such assets as of January 1, 1971). M has therefore made section 507(b)(2) transfers within the meaning of this paragraph, and section 507(b)(2) applies to the transfers made to N, O, and P.
Example 2. U, a tax-exempt private foundation on the calendar year basis, has net assets worth $100,000 as of January 1, 1971. As part of a series of related dispositions in 1971 and 1972, U transfers in 1971, in addition to distributions out of current income, $10,000 to private foundation X and $10,000 to private foundation Y, and in 1972, in addition to distributions out of current income, U transfers $10,000 to private foundation Z. Under subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph, U is treated as having made a series of related dispositions in 1971 and 1972. The aggregate of the 1972 disposition (under subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph) and the series of related dispositions (under subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph) is $30,000, which is more than 25 percent of the fair market value of U's net assets as of the beginning of 1971 ($100,000), the first year in which any such disposition was made. Thus, U has made a significant disposition of its assets and has made transfers described in section 507(b)(2). The provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section apply to each of the transferees as of the date on which it received assets from U.

(d) Inapplicability of section 507(a) to section 507(b)(2) transfers. Unless a private foundation voluntarily gives notice pursuant to section 507(a)(1), a transfer of assets described in section 507(b)(2) will not constitute a termination of the transferor's private foundation status under section 507(a)(1). Such transfer must, nevertheless, satisfy the requirements of any pertinent provisions of chapter 42. See subparagraphs (5) through (7) of paragraph (a) of this section. However, if such transfer constitutes an act or failure to act which is described in section 507(a)(2)(A), then such transfer will be subject to the provisions of section 507(a)(2) rather than section 507(b)(2). For example, X, a private nonoperating foundation, transfers all of its net assets to Y, a private operating foundation, in 1971. X does not file the notice referred to in section 507(a)(1) and the transfer does not constitute either a willful and flagrant act (or failure to act), or one of a series of willful repeated acts (or failures to act), giving rise to liability for tax under chapter 42. Under these circumstances, the transfer is described in section 507(b)(2) and the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section apply with respect to Y. The private foundation status of X has not been terminated under section 507(a).

(e) Transfers to certain section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) organizations. If a private foundation transfers all or part of its assets to one or more organizations described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) and, within a period of 3 years from the date of such transfers, one or more of the transferee organizations lose their section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) status and become private foundations, then for purposes of this section, a transfer of assets within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section to such an organization which becomes a private foundation will be treated as a transfer described in section 507(b)(2), and the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall be treated as applying to such a transferee organization from the date on which any such transfer was made to it.

(f) Certain transfers made during section 507(b)(1)(B) terminations. If:

(1) During the course of the 12-month or 60-month period described in section 507(b)(1)(B), a private foundation makes one or more transfers to one or more private foundations;

(2) Such transfers are described in §1.507-3(c)(1); and

(3) Even though the transferor foundation thereafter meets the requirements of section 507(b)(1)(B)

then for purposes of this section, the provisions of §1.507-2(e) shall not apply with respect to such transfers, and such transfers will be treated as transfers described in section 507(b)(2) and §1.507-3 rather than as transfers from an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3).

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28158, Dec. 21, 1972; 38 FR 3189, Feb. 2, 1973, as amended by T.D. 7678, 45 FR 12415, Feb. 26, 1980]

§1.507-4   Imposition of tax.

(a) General rule. Section 507(c) imposes on each organization the private foundation status of which is terminated under section 507(a) a tax equal to the lower of:

(1) The amount which such organization substantiates by adequate records (or other corroborating evidence which may be required by the Commissioner) as the aggregate tax benefit (as defined in section 507(d)) resulting from the section 501(c)(3) status of such organization, or

(2) The value of the net assets of such organization.

(b) Transfers not subject to section 507(c). Private foundations which make transfers described in section 507(b)(1)(A) or (2) are not subject to the tax imposed under section 507(c) with respect to such transfers unless the provisions of section 507(a) become applicable. See §§1.507-1(b), 1.507-2(a)(6) and 1.507-3(d).

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28161, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.507-5   Aggregate tax benefit; in general.

(a) General rule. For purposes of section 507(c)(1), the aggregate tax benefit resulting from the section 501(c)(3) status of any private foundation is the sum of:

(1) The aggregate increases in tax under chapters 1, 11, and 12 (or the corresponding provisions of prior law) which would have been imposed with respect to all substantial contributors to the foundation if deductions for all contributions made by such contributors to the foundation after February 28, 1913, had been disallowed,

(2) The aggregate increases in tax under chapter 1 (or the corresponding provisions of prior law) which would have been imposed with respect to the income of the private foundation for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1912, if (i) it had not been exempt from tax under section 501(a) (or the corresponding provisions of prior law), and (ii) in the case of a trust, deductions under section 642(c) (or the corresponding provisions of prior law) had been limited to 20 percent of the taxable income of the trust (computed without the benefit of section 642(c) but with the benefit of section 170(b)(1)(A)),

(3) The amount succeeded to from transferors under §1.507-3(a) and section 507(b)(2), and

(4) Interest on the increases in tax determined under subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this paragraph from the first date on which each such increase would have been due and payable to the date on which the organization ceases to be a private foundation.

(b) Contributions. In computing the amount of the aggregate increases in tax under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, all deductions attributable to a particular contribution shall be included. For example, if a substantial contributor has taken deductions under sections 170 and 2522 (or the corresponding provisions of prior law) with respect to the same contribution, the amount of each deduction shall be included in the computations under section 507(d)(1)(A). Accordingly, the aggregate tax benefit may exceed the fair market value of the property transferred.

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28161, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.507-6   Substantial contributor defined.

(a) Definition—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the term substantial contributor means, with respect to a private foundation, any person (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(1)), whether or not exempt from taxation under section 501(a), who contributed or bequeathed an aggregate amount of more than $5,000 to the private foundation, if such amount is more than 2 percent of the total contributions and bequests received by the private foundation before the close of the taxable year of the private foundation in which a contribution or bequest is received by the foundation from such person. In the case of a trust, the term substantial contributor also means the creator of the trust. Such term does not include a governmental unit described in section 170(c)(1).

(2) Special rules. For purposes of sections 170(b)(1)(E)(iii), 507(d)(1), 508(d), 509(a) (1) and (3), and chapter 42, the term substantial contributor shall not include an organization which is described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) or any other organization which is wholly owned by such section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) organization. Furthermore, taking section 4941 (relating to taxes on self-dealing) in context, it would unduly restrict the activities of private foundations if the term substantial contributor were to include any section 501(c)(3) organizations. It was not intended, for example, that a large grant for charitable purposes from one private foundation to another world forever preclude the latter from making any grants to, or otherwise dealing with, the former. Accordingly, for purposes of section 4941 only, the term substantial contributor shall not only include any organization which is described in section 501(c)(3) (other than an organization described in section 509(a)(4)).

(b) Determination of substantial contributor—(1) In general. In determining under paragraph (a) of this section whether the aggregate of contributions and bequests from a person exceeds 2 percent of the total contributions and bequests received by a private foundation, both the total of such amounts received by the private foundation, and the aggregate of such amounts contributed and bequeathed by such person, shall be determined as of the last day of each taxable year commencing with the first taxable year ending after October 9, 1969. Generally, under section 507(d)(2) and this section, except for purposes of valuation under section 507(d)(2)(B)(i), all contributions and bequests made before October 9, 1969, are deemed to have been made on October 9, 1969. For purposes of section 509(a)(2) and the support test described in §1.509(a)-3(c), contributions and bequests before October 9, 1969, will be taken into account in the year when actually made. For example, in the case of a contribution or bequest of $6,000 in 1967, such contribution or bequest shall be treated as made by a substantial contributor in 1967 for purposes of section 509(a)(2) and §1.509(a)-3(c) if such person met the $5,000—2 percent test as of December 31, 1967, and December 31, 1969 (in the case of a calendar year accounting period). Although the determination of the percentage of total contributions and bequests represented by a given donor's contributions and bequests is not made until the end of the foundation's taxable year, a donor is a substantial contributor as of the first date when the foundation received from him an amount sufficient to make him a substantial contributor. Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, such amount is treated for all purposes as made by a substantial contributor. Thus, the total contributions and bequests received by the private foundation from all persons, and the aggregate contributions and bequests made by a particular person, are to be determined as of December 31, 1969 (in the case of a calendar year organization which was in existence on that date), and the amounts included in each respective total would be all contributions and bequests received by the organization on or before that date, and all contributions and bequests made by the person on or before that date. Thereafter, a similar determination is to be made with respect to such private foundation as of the end of each of its succeeding taxable years. Status as a substantial contributor, however, will date from the time when the donor first met the $5,000 and 2 percent test. Once a person is a substantial contributor with respect to a private foundation, he remains a substantial contributor even though he might not be so classified if a determination were first made at some later date. For instance, even though the aggregate contributions and bequests of a person become less than 2 percent of the total received by a private foundation (for example, because of subsequent contributions and bequests by other persons), such person remains a substantial contributor with respect to the foundation.

(2) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section and this paragraph (b) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. On January 1, 1968, A, an individual, gave $4,500 to M, a private foundation on a calendar year basis. On June 1, 1969, A gave M the further sum of $1,500. Throughout its existence, through December 31, 1969, M has received $250,000 in contributions and bequests from all sources. As of June 1, 1969, A is a substantial contributor to M for purposes of section 509(a)(2).
Example 2. On September 9, 1966, B, an individual, gave $3,500 to N, a private foundation on a calendar year basis. On March 15, 1970, B gave N the further sum of $3,500. Throughout its existence, through December 31, 1970, N has received $200,000 in contributions and bequests from all sources. B is a substantial contributor to N as of March 15, 1970, since that is the first date on which his contributions met the 2 percent-$5,000 test.
Example 3. On July 21, 1964, X, a corporation, gave $2,000 to O, a private foundation on a calendar year basis. As of December 31, 1969, O had received $150,000 from all sources. On September 17, 1970, X gave O the further sum of $3,100. Through September 17, 1970, O had received $245,000 from all sources as total contributions and bequests. Between September 17, 1970, and December 31, 1970, however, O received $50,000 in contributions and bequests from others. X is not a substantial contributor to O, since X's contributions to O were not more than 2 percent of the total contributions and bequests received by O by December 31, 1970, the end of O's taxable year, even though X's contributions met that test at one point during the year.
Example 4. On September 16, 1970, C, an individual, gave $10,000 to P, a private foundation on a calendar year basis. Throughout its existence, and through December 31, 1970, the close of its taxable year, P had received a total of $100,000 in contributions and bequests. On January 3, 1971, P received a bequest of $1 million. C is a substantial contributor to P since he was a substantial contributor as of September 16, 1970, and therefore remains one even though he no longer meets the 2-percent test on a later date after the end of the taxable year of the foundation in which he first became a substantial contributor.

(c) Special rules—(1) Contributions defined. The term contribution shall, for purposes of section 507(d)(2), have the same meaning as such term has under section 170(c) and also include bequests, legacies, devises, and transfers within the meaning of section 2055 or 2106(a)(2). Thus, for purposes of section 507(d)(2), any payment of money or transfer of property without adequate consideration shall be considered a contribution. Where payment is made or property transferred as consideration for admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities to the donor, the qualification of all or any part of such payment or transfer as a contribution under section 170(c) shall determine whether and to what extent such payment or transfer constitutes a contribution under section 507(d)(2).

(2) Valuation of contributions and bequests. Each contribution or bequest to a private foundation shall be valued at fair market value when actually received by the private foundation.

(3) Contributions and bequests by a spouse. An individual shall be considered, for purposes of this section, to have made all contributions and bequests made by his spouse during the period of their marriage. Thus, for example, where W contributed $500,000 to P, a private foundation, in 1941 and that amount exceeded 2 percent of the total contributions received by P as of the end of P's first taxable year ending after October 9, 1969, H (W's spouse at the time of the 1941 gift) is considered to have made such contribution (even if W died prior to October 9, 1969, or their marriage was otherwise terminated prior to such date). Similarly, any bequest or devise shall be treated as having been made by the decedent's surviving spouse.

[T.D. 7241, 37 FR 28743, Dec. 29, 1972; 38 FR 24206, Sept. 6, 1973]

§1.507-7   Value of assets.

(a) In general. For purposes of section 507(c), the value of the net assets shall be determined at whichever time such value is higher:

(1) The first day on which action is taken by the organization which culminates in its ceasing to be a private foundation, or

(2) The date on which it ceases to be a private foundation.

(b) Valuation dates. (1) In the case of a termination under section 507(a)(1), the date referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be the date on which the terminating foundation gives the notification described in section 507(a)(1).

(2) In the case of a termination under section 507(a)(2), the date referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be the date of occurrence of the willful and flagrant act (or failure to act) or the first of the series of willful repeated acts (or failures to act) giving rise to liability for tax under chapter 42 and the imposition of tax under section 507(a)(2).

(c) Fair market value. For purposes of this section, fair market value shall be determined pursuant to the provisions of §53.4942(a)-2(c)(4) of this chapter.

(d) Net assets. For purposes of section 507 and the regulations thereunder, the term net assets shall mean the gross assets of a private foundation reduced by all liabilities of the foundation, including appropriate estimated and contingent liabilities. Thus, a determination of net assets may reflect reductions for any liability or contingent liability for tax imposed upon the private foundation under chapter 42 with respect to acts or failures to act prior to termination, for any liability or contingent liability for failures to correct such acts or failures to act, or for any liability or estimated or contingent liability with respect to expenses associated with winding up the organization. If a private foundation's determination of net assets reflects any reduction for any estimated or contingent liability, such private foundation must establish, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner, the reasonableness of such reduction. If the amount of net assets reflects a reduction for any estimated or contingent liability, at the earlier of the final determination of the contingency or the termination of a reasonable time, any excess of the amount by which the gross assets was reduced over the amount of the liability shall be treated in the same manner as if such excess had been considered part of the net assets.

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28161, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.507-8   Liability in case of transfers.

For purposes of determining liability for the tax imposed under section 507(c) in the case of assets transferred by the private foundation, such tax shall be deemed to have been imposed on the first day on which action is taken by the organization which culminates in its ceasing to be a private foundation. If an organization's private foundation status is terminated under section 507(a)(2), the first day on which action is taken which culminates in its ceasing to be a private foundation (within the meaning of section 507(f)) shall be the date described in §1.507-7(b)(2). If an organization terminates its private foundation status under section 507(a)(1), the first day on which action is taken which culminates in its ceasing to be a private foundation (within the meaning of section 507(f)) shall be the date described in §1.507-7(b)(1).

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28161, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.507-9   Abatement of taxes.

(a) General rule. The Commissioner may at his discretion abate the unpaid portion of the assessment of any tax imposed by section 507(c), or any liability in respect thereof, if:

(1) The private foundation distributes all of its net assets to one or more organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than in clauses (vii) or (viii)) each of which has been in existence and so described for a continuous period of at least 60 calendar months, or

(2) Effective assurance is given to the Commissioner in accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section that the assets of the organization which are dedicated to charitable purposes will, in fact, be used for charitable purposes

The provisions of §1.507-2(a) (2), (3), and (7) shall apply to distributions under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. Since section 507(g) provides only for the abatement of tax imposed under section 507(c), no tax imposed under any provision of chapter 42 shall be abated under section 507(g). Where the taxpayer files a petition with the Tax Court with respect to a notice of deficiency regarding any tax under section 507(c), such tax shall be treated as having been assessed for the purposes of abatement of such tax under section 507(g) and the regulations thereunder.

(b) State proceedings. (1) The Commissioner may at his discretion abate the unpaid portion of the assessment of any tax imposed by section 507(c), or any liability in respect thereof, under the procedures outlined in subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph. Such tax may not be abated by the Commissioner unless he determines that corrective action as defined in paragraph (c) of this section has been taken. The Commissioner may not abate by reason of section 507(g) any amount of such tax which has already been collected since only the unpaid portion thereof can be abated.

(2) The appropriate State officer shall have 1 year from the date of notification prescribed in section 6104(c) that a notice of deficiency of tax imposed under section 507(c) has been issued with respect to a foundation, to advise the Commissioner that corrective action has been initiated pursuant to State law as may be ordered or approved by a court of competent jurisdiction. Corrective action may be initiated either by the appropriate State officer or by an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) which is a beneficiary of the private foundation and has enforceable rights against such foundation under State law. Copies of all pleadings and other documents filed with the court at the initial stages of the proceedings shall be attached to the notification made by the State officer to the Commissioner. Prior to notification by the appropriate State officer that corrective action has been initiated, the Commissioner shall follow those procedures which would apply with respect to the assessment and collection of the tax imposed under section 507(c) without regard to section 507(g)(2). Subsequent to notification by the appropriate State officer that corrective action has been initiated, the Commissioner shall suspend action with respect to the assessment or collection of tax imposed under section 507(c) until notified of the final determination of such corrective action, as long as any such resulting delay does not jeopardize the collection of such tax and does not cause collection to be barred by operation of law or any rule of law. In any case where collection of such tax is about to be barred by operation of section 6502 and the Commissioner has not been advised of the final determination of corrective action, the Commissioner should make every effort to obtain appropriate agreements with the foundation subject to such tax to extend the period of limitations under section 6502(a)(2). Where such agreements are obtained, action with respect to the assessment and collection of such tax may be suspended to the extent not inconsistent with this subparagraph.

(3) Upon receipt of certification from the appropriate State officer that action has been ordered or approved by a court of competent jurisdiction, the Commissioner may abate the unpaid portion of the assessment of tax imposed by section 507(c), or any liability in respect thereof, if in his judgment such action is corrective action within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section. In the event that such action is not corrective action, the Commissioner may in his discretion again suspend action on the assessment and collection of such tax until corrective action is obtained, or if in his judgment corrective action cannot be obtained, he may resume the assessment and collection of such tax.

(c) Corrective action. The term corrective action referred to in paragraph (b) of this section means vigorous enforcement of State laws sufficient to assure implementation of the provisions of chapter 42 and insure that the assets of such private foundation are preserved for such charitable or other purposes specified in section 501(c)(3). Except where assets of the terminated private foundation are transferred to an organization described in section 509(a) (1) through (4) the State is required to take such action to assure that the provisions of section 508(e)(1) (A) and (B) are applicable to the terminated foundation (or any transferee) with respect to such assets as if such organization were a private foundation. Thus, the governing instrument of such organization must include provisions with respect to such assets:

(1) Requiring its income therefrom for each taxable year to be distributed at such time and in such manner as not to subject such organization to tax under section 4942 (as if the organization were a private foundation),

(2) Prohibiting such organization from engaging in any act of self-dealing (as defined in section 4941(d) as if the organization were a private foundation),

(3) Prohibiting such organization from retaining any excess business holdings (as defined in section 4943(c) as if the organization were a private foundation),

(4) Prohibiting such organization from making any investments in such manner as to subject such organization to tax under section 4944 (as if the organization were a private foundation), and

(5) Prohibiting such organization from making any taxable expenditures (as defined in section 4945(d) as if the organization were a private foundation). Consequently, in cases where the preceding sentence applies, although the private foundation status of an organization is terminated for tax purposes, it is contemplated that its status under State law would remain unchanged, because the tax under section 507(c) has been abated solely because the Commissioner has been given effective assurance that there is vigorous enforcement of State laws sufficient to assure implementation of the provisions of chapter 42. Therefore, in such a case while chapter 42 will not apply to acts occurring subsequent to termination which previously would have resulted in the imposition of tax under chapter 42, it is contemplated that there will be vigorous enforcement of State laws (including laws made applicable by the provisions in the governing instrument) with respect to such acts. Notwithstanding the preceding three sentences, no amendment to the organization's governing instrument is necessary where there are provisions of State law which have the effect of requiring a terminated private foundation to which the rules of subparagraphs (1) through (5) of this paragraph apply to be subject to such rules whether or not there are such provisions in such terminated private foundation's governing instrument.

[T.D. 7233, 37 FR 28161, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.508-1   Notices.

(a) New organizations must notify the Commissioner that they are applying for recognition of section 501(c)(3) status—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, an organization that is organized after October 9, 1969, will not be treated as described in section 501(c)(3):

(i) Unless such organization has given the Commissioner notice in the manner prescribed in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph; or

(ii) For any period before the giving of such notice, unless such notice is given in the manner and within the time prescribed in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph

No organization shall be exempt from taxation under section 501(a) by reason of being described in section 501(c)(3) whenever such organization is not treated as described in section 501(c)(3) by reason of section 508(a) and this paragraph. See section 508(d)(2)(B) and §1.508-2(b) regarding the deductibility of charitable contributions to an organization during the period such organization is not exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) by reason of failing to file a notice under section 508(a) and this subparagraph. See also §1.508-2(b)(1)(viii) regarding the deductibility of charitable contributions to trusts described in section 4947(a)(1).

(2) Filing of notice. (i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.508-1T(a)(2)(i).

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.508-1T(a)(2)(ii).

(iii) For purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph and paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, an organization shall be considered organized on the date it becomes an organization described in section 501(c)(3) (determined without regard to section 508(a)).

(iv) Since a trust described in section 4947(a)(2) is not an organization described in section 501(c)(3), it is not required to file a notice described in section 508(a).

(v) For the treatment of community trusts, and the trusts or funds comprising them, under section 508, see the special rules under §1.170A-9(e).

(vi) A foreign organization shall, for purposes of section 508, be treated in the same manner as a domestic organization, except that section 508 shall not apply to a foreign organization which is described in section 4948(b).

(3) Exceptions from notice. (i) Paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section are inapplicable to the following organizations:

(a) Churches, interchurch organizations of local units of a church, conventions or associations of churches, or integrated auxiliaries of a church. See §1.6033-2(h) regarding the definition of integrated auxiliary of a church;

(b) Any organization which is not a private foundation (as defined in section 509(a)) and the gross receipts of which in each taxable year are normally not more than $5,000 (as described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph);

(c) Subordinate organizations (other than private foundations) covered by a group exemption letter;

(d) Solely for purposes of sections 507, 508(d)(1), 508(d)(2)(A) and 508(d)(3), 508(e), 509 and chapter 42, a trust described in section 4947(a)(1). (However, a trust described in section 501(c)(3) which was organized after October 9, 1969, shall be exempt under section 501(a) by reason of being described in section 501(c)(3) only if it files such notice); and

(e) Any other class of organization that the Commissioner from time to time excludes from the requirement of filing notice under section 508(a).

(ii) For purposes of subdivision (i) (b) of this subparagraph and paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section, the gross receipts (as defined in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph) of an organization are normally not more than $5,000 if:

(a) During the first taxable year of the organization the organization has received gross receipts of $7,500 or less;

(b) During its first 2 taxable years the aggregate gross receipts received by the organization are $12,000 or less; and

(c) In the case of an organization which has been in existence for at least 3 taxable years, the aggregate gross receipts received by the organization during the immediately preceding 2 taxable years, plus the current year are $15,000 or less

If an organization fails to meet the requirements of (a), (b), or (c) of this subdivision, then with respect to the organization, such organization shall be required to file the notices described in section 508 (a) and (b) within 90 days after the end of the period described in (a), (b), or (c) of this subdivision or before March 22, 1973, whichever is later, in lieu of the period prescribed in subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph. Thus, for example, if an organization meets the $7,500 requirement of (a) of this subdivision for its first taxable year, but fails to meet the $12,000 requirement of (b) of this subdivision for the period ending with its second taxable year, then such organization shall meet the notification requirements of section 508(a)(1) and 508(b) and subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph if it files such notification within 90 days after the close of its second taxable year. If an organization which has been in existence at least 3 taxable years meets the requirements of (a), (b), and (c) with respect to all prior taxable years, but fails to meet the requirements of (c) of this subdivision with respect to the current taxable year, then even if the organization fails to make such notification within 90 days after the close of the current taxable year, section 508(a)(1) and 508(b) shall not apply with respect to its prior years. In such a case, the organization shall not be treated as described in section 501(c)(3) for a period beginning with such current taxable year and ending when such notice is given under section 508(a)(2).

(iii) For a definition of gross receipts for purposes of subdivision (i)(b) of this subparagraph and paragraph (b)(7)(ii) of this section, see §1.6033-2(g)(4).

(4) Voluntary filings by new organizations excepted from filing notice. Any organization excepted from the requirement of filing notice under section 508(a) will be exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) if it meets the requirements of that section, whether or not it files such notice. However, in order to establish its exemption with the Internal Revenue Service and receive a ruling or determination letter recognizing its exempt status, an organization excepted from the notice requirement by reason of subparagraph (3) of this paragraph should file proof of its exemption in the manner prescribed in §1.501(a)-1.

(b) Presumption that old and new organizations are private foundations—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (7) of this paragraph, any organization (including an organization in existence on October 9, 1969) which is described in section 501(c)(3), and which does not notify the Commissioner within the time and in the manner prescribed in subparagraph (2) that it is not a private foundation, will be presumed to be a private foundation.

(2) Filing of notice. (i) Except as provided in subparagraph (7) of this paragraph, an organization must file the notice described in section 508(b) and subparagraph (1) of this paragraph within 15 months from the end of the month in which such organization was organized, or before March 22, 1973, whichever comes later. See paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, for rules pertaining to when an organization is organized.

(ii) Any organization filing notice under this paragraph that has received a ruling or determination letter from the Internal Revenue Service dated on or before July 13, 1970, recognizing its exemption from taxation under section 501(c)(3) (or the corresponding provisions of prior law), shall file the notice described in section 508(b) by submitting a properly completed and executed Form 4653, Notification Concerning Foundation Status.

(iii) The financial schedule on Form 4653 need be completed only if the organization is, or thinks it might be, described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (iv) or (vi) or section 509(a)(2).

(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.508-1T(b)(2)(iv).

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.508-1T(b)(2)(v).

(3) Effect of notice upon the filing organization. (i) The notice filed under this paragraph may not be relied upon by the organization so filing unless and until the Internal Revenue Service notifies the organization that it is an organization described in paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4), of section 509(a). For purposes of the preceding sentence, an organization that has filed notice under section 508(b), and has previously received a ruling that it is an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than clauses (vii) and (viii) thereof), will be considered to have been notified by the Internal Revenue Service that it is an organization described in paragraph (1) of section 509(a) if (a) the facts and circumstances forming the basis for the issuance of such ruling have not substantially changed, and (b) the ruling issued under that section has not been revoked expressly or by a subsequent change of the law or regulations under which the ruling was issued.

(ii) If an organization has filed a notice under section 508(b) stating that it is not a private foundation and designating only one paragraph of section 509(a) under which it claims recognition of its classification (such as an organization described in section 509(a)(2)), and if it has received a ruling or determination letter which recognizes that it is not a private foundation but which fails to designate the paragraph under section 509(a) in which it is described, then such organization will be treated as described under the paragraph designated by it, until such ruling or determination letter is modified or revoked. The rule in the preceding sentence shall not apply to an organization which indicated that it does not know its status under section 509(a) or which claimed recognition of its status under more than one paragraph of section 509(a).

(4) Effect of notice upon grantors or contributors to the filing organization. In the case of grants, contributions, or distributions made prior to:

(i) In the case of community trusts, 6 months after the date on which corrective and clarifying regulations designated as §1.170A-9(e)(10) become final;

(ii) In the case of medical research organizations, 6 months after the date on which corrective and clarifying regulations designated as §1.170A-9(b)(2), become final, and

(iii) In all other cases, January 1, 1976, any organization which has properly filed the notice described in section 508(b) prior to March 22, 1973 will not be treated as a private foundation for purposes of making any determination under the internal revenue laws with respect to a grantor, contributor or distributor (as for example, a private foundation distributing all of its net assets pursuant to a section 507(b)(1)(A) termination) thereto, unless the organization is controlled directly or indirectly by such grantor, contributor or distributor, if by the 30th day after the day on which such notice is filed, the organization has not been notified by the Commissioner that the notice filed by such organization has failed to establish that such organization is not a private foundation. See subparagraph (6) of this paragraph for the effect of an adverse notice by the Internal Revenue Service. For purposes of this subparagraph, an organization which has properly filed notice described in section 508(b) prior to March 22, 1973, and which has claimed recognition of its status under only one paragraph of section 509(a) in such notice, will be treated only for purposes of grantors, contributors or distributors as having the classification claimed in the notice if the provisions of this subparagraph are otherwise satisfied.

(5) Statement that old and new organizations are operating foundations. (i) Any organization (including an organization in existence on October 9, 1969) which is described in section 501(c)(3) may submit a statement, in the form and manner provided for notice in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, that it is an operating foundation (as defined in section 4942(j)(3)) and include in such statement:

(a) Necessary supporting information as required by the regulations under section 4942(j)(3) to confirm such determination (including a statement identifying the clause of section 4942(j)(3)(B) that is applicable); and

(b) A written declaration by the principal officer, manager, or authorized trustee that there is a reasonable basis in law and in fact that the organization so filing is an operating foundation, and that to the best of the knowledge and belief of such officer, manager or trustee, the information submitted is complete and correct.

(ii) The statement filed under this subparagraph may not be relied upon by the organization so filing unless and until the Internal Revenue Service notifies the organization that it is an operating foundation described in section 4942(j)(3).

(iii) In the case of grants, contributions, or distributions made prior to March 22, 1973, any organization which has properly filed the statement described in this subparagraph prior to such date will be treated as an operating foundation for purposes of making any determination under the internal revenue laws with respect to a grantor, contributor, or distributor thereto, unless the organization is controlled directly or indirectly by such grantor, contributor, or distributor, if by the 30th day after the day on which such statement is filed, the organization has not been notified by the Commissioner or his delegate that its statement has failed to establish that such organization is an operating foundation. See subparagraph (6) of this paragraph for the effect of an adverse notice by the Internal Revenue Service.

(6) Effect of notice by Internal Revenue Service concerning organization's notice or statement. Subparagraph (4) and subdivision (iii) of subparagrph (5) of this paragraph shall have no effect:

(i) With respect to a grantor, contributor, or distributor to any organization for any period after the date on which the Internal Revenue Service makes notice to the public (such as by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin) that a grantor, contributor, or distributor to such organization can no longer rely upon the notice or statement submitted by such organization; and

(ii) Upon any grant, contribution, or distribution made to an organization on or after the date on which a grantor, contributor, or distributor acquired knowledge that the Internal Revenue Service has given notice to such organization that its notice or statement has failed to establish that such organization either is not a private foundation, or is an operating foundation, as the case may be.

(7) Exceptions from notice. Subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph are inapplicable to the following organizations:

(i) Churches, interchurch organizations of local units of a church, conventions or associations of churches, or integrated auxiliaries of a church, such as a men's or women's organization, religious school, mission society, or youth group;

(ii) Any organization which is not a private foundation (as defined in section 509(a)) and the gross receipts of which in each taxable year are normally not more than $5,000 (as determined under paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section);

(iii) Subordinate organizations (other than private foundations) covered by a group exemption letter but only if the parent or supervisory organization submits a notice covering the subordinates;

(iv) Trusts described in section 4947(a)(1); and

(v) Any other class of organization that the Commissioner from time to time excludes from the notification requirements of section 508(b).

(8) Voluntary filings by organizations excepted from filing notice. Any organization excepted from the requirement of filing notice under section 508(b) by reason of subdivisions (i), (ii), and (v) of subparagraph (7) of this paragraph may receive the benefits of subparagraph (4) of this paragraph by filing such notice.

(c) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.508-1T(c).

(Secs. 508 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 7232, 37 FR 28289, Dec. 22, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7342, 40 FR 1237, Jan. 7, 1975; T.D. 7395, 41 FR 1063, Jan. 6, 1976; T.D. 8640, 60 FR 65552, Dec. 20, 1995; T.D. 9674, 79 FR 37632, July 2, 2014]

§1.508-2   Disallowance of certain charitable, etc., deductions.

(a) Gift or bequest to organizations subject to section 507(c) tax—(1) General rule. No gift or bequest made to an organization upon which the tax provided by section 507(c) has been imposed shall be allowed as a deduction under section 170, 545(b)(2), 556(b)(2), 642(c), 2055, 2106(a)(2), or 2522, if such gift or bequest is made:

(i) By any person after notification has been made by the organization under section 507(a)(1) or after notification has been made by the Commissioner under section 507(a)(2)(B), or

(ii) By a substantial contributor (as defined in section 507(d)(2)) in his taxable year which includes the first day on which action is taken by such organization which culminates in the imposition of tax under section 507(c) and any subsequent taxable year

For purposes of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, the first day on which action is taken by an organization which culminates in the imposition of tax under section 507(c) shall be determined under the rules set forth in §1.507-7(b) (1) and (2).

(2) Exception. Subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall not apply if the entire amount of the unpaid portion of the tax imposed by section 507(c) is abated by the Commissioner under section 507(g).

(b) Gift or bequest to taxable private foundation, section 4947 trust, etc.—(1) General rule. (i) Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, no gift or bequest made to an organization shall be allowed as a deduction under section 170, 545(b)(2), 556(b)(2), 642(c), 2055, 2106(a)(2), or 2522, if such gift or bequest is made:

(a) To a private foundation or a trust described in section 4947(a)(2) in a taxable year for which it fails to meet the requirements of section 508(e) (determined without regard to section 508(e)(2) (B) and (C), or

(b) To any organization in a period for which it is not treated as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) by reason of section 508(a).

(ii) For purposes of subdivision (i)(a) of this subparagraph the term taxable year refers to the taxable year of the donee or beneficiary organization. In the event a bequest is made to a private foundation or trust described in section 4947(a)(2) which is not in existence at the date of the testator's death (but which is created under the terms of the testator's will), the term taxable year shall mean the first taxable year of the private foundation or trust.

(iii) For purposes of subdivision (i)(a) of this subparagraph, an organization does not fail to meet the requirements of section 508(e) for a taxable year, unless it fails to meet such requirements for the entire year. Therefore, even if a donee organization fails to meet the requirements of section 508(e) on the date it receives a grant from a donor, the donor's grant will not be disallowed by operation of section 508(d)(2)(A) and subdivision (i)(a) of this subparagraph, if the organization meets the requirements of section 508(e) (determined without regard to section 508(e)(2) (B) or (C)) by the end of its taxable year.

(iv) No deduction will be disallowed under section 508(d)(2)(A) with respect to a deduction under section 170, 545(b)(2), 556(b)(2), 642(c), 2055, 2106(a)(2), or 2522 if during the taxable year in question, the private foundation or trust described in section 4947(a)(2) has instituted a judicial proceeding which is necessary to reform its governing instrument or other instrument in order to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1). This subdivision shall not apply unless within a reasonable time such judicial proceedings succeed in so reforming such instrument.

(v) No deduction will be disallowed under section 508(d)(2)(A) and subdivision (i)(a) of this subparagraph for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1972, with respect to a private foundation or trust described in section 4947 organized before January 1, 1970. See also §1.508-3(g) regarding transitional rules for extending compliance with section 508(e)(1).

(vi)(a) In the case of a contribution or bequest to a trust described in section 4947(a)(2) other than to a trust to which subdivision (vii) of this subparagraph applies, no deduction shall be disallowed by reason of section 508(d)(2)(A) on the grounds that such trust's governing instrument contains no provisions with respect to section 4942. Similarly, if for a taxable year such trust is also a trust described in section 4947(b)(3), no deduction for such year shall be so disallowed on the grounds that the governing instrument contains no provision with respect to section 4943 or 4944.

(b) This subdivision may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. H executes a will on January 1, 1977, establishing a charitable remainder trust (as described in section 664) with income payable to W, his wife, for life, remainder to X university, an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii). The will provides that the trust is prohibited from engaging in activities which would subject itself, its foundation manager or a disqualified person to taxes under section 4941 or 4945 of the Code. The will is silent as to sections 4942, 4943, and 4944. H dies February 12, 1978. Section 508(d)(2)(A) will not operate to disallow any deduction to H's estate under section 2055 with respect to such trust.

(vii)(a) In the case of a trust described in section 4947(a)(2) which by its terms will become a trust described in section 4947(a)(1) and the governing instrument of which is executed after March 22, 1973, the governing instrument shall not meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1) if it does not contain provisions to the effect that the trust must comply with the provisions of section 4942, or sections 4942, 4943, and 4944 (as the case may be) to the extent such section or sections shall become applicable to such trust.

(b) This subdivision may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. H executes a will on January 1, 1977, establishing a charitable remainder trust (as described in section 664) with income payable to W, his wife, for life, remainder in trust in perpetuity for the benefit of an organization described in section 170(c). By its terms the trust will become a trust described in section 4947(a)(1), and will become a private foundation. The will provides that the trust is prohibited from engaging in activities which would subject itself, its foundation manager or a disqualified person to taxes under sections 4941 or 4945 of the Code. The will is silent as to sections 4942, 4943, and 4944. H dies February 12, 1978. Unless the trust's governing instrument is amended prior to the end of the trust's first taxable year, or judicial proceedings have been instituted under subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph, section 508(d)(2)(A) will operate to disallow any deduction to H's estate under section 2055 with respect to such trust.

(viii) Since a charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1) is not required to file a notice under section 508(a), section 508(d)(2)(B) and subdivision (i)(b) of this subparagraph are not applicable to such a trust.

(2) Transitional rules. Any deduction which would otherwise be allowable under section 642(c)(2), 2106(a)(2), or 2055 shall not be disallowed under section 508(d)(2)(A) if such deduction is attributable to:

(i) Property passing under the terms of a will executed on or before October 9, 1969,

(a) If the decedent dies after October 9, 1969, but before October 9, 1972, without having amended any dispositive provision of the will after October 9, 1969, by codicil or otherwise,

(b) If the decedent dies after October 9, 1969, and at no time after that date had the right to change the portions of the will which pertains to the passing of property to, or for the use of, an organization described in section 170(c)(2)(B) or 2055(a), or

(c) If no dispositive provision of the will is amended by the decedent, by codicil or otherwise, before October 9, 1972, and the decedent is on October 9, 1972, and at all times thereafter under a mental disability (as defined in §1.642(c)-2(b)(3)(ii)) to amend the will by codicil or otherwise, or

(ii) Property transferred in trust on or before October 9, 1969,

(a) If the grantor dies after October 9, 1969, but before October 9, 1972, without having amended, after October 9, 1969, any dispositive provision of the instrument governing the disposition of the property,

(b) If the property transferred was an irrevocable interest to, or for the use of, an organization described in section 170(c)(2)(B) or 2055(a),

(c) In the case of a deduction under section 2106(a)(2) or 2055; if no dispositive provision of the instrument governing the disposition of the property is amended by the grantor before October 9, 1972, and the grantor is on October 9, 1972, and at all times thereafter under a mental disability (as defined in §1.642(c)-2(b)(3)(ii)) to change the disposition of the property, or

(d) In the case of a deduction under section 642(c)(2)(A), if the grantor is at all times after October 9, 1969, and up to, and including, the last day of the taxable year for which the deduction under such section is claimed, under a mental disability (as defined in §1.642(c)-2(b)(3)(ii)) to change the terms of the trust

See also §1.508-3(g) regarding the extension of time for compliance with section 508(e), §1.664-1(f)(3) (ii) and (g) regarding the special transitional rules for charitable remainder annuity and unitrusts described in section 664 which were created prior to December 31, 1972, and §20.2055-2(e)(4) of this chapter regarding the rules for determining if the dispositive provisions have been amended.

[T.D. 7232, 37 FR 28291, Dec. 22, 1972]

§1.508-3   Governing instruments.

(a) General rule. A private foundation shall not be exempt from taxation under section 501(a) for a taxable year unless by the end of such taxable year its governing instrument includes provisions the effects of which are:

(1) To require distributions at such times and in such manner as not to subject the foundation to tax under section 4942, and

(2) To prohibit the foundation from engaging in any act of self-dealing (as defined in section 4941(d)), from retaining any excess business holdings (as defined in section 4943(c)), from making any investments in such manner as to subject the foundation to tax under section 4944, and from making any taxable expenditures (as defined in section 4945(d)).

(b) Effect and nature of governing instrument—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the provisions of a foundation's governing instrument must require or prohibit, as the case may be, the foundation to act or refrain from acting so that the foundation, and any foundation managers or other disqualified persons with respect thereto, shall not be liable for any of the taxes imposed by sections 4941, 4942, 4943, 4944, and 4945 of the Code or, in the case of a split-interest trust described in section 4947(a)(2), any of the taxes imposed by those sections of chapter 42 made applicable under section 4947. Specific reference to these sections of the Code will generally be required to be included in the governing instrument, unless equivalent language is used which is deemed by the Commissioner to have the same full force and effect. However, a governing instrument which contains only language sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the organizational test under §1.501(c)(3)-1(b) will not be considered as meeting the requirements of this subparagraph, regardless of the interpretation placed on such language as a matter of law by a State court in a particular jurisdiction, unless the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section are satisfied.

(2) Corpus. A governing instrument does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section if it expressly prohibits the distribution of capital or corpus.

(3) Savings provisions. For purposes of sections 508(d)(2) (A) and (e), a governing instrument need not include any provision which is inconsistent with section 101(l) (2), (3), (4), or (5) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 533), as amended by sections 1301 and 1309 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1713, 1729), with respect to the organization. Accordingly, a governing instrument complying with the requirements of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may incorporate any savings provision contained in section 101(l) (2), (3), (4), or (5) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969, as amended by sections 1301 and 1309 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976, as a specific exception to the general provisions of paragraph (a) of this section. In addition, in the absence of any express provisions to the contrary, the exceptions contained in such savings provisions will generally be regarded as contained in a governing instrument meeting the requirements of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph.

(4) Excess holdings. For purposes of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the prohibition against retaining any excess business holdings (as defined in section 4943(c)) shall be deemed only to prohibit the foundation from retaining any excess business holdings when such holdings would subject the foundation to tax under section 4943(a).

(5) Revoked ruling on status. In the case of an organization which:

(i) Has been classified as an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), (3), or (4), and

(ii) Subsequently receives a ruling or determination letter stating that it is no longer described in section 509(a) (1), (2), (3), or (4), but is a private foundation within the meaning of section 509,

such organization shall have 1 year from the date of receipt of such ruling or determination letter, or the final ruling or determination letter if a protest is filed to an earlier one, to meet the requirements of section 508(e). Section 508(d)(2)(A) shall not be applicable with respect to gifts and bequests made during this 1-year period if such requirements are met within the 1-year period.

(6) Judicial proceeding. For purposes of paragraphs (a), (b)(5), (d)(2), and (e)(3) of this section, an organization shall be deemed to have met the requirements of section 508(e) within a year, if a judicial proceeding which is necessary to reform its governing instrument or other instrument is instituted within the year and within a reasonable time the organization, in fact, meets the requirements of section 508(e). For purposes only of paragraphs (b)(5), (d)(2), and (e)(3) of this section, if an organization organized before January 1, 1970, institutes such a judicial proceeding within such 1-year period, section 508 (e)(2)(C) shall be applied as if such proceeding had been instituted prior to January 1, 1972.

(c) Meaning of governing instrument. For purposes of section 508(e), the term governing instrument shall have the same meaning as the term articles of organization under §1.501(c)(3)-1(b)(2). The bylaws of an organization shall not constitute its governing instrument for purposes of section 508(e).

(d) Effect of State law—(1) In general. A private foundation's governing instrument shall be deemed to conform with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if valid provisions of State law have been enacted which:

(i) Require it to act or refrain from acting so as not to subject the foundation to the taxes imposed by section 4941 (relating to taxes on self-dealing), 4942 (relating to taxes on failure to distribute income), 4943 (relating to taxes on excess business holdings), 4944 (relating to taxes on investments which jeopardize charitable purpose), and 4945 (relating to taxable expenditures); or

(ii) Treat the required provisions as contained in the foundation's governing instrument.

(2) Validity. (i) Any provision of State law described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be presumed valid as enacted, and in the absence of State provisions to the contrary, to apply with respect to any foundation that does not specifically disclaim coverage under State law (either by notification to the appropriate State official or by commencement of judicial proceedings) except as provided in subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) If such provision is declared invalid or inapplicable with respect to a class of foundations by the highest appellate court of the State or by the Supreme Court of the United States, the foundations covered by the determination must meet the requirements of section 508(e) within 1 year from the date on which the time for perfecting an application for review by the Supreme Court expires. If such application is filed, the requirements of section 508(e) must be met within a year from the date on which the Supreme Court disposes of the case, whether by denial of the application for review or decision on the merits.

(iii) In addition, if such provision of State law is declared invalid or inapplicable with respect to a class of foundations by any court of competent jurisdiction which decision is not reviewed by a court referred to in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, and the Commissioner makes notice to the general public (such as by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin) that such provision has been so declared invalid or inapplicable, then all foundations in such State must meet the requirements of section 508(e), without reliance upon such statute to the extent declared invalid or inapplicable by such decision, within 1 year from the date such notice is made public.

(iv) This subparagraph shall not apply to any foundation that is subject to a final judgment entered by a court of competent jurisdiction, holding the law invalid or inapplicable with respect to such foundation. See paragraph (b)(6) of this section for the effect of certain judicial proceedings that are brought within 1 year.

(3) Conflicting instrument. For taxable years beginning after March 22, 1973 in order for a private foundation or trust described in section 4947(a)(2) to receive the benefit of coverage under any State statute which makes applicable the requirements of section 508(e)(1) (A) and (B), where the statute by its terms does not apply to a governing instrument which contains a mandatory direction conflicting with any of such requirements, such organization must indicate on its annual return required to be filed under section 6033 (or section 6012 in the case of a trust described in section 4947(a)) that its governing instrument contains no mandatory directions which conflict with the requirements of section 508(e)(1) (A) or (B), as incorporated by the State statute. General language in a governing instrument empowering the trustee to make investments without being limited to those investments authorized by law will not be regarded as a mandatory conflicting direction.

(4) Exclusion from statute. (i) For any taxable year beginning after March 22, 1973 in the case of a private foundation or trust described in section 4947(a)(2) subject to a State statute which makes applicable the requirements of section 508(e)(1) (A) and (B) to the governing instruments of such organizations, other than those which take action to be excluded therefrom (such as by filing a notice of exclusion or by instituting appropriate judicial proceedings), an organization will receive the benefit of such State statute only if it indicates on its annual return required to be filed under section 6033 (or section 6012 in the case of a trust described in section 4947(a)) that it has not so taken action to be excluded.

(ii) This paragraph permits certain organizations that are subject to the provisions of such a State law, to avoid changing their governing instruments in order to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1). Since an organization which avoids the application of a provision or provisions of State law, such as by filing a notice of exclusion, is not entitled to the benefits of this paragraph, such an organization must meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1) without regard to this paragraph and except as provided in section 508(e)(2)(C) or paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section must change its governing instrument to the extent inconsistent with section 508(e)(1).

(5) Treatment of prevailing conflicting clause. If provisions of State law are inapplicable to a clause in a governing instrument which is contrary to the provisions of section 508(e)(1), the requirements of section 508(e)(2)(C) and paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied by a provision of State law which purports to eliminate the need for litigation under such circumstances. Therefore, except as otherwise provided in this section unless the governing instrument is changed or litigation is commenced pursuant to section 508(e)(2)(B) by an organization organized before January 1, 1970, or pursuant to paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, to amend the nonconforming provision to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1) (A) and (B), then pursuant to section 508(e), such organization will not be exempt from taxation.

(6) Retroactive application to grants or bequests. If valid provisions of such a State law apply retroactively to a taxable year within which an organization has received a grant or request, section 508(d)(2)(A) shall not apply so as to disallow such grant or bequest, but only if such valid provisions of State law are enacted within 2 years of such grant or bequest.

(e) Effect of section 508(e) upon section 4947 trusts—(1) Section 4947(a)(1) trusts. A charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1) (unless also described in a paragraph of section 509(a)) is subject to all the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Section 4947(a)(2) trusts. A split-interest trust described in section 4947(a)(2), as long as it is so described, is subject to the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, except to the extent that section 4947 makes any such provisions inapplicable to certain trusts and certain amounts in trust. The governing instrument of a trust described in section 4947(a)(2) may except amounts described in section 4947(a)(2) (A), (B), and (C) from the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section. In the case of a trust having amounts transferred to it both before May 27, 1969, and after May 26, 1969, its governing instrument may except from the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section only those segregated amounts excluded from the application of section 4947(a)(2) by reason of section 4947(a)(2)(C) and the regulations thereunder. Also, the governing instrument of such a trust may exclude the application of sections 4943 and 4944 for any period during which such trust is described in section 4947(b)(3) (A) or (B). See §53.4947-1(c) of this chapter for rules relating to the applicability of section 4947 to split-interest trusts and §1.508-2(b)(1) (vi) and (vii) for rules relating to the deductibility of grants or bequests to such trusts.

(3) A section 4947(a)(2) trust becoming a section 4947(a)(1) trust. If the governing instrument of a trust described in section 4947(a)(2) meets the applicable requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section and such trust ceases to be so described and becomes instead a trust described in section 4947(a)(1), then such governing instrument must meet, prior to the end of 12 months from the date such trust first becomes described in section 4947(a)(1) (except as otherwise provided in this section) all the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section in order to comply with section 508(e).

(f) Special rules for existing private foundations. (1) Pursuant to section 508(e)(2), section 508(e)(1) and paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply in the case of any organization whose governing instrument was executed before January 1, 1970:

(i) To any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1972;

(ii) To any period after December 31, 1971, during the pendency of any judicial proceeding begun before January 1, 1972, by the private foundation which is necessary to reform, or to excuse such foundation from compliance with, its governing instrument or any other instrument in order to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1); and

(iii) To any period after the termination of any judicial proceeding described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph during which its governing instrument or any other instrument does not permit it to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1).

(2) For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, and §1.508-2(b)(1)(vi)(a), a governing instrument will not be treated as executed before the applicable date, if, after such date the dispositive provisions of the instrument are amended (determined under rules similar to the rules set forth in §20.2055-2(e)(4) of this chapter).

(3) For purposes of subparagraph (1) (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph, a private foundation will be treated as meeting the requirements of section 508(e)(2) (B) and (C) if it has commenced a necessary and timely proceeding in an appropriate court of original jurisdiction and such court has ruled that the foundation's governing instrument or any other instrument does not permit it to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1). Such foundation is not required to commence proceedings in any court of appellate jurisdiction in order to comply with section 508(e)(2)(C). See also §1.508-2(b)(2).

(g) Extension of time for compliance with section 508(e). (1) Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, section 508(e)(1) shall not apply to any private foundation (regardless of when organized) with respect:

(i) To any taxable year beginning before the transitional date,

(ii) To any period on or after the transitional date during the pendency of any judicial proceeding begun before the transitional date by the private foundation which is necessary to reform, or to excuse such foundation from compliance with, its governing instrument or any other instrument in order to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1), and

(iii) To any period after the termination of any judicial proceeding described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph during which its governing instrument or any other instrument does not permit it to meet the requirements of section 508(e)(1).

(2) Subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall apply only to gifts or bequests referred to in section 508(d)(2)(A) that are made before the transitional date.

(3) For purposes of this paragraph the term transitional dates means the earlier of the following dates:

(i) In the case of a medical research organization, May 21, 1976 or in the case of a community trust February 10, 1977, or

(ii) The 91st day after the date an organization receives a final ruling or determination letter that it is a private foundation under section 509(a).

[T.D. 7232, 37 FR 28292, Dec. 22, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7440, 41 FR 50656, Nov. 17, 1976; T.D. 7678, 45 FR 12415, Feb. 26, 1980]

§1.508-4   Effective date.

Except as otherwise provided, §§1.508-1 through 1.508-3 shall take effect on January 1, 1970.

(Sec. 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 7805)

[T.D. 7232, 37 FR 28294, Dec. 22, 1972]

§1.509(a)-1   Definition of private foundation.

In general. Section 509(a) defines the term private foundation to mean any domestic or foreign organization described in section 501(c)(3) other than an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), (3), or (4). Organizations which fall into the categories excluded from the definition of private foundation are generally those which either have broad public support or actively function in a supporting relationship to such organizations. Organizations which test for public safety are also excluded.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21907, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(a)-2   Exclusion for certain organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A).

(a) General rule. Organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than in clauses (vii) and (viii)) are excluded from the definition of private foundation by section 509(a)(1). For the requirements to be met by organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (i) through (vi), see §1.170A-9 (a) through (e) and paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the parenthetical language other than in clauses (vii) and (viii) used in section 509(a)(1) means other than an organization which is described only in clause (vii) or (viii). For purposes of this section, an organization may qualify as a section 509(a)(1) organization regardless of the fact that it does not satisfy section 170(c)(2) because:

(1) Its funds are not used within the United States or its possessions, or

(2) It was created or organized other than in, or under the law of, the United States, any State or territory, the District of Columbia, or any possession of the United States.

(b) Medical research organizations. In order to qualify under section 509(a)(1) as a medical research organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii), an organization must meet the requirements of section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.170A-9(c)(2), except that, solely for purposes of classification as a section 509(a)(1) organization, such organization need not be committed to spend every contribution for medical research before January 1 of the fifth calendar year which begins after the date such contribution is made.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21907, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(a)-3   Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

(a) In general—(1) General rule. Section 509(a)(2) excludes certain types of broadly, publicly supported organizations from private foundation status. An organization will be excluded under section 509(a)(2) if it meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2)(A) and the not-more-than-one-third support test under section 509(a)(2)(B).

(2) One-third support test. An organization will meet the one-third support test if it normally (within the meaning of paragraph (c) or paragraph (d) of this section) receives from permitted sources more than one-third of its support in each taxable year from any combination of—

(i) Gifts, grants, contributions, or membership fees; and

(ii) Gross receipts from admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities, in an activity that is not an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513), subject to certain limitations described in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, governmental units, organizations described in section 509(a)(1), and persons other than disqualified persons with respect to the organization shall be referred to as permitted sources. For purposes of this section, the amount of support received from the sources described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section and this paragraph (a)(2)(ii) (subject to the limitations referred to in this paragraph (a)(2)) will be referred to as the numerator of the one-third support fraction, and the total amount of support received (as defined in section 509(d)) will be referred to as the denominator of the one-third support fraction. Section 1.509(a)-3(f) distinguishes gifts and contributions from gross receipts; §1.509(a)-3(g) distinguishes grants from gross receipts; §1.509(a)-3(h) defines membership fees; §1.509(a)-3(i) defines “any bureau or similar agency of a governmental unit”; §1.509(a)-3(j) describes the treatment of certain indirect forms of support; paragraph (k) of this section describes the method of accounting for support; §1.509(a)-3(l) describes the treatment of gross receipts from section 513(a)(1), section 513(a)(2), or section 513(a)(3) activities; §1.509(a)-3(m) distinguishes gross receipts from gross investment income; and §1.509(a)-3(n) describes transition rules for organizations that received advance rulings that expire on or after June 9, 2008.

(3) Not-more-than-one-third support test—(i) In general. An organization will meet the not-more-than-one-third support test under section 509(a)(2)(B) if it normally (within the meaning of paragraph (c) or (d) of this section) receives not more than one-third of its support in each taxable year from the sum of its gross investment income (as defined in section 509(e)) and the excess (if any) of the amount of its unrelated business taxable income (as defined in section 512) derived from trades or businesses that were acquired by the organization after June 30, 1975, over the amount of tax imposed on such income by section 511. For purposes of this section the amount of support received from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B) will be referred to as the numerator of the not-more-than-one-third support fraction, and the total amount of support (as defined in section 509(d)) will be referred to as the denominator of the not-more-than-one-third support fraction. For purposes of section 509(a)(2), paragraph (m) of this section distinguishes gross receipts from gross investment income. For purposes of section 509(e), gross investment income includes the items of investment income described in §1.512(b)-1(a).

(ii) Trade or business. For purposes of section 509(a)(2)(B)(ii), a trade or business acquired after June 30, 1975, by an organization shall include, in addition to other trades or businesses:

(A) A trade or business acquired after such date from, or as a result of the liquidation of, an organization's subsidiary which is described in section 502 whether or not the subsidiary was held on June 30, 1975.

(B) A new trade or business commenced by an organization after such date.

(iii) Allocation of deductions between businesses acquired before, and businesses acquired after, June 30, 1975. Deductions which are allowable under section 512 but are not directly connected to a particular trade or business, such as deductions referred to in paragraphs (10) and (12) of section 512(b), shall be allocated in the proportion that the unrelated trade or business taxable income derived from trades or businesses acquired after June 30, 1975, bears to the organization's total unrelated business taxable income, both amounts being determined without regard to such deductions.

(iv) Allocation of tax. The tax imposed by section 511 shall be allocated in the same proportion as in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section.

(4) Purposes. The one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test are designed to insure that an organization which is excluded from private foundation status under section 509(a)(2) is responsive to the general public, rather than to the private interests of a limited number of donors or other persons.

(b) Limitation on gross receipts—(1) General rule. In computing the amount of support received from gross receipts under section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii) for purposes of the one-third support test of section 509(a)(2)(A), gross receipts from related activities received from any person, or from any bureau or similar agency of a governmental unit, are includible in any taxable year only to the extent that such receipts do not exceed the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of the organization's support in such taxable year.

(2) Examples. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the examples set forth below. For purposes of these examples, the term general public is defined as persons other than disqualified persons and other than persons from whom the foundation receives gross receipts in excess of the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of its support in any taxable year, and the term gross receipts is limited to receipts from activities which are not unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513).

Example 1. For the taxable year 1970, X, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), received support of $10,000 from the following sources:
Bureau M (a governmental bureau from which X received gross receipts for services rendered)$25,000
Bureau N (a governmental bureau from which X received gross receipts for services rendered)25,000
General public (gross receipts for services rendered)20,000
Gross investment income15,000
Contributions from individual substantial contributors (defined as disqualified persons under section 4946(a)(2))15,000
Total support100,000

Since the $25,000 received from each bureau amounts to more than the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of X's support for 1970 (1% of $100,000=$1,000) under section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii), each amount is includible in the numerator of the one-third support fraction only to the extent of $5,000. Thus, for the taxable year 1970, X received support from sources which are taken into account in meeting the one-third support test of section 509(a)(2)(A) computed as follows:

Bureau M$5,000
Bureau N5,000
General public20,000
Total30,000

Therefore, in making the computations required under paragraph (c), (d), or (e) of this section, only $30,000 is includible in the aggregate numerator and $100,000 is includible in the aggregate denominator of the support fraction.

Example 2. For the taxable year 1970, Y, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), received support of $600,000 from the following sources:
Bureau O (gross receipts for services rendered)$10,000
Bureau P (gross receipts for services rendered)10,000
General public (gross receipts for services rendered)150,000
General public (contributions)40,000
Gross investment income150,000
Contributions from substantial contributors240,000
Total support600,000

Since the $10,000 received from each bureau amounts to more than the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of Y's support for 1970 (1% of $600,000=$6,000), each amount is includible in the numerator of the one-third support fraction only to the extent of $6,000. Thus, for the taxable year 1970, Y received support from sources required to meet the one-third support test of section 509(a)(2)(A) computed as follows:

Bureau O$6,000
Bureau P6,000
General public (gross receipts)150,000
General public (contributions)40,000
Total202,000

Therefore, in making the computations required under paragraph (c), (d), or (e) of this section, $202,000 is includible in the aggregate numerator and $600,000 is includible in the aggregate denominator of the support fraction.

(c) Normally—(1) In general—(i) Definition. The support tests set forth in section 509(a)(2) are to be computed on the basis of the nature of the organization's normal sources of support. An organization will be considered as “normally” receiving one third of its support from any combination of gifts, grants, contributions, membership fees, and gross receipts from permitted sources (subject to the limitations described in §1.509(a)-3(b)) and not more than one third of its support from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B) for a taxable year and the taxable year immediately succeeding such year, if, for such taxable year and the four taxable years immediately preceding such taxable year, the aggregate amount of the support received during the applicable period from gifts, grants, contributions, membership fees, and gross receipts from permitted sources (subject to the limitations described in §1.509(a)-3(b)) is more than one third, and the aggregate amount of the support received from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B) is not more than one third, of the total support of the organization for such five-year period. A publicly supported organization described under section 509(a)(2) that has failed to meet either the one-third support test of paragraph (a)(2) of this section or the not-more-than-one-third support test of paragraph (a)(3) of this section for two consecutive years will be treated as a private foundation as of the first day of the second consecutive taxable year only for purposes of sections 507, 4940, and 6033. Such an organization must file a Form 990-PF, “Return of Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Nonexempt Charitable Trust Treated as a Private Foundation,” and will be liable for the net investment tax imposed by section 4940 and, if applicable, the private foundation termination tax imposed by section 507(c), for that second consecutive failed year. For the succeeding years, the organization will be treated as a private foundation for all purposes.

(ii) First five years of an organization's existence. See paragraph (d)(1) of this section for the definition of “normally” for organizations in the first five years of their existence.

(2) Terminations under section 507(b)(1)(B). For the special rules applicable to the term normally as applied to private foundations that elect to terminate their private foundation status pursuant to the 60-month procedure provided in section 507(b)(1)(B), see the regulations under such section.

(3) Exclusion of unusual grants. For purposes of applying the tests for support set forth in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section, one or more contributions may be excluded from the numerator of the one-third support fraction and from the denominator of both the one-third support and not-more-than-one-third support fractions only if such a contribution meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(3). The exclusion provided by this paragraph (c)(3) is generally intended to apply to substantial contributions and bequests from disinterested parties, which contributions or bequests—

(i) Are attracted by reason of the publicly supported nature of the organization;

(ii) Are unusual or unexpected with respect to the amount thereof; and

(iii) Would by reason of their size, adversely affect the status of the organization as normally meeting the one-third support test for any of the applicable periods described in this paragraph (c) or paragraph (d) of this section. In the case of a grant (as defined in §1.509(a)-3(g)) that meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(3), if the terms of the granting instrument require that the funds be paid to the recipient organization over a period of years, the grant amounts may be excluded for such year or years in which they would otherwise be includible in computing support under the method of accounting on the basis of which the organization regularly computes its income in keeping its books under section 446. However, no item described in section 509(a)(2)(B) may be excluded under this paragraph (c)(3). The provisions of this paragraph (c)(3) shall apply to exclude unusual grants made during any of the applicable periods described in this paragraph (c) or paragraph (d) of this section. See paragraph (c)(5) of this section as to reliance by a grantee organization upon an unusual grant ruling under this paragraph (c)(3).

(4) Determining factors. In determining whether a particular contribution may be excluded under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, all pertinent facts and circumstances will be taken into consideration. No single factor will necessarily be determinative. Among the factors to be considered are—

(i) Whether the contribution was made by any person (or persons standing in a relationship to such person which is described in section 4946(a)(1)(C) through 4946(a)(1)(G)) who created the organization, previously contributed a substantial part of its support or endowment, or stood in a position of authority, such as a foundation manager (within the meaning of section 4946(b)), with respect to the organization. A contribution made by a person other than those persons described in this paragraph (c)(4)(i) will ordinarily be given more favorable consideration than a contribution made by a person described in this paragraph (c)(4)(i);

(ii) Whether the contribution was a bequest or an inter vivos transfer. A bequest will ordinarily be given more favorable consideration than an inter vivos transfer;

(iii) Whether the contribution was in the form of cash, readily marketable securities, or assets which further the exempt purposes of the organization, such as a gift of a painting to a museum;

(iv) Except in the case of a new organization, whether, prior to the receipt of the particular contribution, the organization has carried on an actual program of public solicitation and exempt activities and has been able to attract a significant amount of public support;

(v) Whether the organization may reasonably be expected to attract a significant amount of public support subsequent to the particular contribution. In this connection, continued reliance on unusual grants to fund an organization's current operating expenses (as opposed to providing new endowment funds) may be evidence that the organization cannot reasonably be expected to attract future support from the general public;

(vi) Whether, prior to the year in which the particular contribution was received, the organization met the one-third support test described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section without the benefit of any exclusions of unusual grants pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) of this section;

(vii) Whether neither the contributor nor any person standing in a relationship to such contributor which is described in section 4946(a)(1)(C) through 4946(a)(1)(G) continues directly or indirectly to exercise control over the organization;

(viii) Whether the organization has a representative governing body as described in §1.509(a)-3(d)(3)(i); and

(ix) Whether material restrictions or conditions (within the meaning of §1.507-2(a)(7)) have been imposed by the transferor upon the transferee in connection with such transfer.

(5) Grantors and contributors. Prior to the making of any grant or contribution expected to meet the requirements for exclusion under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, a potential grantee organization may request a determination whether such grant or contribution may be so excluded. Requests for such determination may be filed by the grantee organization in the time and manner specified by revenue procedure or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. The issuance of such determination will be at the sole discretion of the Commissioner. The organization must submit all information necessary to make a determination of the applicability of paragraph (c)(3) of this section, including all information relating to the factors described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. If a favorable determination is issued, such determination may be relied upon by the grantor or contributor of the particular contribution in question for purposes of sections 170, 507, 545(b)(2), 642(c), 4942, 4945, 4966, 2055, 2106(a)(2), and 2522 and by the grantee organization for purposes of paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(6) Examples. The application of the principles set forth in this paragraph is illustrated by the examples as follows. For purposes of these examples, the term general public is defined as persons other than disqualified persons and other than persons from whom the foundation received gross receipts in excess of the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of its support in any taxable year, the term gross investment income is as defined in section 509(e), and the term gross receipts is limited to receipts from activities which are not unrelated trades or businesses (within the meaning of section 513).

Example 1. (i) For the years 2008 through 2012, X, an organization exempt under section 501(c)(3) that makes scholarship grants to needy students of a particular city, received support from the following sources:
2008:
Gross receipts (general public)$35,000
Contributions (substantial contributors)36,000
Gross investment income29,000
Total support100,000
2009:
Gross receipts (general public)34,000
Contributions (substantial contributors)35,000
Gross investment income31,000
Total support100,000
2010:
Gross receipts (general public)35,000
Contributions (substantial contributors)30,000
Gross investment income35,000
Total support100,000
2011:
Gross receipts (general public)33,000
Contributions (substantial contributors)32,000
Gross investment income35,000
Total support100,000
2012:
Gross receipts (general public)31,000
Contributions (substantial contributors)39,000
Gross investment income30,000
Total support100,000
(ii) In applying section 509(a)(2) to the taxable year 2012, on the basis of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the total amount of support from gross receipts from the general public ($168,000) for the period 2008 through 2012, was more than one third, and the total amount of support from gross investment income ($160,000) was less than one third, of X's total support for the same period ($500,000). For the taxable years 2012 and 2013, X is therefore considered normally to receive more than one third of its support from the public sources described in section 509(a)(2)(A) and less than one third of its support from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B). The fact that X received less than one third of its support from section 509(a)(2)(A) sources in 2012 and more than one third of its support from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B) in 2011 does not affect its status because it normally met the applicable tests over a five-year period.
Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that in 2012, X also received an unexpected bequest of $50,000 from A, an elderly widow who was interested in encouraging the work of X, but had no other relationship to it. Solely by reason of the bequest, A became a disqualified person. X used the bequest to create five new scholarships. Its operations otherwise remained the same. Under these circumstances, if A's bequest is included in X's support calculation, X could not meet the five-year support test because the total amount received from gross receipts from the general public ($168,000) would not be more than one-third of its total support for the five-year period ($550,000). Because A is a disqualified person, her bequest cannot be included in the numerator of the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2)(A). However, based on the factors set forth in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, A's bequest may be excluded as an unusual grant under paragraph (c)(3) of this section. Therefore, X will be considered to have met the support test for the taxable years 2012 and 2013.
Example 3. Y, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), was created by A, the holder of all the common stock in M corporation; B, A's wife; and C, A's business associate. The purpose of Y was to sponsor and equip athletic teams for underprivileged children in the community. Each of the three creators makes small cash contributions to Y. A, B, and C have been active participants in the affairs of Y since its creation. Y regularly raises small amounts of contributions through fundraising drives and selling admission to some of the sponsored sporting events. The operations of Y are carried out on a small scale, usually being restricted to the sponsorship of two to four baseball teams of underprivileged children. In 2009, M recapitalizes and creates a first and second class of 6 percent nonvoting preferred stock, most of which is held by A and B. In 2010, A contributes 49 percent of his common stock in M to Y. A's contribution of M's common stock was substantial and constitutes 90 percent of Y's total support for 2010. A combination of the facts and circumstances described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section preclude A's contribution of M's common stock in 2010 from being excluded as an unusual grant under paragraph (c)(3) of this section for purposes of determining whether Y meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2).
Example 4. (i) M is organized in 2009 to promote the appreciation of ballet in a particular region of the United States. Its principal activities consist of erecting a theater for the performance of ballet and the organization and operation of a ballet company. M receives a determination letter that it is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and that it is a public charity described in section 509(a)(2). The governing body of M consists of nine prominent unrelated citizens residing in the region who have either an expertise in ballet or a strong interest in encouraging appreciation of the art form.

(ii) In 2010, Z, a private foundation, proposes to makes a grant of $500,000 in cash to M to provide sufficient capital for M to commence its activities. Although A, the creator of Z, is one of the nine members of M's governing body, was one of M's original founders, and continues to lend his prestige to M's activities and fund raising efforts, A does not, directly or indirectly, exercise any control over M. M also receives a significant amount of support from a number of smaller contributions and pledges from other members of the general public. M charges admission to the ballet performances to the general public.

(iii) Although the support received in 2010 will not impact M's status as a public charity for its first five taxable years, it will be relevant to the determination of whether M meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for the 2014 taxable year, using the computation period 2010 through 2014. Within the appropriate timeframe, M may submit a request for a private letter ruling that the $500,000 contribution from Z qualifies as an unusual grant.

(iv) Under the above circumstances, even though A was a founder and member of the governing body of M, M may exclude Z's contribution of $500,000 in 2010 as an unusual grant under paragraph (c)(3) of this section for purposes of determining whether M meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for 2014.

Example 5. (i) Assume the same facts as Example 4(i) except that, in addition, in 2013, B, a widow, passes away and bequeaths $4 million to M. During 2009 through 2013, B made small contributions to M, none exceeding $10,000 in any year. During 2009 through 2013, M received approximately $450,000 from receipts for admissions and contributions from the general public. At the time of B's death, no person standing in a relationship to B described in section 4946(a)(1)(C) through 4946(a)(1)(G) was a member of M's governing body. B's bequest was in the form of cash and readily marketable securities. The only condition placed upon the bequest was that it be used by M to advance the art of ballet.

(ii) Although the support received in 2013 will not impact M's status as a public charity for its first five taxable years, it will be relevant to the determination of whether M meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for future years. Within the appropriate timeframe, M may submit a request for a private letter ruling that the $4 million bequest from B qualifies as an unusual grant.

(iii) Under the above circumstances, M may exclude B's bequest of $4 million in 2013 as an unusual grant under paragraph (c)(3) of this section for purposes of determining whether M meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for 2014 and subsequent years.

Example 6. (i) N is a research organization that was created by A in 2009 for the purpose of carrying on economic studies primarily through persons receiving grants from N and engaging in the sale of economic publications. N received a determination letter that it is described in section 501(c)(3) and that it is a public charity described in 509(a)(2). N's five-member governing body consists of A; A's sons, B and C; and two unrelated economists. In 2009, A made a contribution to N of $100,000 to help establish the organization. During 2009 through 2013, A made annual contributions to N averaging $20,000 a year. During the same period, N received annual contributions from members of the general public averaging $15,000 per year and receipts from the sale of its publications averaging $50,000 per year. In 2013, B made an inter vivos contribution to N of $600,000 in cash and readily marketable securities.

(ii) Although the support received in 2013 will not impact N's status as a public charity for its first five taxable years, it will be relevant to the determination of whether N meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for future years. In determining whether B's contribution of $600,000 in 2013 may be excluded as an unusual grant, the support N received in 2009 through 2013 is relevant in considering the factor described in paragraph (c)(4)(vi) of this section, notwithstanding that N received a determination letter that it is described in section 509(a)(2).

(iii) Under the above circumstances, in particular the facts that B is a disqualified person described in section 4946(a)(1)(D) and N does not have a representative governing body as described in paragraphs (c)(4)(viii) and (d)(3)(i) of this section, N cannot exclude B's contribution of $600,000 in 2013 as an unusual grant under paragraph (c)(3) of this section for purposes of determining whether N meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for 2014 and future years.

Example 7. (i) O is an educational organization created in 2009. O received a determination letter that it is described in section 501(c)(3) and that it is a public charity described in section 509(a)(2). The governing body of O has 9 members, consisting of A, a prominent civic leader, and 8 other unrelated civic leaders and educators in the community, all of whom participated in the creation of O. During 2009 through 2013, the principal source of income for O has been receipts from the sale of its educational periodicals. These sales have amounted to $200,000 for this period. Small contributions amounting to $50,000 have also been received during the same period from members of the governing body, including A, as well as other members of the general public.

(ii) In 2013, A contributed $750,000 of the nonvoting stock of S, a closely held corporation, to O. A retained a substantial portion of the voting stock of S. By a majority vote, the governing body of O decided to retain the S stock for a period of at least five years.

(iii) Although the support received in 2013 will not impact O's status as a public charity for its first five taxable years, it will be relevant to the determination of whether O meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for future years. In determining whether A's contribution of the S stock in 2013 may be excluded as an unusual grant, the support O received in 2009 through 2013 is relevant in considering the factor described in paragraph (c)(4)(vi) of this section, notwithstanding that O received a determination letter that it is described in section 509(a)(2).

(iv) Under the above circumstances, in particular the facts that A is a foundation manager within the meaning of section 4946(b) and A's contribution is in the form of closely held stock, O cannot exclude A's contribution of the S stock in 2013 as an unusual grant under paragraph (c)(3) of this section for purposes of determining whether O meets the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) for 2014 and future years.

(d) Definition of normally; first five years of an organization's existence—(1) In general. An organization will “normally” meet the one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test during its first five taxable years as a section 501(c)(3) organization if the organization can reasonably be expected to meet the requirements of the one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test during that period. With respect to an organization's sixth taxable year, the general definition of normally in paragraph (c)(1) of this section applies. Alternatively, the organization shall be treated as normally meeting the one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test for its sixth taxable year (but not its seventh taxable year) if it meets the one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test under the definition of normally set forth in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section for its fifth taxable year (based on support received in its first through fifth taxable years). If a new publicly supported organization described under section 509(a)(2) cannot meet the requirements of the one-third support test or the not-more-than-one-third support test for its sixth taxable year using either the general definition of normally in paragraph (c)(1) of this section or the alternate rule above (effectively failing to meet a public support test for both its fifth and sixth years), it will be reclassified as a private foundation as of the first day of its sixth taxable year only for purposes of sections 507, 4940, and 6033. Such an organization must file a Form 990-PF, “Return of Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Nonexempt Charitable Trust Treated as a Private Foundation,” and is liable for the net investment tax imposed by section 4940 and, if applicable, the private foundation termination tax imposed by section 507(c), for its sixth taxable year. Beginning the first day of its seventh taxable year, the organization will be treated as a private foundation for all purposes.

(2) Basic consideration. In determining whether an organization can reasonably be expected (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section) to meet the one-third support test under section 509(a)(2)(A) and the not-more-than-one-third support test under section 509(a)(2)(B) described in paragraph (a) of this section during its first five taxable years, the basic consideration is whether its organizational structure, current or proposed programs or activities, and actual or intended method of operation are such as to attract the type of broadly based support from the general public, public charities, and governmental units that is necessary to meet such tests. The factors that are relevant to this determination, and the weight accorded to each of them, may differ from case to case, depending on the nature and functions of the organization. An organization cannot reasonably be expected to meet the one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test where the facts indicate that an organization is likely during its first five taxable years to receive less than one-third of its support from permitted sources (subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section) or to receive more than one-third of its support from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B).

(3) Factors taken into account. All pertinent facts and circumstances shall be taken into account under paragraph (d)(2) of this section in determining whether the organizational structure, programs or activities, and method of operation of an organization are such as to enable it to meet the tests under section 509(a)(2) during its first five taxable years. Some of the pertinent factors are:

(i) Whether the organization has or will have a representative governing body which is comprised of public officials, or individuals chosen by public officials acting in their capacity as such; of persons having special knowledge in the particular field or discipline in which the organization is operating; of community leaders, such as elected officials, clergymen, and educators; or, in the case of a membership organization, of individuals elected pursuant to the organization's governing instrument or bylaws by a broadly based membership. This characteristic does not exist if the membership of the organization's governing body is such as to indicate that it represents the personal or private interests of disqualified persons, rather than the interests of the community or the general public.

(ii) Whether a substantial portion of the organization's initial funding is to be provided by the general public, by public charities, or by government grants, rather than by a limited number of grantors or contributors who are disqualified persons with respect to the organization. The fact that the organization plans to limit its activities to a particular community or region or to a special field which can be expected to appeal to a limited number of persons will be taken into consideration in determining whether those persons providing the initial support for the organization are representative of the general public. On the other hand, the subsequent sources of funding which the organization can reasonably expect to receive after it has become established and fully operational will also be taken into account.

(iii) Whether a substantial proportion of the organization's initial funds are placed, or will remain, in an endowment, and whether the investment of such funds is unlikely to result in more than one third of its total support being received from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B).

(iv) In the case of an organization that carries on fundraising activities, whether the organization has developed a concrete plan for solicitation of funds from the general public on a community or area-wide basis; whether any steps have been taken to implement such plan; whether any firm commitments of financial or other support have been made to the organization by civic, religious, charitable, or similar groups within the community; and whether the organization has made any commitments to, or established any working relationships with, those organizations or classes of persons intended as the future recipients of its funds.

(v) In the case of an organization that carries on community services, such as combating community deterioration in an economically depressed area that has suffered a major loss of population and jobs, whether the organization has a concrete program to carry out its work in the community; whether any steps have been taken to implement that program; whether it will receive any part of its funds from a public charity or governmental agency to which it is in some way held accountable as a condition of the grant or contribution; and whether it has enlisted the sponsorship or support of other civic or community leaders involved in community service programs similar to those of the organization.

(vi) In the case of an organization that carries on educational or other exempt activities for, or on behalf of, members, whether the solicitation for dues-paying members is designed to enroll a substantial number of persons in the community, area, profession, or field of special interest (depending on the size of the area and the nature of the organization's activities); whether membership dues for individual (rather than institutional) members have been fixed at rates designed to make membership available to a broad cross-section of the public rather than to restrict membership to a limited number of persons; and whether the activities of the organization will be likely to appeal to persons having some broad common interest or purpose, such as educational activities in the case of alumni associations, musical activities in the case of symphony societies, or civic affairs in the case of parent-teacher associations.

(vii) In the case of an organization that provides goods, services, or facilities, whether the organization is or will be required to make its services, facilities, performances, or products available (regardless of whether a fee is charged) to the general public, public charities, or governmental units, rather than to a limited number of persons or organizations; whether the organization will avoid executing contracts to perform services for a limited number of firms or governmental agencies or bureaus; and whether the service to be provided is one which can be expected to meet a special or general need among a substantial portion of the general public.

(4) Example. The application of this paragraph (d) may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. (i) Organization X was formed in January 2008 and uses a taxable year ending December 31. After September 9, 2008, and before December 31, 2008, Organization X filed Form 1023 requesting recognition of exemption as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and in section 509(a)(2). In its application, Organization X established that it can reasonably be expected to operate as a publicly supported organization under paragraph (d) of this section. Subsequently, Organization X received a ruling or determination letter that it is an organization described in sections 501(c)(3) and 509(a)(2) effective as of the date of its formation.

(ii) Organization X is described in section 509(a)(2) for its first five taxable years (for the taxable years ending December 31, 2008, through December 31, 2012).

(iii) Organization X can qualify as a publicly supported organization beginning with the taxable year ending December 31, 2013, if Organization X can meet the requirements of either §1.170A-9(f)(2) or §1.170A-9(f)(3) or paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section for the taxable years ending December 31, 2009, through December 31, 2013, or for the taxable years ending December 31, 2008, through December 31, 2012.

(e) Determinations on foundation classification and reliance—(1) A ruling or determination letter that an organization is described in section 509(a)(2) may be issued to an organization. Such determination may be made in conjunction with the recognition of the organization's tax-exempt status or at such other time as the organization believes it is described in section 509(a)(2). The ruling or determination letter that the organization is described in section 509(a)(2) may be revoked if, upon examination, the organization has not met the requirements of this section. The ruling or determination letter that the organization is described in section 509(a)(2) also may be revoked if the organization's application for a ruling or determination contained one or more material misstatements or omissions of fact or such application was part of a scheme or plan to avoid or evade any provision of the Code. The revocation of the determination that an organization is described in section 509(a)(2) does not preclude revocation of the determination that the organization is described in section 501(c)(3).

(2) Status of grantors or contributors. (i) For purposes of sections 170, 507, 545(b)(2), 642(c), 4942, 4945, 4966, 2055, 2106(a)(2), and 2522, grantors and contributors may rely upon a determination letter or ruling that an organization is described in section 509(a)(2) until the IRS publishes notice of a change of status (for example, in the Internal Revenue Bulletin or Publication 78, “Cumulative List of Organizations described in Section 170(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,” which can be searched at http://www.irs.gov). For this purpose, grantors or contributors may also rely on an advance ruling that expires on or after June 9, 2008. However, a grantor or contributor may not rely on such an advance ruling or any determination letter or ruling if the grantor or contributor was responsible for, or aware of, the act or failure to act that resulted in the organization's loss of classification under section 509(a)(2) or acquired knowledge that the IRS had given notice to such organization that it would be deleted from such classification.

(ii) A grantor or contributor (other than one of the organization's founders, creators, or foundation managers (within the meaning of section 4946(b))) will not be considered to be responsible for, or aware of, the act or failure to act that resulted in the loss of the organization's publicly supported classification under section 509(a)(2) if such grantor or contributor has made such grant or contribution in reliance upon a written statement by the grantee organization that such grant or contribution will not result in the loss of such organization's classification as not a private foundation under section 509(a). Such statement must be signed by a responsible officer of the grantee organization and must set forth sufficient information, including a summary of the pertinent financial data for the five taxable years immediately preceding the current taxable year, to assure a reasonably prudent person that his grant or contribution will not result in the loss of the grantee organization's classification as a publicly supported organization under section 509(a). If a reasonable doubt exists as to the effect of such grant or contribution, or if the grantor or contributor is one of the organization's founders, creators, or foundation managers, the procedure for requesting a determination letter set forth in paragraph (c)(5) of this section may be followed by the grantee organization for the protection of the grantor or contributor.

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (e) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Y, a calendar year organization described in section 501(c)(3), is created in February 2008 for the purpose of displaying African art. On its exemption application Y shows, under penalties of perjury, that it can reasonably, in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, expect to receive support from the public in 2008 through 2012 that will satisfy the one-third support and not-more-than-one-third support tests described in section 509(a)(2) for its first five taxable years, 2008 through 2012. Y may therefore receive a determination that it meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section for its first five taxable years (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012), regardless of the public support Y in fact receives during this period.
Example 2. Z, a calendar year organization described in section 501(c)(3), is created in July 2008. On its exemption application Z shows, under penalties of perjury, that it can reasonably, in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, expect to receive support from the public in 2008 through 2012 that will satisfy the one-third support and not-more-than-one-third support tests described in section 509(a)(2) for its first five taxable years, 2008 through 2012. Z receives a determination that it is described in section 509(a)(2). However, the support actually received from the public over Z's first five taxable years (2008 through 2012) does not satisfy the one-third support and not-more-than-one-third support tests described in section 509(a)(2). Moreover, the support Z receives from 2009 through 2013, also does not meet the one-third support and not-more-than-one-third support tests described in section 509(a)(2). Z is described in section 509(a)(2) during its first five years for all purposes. However, because Z has not met the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section for either 2008 through 2012 or 2009 through 2013, Z is not described in section 509(a)(2) for its taxable year 2013. If Z is not described in section 509(a)(1), section 509(a)(3), or section 509(a)(4), then Z will be reclassified as a private foundation as of the first day of 2013. However, for 2013, Z will be treated as a private foundation only for purposes of sections 507, 4940 and 6033. Z must file Form 990-PF and will be liable for the net investment tax imposed by section 4940 and, if applicable, the private foundation termination tax imposed by section 507(c) for 2013. For 2014 and succeeding years, Z will be treated as a private foundation for all purposes (except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section with respect to grantors and contributors).

(f) Gifts and contributions distinguished from gross receipts—(1) In general. In determining whether an organization normally receives more than one-third of its support from permitted sources, all gifts and contributions (within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(i)) received from permitted sources, are includible in the numerator of the support fraction in each taxable year. However, gross receipts (within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii)) from admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities, in an activity which is not an unrelated trade or business, are includible in the numerator of the support fraction in any taxable year only to the extent that such gross receipts do not exceed the limitation with respect to the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of support which is describing paragraph (b) of this section. The terms gifts and contributions shall, for purposes of section 509(a)(2), have the same meaning as such terms have under section 170(c) and also include bequests, legacies, devises, and transfers within the meaning of section 2055 or 2106(a)(2). Thus, for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A), any payment of money or transfer of property without adequate consideration shall be considered a gift or contribution. Where payment is made or property transferred as consideration for admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities to the donor, the status of the payment or transfer under section 170(c) shall determine whether and to what extent such payment or transfer constitutes a gift or contribution under section 509(a)(2)(A)(i) as distinguished from gross receipts from related activities under section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). For purposes of section 509(a)(2), the term contributions includes qualified sponsorship payments (as defined in §1.513-4) in the form of money or property (but not services).

(2) Valuation of property. For purposes of section 509(a)(2), the amount includible in computing support with respect to gifts, grants or contributions of property or use of such property shall be the fair market or rental value of such property at the date of such gift or contribution.

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (f) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. P is a local agricultural club described in section 501(c)(3). In order to encourage interest and proficiency by young people in farming and raising livestock, it makes awards at its annual fair for outstanding specimens of produce and livestock. Most of these awards are cash or other property donated by local businessmen. When the awards are made, the donors are given recognition for their donations by being identified as the donor of the award. The recognition given to donors is merely incidental to the making of the award to worthy youngsters. For these reasons, the donations will constitute contributions for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A)(i). The amount includible in computing support with respect to such contributions is equal to the cash contributed or the fair market value of other property on the dates contributed.
Example 2. Q, a performing arts center, enters into a contract with a large company to be the exclusive sponsor of the center's theatrical events. The company makes a payment of cash and products in the amount of $100,000 to Q, and in return, Q agrees to make a broadcast announcement thanking the company before each show and to provide $2,000 of advertising in the show's program (2% of $100,000 is $2,000). The announcement constitutes use or acknowledgment pursuant to section 513(i)(2). Because the value of the advertising does not exceed 2% of the total payment, the entire $100,000 is a qualified sponsorship payment under section 513(i), and $100,000 is treated as a contribution for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A)(i).
Example 3. R, a charity, enters into a contract with a law firm to be the exclusive sponsor of the charity's outreach program. Instead of making a cash payment, the law firm agrees to perform $100,000 of legal services for the charity. In return, R agrees to acknowledge the law firm in all its informational materials. The total fair market value of the legal services, or $100,000, is a qualified sponsorship payment under section 513(i), but no amount is treated as a contribution under section 509(a)(2)(A)(i) because the contribution is of services.

(g) Grants distinguished from gross receipts—(1) In general. In determining whether an organization normally receives more than one-third of its support from public sources, all grants (within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(i)) received from permitted sources are includible in full in the numerator of the support fraction in each taxable year. However, gross receipts (within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii)) from admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities, in an activity which is not an unrelated trade or business, are includible in the numerator of the support fraction in any taxable year only to the extent that such gross receipts do not exceed the limitation with respect to the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of support which is described in paragraph (b) of this section. A grant is normally made to encourage the grantee organization to carry on certain programs or activities in furtherance of its exempt purposes. It may contain certain terms and conditions imposed by the grantor to insure that the grantee's programs or activities are conducted in a manner compatible with the grantor's own programs and policies and beneficial to the public. The grantee may also perform a service or produce a work product which incidentally benefits the grantor. Because of the imposition of terms and conditions, the frequent similarlity of public purposes of grantor and grantee, and the possibility of benefit resulting to the grantor, amounts received as grants for the carrying on of exempt activities are sometimes difficult to distinguish from amounts received as gross receipts from the carrying on of exempt activities. The fact that the agreement, pursuant to which payment is made, is designated a contract or a grant is not controlling for purposes of classifying the payment under section 509(a)(2).

(2) Distinguishing factors. For purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii), in distinguishing the term gross receipts from the term grants, the term gross receipts means amounts received from an activity which is not an unrelated trade or business, if a specific service, facility, or product is provided to serve the direct and immediate needs of the payor, rather than primarily to confer a direct benefit upon the general public. In general, payments made primarily to enable the payor to realize or receive some economic or physical benefit as a result of the service, facility, or product obtained will be treated as gross receipts with respect to the payee. The fact that a profitmaking organization would, primarily for its own economic or physical betterment, contract with a nonprofit organization for the rendition of a comparable service, facility or product from such organization constitutes evidence that any payments received by the nonprofit payee organization (whether from a governmental unit, a nonprofit or a profitmaking organization) for such services, facilities or products are primarily for the economic or physical benefit of the payor and would therefore be considered gross receipts, rather than grants with respect to the payee organization. For example, if a nonprofit hospital described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii) engages an exempt research and development organization to develop a more economical system of preparing food for its own patients and personnel, and it can be established that a hospital operated for profit might engage the services of such an organization to perform a similar benefit for its economic betterment, such fact would constitute evidence that the payments received by the research and development organization constitute gross receipts, rather than grants. Research leading to the development of tangible products for the use or benefit of the payor will generally be treated as a service provided to serve the direct and immediate needs of the payor, while basic research or studies carried on in the physical or social sciences will generally be treated as primarily to confer a direct benefit upon the general public.

(3) Examples. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M, a nonprofit research organization described in section 501(c)(3), engages in some contract research. It receives funds from the government to develop a specific electronic device needed to perfect articles of space equipment. The initiative for the project came solely from the government. Furthermore, the government could have contracted with profitmaking research organizations which carry on similar activities. The funds received from the government for this project are gross receipts and do not constitute grants within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(i). M provided a specific product at the government's request and thus was serving the direct and immediate needs of the payor within the meaning of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.
Example 2. N is a nonprofit educational organization described in section 501(c)(3). Its principal activity is to operate institutes to train employees of various industries in the principles of management and administration. The government pays N to set up a special institute for certain government employees and to train them over a 2-year period. Management training is also provided by profitmaking organizations. The funds received are included as gross receipts. The particular services rendered were to serve the direct and immediate needs of the government in the training of its employees within the meaning of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.
Example 3. The Office of Economic Opportunity makes a community action program grant to O, an organization described in section 509(a)(1). O serves as a delegate agency of OEO for purposes of financing a local community action program. As part of this program, O signs an agreement with X, an educational and charitable organization described in section 501(c)(3), to carry out a housing program for the benefit of poor families. Pursuant to this agreement, O pays X out of the funds provided by OEO to build or rehabilitate low income housing and to provide advisory services to other nonprofit organizations in order for them to meet similar housing objectives, all on a nonprofit basis. Payments made from O to X constitute grants for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A) because such program is carried on primarily for the direct benefit of the community.
Example 4. P is an educational institute described in section 501(c)(3). It carries on studies and seminars to assist institutions of higher learning. It receives funds from the government to research and develop a program of black studies for institutions of higher learning. The performance of such a service confers a direct benefit upon the public. Because such program is carried on primarily for the direct benefit of the public, the funds are considered a grant.
Example 5. Q is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) which carries on medical research. Its efforts have primarily been directed toward cancer research. Q sought funds from the government for a particular project being contemplated in connection with its work. In order to encourage its activities, the government gives Q the sum of $25,000. The research project sponsored by government funds is primarily to provide direct benefit to the general public, rather than to serve the direct and immediate needs of the government. The funds are therefore considered a grant.
Example 6. R is a public service organization described in section 501(c)(3) and composed of State and local officials involved in public works activities. The Bureau of Solid Waste, Management of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare paid R to study the feasibility of a particular system for disposal of solid waste. Upon completion of the study, R was required to prepare a final report setting forth its findings and conclusions. Although R is providing the Bureau of Solid Waste Management with a final report, such report is the result of basic research and study in the physical sciences and is primarily to provide direct benefit to the general public by serving to further the general functions of government, rather than a direct and immediate governmental needs. The funds paid to R are therefore a grant within the meaning of section 509(a)(2).
Example 7. R is the public service organization referred to in example 6. W, a municipality described in section 170(c)(1), decides to construct a sewage disposal plant. W pays R to study a number of possible locations for such plant and to make recommendations to W, based upon a number of factors, as to the best location. W instructed R that in making its recommendation, primary consideration should be given to minimizing the costs of the project to W. Since the study commissioned by W was primarily directed toward producing an economic benefit to W in the form of minimizing the costs of its project, the services rendered are treated as serving W's direct and immediate needs and are includible as gross receipts by R.
Example 8. S in an organization described in section 501(c)(3). It was organized and is operated to further African development and strengthen understanding between the United States and Africa. To further these purposes, S receives funds from the Agency for International Development and the Department of State under which S is required to carry out the following programs: Selection, transportation, orientation, counseling, and language training of African students admitted to American institutions of higher learning; payment of tuition, other fees, and maintenance of such students; and operation of schools and vocational training programs in underdeveloped countries for residents of those countries. Since the programs carried on by S are primarily to provide direct benefit to the general public, all of the funds received by S from the Federal agencies are considered grants within the meaning of section 509(a)(2).

(h) Definition of membership fees—(1) General rule. For purposes of section 509(a)(2), the fact that a membership organization provides services, admissions, facilities, or merchandise to its members as part of its overall activities will not, in itself, result in the classification of fees received from members as gross receipts rather than membership fees. If an organization uses membership fees as a means of selling admissions, merchandise, services, or the use of facilities to members of the general public who have no common goal or interest (other than the desire to purchase such admissions, merchandise, services, or use of facilities), then the income received from such fees shall not constitute membership fees under section 509(a)(2)(A)(i), but shall, if from a related activity, constitute gross receipts under section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). On the other hand, to the extent the basic purpose for making the payment is to provide support for the organization rather than to purchase admissions, merchandise, services, or the use of facilities, the income received from such payment shall constitute membership fees.

(2) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M is a symphony society described in section 501(c)(3). Its primary purpose is to support the local symphony orchestra. The organization has three classes of membership. Contributing members pay annual dues of $10, sustaining members pay $25, and honorary members pay $100. The dues are placed in a maintenance fund which is used to provide financial assistance in underwriting the orchestra's annual deficit. Members have the privilege of purchasing subscriptions to the concerts before they go on sale to the general public, but must pay the same price as any other member of the public. They also are entitled to attend a number of rehearsals each season without charge. Under these circumstances, M's receipts from the members constitute membership fees for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A)(i).
Example 2. N is a theater association described in section 501(c)(3). Its purpose is to support a repertory company in the community in order to make live theatrical performances available to the public. The organization sponsors six plays each year. Members of the organization are entitled to a season subscription to the plays. The fee paid as dues approximates the retail price of the six plays, less a 10-percent discount. Tickets to each performance are also sold directly to the general public. The organization also holds a series of lectures on the theater which members may attend. Under these circumstances, the fees paid by members as dues will be considered gross receipts from a related activity. Although the fees are designated as membership fees, they are actually admissions to a series of plays.

(i) Bureau defined—(1) In general. The term any bureau or similar agency of a governmental unit (within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii)), refers to a specialized operating unit of the executive, judicial, or legislative branch of government where business is conducted under certain rules and regulations. Since the term bureau refers to a unit functioning at the operating, as distinct from the policymaking, level of government, it is normally descriptive of a subdivision of a department of government. The term bureau, for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii), would therefore not usually include those levels of government which are basically policymaking or administrative, such as the office of the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of a department, but would consist of the highest operational level under such policymaking or administrative levels. Each subdivision of a larger unit within the Federal Government, which is headed by a Presidential appointee holding a position at or above Level V of the Executive Schedule under 5 U.S.C. 5316, will normally be considered an administrative or policymaking, rather than an operating, unit. Amounts received from a unit functioning at the policymaking or administrative level of government will be treated as received from one bureau or similar agency of such unit. Units of a governmental agency above the operating level shall be aggregated and considered a separate bureau for this purpose. Thus, an organization receiving gross receipts from both a policymaking or administrative unit and an operational unit of a department will be treated as receiving gross receipts from two bureaus within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). For purposes of this subparagraph, the Departments of Air Force, Army, and Navy are separate departments and each is considered as having its own policymaking, administrative, and operating units.

(2) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. The Bureau of Health Insurance is considered a bureau within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). It is a part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, whose Secretary performs a policymaking function, and is under the Social Security Administration, which is basically an administrative unit. The Bureau of Health Insurance is in the first operating level within the Social Security Administration. Similarly, the National Cancer Institute would be considered a bureau, as it is an operating part of the National Institutes of Health within the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Example 2. The Bureau for Africa and the Bureau for Latin America are considered bureaus within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). Both are separate operating units under the administrator of the Agency for International development, a policymaking official. If an organization received gross receipts from both of these bureaus, the amount of gross receipts received from each would be subject to the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent limitation under section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii).
Example 3. The Bureau of International Affairs of the Civil Aeronautics Board is considered a bureau within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). It is an operating unit under the administrative office of the Executive Director. The subdivisions of the Bureau of International Affairs are Geographic Areas and Project Development Staff. If an organization received gross receipts from these subdivisions, the total gross receipts from these subdivisions would be considered gross receipts from the same bureau, the Bureau of International Affairs, and would be subject to the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent limitation under section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii).
Example 4. The Department of Mental Health, a State agency which is an operational part of State X's Department of Public Health, is considered a bureau. The Department of Public Health is basically an administrative agency and the Department of Mental Health is at the first operational level within it.
Example 5. The Aeronautical Systems Division of the Air Force Systems Command, and other units on the same level, are considered separate bureaus with the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). They are part of the Department of the Air Force which is a separate department for this purpose, as are the Army and Navy. The Secretary and the Under Secretary of the Air Force perform the policymaking function, the Chief of Staff and the Air Force Systems Command are basically administrative, having a comprehensive complement of staff functions to provide administration for the various divisions. The Aeronautical Systems Division and other units on the same level are thus the first operating level, as evidenced by the fact that they are the units that let contracts and perform the various operating functions.
Example 6. The Division of Space Nuclear Systems, the Division of Biology and Medicine, and other units on the same level within the Atomic Energy Commission are each separate bureaus within the meaning of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii). The Commissioners (which make up the Commission) are the policymakers. The general manager and the various assistant general managers perform the administrative function. The various divisions perform the operating function as evidenced by the fact that each has separate programs to pursue and contracts specifically for these various programs.

(j) Grants from public charities—(1) General rule. For purposes of the one-third support test in section 509(a)(2)(A), grants (as defined in paragraph (g) of this section) received from an organization described in section 509(a)(1) (hereinafter referred to in this subparagraph as a public charity) are generally includible in full in computing the numerator of the recipient's support fraction of the taxable year in question. It is sometimes necessary to determine whether the recipient of a grant from a public charity has received such support from the public charity as a grant, or whether the recipient has in fact received such support as an indirect contribution from a donor to the public charity. If the amount received is considered a grant from the public charity, it is fully includible in the numerator of the support fraction under section 509(a)(2)(A). However, if the amount received is considered to be an indirect contribution from one of the public charity's donors which has passed through the public chairty to the recipient organization, such amount will retain its character as a contribution from such donor and, if, for example, the donor is a substantial contributor (as defined in section 507(d)(2)) with respect to the ultimate recipient, such amount shall be excluded from the numerator of the support fraction under section 509(a)(2). If a public charity makes both an indirect contribution from its donor and an additional grant to the ultimate recipient, the indirect contribution shall be treated as made first.

(2) Indirect contributions. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, an indirect contribution is one which is expressly or impliedly ear-marked by the donor as being for, or for the benefit of, a particular recipient (rather than for a particular purpose).

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M, a national foundation for the encouragement of the musical arts, is an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi). A gives M a donation of $5,000 without imposing any restrictions or conditions upon the gift. M subsequently makes a $5,000 grant to X, an organization devoted to giving public performances of chamber music. Since the grant to X is treated as being received from M, it is fully includible in the numerator of X's support fraction for the taxable year of receipt.
Example 2. Assume M is the same organization described in example 1. B gives M a donation of $10,000, but requires that M spend the money for the purpose of supporting organizations devoted to the advancement of contemporary American music. M has complete discretion as to the organizations of the type described to which it will make a grant. M decides to make grants of $5,000 each to Y and Z, both being organizations described in section 501(c)(3) and devoted to furthering contemporary American music. Since the grants to Y and Z are treated as being received from M, Y and Z may each include one of the $5,000 grants in the numerator of its support fraction for purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A). Although the donation to M was conditioned upon the use of the funds for a particular purpose, M was free to select the ultimate recipient.
Example 3. N is a national foundation for the encouragement of art and is an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi). Grants to N are permitted to be earmarked for particular purposes. O, which is an art workshop devoted to training young artists and claiming status under section 509(a)(2), persuades C, a private foundation, to make a grant of $25,000 to N. C is a disqualified person with respect to O. C made the grant to N with the understanding that N would be bound to make a grant to O in the sum of $25,000, in addition to a matching grant of N's funds to O in the sum of $25,000. Only the $25,000 received directly from N is considered a grant from N. The other $25,000 is deemed an indirect contribution from C to O and is to be excluded from the numerator of O's support fraction.

(k) Method of accounting. For purposes of section 509(a)(2), an organization's support will be determined under the method of accounting on the basis of which the organization regularly computes its income in keeping its books under section 446. For example, if a grantor makes a grant to an organization payable over a term of years, such grant will be includible in the support fraction of the grantee organization under the method of accounting on the basis of which it regularly computes its income in keeping its books under section 446.

(l) Gross receipts from section 513(a) (1), (2), or (3) activities. For purposes of section 509(a)(2)(A)(ii), gross receipts from activities described in section 513(a) (1), (2), or (3) will be considered gross receipts from activities which are not unrelated trade or business.

(m) Gross receipts distinguished from gross investment income. (1) For purposes of section 509(a)(2), where the charitable purpose of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) is accomplished through the furnishing of facilities for a rental fee or loans to a particular class of persons, such as aged, sick, or needy persons, the support received from such persons will be considered gross receipts (within the meaning of section 509(d)(2)) from an activity which is not an unrelated trade or business, rather than gross investment income. However, if such organization also furnishes facilities or loans to persons who are not members of such class and such furnishing does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of such organization's exempt purposes (aside from the need of such organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the profits derived), the support received from such furnishing will be considered rents or interest and therefore will be treated as gross investment income within the meaning of section 509(d)(4), unless such income is included in computing the tax imposed by section 511.

(2) The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. X, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), is organized and operated to provide living facilities for needy widows of deceased servicemen. X charges such widows a small rental fee for the use of such facilities. Since X is accomplishing its exempt purpose through the rental of such facilities, the support received from the widows is considered gross receipts within the meaning of section 509(d)(2). However, if X rents part of its facilities to persons having no relationship to X's exempt purpose, the support received from such rental will be considered gross investment income within the meaning of section 509(d)(4), unless such income is included in computing the tax imposed by section 511.

(n) Transition rules. (1) An organization that received an advance ruling, that expires on or after June 9, 2008, that it will be treated as an organization described in section 509(a)(2) will be treated as meeting the requirements of paragraph (d)(1) of this section for the first five taxable years of its existence as a section 501(c)(3) organization unless the IRS issued to the organization a proposed determination prior to September 9, 2008, that the organization is not described in sections 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) and 509(a)(1) or in section 509(a)(2).

(2) Paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall not apply to an organization that received an advance ruling that expired prior to June 9, 2008, and that did not timely file with the IRS the required information to establish that it is an organization described in sections 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) and 509(a)(1) or in section 509(a)(2).

(3) An organization that fails to meet a public support test for its first taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2008, under the regulations in this section may use the prior test set forth in §§1.509(a)-3(a)(2) and 1.509(a)-3(a)(3) or §1.170A-9(e)(2) or §1.170A-9(e)(3) as in effect before September 9, 2008, (as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2008) to determine whether the organization may be publicly supported for its 2008 taxable year based on its satisfaction of a public support test for taxable year 2007, computed over the period 2003 through 2006.

(4) Examples. The application of this paragraph (n) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (i) Organization M was formed in January 2004, and uses a taxable year ending June 30. Organization M received an advance ruling letter that it is recognized as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) effective as of the date of its formation and that it is treated as a publicly supported organization under section 509(a)(2) during the five-year advance ruling period that will end on June 30, 2008. This date is on or after June 9, 2008.

(ii) Under the transition rule, Organization M is a publicly supported organization described in section 509(a)(2) for the taxable years ending June 30, 2004, through June 30, 2008. Organization M does not need to establish within 90 days after June 30, 2008, that it met a public support test under §1.170A-9(e) or §1.509(a)-3, as in effect prior to September 9, 2008, (as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2008) for its advance ruling period.

(iii) Organization M can qualify as a public charity beginning with the taxable year ending June 30, 2009, if Organization M can meet the requirements of §1.170A-9(f)(2) or §1.170A-9(f)(3) or paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section for the taxable years ending June 30, 2005, through June 30, 2009, or for the taxable years ending June 30, 2004, through June 30, 2008. In addition, for its taxable year ending June 30, 2009, Organization M may qualify as a publicly supported organization by availing itself of the transition rule contained in paragraph (n)(iii) of this section, which looks to support received by M in the taxable years ending June 30, 2004, through June 30, 2007.

Example 2. (i) Organization N was formed in January 2000 and uses a December 31 taxable year. Organization N received a final determination that it was recognized as tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3) and as a public charity prior to September 9, 2008.

(ii) For taxable year 2008, Organization N will qualify as publicly supported if it meets the requirements under either §1.170A-9(f)(2) or §1.170A-9(f)(3) or paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section for the five-year period January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2008. Organization N will also qualify as publicly supported for taxable year 2008 if it meets the requirements under either §1.170A-9(e)(2) or §1.170A-9(e)(3) or §§1.509(a)-3(a)(2) and 1.509(a)-3(a)(3) as in effect prior to September 9, 2008, (as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2008) for taxable year 2007, using the four-year period from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.

(o) Effective/applicability date. This section shall generally apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969 except paragraphs (a)(2), (a)(3)(i), (c), (d), (e), (k) and (n) of this section shall apply to tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2008. For tax years beginning after December 31, 1969 and beginning before January 1, 2008, §§1.509(a)-3(a)(2), 1.509(a)-3(a)(3)(i), 1.509(a)-3(c), 1.509(a)-3(d), 1.509(a)-3(e), and 1.509(a)-3(k) as in effect on December 31, 2007 (as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2008) shall apply.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21907, Oct. 17, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7784, 46 FR 37889, July 23, 1981; T.D. 8423, 57 FR 33443, July 29, 1992; T.D. 8991, 67 FR 20437, Apr. 25, 2002; T.D. 9423, 73 FR 52549, Sept. 9, 2008; T.D. 9549, 76 FR 55764, Sept. 8, 2011; T.D. 9549, 76 FR 61946, Oct. 6, 2011]

§1.509(a)-4   Supporting organizations.

(a) In general. (1) Section 509(a)(3) excludes from the definition of private foundation those organizations which meet the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) thereof.

(2) Section 509(a)(3)(A) provides that a section 509(a)(3) organization must be organized, and at all times thereafter operated, exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the purposes of one or more specified organizations described in section 509(a) (1) or (2). Section 509(a)(3)(A) describes the nature of the support or benefit which a section 509(a)(3) organization must provide to one or more section 509(a) (1) or (2) organizations. For purposes of section 509(a)(3)(A), paragraph (b) of this section generally describes the organizational and operational tests; paragraph (c) of this section describes permissible purposes under the organizational test; paragraph (d) of this section describes the requirement of supporting or benefiting one or more specified publicly supported organizations; and paragraph (e) of this section describes permissible beneficiaries and activities under the operational test.

(3) Section 509(a)(3)(B) provides that a section 509(a)(3) organization must be operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with one or more organizations described in section 509(a) (1) or (2). Section 509(a)(3)(B) and paragraph (f) of this section describe the nature of the relationship which must exist between the section 509(a)(3) and section 509(a) (1) or (2) organizations. For purposes of section 509(a)(3)(B), paragraph (g) of this section defines operated, supervised, or controlled by; paragraph (h) of this section defines supervised or controlled in connection with; and paragraph (i) of this section defines operated in connection with.

(4) Section 509(a)(3)(C) provides that a section 509(a)(3) organization must not be controlled directly or indirectly by disqualified persons (other than foundation managers or organizations described in section 509(a) (1) or (2)). Section 509(a)(3)(C) and paragraph (j) of this section prescribe a limitation on the control over the section 509(a)(3) organization.

(5) For purposes of this section, the term supporting organization means either an organization described in section 509(a)(3) or an organization seeking section 509(a)(3) status, depending upon its context. For purposes of this section, the term publicly supported organization means an organization described in section 509(a) (1) or (2).

(6) For purposes of paragraph (i) of this section, the term “supported organization” means a specified publicly supported organization described in paragraphs (d)(2)(iv) or (d)(4) of this section.

(b) Organizational and operational tests. (1) Under subparagraph (A) of section 509(a)(3), in order to qualify as a supporting organization, an organization must be both organized and operated exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the purposes of (hereinafter referred to in this section as being organized and operated to support or benefit) one or more specified publicly supported organizations. If an organization fails to meet either the organizational or the operational test, it cannot qualify as a supporting organization.

(2) In the case of supporting organizations created prior to January 1, 1970, the organizational and operational tests shall apply as of January 1, 1970. Therefore, even though the original articles of organization did not limit its purposes to those required under section 509(a)(3)(A) and even though it operated before January 1, 1970, for some purpose other than those required under section 509(a)(3)(A), an organization will satisfy the organizational and operational tests if, on January 1, 1970, and at all times thereafter, it is so constituted as to comply with these tests. For the special rules pertaining to the application of the organizational and operational tests to organizations terminating their private foundation status under the 12-month or 60-month termination period provided under section 507(b)(1)(B) by becoming public under section 509(a)(3), see the regulations under section 507(b).

(c) Organizational test—(1) In general. An organization is organized exclusively for one or more of the purposes specified in section 509(a)(3)(A) only if its articles of organization (as defined in §1.501(c)(3)-1(b)(2)):

(i) Limit the purposes of such organization to one or more of the purposes set forth in section 509(a)(3)(A);

(ii) Do not expressly empower the organization to engage in activities which are not in furtherance of the purposes referred to in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph;

(iii) State the specified publicly supported organizations on whose behalf such organization is to be operated (within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section); and

(iv) Do not expressly empower the organization to operate to support or benefit any organization other than the specified publicly supported organizations referred to in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph.

(2) Purposes. In meeting the organizational test, the organization's purposes, as stated in its articles, may be as broad as, or more specific than, the purposes set forth in section 509(a)(3)(A). Therefore, an organization which, by the terms of its articles, is formed for the benefit of one or more specified publicly supported organizations shall, if it otherwise meets the other requirements of this paragraph, be considered to have met the organizational test. Similarly, articles which state that an organization is formed to perform the publishing functions of a specified university are sufficient to comply with the organizational test. An organization which is operated, supervised, or controlled by (within the meaning of paragraph (g) of this section) or supervised or controlled in connection with (within the meaning of paragraph (h) of this section) one or more sections 509(a) (1) or (2) organizations to carry out the purposes of such organizations, will be considered as meeting the requirements of this paragraph if the purposes set forth in its articles are similar to, but no broader than, the purposes set forth in the articles of its controlling section 509(a) (1) or (2) organizations. If, however, the organization by which it is operated, supervised, or controlled is a publicly supported section 501(c) (4), (5), or (6) organization (deemed to be a section 509(a)(2) organization for purposes of section 509(a)(3) under the provisions of section 509(a)), the supporting organization will be considered as meeting the requirements of this paragraph if its articles require it to carry on charitable, etc., activities within the meaning of section 170(c)(2).

(3) Limitations. An organization is not organized exclusively for the purposes set forth in section 509(a)(3)(A) if its articles expressly permit it to operate to support or benefit any organization other than those specified publicly supported organizations referred to in subparagraph (1)(iii) of this paragraph. Thus, for example, an organization will not meet the organizational test under section 509(a)(3)(A) if its articles expressly empower it to pay over any part of its income to, or perform any service for, any organization other than those publicly supported organizations specified in its articles (within the meaning of paragraph (d) of this section). The fact that the actual operations of such organization have been exclusively for the benefit of the specified publicly supported organizations shall not be sufficient to permit it to meet the organizational test.

(d) Specified organizations—(1) In general. In order to meet the requirements of section 509(a)(3)(A), an organization must be organized and operated exclusively to support or benefit one or more specified publicly supported organizations. The manner in which the publicly supported organizations must be specified in the articles for purposes of section 509(a)(3)(A) will depend upon whether the supporting organization is operated, supervised, or controlled by or supervised or controlled in connection with (within the meaning of paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section) such organizations or whether it is operated in connection with (within the meaning of paragraph (i) of this section) such organizations.

(2) Nondesignated publicly supported organizations; requirements. (i) Except as provided in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph, in order to meet the requirements of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the articles of the supporting organization must designate each of the specified organizations by name unless:

(a) The supporting organization is operated, supervised, or controlled by (within the meaning of paragraph (g) of this section), or is supervised or controlled in connection with (within the meaning of paragraph (h) of this section) one or more publicly supported organizations; and

(b) The articles of organization of the supporting organization require that it be operated to support or benefit one or more beneficiary organizations which are designated by class or purpose and which include:

(1) The publicly supported organizations referred to in (a) of this subdivision (without designating such organizations by name); or

(2) Publicly supported organizations which are closely related in purpose or function to those publicly supported organizations referred to in subdivision (i)(a) or this subparagraph (without designating such organization by name).

(ii) If a supporting organization is described in subdivision (i)(a) of this subparagraph, it will not be considered as failing to meet the requirements of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph that the publicly supported organizations be specified merely because its articles of organization permit the conditions described in subparagraphs (3) (i), (ii), and (iii) and (4)(i) (a) and (b) of this paragraph.

(iii) This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. X is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) which operates for the benefit of institutions of higher learning in the State of Y. X is controlled by these institutions (within the meaning of paragraph (g) of this section) and such institutions are all section 509(a)(1) organizations. X's articles will meet the organizational test if they require X to operate for the benefit of institutions of higher learning or educational organizations in the State of Y (without naming each institution). X's articles would also meet the organizational test if they provided for the giving of scholarships to enable students to attend institutions of higher learning but only in the State of Y.
Example 2. M is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) which was organized and operated by representatives of N church to run a home for the aged. M is controlled (within the meaning of paragraph (g) of this section) by N church, a section 509(a)(1) organization. The care of the sick and the aged are longstanding temporal functions and purposes of organized religion. By operating a home for the aged, M is operating to support or benefit N church in carrying out one of its temporal purposes. Thus M's articles will meet the organizational test if they require M to care for the aged since M is operating to support one of N church's purposes (without designating N church by name).

(iv) A supporting organization will meet the requirements of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph even though its articles do not designate each of the specified organizations by name if:

(a) There has been an historic and continuing relationship between the supporting organization and the section 509(a) (1) or (2) organizations, and

(b) By reason of such relationship, there has developed a substantial identity of interests between such organizations.

(3) Nondesignated publicly supported organizations; scope of rule. If the requirements of subparagraph (2)(i) (a) of this paragraph are met, a supporting organization will not be considered as failing the test of being organized for the benefit of specified organizations solely because its articles:

(i) Permit the substitution of one publicly supported organization within a designated class for another publicly supported organization either in the same or a different class designated in the articles;

(ii) Permit the supporting organization to operate for the benefit of new or additional publicly supported organizations of the same or a different class designated in the articles; or

(iii) Permit the supporting organization to vary the amount of its support among different publicly supported organizations within the class or classes of organizations designated by the articles

For example, X is an organization which operates for the benefit of private colleges in the State of Y. If X is controlled by these colleges (within the meaning of paragraph (g) of this section) and such colleges are all section 509(a)(1) organizations, X's articles will meet the organization test even if they permit X to operate for the benefit of any new colleges created in State Y in addition to the existing colleges or in lieu of one which has ceased to operate, or if they permit X to vary its support by paying more to one college than to another in a particular year.

(4) Designated publicly supported organizations. (i) If an organization is organized and operated to support one or more publicly supported organizations and it is operated in connection with such organization or organizations, then, except as provided in subparagraph (2)(iv) of this paragraph, its articles of organization must, for purposes of satisfying the organizational test under section 509(a)(3)(A), designate the specified organizations by name. Under the circumstances described in this subparagraph, a supporting organization which has one or more specified organizations designated by name in its articles, will not be considered as failing the test of being organized for the benefit of specified organizations solely because its articles:

(a) Permit a publicly supported organization which is designated by class or purpose, rather than by name, to be substituted for the publicly supported organization or organizations designated by name in the articles, but only if such substitution is conditioned upon the occurrence of an event which is beyond the control of the supporting organization, such as loss of exemption, substantial failure or abandonment of operations, or dissolution of the publicly supported organization or organizations designated in the articles;

(b) Permit the supporting organization to operate for the benefit of a beneficiary organization which is not a publicly supported organization, but only if such supporting organization is currently operating for the benefit of a publicly supported organization and the possibility of its operating for the benefit of other than a publicly supported organization is a remote contingency; or

(c) Permit the supporting organization to vary the amount of its support between different designated organizations, so long as it meets the requirements of the integral part test set forth in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with respect to at least one beneficiary organization.

(ii) If the beneficiary organization referred to in subdivision (i)(b) of this subparagraph is not a publicly supported organization, the supporting organization will not then meet the operational test of paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Therefore, if a supporting organization substituted in accordance with such subdivision (i)(b) a beneficiary other than a publicly supported organization and operated in support of such beneficiary organization, the supporting organization would not be described in section 509(a)(3).

(iii) This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. X is a charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1) organized in 1968. Under the terms of its trust instrument, X's trustees are required to pay over all of X's annual income to M University Medical School for urological research. If M University Medical School is unable or unwilling to devote these funds to urological research, the trustees are required to pay all of such income to N University Medical School. However if N University Medical School is also unable or unwilling to devote these funds to urological research, X's trustees are directed to choose a similar organization willing to apply X's funds for urological research. From 1968 to 1973, X pays all of its net income to M University Medical School pursuant to the terms of the trust. M and N are publicly supported organizations. Although the contingent remainderman may not be a publicly supported organization, the possibility that X may operate for the benefit of other than a publicly supported organization is, in 1973, a remote possibility, and X will be considered as operating for the benefit of a specified publicly supported organization under subdivision (i)(b) of this subparagraph. However, if, at some future date, X actually substituted a nonpublicly supported organization as beneficiary, X would fail the requirements of the operational test set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(e) Operational test—(1) Permissible beneficiaries. A supporting organization will be regarded as operated exclusively to support one or more specified publicly supported organizations (hereinafter referred to as the operational test) only if it engages solely in activities which support or benefit the specified publicly supported organizations. Such activities may include making payments to or for the use of, or providing services or facilities for, individual members of the charitable class benefited by the specified publicly supported organization. A supporting organization may also, for example, make a payment indirectly through another unrelated organization to a member of a charitable class benefited by the specified publicly supported organization, but only if such a payment constitutes a grant to an individual rather than a grant to an organization. In determining whether a grant is indirectly to an individual rather than to an organization the same standard shall be applied as in §53.4945-4(a)(4) of this chapter. Similarly, an organization will be regarded as operated exclusively to support or benefit one or more specified publicly supported organizations even if it supports or benefits an organization, other than a private foundation, which is described in section 501(c)(3) and is operated, supervised, or controlled directly by or in connection with such publicly supported organizations, or which is described in section 511(a)(2)(B). However, an organization will not be regarded as operated exclusively if any part of its activities is in furtherance of a purpose other than supporting or benefiting one or more specified publicly supported organizations.

(2) Permissible activities. A supporting organization is not required to pay over its income to the publicly supported organizations in order to meet the operational test. It may satisfy the test by using its income to carry on an independent activity or program which supports or benefits the specified publicly supported organizations. All such support must, however, be limited to permissible beneficiaries in accordance with subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. The supporting organization may also engage in fund raising activities, such as solicitations, fund raising dinners, and unrelated trade or business to raise funds for the publicly supported organizations, or for the permissible beneficiaries.

(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M is a separately incorporated alumni association of X University and is an organization described in section 501(c)(3). X University is designated in M's articles as the sole beneficiary of its support. M uses all of its dues and income to support its own program of educational activities for alumni, faculty, and students of X University and to encourage alumni to maintain a close relationship with the university and to make contributions to it. M does not distribute any of its income directly to X for the latter's general purposes. M pays no part of its funds to, or for the benefit of, any organization other than X. Under these circumstances, M is considered as operated exclusively to perform the functions and carry out the purpose of X. Although it does not pay over any of its funds to X, it carries on a program which both supports and benefits X.
Example 2. N is a separately incorporated religious and educational organization described in section 501(c)(3). It was formed and is operated by Y Church to provide religious training for the members of the church. While it does not maintain a regular faculty, N conducts a Sunday school, weekly adult education lectures on religious subjects, and other similar activities for the benefit of the church members. All of its funds are disbursed in furtherance of such activities and no part of its funds is paid to, or for the benefit of, any organization other than Y Church. N is considered as operated exclusively to perform the educational functions of Y Church and to carry out its religious purposes by providing various forms of religious instruction.
Example 3. P is an organization described in section 501(c)(3). Its primary activity is providing financial assistance to S, a publicly supported organization which aids underdeveloped nations in Central America. P's articles of organization designate S as the principal recipient of P's assistance. However, P also makes a small annual general purpose grant to T, a private foundation engaged in work similar to that carried on by S. T performs a particular function that assists in the overall aid program carried on by S. Even though P is operating primarily for the benefit of S, a specified publicly supported organization, it is not considered as operated exclusively for the purposes set forth in section 509(a)(3)(A). The grant to T, a private foundation, prevents it from complying with the operational test under section 509(a)(3)(A).
Example 4. Assume the same facts as example 3, except that T is a section 501(c)(3) organization other than a private foundation and is operated in connection with S. Under these circumstances, P will be considered as operated exclusively to support S within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(A).
Example 5. Assume the same facts as example 3 except that instead of the annual general purpose grant made to T, each grant made by P to T is specifically earmarked for the training of social workers and teachers, designated by name, from Central America. Under these circumstances, P's grants to T would be treated as grants to the individual social workers and teachers under section 4945(d)(3) and §53.4945-4(a)(4), rather than as grants to T under section 4945(d)(4). These social workers and teachers are part of the charitable class benefitted by S. P would thus be considered as operating exclusively to support S within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(A).

(f) Nature of relationship required between organizations—(1) In general. Section 509(a)(3)(B) describes the nature of the relationship required between a section 501(c)(3) organization and one or more publicly supported organizations in order for such section 501(c)(3) organization to qualify under the provisions of section 509(a)(3). To meet the requirements of section 509(a)(3), an organization must be operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with one or more publicly supported organizations. If an organization does not stand in one of such relationships (as provided in this paragraph) to one or more publicly supported organizations, it is not an organization described in section 509(a)(3).

(2) Types of relationships. Section 509(a)(3)(B) sets forth three different types of relationships, one of which must be met in order to meet the requirements of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. Thus, a supporting organization may be:

(i) Operated, supervised, or controlled by,

(ii) Supervised or controlled in connection with, or

(iii) Operated in connection with, one or more publicly supported organizations.

(3) Requirements of relationships. Although more than one type of relationship may exist in any one case, any relationship described in section 509(a)(3)(B) must insure that:

(i) The supporting organization will be responsive to the needs of demands of one or more publicly supported organizations; and

(ii) The supporting organization will constitute an integral part of, or maintain a significant involvement in, the operations of one or more publicly supported organizations.

(4) General description of relationships. In the case of supporting organizations which are operated, supervised, or controlled by one or more publicly supported organizations, the distinguishing feature of this type of relationship is the presence of a substantial degree of direction by the publicly supported organizations over the conduct of the supporting organization, as described in paragraph (g) of this section. In the case of supporting organizations which are supervised or controlled in connection with one or more publicly supported organizations, the distinguishing feature is the presence of common supervision or control among the governing bodies of all organizations involved, such as the presence of common directors, as described in paragraph (h) of this section. In the case of a supporting organization which is operated in connection with one or more publicly supported organizations, the distinguishing feature is that the supporting organization is responsive to, and significantly involved in the operations of, the publicly supported organization, as described in paragraph (i) of this section.

(5) Contributions from controlling donors—(i) In general. For any taxable year, a supporting organization shall not be considered to be operated, supervised, or controlled by, or operated in connection with, one or more publicly supported organizations, if the supporting organization accepts any gift or contribution from any person who is—

(A) A person (other than an organization described in section 509(a)(1), (2), or (4)) who directly or indirectly controls, either alone or together with persons described in paragraphs (f)(5)(i)(B) or (f)(5)(i)(C) of this section, the governing body of a specified publicly supported organization supported by such supporting organization;

(B) A member of the family (determined under section 4958(f)(4)) of an individual described in paragraph (f)(5)(i)(A) of this section; or

(C) A 35-percent controlled entity (as defined in section 4958(f)(3) by substituting “clause (i) or (ii) of section 509(f)(2)(B)” for “subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1)” in paragraph (f)(3)(A)(i) thereof).

(ii) Meaning of control. [Reserved]

(g) Meaning of operated, supervised, or controlled by. (1)(i) Each of the items operated by, supervised by, and controlled by, as used in section 509(a)(3)(B), presupposes a substantial degree of direction over the policies, programs, and activities of a supporting organization by one or more publicly supported organizations. The relationship required under any one of these terms is comparable to that of a parent and subsidiary, where the subsidiary is under the direction of, and accountable or responsible to, the parent organization. This relationship is established by the fact that a majority of the officers, directors, or trustees of the supporting organization are appointed or elected by the governing body, members of the governing body, officers acting in their official capacity, or the membership of one or more publicly supported organizations.

(ii) A supporting organization may be operated, supervised, or controlled by one or more publicly supported organizations within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B) even though its governing body is not comprised of representatives of the specified publicly supported organizations for whose benefit it is operated within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(A). A supporting organization may be operated, supervised, or controlled by one or more publicly supported organizations (within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B)) and be operated for the benefit of one or more different publicly supported organizations (within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(A)) only if it can be demonstrated that the purposes of the former organizations are carried out by benefitting the latter organizations.

(2) The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. X is a university press which is organized and operated as a nonstock educational corporation to perform the publishing and printing for M University, a publicly supported organization. Control of X is vested in a Board of Governors appointed by the Board of Trustees of M University upon the recommendation of the president of the university. X is considered to be operated, supervised, or controlled by M University within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B).
Example 2. Y Council was organized under the joint sponsorship of seven independent publicly supported organizations, each of which is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in a particular field of social science. The sponsoring organizations organized Y Council as a means of pooling their ideas and resources for the attainment of common objectives, including the conducting of scholarly studies and formal discussions in various fields of social science. Under Y Council's by-laws, each of the seven sponsoring organizations elects three members to Y's board of trustees for 3-year terms. Y's board also includes the president of Y Council and eight other individuals elected at large by the board. Pursuant to policies established or approved by the board, Y Council engages in research, planning, and evaluation in the social sciences and sponsors or arranges conferences, seminars, and similar programs for scholars and social scientists. It carries out these activities through its own full-time professional staff, through a part-time committee of scholars, and through grant recipients. Under the above circumstances, Y Council is subject to a substantial degree of direction by the sponsoring publicly supported organizations. It is therefore considered to be operated, supervised, or controlled by such sponsoring organizations within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B).
Example 3. Z is a charitable trust created by A in 1972. It has three trustees, all of whom are appointed by M University, a publicly supported organization. The trust was organized and is operated to pay over all of its net income for medical research to N, O, and P, each of which is specified in the trust, is a hospital described in section 509(a)(1), and is located in the same city as M. Members of M's biology department are permitted to use the research facilities of N, O, and P. Under subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph, Z is considered to be operated, supervised, or controlled by M within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B), even though it is operated for the benefit of N, O, and P within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(A).

(h) Meaning of supervised or controlled in connection with. (1) In order for a supporting organization to be supervised or controlled in connection with one or more publicly supported organizations, there must be common supervision or control by the persons supervising or controlling both the supporting organization and the publicly supported organizations to insure that the supporting organization will be responsive to the needs and requirements of the publicly supported organizations. Therefore, in order to meet such requirement, the control or management of the supporting organization must be vested in the same persons that control or manage the publicly supported organizations.

(2) A supporting organization will not be considered to be supervised or controlled in connection with one or more publicly supported organizations if such organization merely makes payments (mandatory or discretionary) to one or more named publicly supported organizations, even if the obligation to make payments to the named beneficiaries is enforceable under State law by such beneficiaries and the supporting organization's governing instrument contains provisions whose effect is described in section 508(e)(1) (A) and (B). Such arrangements do not provide a sufficient connection between the payor organization and the needs and requirements of the publicly supported organizations to constitute supervision or control in connection with such organizations.

(3) The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, a philanthropist, founded X school for orphan boys (a publicly supported organization). At the same time A founded X school, he also established Y trust into which he transferred all of the operating assets of the school, together with a substantial endowment for it. Under the provisions of the trust instrument, the same persons who control and manage the school also control and manage the trust. The sole function of Y trust is to hold legal title to X school's operating and endowment assets, to invest the endowment assets and to apply the income from the endowment to the benefit of the school in accordance with direction from the school's governing body. Under these circumstances, Y trust is organized and operated for the benefit of X school and is supervised or controlled in connection with such organization within the meaning of section 509(a)(3). The fact that the same persons control both X and Y insures Y's responsiveness to X's needs.
Example 2. In 1972, B, a philanthropist, created P, a charitable trust for the benefit of Z, a symphony orchestra described in section 509(a)(2). B transferred 100 shares of common stock to P. Under the terms of the trust instrument, the trustees (none of whom is under the control of B) were required to pay over all of the income produced by the trust assets to Z. The governing instrument of P contains certain provisions whose effect is described in section 508(e)(1) (A) and (B). Under applicable State law, Z can enforce the provisions of the trust instrument and compel payment to Z in a court of equity. There is no relationship between the trustees of P and the governing body of Z. Under these circumstances P is not supervised or controlled in connection with a publicly supported organization. Because of the lack of any common supervision or control by the trustees of P and the governing body of Z, P is not supervised or controlled in connection with Z within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B).
Example 3. T is a charitable trust described in section 501(c)(3) and created under the will of D. Prior to his death, D was a leader and very active in C church, a publicly supported organization. D created T to perpetuate his interest in, and assistance to, C. The sole purpose of T was to provide financial support for C and its related institutions. All of the original named trustees of T are members of C, are leaders in C, and hold important offices in one or more of C's related institutions. Successor trustees of T are by the terms of the charitable trust instrument to be chosen by the remaining trustees and are also to be members of C. All of the original trustees have represented that any successor trustee will be a leader in C and will hold an important office in one or more of C's related institutions. By reason of the foregoing relationship T and its trustees are responsive to the needs and requirements of C and its related institutions. Under these circumstances, T trust is organized and operated for the benefit of C and is supervised or controlled in connection with C and its related institutions within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(B).

(i) Meaning of operated in connection with—(1) General rule. For each taxable year, a supporting organization is operated in connection with one or more supported organizations (that is, is a “Type III supporting organization”) only if it is not disqualified by reason of paragraph (f)(5) (relating to acceptance of contributions from controlling donors) or paragraph (i)(10) (relating to foreign supported organizations) of this section, and it satisfies—

(i) The notification requirement, which is set forth in paragraph (i)(2) of this section;

(ii) The responsiveness test, which is set forth in paragraph (i)(3) of this section; and

(iii) The integral part test, which is satisfied by maintaining significant involvement in the operations of one or more supported organizations and providing support on which the supported organization(s) are dependent; in order to satisfy this test, the supporting organization must meet the requirements either for—

(A) Functionally integrated Type III supporting organizations set forth in paragraph (i)(4) of this section; or

(B) Non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organizations set forth in paragraph (i)(5) of this section.

(2) Notification requirement—(i) Annual notification. For each taxable year, a Type III supporting organization must provide the following documents to each of its supported organizations:

(A) A written notice addressed to a principal officer of the supported organization describing the type and amount of all of the support the supporting organization provided to the supported organization during the supporting organization's taxable year immediately preceding the taxable year in which the written notice is provided (and during any other taxable year of the supporting organization ending after December 28, 2012, for which such support information has not previously been provided);

(B) A copy of the supporting organization's Form 990, “Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax,” or other annual information return required to be filed under section 6033 (although the supporting organization may redact from the return the name and address of any contributor to the organization) that was most recently filed as of the date the notification is provided (and any such return for any other taxable year of the supporting organization ending after December 28, 2012, that has not previously been provided to the supported organization); and

(C) A copy of the supporting organization's governing documents as in effect on the date the notification is provided, including its articles of organization and bylaws (if any) and any amendments to such documents, unless such documents have been previously provided and not subsequently amended.

(ii) Electronic media. The notification documents required by this paragraph (i)(2) may be provided by electronic media.

(iii) Due date. The notification documents required by this paragraph (i)(2) for any taxable year shall be postmarked or electronically transmitted by the last day of the fifth calendar month following the close of that taxable year.

(iv) Principal officer. For purposes of paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, a principal officer includes, but is not limited to, a person who, regardless of title, has ultimate responsibility for—

(A) Implementing the decisions of the governing body of a supported organization;

(B) Supervising the management, administration, or operation of the supported organization; or

(C) Managing the finances of the supported organization.

(3) Responsiveness test—(i) General rule. A supporting organization meets the responsiveness test if it is responsive to the needs or demands of a supported organization. Except as provided in paragraph (i)(3)(v) of this section, in order to meet this test, a supporting organization must satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (i)(3)(ii) and (i)(3)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Relationship of officers, directors, or trustees. A supporting organization satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (i)(3)(ii) with respect to a supported organization only if—

(A) One or more officers, directors, or trustees of the supporting organization are elected or appointed by the officers, directors, trustees, or membership of the supported organization;

(B) One or more members of the governing body of the supported organization are also officers, directors, or trustees of, or hold other important offices in, the supporting organization; or

(C) The officers, directors, or trustees of the supporting organization maintain a close and continuous working relationship with the officers, directors, or trustees of the supported organization.

(iii) Significant voice. A supporting organization satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (i)(3)(iii) only if, by reason of paragraphs (i)(3)(ii)(A), (i)(3)(ii)(B), or (i)(3)(ii)(C) of this section, the officers, directors, or trustees of the supported organization have a significant voice in the investment policies of the supporting organization, the timing of grants, the manner of making grants, and the selection of grant recipients by such supporting organization, and in otherwise directing the use of the income or assets of the supporting organization.

(iv) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (i)(3) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. X, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), is a trust created under the last will and testament of Decedent. The trustee of X (Trustee) is a bank. Under the trust instrument, X supports M, a private university described in section 509(a)(1). The trust instrument provides that Trustee has discretion regarding the timing and amount of distributions consistent with the Trustee's fiduciary duties. Representatives of Trustee and an officer of M have quarterly face-to-face or telephonic meetings during which they discuss M's projected needs and ways in which M would like X to use its income and invest its assets. Additionally, Trustee communicates regularly with that officer of M regarding X's investments and plans for distributions from X. Trustee provides the officer of M with quarterly investment statements, the information required under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, and an annual accounting statement. Based on these facts, X meets the responsiveness test of this paragraph (i)(3) with respect to M.
Example 2. Y is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and is a trust under State law. The trustee of Y (Trustee) is a bank. Y supports charities P, Q, and R, each an organization described in section 509(a)(1). Y makes annual cash payments to P, Q, and R. Once a year, Trustee sends to P, Q, and R the cash payment, the information required under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, and an accounting statement. Trustee has no other communication with P, Q, or R. Y does not meet the responsiveness test of this paragraph (i)(3).

(v) Exception for pre-November 20, 1970 organizations. In the case of a supporting organization that was supporting or benefiting a supported organization before November 20, 1970, additional facts and circumstances, such as a historic and continuing relationship between the organizations, may be taken into account, in addition to the factors described in paragraphs (i)(3)(ii) and (i)(3)(iii) of this section, to establish compliance with the responsiveness test.

(4) Integral part test—functionally integrated Type III supporting organization—(i) General rule. A supporting organization meets the integral part test and will be considered functionally integrated within the meaning of section 4943(f)(5)(B), if it—

(A) Engages in activities substantially all of which directly further the exempt purposes of one or more supported organizations and otherwise meets the requirements described in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section;

(B) Is the parent of each of its supported organizations, as described in paragraph (i)(4)(iii) of this section; or

(C) Supports a governmental supported organization and otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph (i)(4)(iv) of this section.

(ii) Substantially all activities directly further exempt purposes—(A) In general. A supporting organization meets the requirements of this paragraph (i)(4)(ii) if it engages in activities substantially all of which—

(1) Directly further the exempt purposes of one or more supported organizations to which the supporting organization is responsive by performing the functions of, or carrying out the purposes of, such supported organization(s); and

(2) But for the involvement of the supporting organization, would normally be engaged in by such supported organization(s).

(B) Meaning of substantially all. For purposes of paragraph (i)(4)(ii)(A) of this section, in determining whether substantially all of a supporting organization's activities directly further the exempt purposes of one or more supported organization(s) to which the supporting organization is responsive, all pertinent facts and circumstances will be taken into consideration.

(C) Meaning of directly further. Activities “directly further” the exempt purposes of one or more supported organizations for purposes of this paragraph (i)(4) only if they are conducted by the supporting organization itself, rather than by a supported organization. Holding title to and managing exempt-use assets described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(8)(ii) are activities that directly further the exempt purposes of the supported organization within the meaning of this paragraph (i)(4). Conversely, except as provided in paragraph (i)(4)(ii)(D) of this section, fundraising, making grants (whether to the supported organization or to third parties), and investing and managing non-exempt-use assets are not activities that directly further the exempt purposes of the supported organization within the meaning of this paragraph (i)(4).

(D) Payments to individual beneficiaries. The making or awarding of grants, scholarships, or other payments to individual beneficiaries who are members of the charitable class benefited by a supported organization will be treated as an activity that directly furthers the exempt purposes of that supported organization for purposes of this paragraph (i)(4) only if—

(1) The individual beneficiaries are selected on an objective and nondiscriminatory basis (as described in §53.4945-4(b));

(2) The officers, directors, or trustees of the supported organization have a significant voice in the timing of the payments, the manner of making them, and the selection of recipients; and

(3) The making or awarding of such payments is part of an active program of the supporting organization that directly furthers the exempt purposes of the supported organization and in which the supporting organization maintains significant involvement, as defined in §53.4942(b)-1(b)(2)(ii) (except that “supporting organization” shall be substituted for “foundation”).

(iii) Parent of supported organization(s). For purposes of paragraph (i)(4)(i)(B) of this section, a supporting organization is the parent of a supported organization if the supporting organization exercises a substantial degree of direction over the policies, programs, and activities of the supported organization and a majority of the officers, directors, or trustees of the supported organization is appointed or elected, directly or indirectly, by the governing body, members of the governing body, or officers (acting in their official capacity) of the supporting organization.

(iv) Supporting a governmental entity. [Reserved]

(v) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (i)(4) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. N, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), is the parent organization of a healthcare system consisting of two hospitals (Q and R) and an outpatient clinic (S), each of which is described in section 509(a)(1), and a taxable subsidiary (T). N is the sole member of each of Q, R, and S. Under the charter and bylaws of each of Q, R, and S, N appoints all members of the board of directors of each corporation. N engages in the overall coordination and supervision of the healthcare system's exempt subsidiary corporations Q, R, and S in approval of their budgets, strategic planning, marketing, resource allocation, securing tax-exempt bond financing, and community education. N also manages and invests assets that serve as endowments of Q, R, and S. Based on these facts, N qualifies as a functionally integrated Type III supporting organization under paragraph (i)(4)(i)(B) of this section.
Example 2. V, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), is organized and operated as a supporting organization to L, a church described in section 509(a)(1). V meets the responsiveness test described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with respect to L. L transferred to V title to the buildings in which L conducts religious services, Bible study, and community enrichment programs. Substantially all of V's activities consist of holding and maintaining these buildings, which L continues to use, free of charge, to further its exempt purposes. But for the activities of V, L would hold and maintain the buildings. Based on these facts, V satisfies the requirements of paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section.
Example 3. O is a local nonprofit food pantry described in section 501(c)(3). O collects donated food from local growers, grocery stores, and individuals and distributes this food free of charge to poor and needy people in O's community. O is organized and operated as a supporting organization to eight churches of a particular denomination located in O's community, each of which is described in section 509(a)(1). Control of O is vested in a five-member Board of Directors, which includes an official from one of the churches as well as four lay members of the churches' congregations. The officers of O maintain a close and continuing working relationship with each of the eight churches and as a result of such relationship, each of the eight churches has a significant voice in directing the use of the income and assets of O. As a result, O is responsive to its supported organizations. All of O's activities directly further the exempt purposes of the eight supported organizations to which it is responsive. Additionally, but for the activities of O, the churches would normally operate food pantries themselves. Based on these facts, O satisfies the requirements of paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section.
Example 4. M, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), was created by B, an individual, to provide scholarships for students of U, a private secondary school and an organization described in section 509(a)(1). U establishes the scholarship criteria, publicizes the scholarship program, solicits and reviews applications, and selects the scholarship recipients. M invests its assets and disburses the funds for scholarships to the recipients selected by U. M does not provide the scholarships as part of an active program in which it maintains significant involvement, as defined in §53.4942(b)-1(b)(2)(ii). Based on these facts, M does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section.
Example 5. J, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), is organized as a supporting organization to community foundation G, an organization described in section 509(a)(1). J meets the responsiveness test described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with respect to G. In addition to maintaining field-of-interest funds, sponsoring donor advised funds, and conducting general grantmaking activities, G also engages in activities to beautify and maintain local parks. Substantially all of J's activities consist of maintaining all of the local parks in the area of community foundation G by performing activities such as establishing and maintaining trails, planting trees, and removing trash. But for the activities of J, G would normally engage in these efforts to beautify and maintain the local parks. Based on these facts, J satisfies the requirements of paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section.

(5) Integral part test—non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization—(i) General rule. A supporting organization meets the integral part test and will be considered non-functionally integrated if it satisfies either—

(A) The distribution requirement of paragraph (i)(5)(ii) of this section and the attentiveness requirement of paragraph (i)(5)(iii) of this section; or

(B) The pre-November 20, 1970 trust requirements of paragraph (i)(9) of this section.

(ii) Distribution requirement—(A) Annual distribution. With respect to each taxable year, a supporting organization must distribute to or for the use of one or more supported organizations an amount equaling or exceeding the supporting organization's distributable amount for the taxable year, as defined in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B), on or before the last day of the taxable year.

(B) Distributable amount. [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B).

(C) Minimum asset amount. [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(C).

(D) First taxable year. The distributable amount for the first taxable year an organization is treated as a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization is zero. Notwithstanding the foregoing, for purposes of determining whether an excess amount is created under paragraph (i)(7)(ii) of this section, the distributable amount for the first taxable year an organization is treated as a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization is the distributable amount that would apply under §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B) in the absence of this paragraph (i)(5)(ii)(D).

(E) Emergency temporary reduction. The Secretary may provide by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) for a temporary reduction in the distributable amount in the case of a disaster or emergency.

(F) Reasonable cause exception. A non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization that fails to meet the distribution requirement of this paragraph (i)(5)(ii) will not be classified as a private foundation for the taxable year in which it fails to meet the distribution requirement if the organization establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(1) The failure was due solely to unforeseen events or circumstances that are beyond the organization's control, a clerical error, or an incorrect valuation of assets;

(2) The failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; and

(3) The distribution requirement is met within 180 days after the organization is first able to distribute its distributable amount notwithstanding the unforeseen events or circumstances, or 180 days after the date the incorrect valuation or clerical error was or should have been discovered; however, no amounts paid to meet a distribution requirement for a prior taxable year under this paragraph (i)(5)(ii)(F)(3) may be counted toward the distribution requirement for the taxable year in which such amounts are paid.

(iii) Attentiveness requirement—(A) General rule. With respect to each taxable year, a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization must distribute one-third or more of its distributable amount to one or more supported organizations that are attentive to the operations of the supporting organization (within the meaning of paragraph (i)(5)(iii)(B) of this section) and to which the supporting organization is responsive (within the meaning of paragraph (i)(3) of this section).

(B) Attentiveness. A supported organization is attentive to the operations of the supporting organization during a taxable year if, in the taxable year, at least one of the following requirements is satisfied:

(1) The supporting organization distributes to the supported organization amounts equaling or exceeding 10 percent of the supported organization's total support (or, in the case of a particular department or school of a university, hospital, or church, the total support of the department or school) received during the supported organization's last taxable year ending before the beginning of the supporting organization's taxable year.

(2) The amount of support received from the supporting organization is necessary to avoid the interruption of the carrying on of a particular function or activity of the supported organization. The support is necessary if the supporting organization or the supported organization earmarks the support for a particular program or activity of the supported organization, even if such program or activity is not the supported organization's primary program or activity, as long as such program or activity is a substantial one.

(3) Based on the consideration of all pertinent factors, including the number of supported organizations, the length and nature of the relationship between the supported organization and supporting organization, and the purpose to which the funds are put, the amount of support received from the supporting organization is a sufficient part of a supported organization's total support (or, in the case of a particular department or school of a university, hospital, or church, the total support of the department or school) to ensure attentiveness. Normally the attentiveness of a supported organization is influenced by the amounts received from the supporting organization. Thus, the more substantial the amount involved in terms of a percentage of the supported organization's total support, the greater the likelihood that the required degree of attentiveness will be present. However, in determining whether the amount received from the supporting organization is sufficient to ensure the attentiveness of the supported organization to the operations of the supporting organization (including attentiveness to the nature and yield of the supporting organization's investments), evidence of actual attentiveness by the supported organization is of almost equal importance. A supported organization is not considered to be attentive solely because it has enforceable rights against the supporting organization under state law.

(C) Distribution to donor advised fund disregarded. Notwithstanding paragraph (i)(5)(iii)(B) of this section, in determining whether a supported organization will be considered attentive to the operations of a supporting organization, any amount received from the supporting organization that is held by the supported organization in a donor advised fund described in section 4966(d)(2) will be disregarded.

(D) Examples. This paragraph (i)(5)(iii) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. K, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), annually pays an aggregate amount equaling or exceeding its distributable amount described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B) to L, a museum described in section 509(a)(2). K meets the responsiveness test described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with respect to L. In recent years, L has earmarked the income received from K to underwrite the cost of carrying on a chamber music series consisting of 12 performances a year that are performed for the general public free of charge at its premises. The chamber music series is not L's primary activity but it is a substantial activity. L could not continue the performances without K's support. Based on these facts, K meets the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(iii)(B)(2) of this section.
Example 2. M, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), annually pays an aggregate amount equaling or exceeding its distributable amount described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B) to the Law School of N University, an organization described in section 509(a)(1). M meets the responsiveness test described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section with respect to N. M has earmarked the income paid over to N's Law School to endow a chair in International Law. Without M's continued support, N could not continue to maintain this chair. The chair is not N's primary activity but it is a substantial activity. Based on these facts, M meets the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(iii)(B)(2) of this section.
Example 3. R is a charitable trust created under the will of B, who died in 1969. R's purpose is to hold assets as an endowment for S (a hospital), T (a university), and U (a national medical research organization), all organizations described in section 509(a)(1) and specifically named in the trust instrument, and to distribute all of the income each year in equal shares among the three named beneficiaries. Each year, R pays to S, T, and U an aggregate amount equaling or exceeding its distributable amount described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B). Such payments equal less than one percent of the total support that each supported organization received in its most recently completed taxable year. Based on these facts, R does not meet the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. However, because B died prior to November 20, 1970, R could meet the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(i)(B) of this section upon meeting all of the requirements of paragraph (i)(9) of this section.
Example 4. O is an organization described in section 501(c)(3). O is organized to support five private universities, V, W, X, Y, and Z, each of which is described in section 509(a)(1). O meets the responsiveness test under paragraph (i)(3) of this section only as to V. Each year, O distributes an aggregate amount that equals its distributable amount described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B) and distributes an equal amount to each of the five universities. Accordingly, O distributes only one-fifth of its distributable amount to a supported organization to which O is also responsive (V). Because O does not distribute at least one-third of its distributable amount to supported organizations that are both attentive to the operations of O and to which the O is responsive, O does not meet the attentiveness requirements of this paragraph (i)(5)(iii).

(6) Distributions that count toward distribution requirement. For purposes of this paragraph (i)(6), the amount of a distribution made to a supported organization is the amount of cash distributed or the fair-market value of the property distributed as of the date the distribution is made. The amount of a distribution will be determined solely on the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting described in section 446(c)(1). Distributions by the supporting organization that count toward the distribution requirement imposed in paragraph (i)(5)(ii) of this section shall include, but not be limited to—

(i) Any amount paid to a supported organization to accomplish the supported organization's exempt purposes;

(ii) Any amount paid by the supporting organization to perform an activity that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of this section, but only to the extent such amount exceeds any income derived by the supporting organization from the activity;

(iii) Any reasonable and necessary administrative expenses paid to accomplish the exempt purposes of the supported organization(s), which do not include expenses incurred in the production of investment income;

(iv) Any amount paid to acquire an exempt-use asset described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(8)(ii); and

(v) Any amount set aside for a specific project that accomplishes the exempt purposes of a supported organization to which the supporting organization is responsive, with such set aside counting toward the distribution requirement for the taxable year in which the amount is set aside but not in the year in which it is actually paid, if at the time of the set-aside, the supporting organization—

(A) Obtains a written statement from each supported organization whose exempt purposes the specific project accomplishes, signed under penalty of perjury by one of the supported organization's principal officers, as defined in paragraph (i)(2)(iv) of this section, stating that the supported organization approves the project as one that accomplishes one or more of the supported organization's exempt purposes and also approves the supporting organization's determination that the project is one that can be better accomplished by such a set-aside than by the immediate payment of funds;

(B) Establishes to the satisfaction of the Commissioner, by meeting the approval and information requirements described in §53.4942(a)-3(b)(7)(i) of this chapter and by providing the written statement described in paragraph (i)(6)(v)(A) of this section, that the amount set aside will be paid for the specific project within 60 months after it is set aside and that the project is one that can better be accomplished by the set-aside than by the immediate payment of funds; and

(C) Evidences the set-aside by the entry of a dollar amount on the books and records of the supporting organization as a pledge or obligation to be paid at a future date or dates within 60 months of the set aside.

(7) Carryover of excess amounts—(i) In general. If with respect to any taxable year, an excess amount, as defined in paragraph (i)(7)(ii) of this section, is created, such excess amount may be used to reduce the distributable amount in any of the five taxable years immediately following the taxable year in which the excess amount is created. An excess amount created in a taxable year can only be carried over for five taxable years.

(ii) Excess amount. An excess amount is created for any taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, if the total distributions made in that taxable year that count toward the distribution requirement exceed the supporting organization's distributable amount for the taxable year, as determined under §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B). With respect to any taxable year to which an excess amount is carried over, in determining whether an excess amount is created in that taxable year, the distributable amount is first reduced by any excess amounts carried over (with the oldest excess amounts applied first) and then by any distributions made in that taxable year.

(8) Valuation of non-exempt-use assets. [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.509(a)-4T(i)(8).

(9) Alternate integral part test for certain trusts. A trust (whether or not exempt from taxation under section 501(a)) that on November 20, 1970, met and continues to meet the requirements of paragraphs (i)(9)(i) through (i)(9)(v) of this section, shall be treated as meeting the requirements of paragraph (i)(5) of this section if for taxable years beginning after October 16, 1972, the trustee of such trust makes annual written reports to all of the trust's supported organizations, setting forth a description of the trust's assets, including a detailed list of the assets and the income produced by such assets. A trust that meets the requirements of this paragraph (i)(9) may request a ruling that it is described in section 509(a)(3) in such manner as the Commissioner may prescribe. The requirements of this paragraph (i)(9) are as follows:

(i) All the unexpired interests in the trust are devoted to one or more purposes described in section 170(c)(1) or (c)(2)(B) and a deduction was allowed with respect to such interests under sections 170, 545(b)(2), 556(b)(2), 642(c), 2055, 2106(a)(2), 2522, or corresponding provisions of prior law (or would have been allowed such a deduction if the trust had not been created before 1913).

(ii) The trust was created prior to November 20, 1970, and did not receive any grant, contribution, bequest or other transfer on or after such date. For purposes of this paragraph (i)(9)(ii), a split-interest trust described in section 4947(a)(2) that was created prior to November 20, 1970, was irrevocable on such date, and that becomes a charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1) after such date shall be treated as having been created prior to such date.

(iii) The trust is required by its governing instrument to distribute all of its net income currently to a designated beneficiary supported organization. If more than one beneficiary supported organization is designated in the governing instrument of a trust, all of the net income must be distributable and must be distributed currently to each of such supported organizations in fixed shares pursuant to such governing instrument. For purposes of this paragraph (i)(9)(iii), the governing instrument of a charitable trust shall be treated as requiring distribution to a designated supported organization when the trust instrument describes the charitable purpose of the trust so completely that such description can apply to only one existing supported organization and is of sufficient particularity as to vest in such organization rights against the trust enforceable in a court possessing equitable powers.

(iv) The trustee of the trust does not have discretion to vary either the beneficiary supported organizations or the amounts payable to the supported organizations. For purposes of this paragraph (i)(9)(iv), a trustee shall not be treated as having such discretion if the trustee has discretion to make payments of principal to the single supported organization that is currently entitled to receive all of the trust's income or if the trust instrument provides that the trustee may cease making income payments to a particular supported organization in the event of certain specific occurrences, such as the loss of exemption under section 501(c)(3) or classification under section 509(a)(1) or (a)(2) by the supported organization or the failure of the supported organization to carry out its charitable purpose properly.

(v) None of the trustees would be disqualified persons within the meaning of section 4946(a) (other than foundation managers under section 4946(a)(1)(B)) with respect to the trust if such trust were treated as a private foundation.

(10) Foreign supported organizations. A supporting organization is not operated in connection with one or more supported organizations if it supports any supported organization organized outside of the United States.

(11) Transition rules—(i) Notification requirement. A Type III supporting organization will be treated as having satisfied the notification requirement described in paragraph (i)(2) of this section for its taxable year that includes December 28, 2012, if the required notification is postmarked or electronically transmitted by the later of the last day of the fifth calendar month following the close of that taxable year or the due date (including extensions) of the supporting organization's annual information return described in section 6033 for that taxable year.

(ii) Integral part test—(A) Qualification as a functionally integrated Type III supporting organization. A Type III supporting organization in existence on December 28, 2012, that met and continues to meet the requirements of Treas. Reg. §1.509(a)-4(i)(3)(ii), as in effect prior to December 28, 2012, will be treated as meeting the requirements of paragraph (i)(4) of this section until the first day of the organization's second taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012.

(B) Qualification as a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization. A Type III supporting organization in existence on December 28, 2012, that met and continues to meet the requirements of Treas. Reg. §1.509(a)-4(i)(3)(iii), as in effect prior to December 28, 2012, will be treated as meeting the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(i)(A) of this section until the first day of its second taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in determining whether an excess amount is created under paragraph (i)(7)(ii) of this section in the first taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, the distributable amount for that taxable year of a Type III supporting organization treated as meeting the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(i)(A) of this section under this paragraph (i)(11)(ii)(B) is the amount described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B).

(C) Transitioning to a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization in the first taxable year after effective date. A Type III supporting organization in existence on December 28, 2012, that meets the requirements of Treas. Reg. §1.509(a)-4(i)(3)(ii), as in effect prior to December 28, 2012, in its taxable year including December 28, 2012, but not in its first taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, is a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization and will be treated as having a distributable amount of zero for purposes of meeting the requirements of paragraph (i)(5)(i)(A) of this section during the organization's first taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in determining whether an excess amount is created under paragraph (i)(7)(ii) of this section in the first taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, the distributable amount for that taxable year of a Type III supporting organization described in this paragraph (i)(11)(ii)(C) is the amount described in §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B), determined without regard to paragraph (i)(5)(ii)(D) of this section.

(D) Second taxable year after effective date. Beginning in the second taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, and in all succeeding taxable years, all Type III supporting organizations described in this paragraph (i)(11)(ii) must meet either the requirements of paragraph (i)(4) or (i)(5) of this section. If a Type III supporting organization described in paragraph (i)(11)(ii)(A) of this section does not meet the requirements of paragraph (i)(4) of this section during its second taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, its distributable amount for that second taxable year will be determined under §1.509(a)-4T(i)(5)(ii)(B), without regard to paragraph (i)(5)(ii)(D) of this section. Any Type III supporting organization intending to meet the requirements of paragraph (i)(5) of this section in its second taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012, must value its assets in accordance with §1.509(a)-4T(i)(8) beginning in its first taxable year beginning after December 28, 2012.

(E) Judicial proceedings to reform instruments. During any taxable years in which there is pending a judicial proceeding that meets the requirements of this paragraph (i)(11)(ii)(E), a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization organized before September 24, 2009, will not have to comply with the distribution requirement under paragraph (i)(5)(ii) of this section to the extent such compliance would be inconsistent with mandatory provisions of a governing instrument or other instrument executed before September 24, 2009, that prohibits distributing capital or corpus. Beginning with the first taxable year following the taxable year in which such judicial proceeding is terminated, such a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization must satisfy the distribution requirement under paragraph (i)(5)(ii) of this section, regardless of the outcome of the judicial proceeding. Thus, if, during a taxable year after such a judicial proceeding, an organization fails to comply with paragraph (i)(5)(ii) of this section, the organization will not qualify as a non-functionally integrated Type III supporting organization, regardless of whether such failure to comply was a result of the organization operating in accordance with its governing instrument or other instrument. To meet the requirements of this paragraph (i)(11)(ii)(E), a judicial proceeding must be—

(1) Necessary to reform, or to excuse the supporting organization from compliance with, a governing instrument or other instrument (as in effect on September 24, 2009, and all times thereafter) in order to permit the organization to satisfy paragraph (i)(5)(ii) of this section;

(2) Commenced before June 26, 2013; and

(3) Not subject to any unreasonable delay for which the supporting organization is responsible.

(j) Control by disqualified persons—(1) In general. Under the provisions of section 509(a)(3)(C) a supporting organization may not be controlled directly or indirectly by one or more disqualified persons (as defined in section 4946) other than foundation managers and other than one or more publicly supported organizations. If a person who is a disqualified person with respect to a supporting organization, such as a substantial contributor to the supporting organization, is appointed or designated as a foundation manager of the supporting organization by a publicly supported beneficiary organization to serve as the representative of such publicly supported organization, then for purposes of this paragraph such person will be regarded as a disqualified person, rather than as a representative of the publicly supported organization. An organization will be considered controlled, for purposes of section 509(a)(3)(C), if the disqualified persons, by aggregating their votes or positions of authority, may require such organization to perform any act which significantly affects its operation or may prevent such organization from performing such act. This includes, but is not limited to, the right of any substantial contributor or his spouse to designate annually the recipients, from among the publicly supported organizations of the income attributable to his contribution to the supporting organization. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, a supporting organization will be considered to be controlled directly or indirectly by one or more disqualified persons if the voting power of such persons is 50 percent or more of the total voting power of the organization's governing body or if one or more of such persons have the right to exercise veto power over the actions of the organization. Thus, if the governing body of a foundation is composed of five trustees, none of whom has a veto power over the actions of the foundation, and no more than two trustees are at any time disqualified persons, such foundation will not be considered to be controlled directly or indirectly by one or more disqualified persons by reason of this fact alone. However, all pertinent facts and circumstances including the nature, diversity, and income yield of an organization's holdings, the length of time particular stocks, securities, or other assets are retained, and its manner of exercising its voting rights with respect to stocks in which members of its governing body also have some interest, will be taken into consideration in determining whether a disqualified person does in fact indirectly control an organization.

(2) Proof of independent control. Notwithstanding subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, an organization shall be permitted to establish to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that disqualified persons do not directly or indirectly control it. For example, in the case of a religious organization operated in connection with a church, the fact that the majority of the organization's governing body is composed of lay persons who are substantial contributors to the organization will not disqualify the organization under section 509(a)(3)(C) if a representative of the church, such as a bishop or other official, has control over the policies and decisions of the organization.

(k) Organizations operated in conjunction with certain section 501(c) (4), (5), or (6) organizations. (1) For purposes of section 509(a)(3), an organization which is operated in conjunction with an organization described in section 501(c) (4), (5), or (6) (such as a social welfare organization, labor or agricultural organization, business league, or real estate board) shall, if it otherwise meets the requirements of section 509(a)(3), be considered an organization described in section 509(a)(3) if such section 501(c) (4), (5), or (6) organization would be described in section 509(a)(2) if it were an organization described in section 501(c)(3). The section 501(c) (4), (5), or (6) organization, which the supporting organization is operating in conjunction with, must therefore meet the one-third tests of a publicly supported organization set forth in section 509(a)(2).

(2) This paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. X medical association, described in section 501(c)(6), is supported by membership dues and funds resulting from the performance of its exempt activities. This support, which is entirely from permitted sources, constitutes more than one-third of X's support. X does not normally receive more than one-third of its support from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B). X organized and operated an endowment fund for the sole purpose of furthering medical education. The fund is an organization described in section 501(c)(3). Since more than one-third of X's support is derived from membership dues and from funds resulting from the performance of exempt purposes (all of which are from permitted sources) and not more than one-third of its support is from items described in section 509(a)(2)(B), it would be a publicly supported organization described in section 509(a)(2) if it were described in section 501(c)(3) rather than section 501(c)(6). Accordingly, if the fund otherwise meets the requirements of section 509(a)(3) with respect to X, it will be considered an organization described in section 509(a)(3).

(l) Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (a)(6), (f)(5), and (i) of this section are effective on December 28, 2012.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21916, Oct. 17, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7784, 46 FR 37890, July 23, 1981; 77 FR 76394, Dec. 28, 2012]

§1.509(a)-4T   Supporting organizations (temporary).

(a) through (i)(5)(ii)(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.509(a)-4(a) through (i)(5)(ii)(A).

(B) Distributable amount. Except as provided in §§1.509(a)-4(i)(5)(ii)(D) and 1.509(a)-4(i)(5)(ii)(E), the distributable amount for a taxable year is an amount equal to the greater of 85 percent of the supporting organization's adjusted net income (as determined by applying the principles of section 4942(f) and §53.4942(a)-2(d) of this chapter) for the taxable year immediately preceding the taxable year of the required distribution (“immediately preceding taxable year”) or its minimum asset amount (as defined in paragraph (i)(5)(ii)(C) of this section) for the immediately preceding taxable year, reduced by the amount of taxes imposed on the supporting organization under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code during the immediately preceding taxable year.

(C) Minimum asset amount. For purposes of this paragraph (i)(5), a supporting organization's minimum asset amount for the immediately preceding taxable year is 3.5 percent of the excess of the aggregate fair market value of all of the supporting organization's non-exempt-use assets (determined under paragraph (i)(8) of this section) in that immediately preceding taxable year over the acquisition indebtedness with respect to such non-exempt-use assets (determined under section 514(c)(1) without regard to the taxable year in which the indebtedness was incurred), increased by—

(1) Amounts received or accrued during the immediately preceding taxable year as repayments of amounts which were taken into account by the organization to meet the distribution requirement imposed in §1.509(a)-4(i)(5)(ii)(A) for any taxable year;

(2) Amounts received or accrued during the immediately preceding taxable year from the sale or other disposition of property to the extent that the acquisition of such property was taken into account by the organization to meet the distribution requirement imposed in §1.509(a)-4(i)(5)(ii)(A) for any taxable year; and

(3) Any amount set aside under §1.509(a)-4(i)(6)(v) to the extent it is determined during the immediately preceding taxable year that such amount is not necessary for the purposes for which it was set aside and such amount was taken into account by the organization to meet the distribution requirement imposed in §1.509(a)-4(i)(5)(ii)(A) for any taxable year.

(i)(5)(ii)(D) through (i)(7) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.509(a)-4(i)(5)(ii)(D) through (i)(7).

(8) Valuation of non-exempt-use assets. For purposes of determining its distributable amount for a taxable year, a supporting organization determines its minimum asset amount, as defined in paragraph (i)(5)(ii)(C) of this section, by determining the aggregate fair market value of all of its non-exempt-use assets in the immediately preceding taxable year. For these purposes, the determination of the aggregate fair market value of all non-exempt-use assets shall be made using the valuation methods described in §53.4942(a)-2(c) of this chapter. The aggregate fair market value of the supporting organization's non-exempt-use assets shall not be reduced by any amount that is set aside under §1.509(a)-4(i)(6)(v). For these purposes, the non-exempt-use assets of the supporting organization are all assets of the supporting organization other than—

(i) Assets described in §53.4942(a)-2(c)(2)(i) through (iv) of this chapter (with “supporting organization” being substituted for “foundation” or “private foundation” and “August 17, 2006” being substituted for “December 31, 1969”); and

(ii) Exempt-use assets, which are assets that are used (or held for use) to carry out the exempt purposes of the supporting organization's supported organization(s) (determined by applying the principles described in §53.4942(a)-2(c)(3) of this chapter) by either—

(A) The supporting organization; or

(B) One or more supported organizations, but only if the supporting organization makes the asset available to the supported organization(s) at no cost (or nominal rent) to the supported organization(s).

(i)(9) through (l) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.509(a)-4(i)(9) through (l).

(m) Effective/applicability date. This section is effective on December 28, 2012. The applicability of this section expires on or before December 21, 2015.

[77 FR 76399, Dec. 28, 2012]

§1.509(a)-5   Special rules of attribution.

(a) Retained character of gross investment income. (1) For purposes of determining whether an organization meets the not-more-than-one-third support test set forth in section 509(a)(2)(B), amounts received by such organization from:

(i) An organization which seeks to be described in section 509(a)(3) by reason of its support of such organization; or

(ii) A charitable trust, corporation, fund, or association described in section 501(c)(3) (including a charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1)) or a split interest trust described in section 4947(a)(2), which is required by its governing instrument or otherwise to distribute, or which normally does distribute, at least 25 percent of its adjusted net income (within the meaning of section 4942(f)) to such organization, and such distribution normally comprises at least 5 percent of such distributee organization's adjusted net income

will retain their character as gross investment income (rather than gifts or contributions) to the extent that such amounts are characterized as gross investment income in the possession of the distributing organization described in subdivision (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph or, if the distributing organization is a split interest trust described in section 4947(a)(2), to the extent that such amounts would be characterized as gross investment income attributable to transfers in trust after May 26, 1969, if such trust were a private foundation. For purposes of this section, all income which is characterized as gross investment income in the possession of the distributing organization shall be deemed to be distributed first by such organization and shall retain its character as such in the possession of the recipient of amounts described in this paragraph. If an organization described in subdivision (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph makes distributions to more than one organization, the amount of gross investment income deemed distributed shall be prorated among the distributees.

(2) For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, amounts paid by an organization to provide goods, services, or facilities for the direct benefit of an organization seeking section 509(a)(2) status (rather than for the direct benefit of the general public) shall be treated in the same manner as amounts received by the latter organization. Such amounts will be treated as gross investment income to the extent that such amounts are characterized as gross investment income in the possession of the organization spending such amounts. For example, X is an organization described in subparagraph (1)(i) of this paragraph. It uses part of its funds to provide Y, an organization seeking section 509(a)(2) status, with certain services which Y would otherwise be required to purchase on its own. To the extent that the funds used by X to provide such services for Y are characterized as gross investment income in the possession of X, such funds will be treated as gross investment income received by Y.

(3) An organization seeking section 509(a)(2) status shall file a separate statement with its return required by section 6033, setting forth all amounts received from organizations described in paragraph (a)(1) (i) or (ii) of this section.

(b) Relationships created for avoidance purposes. (1) If a relationship between an organization seeking section 509(a)(3) status and an organization seeking section 509(a)(2) status:

(i) Is established or availed of after October 9, 1969, and

(ii) One of the purposes of establishing or utilizing such relationship is to avoid classification as a private foundation with respect to either organization, the character and amount of support received by the section 509(a)(3) organization will be attributed to the section 509(a)(2) organization for purposes of determining whether the latter meets the one-third support test and the not-more-than-one-third support test under section 509(a)(2). If a relationship described in this subparagraph is established or utilized by an organization seeking section 509(a)(3) status and two or more organizations seeking section 509(a)(2) status, the amount of support received by the former organization will be prorated among the latter organizations and the character of each class of support (as defined in section 509(d)) will be attributed pro rata to each such organization. The provisions of this paragraph and of paragraph (a) of this section are not mutually exclusive.

(2) In determining whether a relationship between one or more organizations seeking section 509(a)(2) status (hereinafter referred to as beneficiary organizations) and an organization seeking section 509(a)(3) status (hereinafter referred to as the supporting organization) has been established or availed of to avoid classification as a private foundation (within the meaning of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph), all pertinent facts and circumstances, including the following, shall be taken into account as evidence that a relationship was not established or availed of to avoid classification as a private foundation:

(i) The supporting organization is operated to support or benefit several specified beneficiary organizations.

(ii) The beneficiary organization has a substantial number of dues-paying members (in relation to the public it serves and the nature of its activities) and such members have an effective voice in the management of both the supporting and beneficiary organizations.

(iii) The beneficiary organization is composed of several membership organizations, each of which has a substantial number of members (in relation to the public it serves and the nature of its activities), and such membership organizations have an effective voice in the management of the supporting and beneficiary organizations.

(iv) The beneficiary organization receives a substantial amount of support from the general public, public charities, or governmental grants.

(v) The supporting organization uses its funds to carry on a meaningful program of activities to support or benefit the beneficiary organization and such use would, if such supporting organization were a private foundation, be sufficient to avoid the imposition of any tax upon such organization under section 4942.

vi) The supporting organization is not able to exercise substantial control or influence over the beneficiary organization by reason of the former's receiving support or holding assets which are disproportionately large in comparison with the support received or the assets held by the latter.

(vii) Different persons manage the operations of the beneficiary and supporting organizations and each organization performs a different function.

(3) The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. M, an organization described in section 509(a)(2), is a council composed of 10 learned societies. Each member society has a large membership of scholars interested in a particular academic area. In 1970 M established N, an organization seeking section 509(a)(3) status, for the purpose of carrying on research and study projects of interest to the member societies. The principal source of funds for N's activities is from foundation and government grants and contracts. The principal source of funds for M's activities after the creation of N is membership dues. M continued to maintain a wide variety of activities for its members, such as publishing periodicals and carrying on seminars and conferences. N is subject to complete control by the governing body of M. Under these circumstances, the relationship between these organizations is not one which is described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph.
Example 2. Q is a local medical research organization described in section 509(a)(2). Its fixed assets are negligible and it carries on research activities on a limited scale. It also makes a limited number of grants to scientists and doctors who are engaged in medical research of interest to Q. It receives support through small government grants and a few research contracts from private foundations. R is an organization described in section 501(c)(3). As of January 1, 1970, R was classified as a private foundation under section 509. It has a substantial endowment which it uses to make grants to various charitable and scientific organizations described in section 501(c)(3). During 1970, R agrees to subsidize the research activities of Q. R amends its governing instrument to provide specifically that all of R's support will be used for research activities which are approved and supervised by Q. R also amends its bylaws to permit a minority of Q's board of directors to be members of R's governing body. R then gives timely notification under section 507(b)(1)(B)(ii) that R is terminating its private foundation status by meeting the requirements of section 509(a)(3) by the end of the 12-month period described in section 507(b)(1)(B)(i). For purposes of determining whether R has met the requirements of section 509(a)(3) by the end of the 12-month period, as well as determining Q's status under section 509(a)(2), the character and amount of support received by R will be attributed to Q.

(c) Effect on organizations claiming section 509(a)(3) status. If an organization claiming section 509(a)(2) status fails to meet either the one-third support test or the not-more-than-one-third support test under section 509(a)(2) by reason of the application of the provisions of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, and such organization is one of the specified organizations (within the meaning of section 509(a)(3)(A)) for whose support or benefit an organization claiming section 509(a)(3) status is operated, the organization claiming section 509(a)(3) status will not be considered to be operated exclusively to support or benefit one or more section 509(a) (1) or (2) organizations.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21922, Oct. 17, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7290, 38 FR 31834, Nov. 19, 1973; T.D. 7784, 46 FR 37890, July 23, 1981]

§1.509(a)-6   Classification under section 509(a).

If an organization is described in section 509(a)(1) and also in another paragraph of section 509(a), it will be treated as described in section 509(a)(1). For purposes of this section, the parenthetical language other than in clauses (vii) and (viii) used in section 509(a)(1) shall be construed to mean other than an organization which is described only in clause (vii) or (viii). For example, X is an organization which is described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi), but could also meet the description of section 170(b)(1)(A)(viii) as an organization described in section 509(a)(2). For purposes of the one-third support test in section 509(a)(2)(A), contributions from X to other organizations will be treated as support from an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) rather than from an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(viii).

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21923, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(a)-7   Reliance by grantors and contributors to section 509(a) (1), (2), and (3) organizations.

(a) General rule. Once an organization has received a final ruling or determination letter classifying it as an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3), the treatment of grants and contributions and the status of grantors and contributors to such organization under sections 170, 507, 545(b)(2), 556(b)(2), 642(c), 4942, 4945, 2055, 2106(a)(2), and 2522 will not be affected by reason of a subsequent revocation by the service of the organization's classification as described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) until the date on which notice of change of status is made to the public (such as by publication in the Internal Revenue Bulletin) or another applicable date, if any, specified in such public notice. In appropriate cases, however, the treatment of grants and contributions and the status of grantors and contributors to an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) may be affected pending verification of the continued classification of such organization under section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3). Notice to this affect will be made in a public announcement by the service. In such cases the effect of grants and contributions made after the date of the announcement will depend upon the statutory qualification of the organization as an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3).

(b) Exceptions. (1) Paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply if the grantor or contributor:

(i) Had knowledge of the revocation of the ruling or determination letter classifying the organization as an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3), or

(ii) Was in part responsible for, or was aware of, the act, the failure to act, or the substantial and material change on the part of the organization which gave rise to the revocation of the ruling or determination letter classifying the organization as an organization described in section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3).

(2) Paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply where a different rule is otherwise expressly provided in the regulations under sections 170(b)(1)(A), 507(b)(1)(B), or 509.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21923, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(b)-1   Continuation of private foundation status.

(a) In general. If an organization is a private foundation (within the meaning of section 509(a)) on October 9, 1969, or becomes a private foundation on any subsequent date, such organization shall be treated as a private foundation for all periods after October 9, 1969, or after such subsequent date, unless its status as such is terminated under section 507. Therefore, if an organization was described in section 501(c)(3) and was a private foundation within the meaning of section 509(a) on October 9, 1969, it shall be treated as a private foundation for all periods thereafter, even though it may also satisfy the requirements of an organization described in some other paragraph of section 501(c). For example, if on October 9, 1969, an organization was described in section 501(c)(3), but because of its activities, it could also have qualified as an organization described in section 501(c)(4), such organization will continue to be treated as a private foundation, if it was a private foundation within the meaning of section 509(a) on October 9, 1969.

(b) Taxable private foundations. If an organization is a private foundation on October 9, 1969, and it is determined that it is not exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) as of any date after October 9, 1969, such organization, even though it may operate thereafter as a taxable entity, will continue to be treated as a private foundation unless its status as such is terminated under section 507. For example, X organization is a private foundation on October 9, 1969. It is subsequently determined that, as of July 1, 1972, X is no longer exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) because, for example, it has not conformed its governing instrument pursuant to section 508(e). X will continue to be treated as a private foundation after July 1, 1972, unless its status as such is terminated under section 507. However, if an organization is not exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) on October 9, 1969, then it will not be treated as a private foundation within the meaning of section 509(a) by reason of section 509(b), unless it becomes a private foundation on a subsequent date.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21924, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(c)-1   Status of organization after termination of private foundation status.

(a) In general. For purposes of part II of subchapter F of this chapter, an organization whose status as a private foundation is terminated under section 507 shall be treated as an organization created on the day after the date of such termination. An organization whose private foundation status has been terminated under the provisions of section 507(a) will, if it continues to operate, be treated as a new organization and must, if it desires to be classified under section 501(c)(3), give notification that it is applying for recognition of section 501(c)(3) status pursuant to the provisions of section 508(a).

(b) Effect upon section 507(d)(1). If the private foundation status of an organization has been terminated under section 507(b)(1)(B) and the regulations thereunder, and:

(1) Such organization does not continue at all times thereafter to meet the requirements of section 509(a) (1), (2), or (3) (and is therefore no longer excluded from the definition of a private foundation); and

(2) The status of such organization as a private foundation is thereafter terminated under section 507(a)

then the tax imposed under section 507(c)(1) upon the aggregate tax benefit (described in section 507(d)(1)) resulting from section 501(c)(3) status shall be computed only upon the aggregate tax benefit resulting after the date on which the organization again becomes a private foundation under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21924, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(d)-1   Definition of support

For purposes of section 509(a)(2), the term support does not include amounts received in repayment of the principal of a loan or other indebtedness. See, however, section 509(e) as to amounts received as interest on a loan or other indebtedness.

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21924, Oct. 17, 1972]

§1.509(e)-1   Definition of gross investment income.

For the distinction between gross receipts and gross investment income, see §1.509(a)-3(m).

(Sec. 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 7805)

[T.D. 7212, 37 FR 21925, Oct. 17, 1972]

Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations

§1.511-1   Imposition and rates of tax.

Section 511(a) imposes a tax upon the unrelated business taxable income of certain organizations otherwise exempt from Federal income tax. Under section 511(a)(1), organizations described in section 511(a)(2)(A) and in paragraph (a) of §1.511-2 and organizations described in section 511(a)(2)(B) are subject to normal tax and surtax at the corporate rates provided by section 11. Under section 511(b)(1), trusts described in section 511(b)(2) are subject to tax at the individual rates prescribed in section 1(d) of the Code as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (section 1 for taxable years ending before Jan. 1, 1971). The deduction for personal exemption provided in section 642(b) in the case of a trust taxable under subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Code, is not allowed in computing unrelated business taxable income.

[T.D. 7117, 36 FR 9421, May 25, 1971]

§1.511-2   Organizations subject to tax.

(a) Organizations other than trusts and title holding companies. (1)(i) The taxes imposed by section 511(a)(1) apply in the case of any organization (other than a trust described in section 511(b)(2) or an organization described in section 501(c)(1)) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (except as provided in sections 507 through 515). For special rules concerning corporations described in section 501(c)(2), see paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) In the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(4), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14)(A), (15), (16), or (18), the taxes imposed by section 511(a)(1) apply only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969. In the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(14) (B) or (C), the taxes imposed by section 511(a)(1) apply only for taxable years beginning after February 2, 1966.

(2) The taxes imposed by section 511(a) apply in the case of any college or university which is an agency or instrumentality of any government or any political subdivision thereof, or which is owned or operated by a government or any political subdivision thereof or by any agency or instrumentality of any one or more governments or political subdivisions. Such taxes also apply in the case of any corporation wholly owned by one or more such colleges or universities. As here used, the word government includes any foreign government (to the extent not contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States) and all domestic governments (the United States and any of its Territories or possessions, any State, and the District of Columbia). Elementary and secondary schools operated by such governments are not subject to the tax on unrelated business income.

(3)(i) For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, churches and associations or conventions of churches are exempt from the taxes imposed by section 511. The exemption is applicable only to an organization which itself is a church or an association or convention of churches. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, religious organizations, including religious orders, if not themselves churches or associations or conventions of churches, and all other organizations which are organized or operated under church auspices, are subject to the tax imposed by section 511, whether or not they engage in religious, educational, or charitable activities approved by a church.

(ii) The term church includes a religious order or a religious organization if such order or organization (a) is an integral part of a church, and (b) is engaged in carrying out the functions of a church, whether as a civil law corporation or otherwise. In determining whether a religious order or organization is an integral part of a church, consideration will be given to the degree to which it is connected with, and controlled by, such church. A religious order or organization shall be considered to be engaged in carrying out the functions of a church if its duties include the ministration of sacerdotal functions and the conduct of religious worship. If a religious order or organization is not an integral part of a church, or if such an order or organization is not authorized to carry out the functions of a church (ministration of sacerdotal functions and conduct of religious worship) then it is subject to the tax imposed by section 511 whether or not it engages in religious, educational, or charitable activities approved by a church. What constitutes the conduct of religious worship or the ministration of sacerdotal functions depends on the tenets and practices of a particular religious body constituting a church. If a religious order or organization can fully meet the requirements stated in this subdivision, exemption from the tax imposed by section 511 will apply to all its activities, including those which it conducts through a separate corporation (other than a corporation described in section 501(c)(2)) or other separate entity which it wholly owns and which is not operated for the primary purpose of carrying on a trade or business for profit. Such exemption from tax will also apply to activities conducted through a separate corporation (other than a corporation described in section 501(c)(2)) or other separate entity which is wholly owned by more than one religious order or organization, if all such orders or organizations fully meet the requirements stated in this subdivision and if such corporation or other entity is not operated for the primary purpose of carrying on a trade or business for profit.

(iii) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, churches and conventions or associations of churches are subject to the taxes imposed by section 511, unless otherwise entitled to the benefit of the transitional rules of section 512(b)(14) and §1.512(b)-1(i).

(b) Trusts—(1) In general. The taxes imposed by section 511(b) apply in the case of any trust which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (except as provided in sections 507 through 515), and which, if it were not for such exemption, would be subject to the provisions of subchapter J, chapter 1, of the Code. An organization which is considered as trustee of a stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plan described in section 401(a), a supplemental unemployment benefit trust described in section 501(c)(17), or a pension plan described in section 501(c)(18) (regardless of the form of such organization) is subject to the taxes imposed by section 511(b)(1) on its unrelated business income. However, if such an organization conducts a business which is a separate taxable entity on the basis of all the facts and circumstances, for example, an association taxable as a corporation, the business will be taxable as a feeder organization described in section 502.

(2) Effective dates. In the case of a trust described in section 501(c)(3), the taxes imposed by section 511(b) apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953. In the case of a trust described in section 401(a), the taxes imposed by section 511(b) apply for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1954. In the case of a trust described in section 501(c)(17), the taxes imposed by section 511(b) apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1959. In the case of any other trust described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the taxes imposed by section 511(b) apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

(c) Title Holding Companies—(1) In general. If a corporation described in section 501(c)(2) pays any amount of its net income for a taxable year to an organization exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (or would pay such an amount but for the fact that the expenses of collecting its income exceed its income), and if such corporation and such organization file a consolidated income tax return for such taxable year, then such corporation shall be treated, for purposes of the tax imposed by section 511(a), as being organized and operated for the same purposes as such organization, as well as for its title-holding purpose. Therefore, if an item of income of the section 501(c)(2) corporation is derived from a source which is related to the exempt function of the exempt organization to which such income is payable and with which such corporation files a consolidated return, such item is, together with all deductions directly connected therewith, excluded from the determination of unrelated business taxable income under section 512 and shall not be subject to the tax imposed by section 511(a). If, however, such item of income is derived from a source which is not so related, then such item, less all deductions directly connected therewith, is, subject to the modifications provided in section 512(b), unrelated business taxable income subject to the tax imposed by section 511(a).

(2) The provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. The income of X, a section 501(c)(2) corporation, is required to be distributed to exempt organization A. During the taxable year X realizes net income of $900,000 from source M and $100,000 from source N. Source M is related to A's exempt function, while source N is not so related. X and A file a consolidated return for such taxable year. X has net unrelated business income of $100,000, subject to the modifications in section 512(b).

(3) Cross reference. For rules relating generally to the filing of consolidated returns by certain organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a), see section 1504(e) of the Code and §1.1502-100.

(4) Effective dates. Subparagraphs (1) through (3) of this paragraph apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, a corporation described in section 501(c)(2) and otherwise exempt from taxation under section 501(a) is taxable upon its unrelated business taxable income only if such income is payable either:

(i) To a church or convention or association of churches, or

(ii) To any organization subject, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, to the tax imposed by section 511(a)(1).

(d) The fact that any class of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) is subject to the unrelated business income tax under section 511 and this section does not in any way enlarge the permissible scope of business activities of such class for purposes of the continued qualification of such class under section 501(a).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7183, 37 FR 7884, Apr. 21, 1972; T.D. 7632, 44 FR 42681, July 20, 1979]

§1.511-3   Provisions generally applicable to the tax on unrelated business income.

(a) Assessment and collections. Since the taxes imposed by section 511 are taxes imposed by subtitle A of the Code, all provisions of law and of the regulations applicable to the taxes imposed by subtitle A are applicable to the assessment and collection of the taxes imposed by section 511. Organizations subject to the tax imposed by section 511(a)(1) are subject to the same provisions, including penalties, as are provided in the case of the income tax of other corporations. In the case of a trust subject to the tax imposed by section 511(b)(1), the fiduciaries for such trust are subject to the same provisions, including penalties, as are applicable to fiduciaries in the case of the income tax of other trusts. See section 6151, et seq., and the regulations prescribed thereunder, for provisions relating to payment of tax.

(b) Returns. For requirements of filing annual returns with respect to unrelated business taxable income by organizations subject to the tax on such income, see section 6012, paragraph (e) of §1.6012-2, and paragraph (a)(5) of §1.6012-3.

(c) Taxable years, method of accounting, etc. The taxable year (fiscal year or calendar year, as the case may be) of an organization shall be determined without regard to the fact that such organization may have been exempt from tax during any prior period. See sections 441 and 446, and the regulations thereunder in this part, and section 7701 and the regulations in part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration). Similarly, in computing unrelated business taxable income, the determination of the taxable year for which an item of income or expense is taken into account shall be made under the provisions of sections 441, 446, 451, and 461, and the regulations thereunder, whether or not the item arose during a taxable year beginning before, on, or after the effective date of the provisions imposing a tax upon unrelated business taxable income. If a method for treating bad debts was selected in a return of income (other than an information return) for a previous taxable year, the taxpayer must follow such method in its returns under section 511, unless such method is changed in accordance with the provisions of §1.166-1. A taxpayer which has not previously selected a method for treating bad debts may, in its first return under section 511, exercise the option granted in §1.166-1.

(d) Foreign tax credit. See section 515 for provisions applicable to the credit for foreign taxes provided in section 901.

§1.511-4   Minimum tax for tax preferences.

The tax imposed by section 56 applies to an organization subject to tax under section 511 with respect to items of tax preference which enter into the computation of unrelated business taxable income. For this purpose, only those items of income and those deductions entering into the determination of the tax imposed by this section are considered in the determination of the items of tax preference under section 57. For rules relating to the minimum tax for tax preferences, see sections 56 through 58 and the regulations thereunder.

[T.D. 7564, 43 FR 40494, Sept. 12, 1978]

§1.512(a)-1   Definition.

(a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in §1.512(a)-3, §1.512(a)-4, or paragraph (f) of this section, section 512(a)(1) defines unrelated business taxable income as the gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on, less those deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Code which are directly connected with the carrying on of such trade or business, subject to certain modifications referred to in §1.512(b)-1. To be deductible in computing unrelated business taxable income, therefore, expenses, depreciation, and similar items not only must qualify as deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Code, but also must be directly connected with the carrying on of unrelated trade or business. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, to be directly connected with the conduct of unrelated business for purposes of section 512, an item of deduction must have proximate and primary relationship to the carrying on of that business. In the case of an organization which derives gross income from the regular conduct of two or more unrelated business activities, unrelated business taxable income is the aggregate of gross income from all such unrelated business activities less the aggregate of the deductions allowed with respect to all such unrelated business activities. For the treatment of amounts of income or loss of common trust funds, see §1.584-2(c)(3).

(b) Expenses attributable solely to unrelated business activities. Expenses, depreciation, and similar items attributable solely to the conduct of unrelated business activities are proximately and primarily related to that business activity, and therefore qualify for deduction to the extent that they meet the requirements of section 162, section 167, or other relevant provisions of the Code, connected with the conduct of that activity and are deductible in computing unrelated business activities are directly connected with the conduct of that activity and are deductible in computing unrelated business taxable income if they otherwise qualify for deduction under the requirements of section 162. Similarly, depreciation of a building used entirely in the conduct of unrelated business activities would be an allowable deduction to the extent otherwise permitted by section 167.

(c) Dual use of facilities or personnel. Where facilities are used both to carry on exempt activities and to conduct unrelated trade or business activities, expenses, depreciation and similar items attributable to such facilities (as, for example, items of overhead), shall be allocated between the two uses on a reasonable basis. Similarly, where personnel are used both to carry on exempt activities and to conduct unrelated trade or business activities, expenses and similar items attributable to such personnel (as, for example, items of salary) shall be allocated between the two uses on a reasonable basis. The portion of any such item so allocated to the unrelated trade or business activity is proximately and primarily related to that business activity, and shall be allowable as a deduction in computing unrelated business taxable income in the manner and to the extent permitted by section 162, section 167, or other relevant provisions of the Code. Thus, for example, assume that X, an exempt organization subject to the provisions of section 511, pays its president a salary of $20,000 a year. X derives gross income from the conduct of unrelated trade or business activities. The president devotes approximately 10 percent of his time during the year to the unrelated business activity. For purposes of computing X's unrelated business taxable income, a deduction of $2,000 (10 percent of $20,000), would be allowable for the salary paid to its president.

(d) Exploitation of exempt activities—(1) In general. In certain cases, gross income is derived from an unrelated trade or business activity which exploits an exempt activity. One example of such exploitation is the sale of advertising in a periodical of an exempt organization which contains editorial material related to the accomplishment of the organization's exempt purpose. Except as specified in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph and paragraph (f) of this section, in such cases, expenses, depreciation and similar items attributable to the conduct of the exempt activities are not deductible in computing unrelated business taxable income. Since such items are incident to an activity which is carried on in furtherance of the exempt purpose of the organization, they do not possess the necessary proximate and primary relationship to the unrelated trade or business activity and are therefore not directly connected with that business activity.

(2) Allowable deductions. Where an unrelated trade or business activity is of a kind carried on for profit by taxable organizations and where the exempt activity exploited by the business is a type of activity normally conducted by taxable organizations in pursuance of such business, expenses, depreciation, and similar items which are attributable to the exempt activity qualify as directly connected with the carrying on of the unrelated trade or business activity to the extent that:

(i) The aggregate of such items exceeds the income (if any) derived from or attributable to the exempt activity; and

(ii) The allocation of such excess to the unrelated trade or business activity does not result in a loss from such unrelated trade or business activity

Under the rule of the preceding sentence, expenses, depreciation and similar items paid or incurred in the performance of an exempt activity must be allocated first to the exempt activity to the extent of the income derived from or attributable to the performance of that activity. Furthermore, such items are in no event allocable to the unrelated trade or business activity exploiting such exempt activity to the extent that their deduction would result in a loss carryover or carryback with respect to that trade or business activity. Similarly, they may not be taken into account in computing unrelated business taxable income attributable to any unrelated trade or business activity not exploiting the same exempt activity. See paragraph (f) of this section for the application of these rules to periodicals published by exempt organizations.

(e) Examples. This section is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. W is an exempt business league with a large membership. Under an arrangement with an advertising agency W regularly mails brochures, pamphlets and other advertising materials to its members, charging the agency an agreed amount per enclosure. The distribution of the advertising materials does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of the purpose for which W is granted exemption. Accordingly, the payments made to W by the advertising agency constitute gross income from an unrelated trade or business activity. In computing W's unrelated business taxable income, the expenses attributable solely to the conduct of the business, or allocable to such business under the rule of paragraph (c) of this section, are allowable as deductions in accordance with the provisions of section 162. Such deductions include the costs of handling and mailing, the salaries of personnel used full-time in the unrelated business activity and an allocable portion of the salaries of personnel used both to carry on exempt activities and to conduct the unrelated business activity. However, costs of developing W's membership and carrying on its exempt activities are not deductible. Those costs are necessary to the maintenance of the intangible asset exploited in the unrelated business activity—W's membership—but are incurred primarily in connection with W's fundamental purpose as an exempt organization. As a consequence, they do not have proximate and primary relationship to the conduct of the unrelated business activity and do not qualify as directly connected with it.
Example 2. (i) P, a manufacturer of photographic equipment, underwrites a photography exhibition organized by M, an art museum described in section 501(c)(3). In return for a payment of $100,000, M agrees that the exhibition catalog sold by M in connection with the exhibit will advertise P's product. The exhibition catalog will also include educational material, such as copies of photographs included in the exhibition, interviews with photographers, and an essay by the curator of M's department of photography. For purposes of this example, assume that none of the $100,000 is a qualified sponsorship payment within the meaning of section 513(i) and §1.513-4, that M's advertising activity is regularly carried on, and that the entire amount of the payment is unrelated business taxable income to M. Expenses directly connected with generating the unrelated business taxable income (i.e., direct advertising costs) total $25,000. Expenses directly connected with the preparation and publication of the exhibition catalog (other than direct advertising costs) total $110,000. M receives $60,000 of gross revenue from sales of the exhibition catalog. Expenses directly connected with the conduct of the exhibition total $500,000.

(ii) The computation of unrelated business taxable income is as follows:

(A) Unrelated trade or business (sale of advertising):
Income$100,000
Directly-connected expenses(25,000)
Subtotal75,000$75,000
(B) Exempt function (publication of exhibition catalog):
Income (from catalog sales)60,000
Directly-connected expenses(110,000)
Net exempt function income (loss)(50,000)(50,000)
Unrelated business taxable income25,000
(iii) Expenses related to publication of the exhibition catalog exceed revenues by $50,000. Because the unrelated business activity (the sale of advertising) exploits an exempt activity (the publication of the exhibition catalog), and because the publication of editorial material is an activity normally conducted by taxable entities that sell advertising, the net loss from the exempt publication activity is allowed as a deduction from unrelated business income under paragraph (d)(2) of this section. In contrast, the presentation of an exhibition is not an activity normally conducted by taxable entities engaged in advertising and publication activity for purposes of paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Consequently, the $500,000 cost of presenting the exhibition is not directly connected with the conduct of the unrelated advertising activity and does not have a proximate and primary relationship to that activity. Accordingly, M has unrelated business taxable income of $25,000.

(f) Determination of unrelated business taxable income derived from sale of advertising in exempt organization periodicals—(1) In general. Under section 513 (relating to the definition of unrelated trade or business) and §1.513-1, amounts realized by an exempt organization from the sale of advertising in a periodical constitute gross income from an unrelated trade or business activity involving the exploitation of an exempt activity; namely, the circulation and readership of the periodical developed through the production and distribution of the readership content of the periodical. Paragraph (d) of this section provides for the allowance of deductions attributable to the production and distribution of the readership content of the periodical. Thus, subject to the limitations of paragraph (d)(2) of this section, where the circulation and readership of an exempt organization periodical are utilized in connection with the sale of advertising in the periodical, expenses, depreciation, and similar items of deductions attributable to the production and distribution of the editorial or readership content of the periodical shall qualify as items of deductions directly connected with the unrelated advertising activity. Subparagraphs (2) through (6) of this paragraph provide rules for determining the amount of unrelated business taxable income attributable to the sale of advertising in exempt organization periodicals. Subparagraph (7) of this paragraph provides rules for determining when the unrelated business taxable income of two or more exempt organization periodicals may be determined on a consolidated basis.

(2) Computation of unrelated business taxable income attributable to sale of advertising—(i) Excess advertising costs. If the direct advertising costs of an exempt organization periodical (determined under subparagraph (6)(ii) of this paragraph) exceed gross advertising income (determined under subparagraph (3)(ii) of this paragraph), such excess shall be allowable as a deduction in determining unrelated business taxable income from any unrelated trade or business activity carried on by the organization.

(ii) Excess advertising income. If the gross advertising income of an exempt organization periodical exceeds direct advertising costs, paragraph (d)(2) of this section provides that items of deduction attributable to the production and distribution of the readership content of an exempt organization periodical shall qualify as items of deduction directly connected with unrelated advertising activity in computing the amount of unrelated business taxable income derived from the advertising activity to the extent that such items exceed the income derived from or attributable to such production and distribution, but only to the extent that such items do not result in a loss from such advertising activity. Furthermore, such items of deduction shall not qualify as directly connected with such advertising activity to the extent that their deduction would result in a loss carryback or carryover with respect to such advertising activity. Similarly, such items of deduction shall not be taken into account in computing unrelated business taxable income attributable to any unrelated trade or business activity other than such advertising activity. Thus:

(a) If the circulation income of the periodical (determined under subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph) equals or exceeds the readership costs of such periodical (determined under subparagraph (6)(iii) of this paragraph), the unrelated business taxable income attributable to the periodical is the excess of the gross advertising income of the periodical over direct advertising costs; but

(b) If the readership costs of an exempt organization periodical exceed the circulation income of the periodical, the unrelated business taxable income is the excess, if any, of the total income attributable to the periodical (determined under subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) over the total periodical costs (as defined in subparagraph (6)(i) of this paragraph)

See subparagraph (7) of this paragraph for rules relating to the consolidation of two or more periodicals.

(iii) Examples. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples it is assumed that the production and distribution of the readership content of the periodical is related to the organization's exempt purpose.

Example 1. X, an exempt trade association, publishes a single periodical which carries advertising. During 1971, X realizes a total of $40,000 from the sale of advertising in the periodical (gross advertising income) and $60,000 from the sales of the periodical to members and nonmembers (circulation income). The total periodical costs are $90,000 of which $50,000 is directly connected with the sale and publication of advertising (direct advertising costs) and $40,000 is attributable to the production and distribution of the readership content (readership costs). Since the direct advertising costs of the periodical ($50,000) exceed gross advertising income ($40,000), pursuant to subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, the unrelated business taxable income attributable to advertising is determined solely on the basis of the income and deductions directly connected with the production and sale of the advertising:
Gross advertising revenue$40,000
Direct advertising costs(50,000)
Loss attributable to advertising(10,000)

X has realized a loss of $10,000 from its advertising activity. This loss is an allowable deduction in computing X's unrelated business taxable income derived from any other unrelated trade or business activity.

Example 2. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that the circulation income of X periodical is $100,000 instead of $60,000, and that of the total periodical costs, $25,000 are direct advertising costs, and $65,000 are readership costs. Since the circulation income ($100,000) exceeds the total readership costs ($65,000), pursuant to subdivision (ii)(a) of this subparagraph the unrelated business taxable income attributable to the advertising activity is $15,000, the excess of gross advertising income ($40,000) over direct advertising costs ($25,000).
Example 3. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that of the total periodical costs, $20,000 are direct advertising costs and $70,000 are readership costs. Since the readership costs of the periodical ($70,000), exceed the circulation income ($60,000), pursuant to subdivision (ii) (b) of this subparagraph the unrelated business taxable income attributable to advertising is the excess of the total income attributable to the periodical over the total periodical costs. Thus, X has unrelated business taxable income attributable to the advertising activity of $10,000 ($100,000 total income attributable to the periodical less $90,000 total periodical costs).
Example 4. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that the total periodical costs are $120,000 of which $30,000 are direct advertising costs and $90,000 are readership costs. Since the readership costs of the periodical ($90,000), exceed the circulation income ($60,000), pursuant to subdivision (ii) (b) of this subparagraph the unrelated business taxable income attributable to advertising is the excess, if any, of the total income attributable to the periodical over the total periodical costs. Since the total income of the periodical ($100,000) does not exceed the total periodical costs ($120,000), X has not derived any unrelated business taxable income from the advertising activity. Further, only $70,000 of the $90,000 of readership costs may be deducted in computing unrelated business taxable income since as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, such costs may be deducted, to the extent they exceed circulation income, only to the extent they do not result in a loss from the advertising activity. Thus, there is no loss from such activity, and no amount may be deducted on this account in computing X's unrelated trade or business income derived from any other unrelated trade or business activity.

(3) Income attributable to exempt organization periodicals—(i) In general. For purposes of this paragraph the total income attributable to an exempt organization periodical is the sum of its gross advertising income and its circulation income.

(ii) Gross advertising income. The term gross advertising income means all amounts derived from the unrelated advertising activities of an exempt organization periodical (or for purposes of this paragraph in the case of a taxable organization, all amounts derived from the advertising activities of the taxable organization).

(iii) Circulation income. The term circulation income means the income attributable to the production, distribution or circulation of a periodical (other than gross advertising income) including all amounts realized from or attributable to the sale or distribution of the readership content of the periodical, such as amounts realized from charges made for reprinting or republishing articles and special items in the periodical and amounts realized from sales of back issues. Where the right to receive an exempt organization periodical is associated with membership or similar status in such organization for which dues, fees or other charges are received (hereinafter referred to as membership receipts), circulation income includes the portion of such membership receipts allocable to the periodical (hereinafter referred to as allocable membership receipts). Allocable membership receipts is the amount which would have been charged and paid if:

(a) The periodical was that of a taxable organization.

(b) The periodical was published for profit, and

(c) The member was an unrelated party dealing with the taxable organization at arm's length

See subparagraph (4) of this paragraph for a discussion of the factors to be considered in determining allocable membership receipts of an exempt organization periodical under the standard described in the preceding sentence.

(4) Allocable membership receipts. The allocable membership receipts of an exempt organization periodical shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(i) Subscription price charged to nonmembers. If 20 percent or more of the total circulation of a periodical consist of sales to nonmembers, the subscription price charged to such nonmembers shall determine the price of the periodical for purposes of allocating membership receipts to the periodical.

(ii) Subscription price to nonmembers. If paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section does not apply and if the membership dues from 20 percent or more of the members of an exempt organization are less than those received from the other members because the former members do not receive the periodical, the amount of the reduction in membership dues for a member not receiving the periodical shall determine the price of the periodical for purposes of allocating membership receipts to the periodical.

(iii) Pro rata allocation of membership receipts. Since it may generally be assumed that membership receipts and gross advertising income are equally available for all the exempt activities (including the periodical) of the organization, the share of membership receipts allocated to the periodical, where paragraphs (f)(4) (i) and (ii) of this section do not apply, shall be an amount equal to the organization's membership receipts multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the total periodical costs and the denominator of which is such costs plus the cost of other exempt activities of the organization. For example, assume that an exempt organization has total periodical costs of $30,000 and other exempt costs of $70,000. Further assume that the membership receipts of the organization are $60,000 and that paragraphs (f)(4) (i) and (ii) of this section do not apply. Under these circumstances $18,000 ($60,000 times $30,000/$100,000) is allocated to the periodical's circulation income.

(5) Examples. The rules set forth in paragraph (f)(4) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples it is assumed that the exempt organization periodical contains advertising, and that the production and distribution of the readership content of the periodical is related to the organization's exempt purpose.

Example 1. U is an exempt scientific organization with 10,000 members who pay annual dues of $15 per year. One of U's activities is the publication of a monthly periodical which is distributed to all of its members. U also distributes 5,000 additional copies of its periodical to nonmember subscribers at a cost of $10 per year. Pursuant to paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, since the nonmember circulation of U's periodical represents 3313 percent of its total circulation the subscription price charged to nonmembers will be used to determine the portion of U's membership receipts allocable to the periodical. Thus, U's allocable membership receipts will be $100,000 ($10 times 10,000 members), and U's total circulation income for the periodical will be $150,000 ($100,000 from members plus $50,000 from sales to nonmembers).
Example 2. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that U sells only 500 copies of its periodical to nonmembers, at a price of $10 per year. Assume further that U's members may elect not to receive the periodical, in which case their annual dues are reduced from $15 per year to $6 per year, and that only 3,000 members elect to receive the periodical and pay the full dues of $15 per year. U's stated subscription price to members of $9 consistently results in an excess of total income (including gross advertising income) attributable to the periodical over total costs of the periodical. Since the 500 copies of the periodical distributed to nonmembers represents only 14 percent of the 3,500 copies distributed, pursuant to paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section, the $10 subscription price charged to nonmembers will not be used in determining the portion of membership receipts allocable to the periodical. On the other hand, since 70 percent of the members elect not to receive the periodical and pay $9 less per year in dues, pursuant to paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section, such $9 price will be used in determining the subscription price charged to members. Thus, the allocable membership receipts will be $9 per member, or $27,000 ($9 times 3,000 copies) and U's total circulation income will be $32,000 ($27,000 plus $5,000).
Example 3. (a) W, an exempt trade association, has 800 members who pay annual dues of $50 per year. W publishes a monthly journal the editorial content and advertising of which are directed to the business interests of its own members. The journal is distributed to all of W's members and no receipts are derived from nonmembers.

(b) W has total receipts of $100,000 of which $40,000 ($50×800) are membership receipts and $60,000 are gross advertising income. W's total costs for the journal and other exempt activities is $100,000. W has total periodical costs of $76,000 of which $41,000 are direct advertising costs and $35,000 are readership costs.

(c) Paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section will not apply since no copies are available to nonmembers. Therefore, the allocation of membership receipts shall be made in accordance with paragraph (f)(4)(iii) of this section. Based upon pro rata allocation of membership receipts (40,000) by a fraction the numerator of which is total periodical costs ($76,000) and the denominator of which is the total costs of the journal and the other exempt activities ($100,000), $30,400 ($76,000/$100,000 times $40,000) of membership receipts is circulation income.

(6) Deductions attributable to exempt organization periodicals—(i) In general. For purposes of this paragraph the term total periodical costs means the total deductions attributable to the periodical. For purposes of this paragraph the total periodical costs of an exempt organization periodical are the sum of the direct advertising costs of the periodical (determined under subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph) and the readership costs of the periodical (determined under subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph). Items of deduction properly attributable to exempt activities other than the publication of an exempt organization periodical may not be allocated to such periodical. Where items are attributable both to an exempt organization periodical and to other activities of an exempt organization, the allocation of such items must be made on a reasonable basis which fairly reflects the portion of such item properly attributable to each such activity. The method of allocation will vary with the nature of the item, but once adopted, a reasonable method of allocation with respect to an item must be used consistently. Thus, for example, salaries may generally be allocated among various activities on the basis of the time devoted to each activity; occupancy costs such as rent, heat and electricity may be allocated on the basis of the portion of space devoted to each activity; and depreciation may be allocated on the basis of space occupied and the portion of the particular asset utilized in each activity. Allocations based on dollar receipts from various exempt activities will generally not be reasonable since such receipts are usually not an accurate reflection of the costs associated with activities carried on by exempt organizations.

(ii) Direct advertising costs. (a) The direct advertising costs of an exempt organization periodical include all expenses, depreciation, and similar items of deduction which are directly connected with the sale and publication of advertising as determined in accordance with paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section. These items are allowable as deductions in the computation of unrelated business income of the organization for the taxable year to the extent they meet the requirements of section 162, section 167, or other relevant provisions of the Code. The items allowable as deductions under this subdivision do not include any items of deduction attributable to the production or distribution of the readership content of the periodical.

(b) The items allowable as deductions under this subdivision would include agency commissions and other direct selling costs, such as transportation and travel expenses, office salaries, promotion and research expenses, and direct office overhead directly connected with the sale of advertising lineage in the periodical. Also included would be other items of deduction commonly classified as advertising costs under standard account classification, such as art work and copy preparation, telephone, telegraph, postage, and similar costs directly connected with advertising.

(c) In addition to the items of deduction normally included in standard account classifications relating to advertising costs, it is also necessary to ascertain the portion of mechanical and distribution costs attributable to advertising lineage. For this purpose, the general account classifications of items includible in mechanical and distribution costs ordinarily employed in business-paper and consumer publication accounting provide a guide for the computation. Thus, the mechanical and distribution costs in such cases would include the portion of the costs and other expenses of composition, presswork, binding, mailing (including paper and wrappers used for mailing), and the bulk postage attributable to the advertising lineage of the publication. The portion of mechanical and distribution costs attributable to advertising lineage of the periodical will be determined on the basis of the ratio of advertising lineage to total lineage of the periodical, and the application of that ratio to the total mechanical and distribution costs of the periodical, where records are not kept in such a manner as to reflect more accurately the allocation of mechanical and distributions costs to advertising lineage of the periodical, and where there is no factor in the character of the periodical to indicate that such an allocation would be unreasonable.

(iii) Readership costs. The readership costs of an exempt organization periodical include expenses, depreciation or similar items which are directly connected with the production and distribution of the readership content of the periodical and which would otherwise be allowable as deductions in determining unrelated business taxable income under section 512 and the regulations thereunder if such production and distribution constituted an unrelated trade or business activity. Thus, readership costs include all the items of deduction attributable to an exempt organization periodical which are not allocated to direct advertising costs under subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, including the portion of such items attributable to the readership content of the periodical, as opposed to the advertising content, and the portion of mechanical and distribution costs which is not attributable to advertising lineage in the periodical.

(7) Consolidation—(i) In general. Where an exempt organization subject to unrelated business income tax under section 511 publishes two or more periodicals for the production of income, it may treat the gross income from all (but not less than all) of such periodicals and the items of deduction directly connected with such periodicals (including readership costs of such periodicals), on a consolidated basis as if such periodicals were one periodical in determining the amount of unrelated business taxable income derived from the sale of advertising in such periodical. Such treatment must, however, be followed consistently and once adopted shall be binding unless the consent of the Commissioner is obtained as provided in sections 446(e) and §1.446-1(e).

(ii) Production of income. For purposes of this subparagraph, an exempt organization periodical is published for the production of income if:

(a) The organization generally receives gross advertising income from the periodical equal to at least 25 percent of the readership costs of such periodical, and

(b) The publication of such periodical is an activity engaged in for profit

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the determination whether the publication of a periodical is an activity engaged in for profit is to be made by reference to objective standards taking into account all the facts and circumstances involved in each case. The facts and circumstances must indicate that the organization carries on the activity with the objective that the publication of the periodical will result in economic profit (without regard to tax consequences), although not necessarily in a particular year. Thus, an exempt organization periodical may be treated as having been published with such an objective even though in a particular year its total periodical costs exceed its total income. Similarly, if an exempt organization begins publishing a new periodical, the fact that the total periodical costs exceed the total income for the startup years because of a lack of advertising sales does not mean that the periodical was published without an objective of economic profit. The organization may establish that the activity was carried on with such an objective. This might be established by showing, for example, that there is a reasonable expectation that the total income, by reason of an increase in advertising sales, will exceed costs within a reasonable time. See §1.183-2 for additional factors bearing on this determination.

(iii) Example. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Y, an exempt trade association, publishes three periodicals which it distributes to its members: a weekly newsletter, a monthly magazine, and quarterly journal. Both the monthly magazine and the quarterly journal contain advertising which accounts for gross advertising income equal to more than 25 percent of their respective readership costs. Similarly, the total income attributable to each such periodical has exceeded the total deductions attributable to each such periodical for substantially all the years they have been published. The newsletter carries no advertising and its annual subscription price is not intended to cover the cost of publication. The newsletter is a service of Y distributed to all of its members in an effort to keep them informed of changes occurring in the business world and is not engaged in for profit. Under these circumstances, Y may consolidate the income and deductions from the monthly and quarterly journals in computing its unrelated business taxable income, but may not consolidate the income and deductions attributable to the publication of the newsletter with the income and deductions of its other periodicals since the newsletter is not published for the production of income.

(g) Foreign organizations—(1) In general. The unrelated business taxable income of a foreign organization exempt from taxation under section 501(a) consists of:

(i) The organization's unrelated business taxable income which is derived from sources within the United States but which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, plus

(ii) The organization's unrelated business taxable income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (whether or not such income is derived from sources within the United States)

To determine whether income realized by a foreign organization is derived from sources within the United States or is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, see part 1, subchapter N, chapter 1 of the Code (section 861 and following) and the regulations thereunder.

(2) Effective dates. Subparagraph (1) of this paragraph applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969. For taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 1969, the unrelated business taxable income of a foreign organization exempt from taxation under section 501(a) consists of the organization's unrelated business taxable income which:

(i) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966, is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, whether or not such income is derived from sources within the United States;

(ii) For taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 1966, is derived from sources within the United States.

(h) Effective date. Paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section are applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after December 12, 1967. However, if a taxpayer wishes to rely on the rules stated therein for taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967, he may do so.

[T.D. 7392, 40 FR 58638, Dec. 18, 1975, as amended by T.D. 7438, 41 FR 44392, Oct. 8, 1976; T.D. 7935, 49 FR 1694, Jan. 13, 1984; T.D. 8991, 67 FR 20437, Apr. 25, 2002]

§1.512(a)-2   Definition applicable to taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967.

(a) In general. The unrelated business taxable income which is subject to the tax imposed by section 511 is the gross income, derived by any organization to which section 511 applies, from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on by it, less the deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Code which are directly connected with the carrying on of such trade or business, subject to certain exceptions, additions, and limitations referred to below. In the case of an organization which regularly carries on two or more unrelated businesses, its unrelated business taxable income is the aggregate of its gross income from all such unrelated businesses, less the aggregate of the deductions allowed with respect to all such unrelated businesses. For provisions generally applicable to the unrelated business tax, see §1.511-3, and for rules applicable to the determination of the adjusted basis of property, see paragraph (a)(2) of §1.514(a)-1.

(b) Effective date. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of §1.512(a)-1, this section is applicable with respect to taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6939, 32 FR 17660, Dec. 12, 1967]

§1.512(a)-3   [Reserved]

§1.512(a)-4   Special rules applicable to war veterans organizations.

(a) In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, this section provides special rules for the determination of the unrelated business taxable income of an organization described in section 501(c)(19). In general, the rules contained in sections 511 through 514 which are applicable to any organization listed in section 501(c) apply in determining the unrelated business taxable income of an organization described in section 501(c)(19). However, that amount which is paid by members to the organization for the purpose described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if set aside from other organizational monies and accounts in an insurance set aside, may be excluded from the unrelated business taxable income of the organization. The insurance set aside shall be used exclusively for providing insurance benefits, for the purposes specified in section 170(c)(4) of the Code, for the reasonable costs of administering the insurance program that are directly related to such set aside, or for the reasonable costs of distributing funds for section 170(c)(4) purposes. If an amount so set aside is used for any purposes other than those described in the preceding sentence, it shall be included in unrelated business taxable income without regard to any modifications provided by section 512(b), in the taxable year in which it is withdrawn from such set aside. Amounts will be considered to have been withdrawn from an insurance set aside if they are used in any manner inconsistent with providing insurance benefits, paying the reasonable costs of administering the insurance program for section 170(c)(4) purposes and for costs of distributing funds for section 170(c)(4) purposes. An example of a use of funds which would be considered a withdrawal would be the use of such funds as security for a loan.

(b) Insurance set aside—(1) Purpose of payments by members. Payments by members (including commissions on such payments earned by the set aside as agent for an insurance company) into an insurance set aside must be for the sole purpose of obtaining life, sick, accident or health insurance benefits from the organization or for the reasonable costs of administration of the insurance program, except that such purpose is not violated when excess funds from an experience gain are utilized for those purposes specified in section 170(c)(4) or the reasonable costs of distributing funds for such purposes. Funds for any other purpose may not be set aside in the insurance set aside.

(2) Income from set aside. In addition to the payments by members described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, only income from amounts in the insurance set aside (including commissions earned as agent for an insurance company) may be so set aside. Moreover unless such income is used for providing insurance benefits, for those purposes specified in section 170(c)(4), or for reasonable costs of administration, such income must be set aside within the period described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section in order to avoid being included as an item of unrelated business taxable income under section 512(a)(4).

(3) Time within which income must be set aside. Income from amounts in the insurance set aside generally must be set aside in the taxable year in which it would be includible in gross income but for this section. However, income set aside on or before the date prescribed for filing the organization's return of unrelated business taxable income (whether or not it had such income) for the taxable year (including any extension of time) may, at the election of the organization, be treated as having been set aside in such taxable year.

(4) Computation of income from set aside. Income from amounts in the insurance set aside shall consist solely of items of investment income from, and other gains derived from dealings in, property in the set aside. The deductions allowed against such items of income or other gains are those amounts which are related to the production of such income or other gains. Only the amounts of income or other gain which are in excess of such deductions may be set aside in the insurance set aside.

(5) Requirements for set aside. An amount is not properly set aside if the organization commingles it with any amount which is not to be set aside. However, adequate records describing the amount set aside and indicating that it is to be used for the designated purpose are sufficient. Amounts that are set aside need not be permanently committed to such use either under state law or by contract. Thus, for example, it is not necessary that the organization place these funds in an irrevocable trust. Although set aside income may be accumulated, any accumulation which is unreasonable in amount or duration is evidence that the income was not accumulated for the purposes set forth. For purposes of the preceding sentence, accumulations which are reasonably necessary for the purpose of providing life, sick, health, or accident insurance benefits on the basis of recognized mortality or morbidity tables and assumed rates of interest under an actuarially acceptable method would not be unreasonable even though such accumulations are quite large and the time between the receipt by the organization of such amounts and the date of payment of the benefits is quite long. For example, an accumulation of income for 20 years or longer which is determined to be reasonable necessary to pay life insurance benefits to members, their dependents or designated beneficiaries, generally would not be an unreasonable accumulation. Income which has been set aside may be invested, pending the action contemplated by the set aside, without being regarded as having been used for other purposes.

[T.D. 7438, 41 FR 44393, Oct. 8, 1976]

§1.512(a)-5T   Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations described in paragraphs (9), (17) or (20) of Section 501(c) (temporary).

Q-1: What does section 512(a)(3), as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (Act), provide with respect to organizations described in paragraphs (9), (17) or (20) of section 501(c)?

A-1: In general, section 512(a)(3), as amended by section 511 of the Act, extends the rules for determining the unrelated business income tax of voluntary employees' beneficiary associations (VEBAs) to supplemental unemployment compensation benefit trusts (SUBs) and group legal service organizations (GLSOs). The section also restricts the amount of income that may be set aside by such organizations for exempt purposes.

Q-2: What is the effective date of the amendments to section 512(a)(3)?

A-2: The amendments to section 512(a)(3) will apply to income earned by VEBAs, SUBs or GLSOs after December 31, 1985, in the taxable years of such organizations ending after such date. For purposes of applying section 512(a)(3) to the first taxable year of such an organization ending after December 31, 1985, the income of the VEBA, SUB or GLSO earned after December 31, 1985, will be determined by allocating the total income earned for such taxable year on the basis of the calendar year 1985 and 1986 months in such taxable year. However, if a VEBA, SUB or GLSO is part of a plan that is maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements (a) between employee representatives and one or more employers, and (b) which are in effect on July 1, 1985 (or ratified on or before that date), the amendments do not apply to income earned in a taxable year of a VEBA, SUB or GLSO beginning before the termination of the last of the collective bargaining agreements pursuant to which the plan is maintained (determined without regard to any extension of the contract agreed to after July 1, 1985). For purposes of the preceding sentence, any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added under section 511 of the Tax Reform Act 1984 (i.e., requirements under section 419, 419A, 512(a)(3)(E), and 4976) shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreements.

Q-3: What amount of income may a VEBA, SUB or GLSO set aside for exempt purposes?

A-3: (a) Pursuant to section 512(a)(3)(E)(i), the amounts set aside in a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO (including a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO that is part of a 10 or more employer plan, as defined in section 419A(f)(6)(B)) as of the close of a taxable year of such VEBA, SUB, or GLSO to provide for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits may not be taken into account for purposes of determining exempt function income to the extent that such amounts exceed the qualified asset account limit, determined under sections 419A(c) and 419A(f)(7), for such taxable year of the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO. In calculating the qualified asset account limit for this purpose, a reserve for post-retirement medical benefits under section 419A(c)(2)(A) is not to be taken into account.

(b) The exempt function income of a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO for a taxable year of such an organization, under section 512(a)(3)(B), includes: (1) Certain amounts paid by members of the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO within the meaning of the first sentence of section 512(a)(3)(B) (member contributions); and (2) other income of the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO (including earnings on member contributions) that is set aside for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits to the extent that the total amount set aside in the VEBA, SUB or GLSO as of the close of the taxable year for any purpose (including member contributions and other income set aside in the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO as of the close of the year) does not exceed the qualified asset account limit for such taxable year of the organization. For purposes of section 512(a)(3)(B), member contributions include both employee contributions and employer contributions to the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO. In calculating the total amount set aside in a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO as of the close of a taxable year, certain assets with useful lives extending substantially beyond the end of the taxable year (e.g., buildings, and licenses) are not to be taken into account to the extent they are used in the provision of life, sick, accident, or other benefits. For example, cash and securities (and similar investments) held by a VEBA, SUB or GLSO are not disregarded in calculating the total amount set aside for this purpose because they are used to pay welfare benefits, rather than merely used in the provision of such benefits. Accordingly, the unrelated business taxable income of a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO for a taxable year of such an organization generally will equal the lesser of two amounts: the income of the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO for the taxable year (excluding member contributions); or, the excess of the total amount set aside as of the close of the taxable year (including member contributions, and excluding certain assets with a useful life extending substantially beyond the end of the taxable year to the extent they are used in the provision of welfare benefits) over the qualified asset account limit (calculated without regard to the otherwise permitted reserve for post-retirement medical benefits) for the taxable year. See §1.419A-2T for special rules relating to collectively bargained welfare benefit funds.

(c) The income of a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO for any taxable year includes gain realized by the organization on the sale or disposition of any asset during such year. The gain realized by a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO on the sale or disposition of an asset is equal to the amount realized by the organization over the basis of such asset (in the hands of the organization), reduced by any qualified direct costs attributable to such asset (under paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of Q&A-6 of §1.419-1T).

Q-4: What transition rules apply to existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits?

A-4: (a) Section 512(a)(3)(E)(iii)(I) provides that income that is either directly or indirectly attributable to existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits will not be treated as unrelated business taxable income. An existing reserve for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits (as defined in section 512(a)(3)(E)(iii)(II)) is the total amount of assets actually set aside in a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO on July 18, 1984 (calculated in the manner set forth in Q&A-3 of the regulation, and adjusted under paragraph (c) of Q&A-11 of §1.419-1T), reduced by employer contributions to the fund on or before such date to the extent such contributions are not deductible for the taxable year of the employer containing July 18, 1984, and for any prior taxable year of the employer, for purposes of providing such post-retirement benefits. For purposes of the preceding sentence only, an amount that was not actually set aside on July 18, 1984, will be treated as having been actually set aside on such date if (1) such amount was incurred by the employer (without regard to section 461(h)) as of the close of the last taxable year of the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO ending before July 18, 1984, and (2) such amount was actually contributed to the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO within 812 months following the close of such taxable year.

(b) In addition, section 512(a)(3)(E)(iii)(I) applies to existing reserves for such post-retirement benefits only to the extent that such existing reserves do not exceed the amount that could be accumulated under the principles set forth in Revenue Rulings 69-382, 1969-2, C.B. 28; 69-478, 1969-2 C.B. 29; and 73-599, 1973-2 C.B. 40. Thus, amounts attributable to such excess existing reserves are not within this transition rule eventhough they were actually set aside on July 18, 1984.

(c) All post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits (or other benefits to the extent paid with amounts set aside to provide post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits) provided after July 18, 1984 (whether or not the employer has maintained a reserve or fund for such benefits) are to be charged, first, against the existing reserves within this transition rule (including amounts attributable to existing reserves within this transition rule) for post-retirement medical benefits or for post-retirement life insurance benefits (as the case may be) and, second, against all other amounts. For this purpose, the qualified direct cost of an asset with a useful life extending substantially beyond the end of the taxable year (as determined under Q&A-6 of §1.419-1T) will be treated as a benefit provided and thus charged against the existing reserve based on the extent to which such asset is used in the provision of post-retirement medical benefits or post-retirement life insurance benefits (as the case may be). All plans of an employer providing post-retirement medical benefits are to be treated as one plan for purposes of section 512(a)(3)(E)(iii)(III), and all plans of an employer providing post-retirement life insurance benefits are to be treated as one plan for purposes of section 512(a)(3)(E)(iii)(III).

(d) In calculating the unrelated business taxable income of a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO for a taxable year of such organization, the total income of the VEBA, SUB, or GLSO for the taxable year is reduced by the income attributable to existing reserves within the transition rule before such income is compared to the excess of the total amount set aside as of the close of the taxable year over the qualified asset account limit for the taxable year. Thus, for example, assume that the total income of a VEBA for a taxable year is $1,000, and that the excess of the total amount of the VEBA set aside as of the close of the taxable year over the applicable qualified asset account limit is $600. Assume also that of the $1,000 of total income, $500 is attributable to existing reserves within the transition rule of section 512(a)(3)(E)(iii)(I). The unrelated business income of this VEBA for the taxable year is equal to the lesser of the following two amounts: (1) the total income of the VEBA for the taxable year ($1,000), reduced to the extent that such income is attributable to existing reserves within the transition rule ($500); or (2) the excess of the total amount set aside as of the close of the taxable year over the applicable qualified asset account limit ($600). Thus, the unrelated business income of this VEBA for the taxable year is $500.

[T.D. 8073, 51 FR 4332, Feb. 4, 1986; 51 FR 7262, Mar. 3, 1986; 51 FR 11303, Apr. 2, 1986; T.D. 8073, 73 FR 59501, Oct. 9, 2008]

§1.512(b)-1   Modifications.

Whether a particular item of income falls within any of the modifications provided in section 512(b) shall be determined by all the facts and circumstances of each case. For example, if a payment termed rent by the parties is in fact a return of profits by a person operating the property for the benefit of the tax-exempt organization or is a share of the profits retained by such organization as a partner or joint venturer, such payment is not within the modification for rents. The modifications provided in section 512(b) are as follows:

(a) Certain Investment Income—(1) In general. Dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in section 512(a)(5)), annuities, income from notional principal contracts (as defined in Treasury Regulations 26 CFR 1.863-7 or regulations issued under section 446), other substantially similar income from ordinary and routine investments to the extent determined by the Commissioner, and all deductions directly connected with any of the foregoing items of income shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income.

(2) Limitations. The exclusions under paragraph (a)(1) of this section do not apply to income derived from and deductions in connection with debt-financed property (as defined in section 514(b)). Moreover, the exclusions under paragraph (a)(1) of this section do not apply to gains or losses from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of any property, or to gains or losses from the lapse or termination of options to buy or sell securities. For rules regarding the treatment of these gains and losses, see section 512(b)(5) and §1.512(b)-1(d). Furthermore, the exclusions under paragraph (a)(1) of this section do not apply to interest and annuities derived from and deductions in connection with controlled organizations. For rules regarding the treatment of such amounts, see section 512(b)(13) and §1.512(b)-1(l). Finally, the exclusions under paragraph (a)(1) of this section of income from notional principal contracts and income that the Commissioner determines to be substantially similar income from ordinary and routine investments do not apply to income earned by brokers or dealers (including organizations that make a market in derivative financial products, as described in Treasury Regulations 26 CFR 1.954-2T(a)(4)(iii)(B)).

(3) Effective dates. The effective dates of the rules of paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section that were in effect prior to August 30, 1991, remain the same. The exclusion under paragraph (a)(1) of this section of income from notional principal contracts is effective for amounts received after August 30, 1991. However, an organization may apply the exclusion under paragraph (a)(1) of this section of income from notional principal contracts prior to that date, provided that such amounts are treated consistently for all open taxable years. Unless otherwise provided by the Commissioner, the exclusion under paragraph (a)(1) of this section of income that the Commissioner determines to be substantially similar income from ordinary and routine investments is effective for amounts received after the date of the Commissioner's determination.

(b) Royalties. Royalties, including overriding royalties, and all deductions directly connected with such income shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income. However, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, certain royalties from and certain deductions in connection with either, debt-financed property (as defined in section 514(b)) or controlled organizations (as defined in paragraph (l) of this section) shall be included in computing unrelated business taxable income. Mineral royalties shall be excluded whether measured by production or by gross or taxable income from the mineral property. However, where an organization owns a working interest in a mineral property, and is not relieved of its share of the development costs by the terms of any agreement with an operator, income received from such an interest shall not be excluded. To the extent not treated as a loan under section 636, payments in discharge of mineral production payments shall be treated in the same manner as royalty payments for the purpose of computing unrelated business taxable income. To the extent treated as a loan under section 636, the amount of any payment in discharge of a production payment which is the equivalent of interest shall be treated as interest for purposes of section 512(b)(1) and paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Rents—(1) Taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, rents from real property (including personal property leased with the real property) and the deductions directly connected therewith shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income, except that certain rents from, and certain deductions in connection with, a business lease (as defined in section 514(f)) shall be included in computing unrelated business taxable income. See subparagraph (5) of this paragraph for rules governing amounts received for the rendering of services.

(2) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969—(i) In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, except as provided in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph, rents from property described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, and the deductions directly connected therewith, shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income. However, notwithstanding subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, certain rents from and certain deductions in connection with either debt-financed property (as defined in section 514(b)) or property rented to controlled organizations (as defined in paragraph (l) of this section) shall be included in computing unrelated business taxable income.

(ii) Excluded rents. The rents which are excluded from unrelated business income under section 512(b)(3)(A) and this paragraph are:

(a) Real property. All rents from real property; and

(b) Personal property. All rents from personal property leased with real property if the rents attributable to such personal property are an incidental amount of the total rents received or accrued under the lease, determined at the time sonal property are an incidental amount service by the lessee

For purposes of the preceding sentence, rents attributable to personal property generally are not an incidental amount of the total rents if such rents exceed 10 percent of the total rents from all the property leased. For example, if the rents attributable to the personal property leased are determined to be $3,000 per year, and the total rents from all property leased are $10,000 per year, then such $3,000 amount is not to be excluded from the computation of unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3)(A)(ii) and this paragraph, since such amount is not an incidental portion of the total rents.

(iii) Exception. Subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph shall not apply, if either:

(a) Excess personal property rents. More than 50 percent of the total rents are attributable to personal property, determined at the time such personal property is first placed in service by the lessee; or

(b) Net profits. The determination of the amount of such rents depends in whole or in part on the income or profits derived by any person from the property leased, other than an amount based on a fixed percentage or percentages of the gross receipts or sales. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the rules contained in paragraph (b) (3) and (6) (other than paragraph (b)(6)(ii)) of §1.856-4 shall apply.

(iv) Illustration. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A, an exempt organization, owns a printing factory which consists of a building housing two printing presses and other equipment necessary for printing. On January 1, 1971, A rents the building and the printing equipment to B for $10,000 a year. The lease states that $9,000 of such rent is for the building and $1,000 for the printing equipment. However, it is determined that notwithstanding the terms of the lease $4,000, or 40 percent ($4,000/$10,000), of the rent is actually attributable to the printing equipment. During 1971, A has $3,000 of deductions, all of which are properly allocable to the land and building. Under these circumstances, A shall not take into account in computing its unrelated business taxable income the $6,000 of rent attributable to the building and the $3,000 of deductions directly connected with such rent. However, the $4,000 of rent attributable to the printing equipment is not excluded from the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3)(A)(ii) or this paragraph since such rent represents more than an incidental portion of the total rents.

(3) Definitions and special rules. For purposes of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph:

(i) Real property defined. The term real property means all real property, including any property described in sections 1245(a)(3)(C) and 1250(c) and the regulations thereunder.

(ii) Personal property defined. The term personal property means all personal property, including any property described in section 1245(a)(3)(B) and the regulations thereunder.

(iii) Multiple leases. If separate leases are entered into with respect to real and personal property, and such properties have an integrated use (e.g., one or more leases for real property and another lease or leases for personal property to be used upon such real property), all such leases shall be considered as one lease.

(iv) Placed in service. Property is placed in service by the lessee when it is first subject to his use in accordance with the terms of the lease. For example, property subject to a lease entered into on November 1, 1971, for a term commencing on January 1, 1972, shall be considered as placed in service on January 1, 1972, regardless of when the property is first actually used by the lessee.

(v) Changes in rent charged or personal property rented. If:

(a) By reason of the placing of additional or substitute personal property in service, there is an increase of 100 percent or more in the rent attributable to all the personal property leased, or

(b) There is a modification of the lease by which there is a change in the rent charged (whether or not there is a change in the amount of personal property rented), the rent attributable to personal property shall be recomputed to determine whether the exclusion under subparagraph (2)(ii)(b) of this paragraph or the exception under subparagraph (2)(iii)(a) of this paragraph applies. Any change in the treatment of rents, attributable to a recomputation under this subdivision, shall be effective only with respect to rents for the period beginning with the event which occasioned the recomputation.

(4) Examples. Subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. On January 1, 1971, A, an exempt organization, executes two leases with B. One is for the rental of a computer, with a stated annual rent of $750. The other is for the rental of office space in which to use the computer, at a stated annual rent of $7,250. The total annual rent under both leases for 1971 is $8,000. At the time the computer is first placed in service, however, taking both leases into consideration, it is determined that notwithstanding the terms of the leases $3,000, or 37.5 percent ($3,000/$8,000), of the rent is actually attributable to the computer. Therefore, for 1971, only the $5,000 ($8,000−$3,000) attributable to the rental of the office space is excluded from the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3).
Example 2. Assume the facts as stated in example 1. Assume further that the leases to which the computer and office space are subject in example 1 provide that the rent may be increased or decreased, depending upon the prevailing rental value for similar computers and office space. On January 1, 1972, the total annual rent is increased in the computer lease to $2,000, and in the office space lease to $9,000. For 1972, it is determined that notwithstanding the terms of the leases $6,000, or 54.5 percent ($6,000/$11,000), of the total rent is actually attributable to the computer as of that time. Even though the rent attributable to personal property now exceeds 50 percent of the total rent, the rent attributable to real property will continue to be excluded, since there was no modification of the terms of the leases and since the increase in the rent was not attributable to the placing of new personal property in service. See subparagraph (3)(v) of this paragraph. Thus, for 1972 the $5,000 of rent attributable to the office space continues to be excluded from the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3).
Example 3. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that on January 1, 1973, B rents a second computer from A, which is placed in service on that date. The total rent is increased to $2,000 for the computer lease and to $10,000 for the office space lease. It is determined at the time the second computer is first placed in service that notwithstanding the terms of the leases $7,000 of the rent is actually attributable to the computers. Since the rent attributable to personal property has increased by more than 100 percent ($4,000/$3,000=133 percent), a redetermination must be made pursuant to subparagraph (3)(v) (a) of this paragraph. As a result, 58.3 percent ($7,000/$12,000) of the total rent is determined to be attributable to personal property. Accordingly, since more than 50 percent of the total rent A receives is attributable to the personal property leased, none of the rents are excluded from the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3).
Example 4. Assume the facts as stated in example 3, except that on June 30, 1975, the lease between B and A is modified. The total rent for the computer lease is reduced to $1,500 and the total rent for the office space lease is reduced to $7,500. Pursuant to subdivision (3)(v)(b) of this paragraph, a redetermination is made as of June 30, 1975. As of the modification date, it is determined that notwithstanding the terms of the leases, the rent actually attributable to the computers is $4,000, or 44.4 percent ($4,000/$9,000), of the total rent. Since less than 50 percent of the total rent is now attributable to personal property, the rent attributable to real property ($5,000), for periods after June 30, 1975, is excluded from the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3). However, the rent attributable to personal property ($4,000) is not excluded from unrelated business taxable income for such periods by operation of section 512(b)(3), since it represents more than an incidental portion of the total rent.

(5) Rendering of services. For purposes of this paragraph, payments for the use or occupancy of rooms and other space where services are also rendered to the occupant, such as for the use or occupancy of rooms or other quarters in hotels, boarding houses, or apartment houses furnishing hotel services, or in tourist camps or tourist homes, motor courts, or motels, or for the use of occupancy of space in parking lots, warehouses, or storage garages, does not constitute rent from real property. Generally, services are considered rendered to the occupant if they are primarily for his convenience and are other than those usually or customarily rendered in connection with the rental of rooms or other space for occupancy only. The supplying of maid service, for example, constitutes such service; whereas the furnishing of heat and light, the cleaning of public entrances, exists, stairways, and lobbies, the collection of trash, etc., are not considered as services rendered to the occupant. Payments for the use or occupancy of entire private residences or living quarters in duplex or multiple housing units, of offices in any office building, etc., are generally treated as rent from real property.

(d)(1) Gains and losses from the sale, etc. of property. There shall also be excluded from the computation of unrelated business taxable income gains or losses from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property other than (i) stock in trade or other property of a kind which would properly be included in the inventory of the organization if on hand at the close of the taxable year, or (ii) property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the trade or business. This exclusion does not apply with respect to the cutting of timber which is considered, upon the application of section 631(a), as a sale or exchange of such timber. In addition, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, this exclusion does not apply to the gain derived from the sale or other disposition of debt-financed property (as defined in section 514(b)). Otherwise, the exclusion under section 512(b)(5) applies with respect to gains and losses from involuntary conversions, casualties, etc.

(2) There shall be excluded from the computation of unrelated business taxable income any gain from the lapse or termination after December 31, 1975, of options to buy or sell securities (as that term is defined in section 1236(c)). An option is considered terminated when the organization's obligation under the option ceases by any means other than by reason of the exercise or lapse of such option. If the exclusion is otherwise available it will apply whether or not the organization owns the securities upon which the option is written, that is, whether or not the option is covered. However, income from the lapse or termination of an option is excludable only if the option is written in connection with the organization's investment activities. Thus, for example, if the securities upon which the options are written are held by the organization as inventory or for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business, the income from the lapse or termination will not be excludable under the provisions of this paragraph. Similarly, if an organization is engaged in the trade or business of writing options (whether or not such options are covered) the exclusion will not be available.

(e) Net operating losses. (1) The net operating loss deduction provided in section 172 shall be allowed in computing unrelated business taxable income. However, the net operating loss carryback or carryover (from a taxable year for which the taxpayer is subject to the provisions of section 511) shall be determined under section 172 without taking into account any amount of income or deduction which is not included under section 511 in computing unrelated business taxable income. For example, a loss attributable to an unrelated trade or business shall not be diminished by reason of the receipt of dividend income.

(2) For the purpose of computing the net operating loss deduction provided by section 172, any prior taxable year for which an organization was not subject to the provisions of section 511, or a corresponding provision of prior law, shall not be taken into account. Thus, if the organization was not subject to the provisions of section 511 or supplement U of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 for a preceding taxable year, the net operating loss is not a carryback to such preceding taxable year, and the net operating loss carryover to succeeding taxable years is not reduced by the taxable income for such preceding taxable year.

(3) A net operating loss carryback or carryover shall be allowed only from a taxable year for which the taxpayer is subject to the provisions of section 511, or a corresponding provision of prior law.

(4) In determining the span of years for which a net operating loss may be carried for purposes of section 172, taxable years in which an organization was not subject to the provisions of section 511 or a corresponding provision of prior law shall be taken into account. Thus, for example, if an organization is subject to the provisions of section 511 for the taxable year 1955 and has a net operating loss for that year, the last taxable year to which any part thereof may be carried over is the year 1960 regardless of whether the organization is subject to the provisions of section 511 in any of the intervening taxable years.

(f) Research. (1) Income derived from research for the United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities or a State or political subdivision thereof, and all deductions directly connected with such income, shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income.

(2) In the case of a college, university, or hospital, all income derived from research performed for any person and all deductions directly connected with such income, shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income.

(3) In the case of an organization operated primarily for the purpose of carrying on fundamental research (as distinguished from applied research) the results of which are freely available to the general public, all income derived from research performed for any person and all deductions directly connected with such income shall be excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income.

(4) For the purpose of §§1.512(a)-1, 1.512(a)-2, and this section, the term research does not include activities of a type ordinarily carried on as an incident to commercial or industrial operations, for example, the ordinary testing or inspection of materials or products or the designing or construction of equipment, buildings, etc. The term fundamental research does not include research carried on for the primary purpose of commercial or industrial application.

(g) Charitable, etc., contributions. (1) In computing the unrelated business taxable income of an organization described in section 511(a)(2) the deduction from gross income allowed by section 170 (relating to charitable contributions and gifts) shall be allowed, whether or not the contribution is directly connected with the carrying on of the trade or business. Section 512(b)(10) provides that this deduction shall not exceed 5 percent of the organization's unrelated business taxable income computed without regard to that deduction. The provisions of section 170(b)(2) are not applicable to contributions by the organizations described in section 511(a)(2).

(2) In computing the unrelated business taxable income of a trust described in section 511(b)(2), the deduction allowed by section 170 (relating to charitable contributions and gifts) shall be allowed whether or not the contribution is directly connected with the carrying on of the trade or business. The deduction is limited as provided in section 170(b)(1) (A) and (B), except that the amounts so allowed are determined on the basis of unrelated business taxable income computed without regard to this deduction (rather than on the basis of adjusted gross income). For purposes of this deduction, a distribution by a trust described in section 511(b)(2) made pursuant to the trust instrument to a beneficiary described in section 170 shall be treated in the same manner as gifts or contributions.

(3) The contribution, whether made by a trust or other exempt organization, must be paid to another organization to be allowable. For example, a university described in section 501(c)(3) which is exempt from tax and which operates an unrelated business, shall be allowed a deduction, not in excess of 5 percent of its unrelated business taxable income, for gifts or contributions to another university described in section 501(c)(3) for educational work but shall not be allowed any deduction for amounts expended in administering its own educational program.

(h) Specific deduction—(1) In general. In computing unrelated business taxable income a specific deduction from gross income of $1,000 is allowed. However, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, such specific deduction is not allowed in computing the net operating loss under section 172 and paragraph (6) of section 512(b).

(2) Special rule for a diocese, province of a religious order, or a convention or association of churches. (i) In the case of a diocese, province of a religious order, or a convention or association of churches, there shall be allowed with respect to each parish, individual church, district, or other local unit a specific deduction equal to the lower of $1,000 or the gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business regularly conducted by such local unit. However, a diocese, province of a religious order, or a convention or association of churches shall not be entitled to a specific deduction for a local unit which, for a taxable year, files a separate return. In the case of a local unit which, for a taxable year, files a separate return, such local unit may claim a specific deduction equal to the lower of $1,000 or the gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business which it regularly conducts.

(ii) The provisions of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. X is an association of churches on the calendar year basis. X is divided into local units A, B, C, and D. During 1973, A, B, C, and D derive gross income of, respectively, $1,200, $800, $1,500, and $700 from unrelated businesses which they regularly conduct. Furthermore, for such taxable year, D files a separate return. X may claim a specific deduction of $1,000 with respect to A, $800 with respect to B, and $1,000 with respect to C. X may not claim a specific deduction with respect to D. D, however, may claim a specific deduction of $700 on its return.

(i) Transitional period for churches. (1)(i) In the case of an unrelated trade or business (as defined in section 513) carried on before May 27, 1969, by a church or convention or association of churches (as defined in §1.511-2(a)(3)(ii)), or by the predecessor of a church or convention or association of churches which predecessor was itself a church or convention or association of churches, all gross income derived from such unrelated trade or business and all deductions directly connected with the carrying on of such unrelated trade or business shall be excluded from the determination of unrelated business taxable income under section 512(a) for all taxable years beginning before January 1, 1976. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in the case of income from debt-financed property (and the deductions attributable thereto), as defined in section 514, of a church or convention or association of churches or by the predecessor of a church or convention or association of churches, the provisions of paragraphs (a) through (e) of section 514 and paragraph (4) of section 512(b) shall apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

(ii) The provisions of subdivision (i) may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. X, a church as defined in §1.511-2(a)(3)(ii), realizes gross income from an unrelated business (as defined in section 513) of $100,000 for calendar year 1972. X's predecessor church, Y, began conducting such unrelated business in January 1, 1968. Of the $100,000 realized for calendar year 1972, $40,000 is attributable to debt-financed property (as defined in section 514). Since the unrelated business was conducted by Y prior to May 27, 1969, and since X's taxable year begins before January 1, 1976, that amount of the income realized from such business (and all deductions directly connected therewith) which is not attributable to debt-financed property shall be excluded from the determination of unrelated business taxable income under section 512(a). Therefore, of the $100,000 realized, $60,000 ($100,000 less $40,000 attributable to debt-financed property), and all deductions directly connected therewith shall be excluded from the determination of such unrelated business taxable income for purposes of imposition of the tax under section 511(a). The remaining $40,000 and the deductions attributable thereto shall be subject to the provisions of paragraphs (a) through (e) of section 514 and paragraph (4) of section 512(b).

(2) This paragraph shall not apply in the case of income from property, or deductions directly connected with such income, if title to the property is held by a corporation described in section 501(c)(2) for a church or convention or association of churches. Thus, if such income is derived from an unrelated trade or business, the corporation shall be liable for tax imposed by section 511(a) on such income.

(j) Special rule for certain unrelated trades or businesses carried on by a religious order or by an educational institution maintained by such order. (1) Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, gross income realized by a religious order (or an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) maintained by such order) from an unrelated trade or business, together with all deductions directly connected therewith, shall be excluded from the determination of unrelated business taxable income under section 512(a), if:

(i) The trade or business has been operated by such order or by such institution since before May 27, 1959,

(ii) The trade or business consists of providing services under a license issued by a Federal regulatory agency,

(iii) More than 90 percent of the net income from the business is, for each taxable year for which gross income from such business is so excluded by reason of section 512(b)(15) and this paragraph, devoted to religious, charitable, or educational purposes, and

(iv) It is established to the satisfaction of an officer no lower than the Regional Commissioner that the rates or other charges for such services are fully competitive with rates or other charges charged for such services by persons not exempt from taxation. Rates or other charges for such services shall be considered as fully competitive with rates or other charges charged for such services by persons not exempt from taxation if the rates charged by such unrelated trade or business are neither materially higher nor materially lower than the rates charged by similar businesses operating in the same general area.

(2) The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply with respect to income from debt-financed property (as defined in section 514) and the deductions attributable thereto. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, such income and deductions are subject to the provisions of paragraphs (a) through (e) of section 514 and paragraph (4) of section 512(b).

(k) Income and deductions from debt-financed property. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, in the case of debt-financed property (as defined in section 514(b)), there shall be included in the unrelated business taxable income of an exempt organization, as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business, the amount of unrelated debt-financed income determined under section 514(a)(1) and §1.514(a)-1(a), and there shall be allowed, as a deduction with respect to such income, the amount determined under section 514(a)(2) and §1.514(a)-1(b).

(l) Interest, annuities, royalties, and rents from controlled organizations—(1) In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, if an exempt organization (hereinafter referred to as the controlling organization) has control (as defined in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph) of another organization (hereinafter referred to as the controlled organization), the controlling organization shall include as an item of gross income in computing its unrelated business taxable income, the amount of interest, annuities, royalties, and rents derived from the controlled organization determined under subparagraph (2) or (3) of this paragraph. The preceding sentence shall apply whether or not the activity conducted by the controlling organization to derive such amounts represents a trade or business or is regularly carried on. Thus, amounts received by a controlling organization from the rental of its real property to a controlled organization may be included in the unrelated business taxable income of the controlling organization, even though the rental of such property is not an activity regularly carried on by the controlling organization.

(2) Exempt controlled organization—(i) In general. If the controlled organization is exempt from taxation under section 501(a), the amount referred to in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is an amount which bears the same ratio to the interest, annuities, royalties, and rents received by the controlling organization from the controlled organization as the unrelated business taxable income of the controlled organization bears to whichever of the following amounts is the greater:

(a) The taxable income of the controlled organization, computed as though the controlled organization were not exempt from taxation under section 501(a), or

(b) The unrelated business taxable income of the controlled organization

both determined without regard to any amounts paid directly or indirectly to the controlling organization. The controlling organization shall be allowed all deductions directly connected with amounts included in gross income under the preceding sentence.

(ii) Examples. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, an exempt scientific organization described in section 501(c)(3), owns all the stock of B, another exempt scientific organization described in section 501(c)(3). During 1971, A rents space for a laboratory to B for $15,000 a year. A's total deductions for 1971 with respect to the leased property are $3,000: $1,000 for maintenance and $2,000 for depreciation. If B were not an exempt organization, its total taxable income would be $300,000, disregarding rent paid to A. B's unrelated business taxable income, disregarding rent paid to A, is $100,000. Under these circumstances, $4,000 of the rent paid by B will be included by A as net rental income in determining its unrelated business taxable income, computed as follows:
B's unrelated business taxable income (disregarding rent paid to A)$100,000
B's taxable income (computed as though B were not exempt and disregarding rent paid to A)300,000
Ratio ($100,000/$300,000)1/3
Total rent15,000
Total deductions3,000
Rental income treated as gross income from an unrelated trade or business (1/3 of $15,000)5,000
Less deductions directly connected with such income (1/3 of $3,000)1,000
Net rental income included by A in computing its unrelated business taxable income$4,000
Example 2. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that B's taxable income is $90,000 (computed as though B were not an exempt organization, and disregarding rents paid to A). B's unrelated business taxable income ($100,000) is therefore greater than its taxable income ($90,000). Thus, the ratio used to determine the portion of rent received by A which is to be taken into account is one since both the numerator and denominator of such ratio is B's unrelated business taxable income. Consequently, all the rent received by A from B ($15,000), and all the deductions directly connected therewith ($3,000), are included by A in computing its unrelated business taxable income.

(3) Nonexempt controlled organization—(i) In general. If the controlled organization is not exempt from taxation under section 501(a), the amount referred to in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is an amount which bears the same ratio to the interest, annuities, royalties, and rents received by the controlling organization from the controlled organization as the excess taxable income (as defined in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph) of the controlled organization bears to whichever of the following amounts is the greater:

(a) The taxable income of the controlled organization, or

(b) The excess taxable income of the controlled organization

both determined without regard to any amount paid directly or indirectly to the controlling organization. The controlling organization shall be allowed all deductions which are directly connected with amounts included in gross income under the preceding sentence.

(ii) Excess taxable income. For purposes of this paragraph, the term excess taxable income means the excess of the controlled organization's taxable income over the amount of such taxable income which, if derived directly by the controlling organization, would not be unrelated business taxable income.

(iii) Examples. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, an exempt university described in section 501(c)(3), owns all the stock of M, a nonexempt organization. During 1971, M leases a factory and a dormitory from A for a total annual rent of $100,000. During the taxable year, M has $500,000 of taxable income, disregarding the rent paid to A: $150,000 from a dormitory for students of A university, and $350,000 from the operation of a factory which is a business unrelated to A's exempt purpose. A's deductions for 1971 with respect to the leased property are $4,000 for the dormitory and $16,000 for the factory. Under these circumstances, $56,000 of the rent paid by M will be included by A as net rental income in determining its unrelated business taxable income, computed as follows:
M's taxable income (disregarding rent paid to A)$500,000
Less taxable income from dormitory150,000
Excess taxable income$350,000
Ratio ($350,000/$500,000)7/10
Total rent paid to A$100,000
Total deductions ($4,000+$16,000)20,000
Rental income treated as gross income from an unrelated trade or business (7/10 of $100,000)70,000
Less deductions directly connected with such income (7/10 of $20,000)14,000
Net rental income included by A in computing its unrelated business taxable income$56,000
Example 2. Assume the facts as stated in example 1, except that M's taxable income (disregarding rent paid to A) is $300,000, consisting of $350,000 from the operation of the factory and a $50,000 loss from the operation of the dormitory. Thus, M's excess taxable income is also $300,000, since none of M's taxable income would be excluded from the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income if received directly by A. The ratio of M's excess taxable income to its taxable income is therefore one ($300,000/$300,000). Thus, all the rent received by A from M ($100,000), and all the deductions directly connected therewith ($20,000), are included in the computation of A's unrelated business taxable income.

(4) Control—(i) In general. For purposes of this paragraph—

(a) Stock corporation. In the case of an organization which is a stock corporation, the term control means ownership by an exempt organization of stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and at least 80 percent of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of such corporation.

(b) Nonstock organization. In the case of a nonstock organization, the term control means that at least 80 percent of the directors or trustees of such organization are either representatives of or directly or indirectly controlled by an exempt organization. A trustee or director is a representative of an exempt organization if he is a trustee, director, agent, or employee of such exempt organization. A trustee or director is controlled by an exempt organization if such organization has the power to remove such trustee or director and designate a new trustee or director.

(ii) Gain or loss of control. If control of an organization (as defined in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph) is acquired or relinquished during the taxable year, only the interest, annuities, royalties, and rents paid or accrued to the controlling organization in accordance with its method of accounting for that portion of the taxable year it has control shall be subject to the tax on unrelated business income.

(5) Amounts taxable under other provisions of the Code—(i) In general. Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, section 512(b)(13) and this paragraph do not apply to amounts which are included in the computation of unrelated business taxable income by operation of any other provision of the Code. However, amounts which are not included in unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(a)(1), or which are excluded by operation of section 512(b) (1), (2), or (3), may be included in unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(13) and this paragraph.

(ii) Debt-financed property. Rents deprived from the lease of debt-financed property by a controlling organization to a controlled organization are subject to the rules contained in section 512(b)(13) and this paragraph. Thus, if a controlling organization leases debt-financed property to a controlled organization, the amount of rents includible in the controlling organization's unrelated business taxable income shall first be determined under section 512(b)(13) and this paragraph, and only the portion of such rents not taken into account by operation of section 512(b)(13) are taken into account by operation of section 514. See example 3 of §1.514(b)-1(b)(3).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6939, 32 FR 17661, Dec. 12, 1967; T.D. 7177, 37 FR 7089, Apr. 8, 1972; T.D. 7183, 37 FR 7885, Apr. 21, 1972; T.D. 7261, 38 FR 5466, Mar. 1, 1973; 38 FR 6387, Mar. 9, 1973; T.D. 7632, 44 FR 42681, July 20, 1979; T.D. 7767, 46 FR 11265, Feb. 6, 1981; T.D. 8423, 57 FR 33443, July 29, 1992; 57 FR 42490, Sept. 15, 1992]

§1.512(c)-1   Special rules applicable to partnerships; in general.

In the event an organization to which section 511 applies is a member of a partnership regularly engaged in a trade or business which is an unrelated trade or business with respect to such organization, the organization shall include in computing its unrelated business taxable income so much of its share (whether or not distributed) of the partnership gross income as is derived from that unrelated business and its share of the deductions attributable thereto. For this purpose, both the gross income and the deductions shall be computed with the necessary adjustments for the exceptions, additions, and limitations referred to in section 512(b) and in §1.512(b)-1. For example, if an exempt educational institution is a partner in a partnership which operates a factory and if such partnership also holds stock in a corporation, the exempt organization shall include in computing its unrelated business taxable income its share of the gross income from the operation of the factory, but not its share of any dividends received by the partnership from the corporation. If the taxable year of the organization differs from that of the partnership, the amounts included or deducted in computing unrelated business taxable income shall be based upon the income and deductions of the partnership for each taxable year of the partnership ending within or with the taxable year of the organization.

§1.513-1   Definition of unrelated trade or business.

(a) In general. As used in section 512 the term unrelated business taxable income means the gross income derived by an organization from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on by it, less the deductions and subject to the modifications provided in section 512. Section 513 specifies with certain exceptions that the phrase unrelated trade or business means, in the case of an organization subject to the tax imposed by section 511, any trade or business the conduct of which is not substantially related (aside from the need of such organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the profits derived) to the exercise or performance by such organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501 (or, in the case of an organization described in section 511(a)(2)(B), to the exercise or performance of any purpose or function described in section 501(c)(3)). (For certain exceptions from this definition, see paragraph (e) of this section. For a special definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to certain trusts, see section 513(b).) Therefore, unless one of the specific exceptions of section 512 or 513 is applicable, gross income of an exempt organization subject to the tax imposed by section 511 is includible in the computation of unrelated business taxable income if: (1) It is income from trade or business; (2) such trade or business is regularly carried on by the organization; and (3) the conduct of such trade or business is not substantially related (other than through the production of funds) to the organization's performance of its exempt functions.

(b) Trade or business. The primary objective of adoption of the unrelated business income tax was to eliminate a source of unfair competition by placing the unrelated business activities of certain exempt organizations upon the same tax basis as the nonexempt business endeavors with which they compete. On the other hand, where an activity does not possess the characteristics of a trade or business within the meaning of section 162, such as when an organization sends out low-cost articles incidental to the solicitation of charitable contributions, the unrelated business income tax does not apply since the organization is not in competition with taxable organizations. However, in general, any activity of a section 511 organization which is carried on for the production of income and which otherwise possesses the characteristics required to constitute trade or business within the meaning of section 162—and which, in addition, is notsubstantially related to the performance of exempt functions—presents sufficient likelihood of unfair competition to be within the policy of the tax. Accordingly, for purposes of section 513 the term trade or business has the same meaning it has in section 162, and generally includes any activity carried on for the production of income from the sale of goods or performance of services. Thus, the term trade or business in section 513 is not limited to integrated aggregates of assets, activities and good will which comprise businesses for the purposes of certain other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Activities of producing or distributing goods or performing services from which a particular amount of gross income is derived do not lose identity as trade or business merely because they are carried on within a larger aggregate of similar activities or within a larger complex of other endeavors which may, or may not, be related to the exempt purposes of the organization. Thus, for example, the regular sale of pharmaceutical supplies to the general public by a hospital pharmacydoes not lose identity as trade or business merely because the pharmacy also furnishes supplies to the hospital and patients of the hospital in accordance with its exempt purposes or in compliance with the terms of section 513(a)(2). Similarly, activities of soliciting, selling, and publishing commercial advertising do not lose identity as a trade or business even though the advertising is published in an exempt organization periodical which contains editorial matter related to the exempt purposes of the organization. However, where an activity carried on for the production of income constitutes an unrelated trade or business, no part of such trade or business shall be excluded from such classification merely because it does not result in profit.

(c) Regularly carried on—(1) General principles. In determining whether trade or business from which a particular amount of gross income derives is regularly carried on, within the meaning of section 512, regard must be had to the frequency and continuity with which the activities productive of the income are conducted and the manner in which they are pursued. This requirement must be applied in light of the purpose of the unrelated business income tax to place exempt organization business activities upon the same tax basis as the nonexempt business endeavors with which they compete. Hence, for example, specific business activities of an exempt organization will ordinarily be deemed to be regularly carried on if they manifest a frequency and continuity, and are pursued in a manner, generally similar to comparable commercial activities of nonexempt organizations.

(2) Application of principles in certain cases—(i) Normal time span of activities. Where income producing activities are of a kind normally conducted by nonexempt commercial organizations on a year-round basis, the conduct of such activities by an exempt organization over a period of only a few weeks does not constitute the regular carrying on of trade or business. For example, the operation of a sandwich stand by a hospital auxiliary for only 2 weeks at a state fair would not be the regular conduct of trade or business. However, the conduct of year-round business activities for one day each week would constitute the regular carrying on of trade or business. Thus, the operation of a commercial parking lot on Saturday of each week would be the regular conduct of trade or business. Where income producing activities are of a kind normally undertaken by nonexempt commercial organizations only on a seasonal basis, the conduct of such activities by an exempt organization during a significant portion of the season ordinarilyconstitutes the regular conduct of trade or business. For example, the operation of a track for horse racing for several weeks of a year would be considered the regular conduct of trade or business because it is usual to carry on such trade or business only during a particular season.

(ii) Intermittent activities; in general. In determining whether or not intermittently conducted activities are regularly carried on, the manner of conduct of the activities must be compared with the manner in which commercial activities are normally pursued by nonexempt organizations. In general, exempt organization business activities which are engaged in only discontinuously or periodically will not be considered regularly carried on if they are conducted without the competitive and promotional efforts typical of commercial endeavors. For example, the publication of advertising in programs for sports events or music or drama performances will not ordinarily be deemed to be the regular carrying on of business. Similarly, where an organization sells certain types of goods or services to a particular class of persons in pursuance of its exempt functions or primarily for the convenience of such persons within the meaning of section 513(a)(2) (as, for example, the sale of books by a college bookstore to students or the sale of pharmaceutical supplies by a hospital pharmacy to patients of the hospital), casual sales in the course of such activity which do not qualify as related to the exempt function involved or as described in section 513(a)(2) will not be treated as regular. On the other hand, where the nonqualifyingsales are not merely casual, but are systematically and consistently promoted and carried on by the organization, they meet the section 512 requirement of regularity.

(iii) Intermittent activities; special rule in certain cases of infrequent conduct. Certain intermittent income producing activities occur so infrequently that neither their recurrence nor the manner of their conduct will cause them to be regarded as trade or business regularly carried on. For example, income producing or fund raising activities lasting only a short period of time will not ordinarily be treated as regularly carried on if they recur only occasionally or sporadically. Furthermore, such activities will not be regarded as regularly carried on merely because they are conducted on an annually recurrent basis. Accordingly, income derived from the conduct of an annual dance or similar fund raising event for charity would not be income from trade or business regularly carried on.

(d) Substantially related—(1) In general. Gross income derives from unrelated trade or business, within the meaning of section 513(a), if the conduct of the trade or business which produces the income is not substantially related (other than through the production of funds) to the purposes for which exemption is granted. The presence of this requirement necessitates an examination of the relationship between the business activities which generate the particular income in question—the activities, that is, of producing or distributing the goods or performing the services involved—and the accomplishment of the organization's exempt purposes.

(2) Type of relationship required. Trade or business is related to exempt purposes, in the relevant sense, only where the conduct of the business activities has causal relationship to the achievement of exempt purposes (other than through the production of income); and it is substantially related, for purposes of section 513, only if the causal relationship is a substantial one. Thus, for the conduct of trade or business from which a particular amount of gross income is derived to be substantially related to purposes for which exemption is granted, the production or distribution of the goods or the performance of the services from which the gross income is derived must contribute importantly to the accomplishment of those purposes. Where the production or distribution of the goods or the performance of the services does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of the exempt purposes of an organization, the income from the sale of the goods or the performance of the services does not derive from the conduct of related trade or business. Whether activities productive of gross income contribute importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which an organization is granted exemption depends in each case upon the facts and circumstances involved.

(3) Size and extent of activities. In determining whether activities contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose, the size and extent of the activities involved must be considered in relation to the nature and extent of the exempt function which they purport to serve. Thus, where income is realized by an exempt organization from activities which are in part related to the performance of its exempt functions, but which are conducted on a larger scale than is reasonably necessary for performance of such functions, the gross income attributable to that portion of the activities in excess of the needs of exempt functions constitutes gross income from the conduct of unrelated trade or business. Such income is not derived from the production or distribution of goods or the performance of services which contribute importantly to the accomplishment of any exempt purpose of the organization.

(4) Application of principles—(i) Income from performance of exempt functions. Gross income derived from charges for the performance of exempt functions does not constitute gross income from the conduct of unrelated trade or business. The following examples illustrate the application of this principle:

Example 1. M, an organization described in section 501(c)(3), operates a school for training children in the performing arts, such as acting, singing, and dancing. It presents performances by its students and derives gross income from admission charges for the performances. The students' participation in performances before audiences is an essential part of their training. Since the income realized from the performances derives from activities which contribute importantly to the accomplishment of M's exempt purposes, it does not constitute gross income from unrelated trade or business. (For specific exclusion applicable in certain cases of contributed services, see section 513(a)(1) and paragraph (e)(1) of this section.)
Example 2. N is a trade union qualified for exemption under section 501(c)(5). To improve the trade skills of its members, N conducts refresher training courses and supplies handbooks and technical manuals. N receives payments from its members for these services and materials. However, the development and improvement of the skills of its members is one of the purposes for which exemption is granted N; and the activities described contribute importantly to that purpose. Therefore, the income derived from these activities does not constitute gross income from unrelated trade or business.
Example 3. O is an industry trade association qualified for exemption under section 501(c)(6). It presents a trade show in which members of its industry join in an exhibition of industry products. O derives income from charges made to exhibitors for exhibit space and admission fees charged patrons or viewers of the show. The show is not a sales facility for individual exhibitors; its purpose is the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the industry's products in general, and it is conducted in a manner reasonably calculated to achieve that purpose. The stimulation of demand for the industry's products in general is one of the purposes for which exemption is granted O. Consequently, the activities productive of O's gross income from the show—that is, the promotion, organization and conduct of the exhibition—contribute importantly to the achievement of an exempt purpose, and the income does not constitute gross income from unrelated trade or business. See also section 513(d) and regulations thereunder regarding sales activity.

(ii) Disposition of product of exempt functions. Ordinarily, gross income from the sale of products which result from the performance of exempt functions does not constitute gross income from the conduct of unrelated trade or business if the product is sold in substantially the same state it is in on completion of the exempt functions. Thus, in the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and engaged in a program of rehabilitation of handicapped persons, income from sale of articles made by such persons as a part of their rehabilitation training would not be gross income from conduct of unrelated trade or business. The income in such case would be from sale of products, the production of which contributed importantly to the accomplishment of purposes for which exemption is granted the organization—namely, rehabilitation of the handicapped. On the other hand, if a product resulting from an exempt function is utilized or exploitedin further business endeavor beyond that reasonably appropriate or necessary for disposition in the state it is in upon completion of exempt functions, the gross income derived therefrom would be from conduct of unrelated trade or business. Thus, in the case of an experimental dairy herd maintained for scientific purposes by a research organization described in section 501(c)(3), income from sale of milk and cream produced in the ordinary course of operation of the project would not be gross income from conduct of unrelated trade or business. On the other hand, if the organization were to utilize the milk and cream in the further manufacture of food items such as ice cream, pastries, etc., the gross income from the sale of such products would be from the conduct of unrelated trade or business unless the manufacturing activities themselves contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose of the organization.

(iii) Dual use of assets or facilities. In certain cases, an asset or facility necessary to the conduct of exempt functions may also be employed in a commercial endeavor. In such cases, the mere fact of the use of the asset or facility in exempt functions does not, by itself, make the income from the commercial endeavor gross income from related trade or business. The test, instead, is whether the activities productive of the income in question contribute importantly to the accomplishment of exempt purposes. Assume, for example, that a museum exempt under section 501(c)(3) has a theater auditorium which is specially designed and equipped for showing of educational films in connection with its program of public education in the arts and sciences. The theater is a principal feature of the museum and is in continuous operation during the hours the museum is open to the public. If the organization were to operate the theater as an ordinary motion picture theater for public entertainment during the evening hours when the museum was closed, gross income from such operation would be gross income from conduct of unrelated trade or business.

(iv) Exploitation of exempt functions. In certain cases, activities carried on by an organization in the performance of exempt functions may generate good will or other intangibles which are capable of being exploited in commercial endeavors. Where an organization exploits such an intangible in commercial activities, the mere fact that the resultant income depends in part upon an exempt function of the organization does not make it gross income from related trade or business. In such cases, unless the commercial activities themselves contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose, the income which they produce is gross income from the conduct of unrelated trade or business. The application of this subdivision is illustrated in the following examples:

Example 1. U, an exempt scientific organization, enjoys an excellent reputation in the field of biological research. It exploits this reputation regularly by selling endorsements of various items of laboratory equipment to manufacturers. The endorsing of laboratory equipment does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which exemption is granted U. Accordingly, the income derived from the sale of endorsements is gross income from unrelated trade or business.
Example 2. V, an exempt university, has a regular faculty and a regularly enrolled student body. During the school year, V sponsors the appearance of professional theater companies and symphony orchestras which present drama and musical performances for the students and faculty members. Members of the general public are also admitted. V advertises these performances and supervises advance ticket sales at various places, including such university facilities as the cafeteria and the university bookstore. V derives gross income from the conduct of the performances. However, while the presentation of the performances makes use of an intangible generated by V's exempt educational functions—the presence of the student body and faculty—the presentation of such drama and music events contributes importantly to the overall educational and cultural function of the university. Therefore, the income which V receives does not constitute gross income from the conduct of unrelated trade or business.
Example 3. W is an exempt business league with a large membership. Under an arrangement with an advertising agency, W regularly mails brochures, pamphlets and other commercial advertising materials to its members, for which service W charges the agency an agreed amount per enclosure. The distribution of the advertising materials does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which W is granted exemption. Accordingly, the payments made to W by the advertising agency constitute gross income from unrelated trade or business.
Example 4. X, an exempt organization for the advancement of public interest in classical music, owns a radio station and operates it in a manner which contributes importantly to the accomplishment of the purposes for which the organization is granted exemption. However, in the course of the operation of the station the organization derives gross income from the regular sale of advertising time and services to commercial advertisers in the manner of an ordinary commercial station. Neither the sale of such time nor the performance of such services contributes importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which the organization is granted exemption. Notwithstanding the fact that the production of the advertising income depends upon the existence of the listening audience resulting from performance of exempt functions, such income is gross income from unrelated trade or business.
Example 5. Y, an exempt university, provides facilities, instruction and faculty supervision for a campus newspaper operated by its students. In addition to news items and editorial commentary, the newspaper publishes paid advertising. The solicitation, sale, and publication of the advertising are conducted by students, under the supervision and instruction of the university. Although the services rendered to advertisers are of a commercial character, the advertising business contributes importantly to the university's educational program through the training of the students involved. Hence, none of the income derived from publication of the newspaper constitutes gross income from unrelated trade or business. The same result would follow even though the newspaper is published by a separately incorporated section 501(c)(3) organization, qualified under the university rules for recognition of student activities, and even though such organization utilizes its own facilities and is independent of faculty supervision, but carries out its educational purposes by means of student instruction of other students in the editorial and advertising activities and student participation in those activities.
Example 6. Z is an association exempt under section 501(c)(6), formed to advance the interests of a particular profession and drawing its membership from the members of that profession. Z publishes a monthly journal containing articles and other editorial material which contribute importantly to the accomplishment of purposes for which exemption is granted the organization. Income from the sale of subscriptions to members and others in accordance with the organization's exempt purposes, therefore, does not constitute gross income from unrelated trade or business. In connection with the publication of the journal, Z also derives income from the regular sale of space and services for general consumer advertising,including advertising of such products as soft drinks, automobiles, articles of apparel, and home appliances. Neither the publication of such advertisements nor the performance of services for such commercial advertisers contributes importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which exemption is granted. Therefore, notwithstanding the fact that the production of income from advertising utilizes the circulation developed and maintained in performance of exempt functions, such income is gross income from unrelated trade or business.
Example 7. The facts are as described in the preceding example, except that the advertising in Z's journal promotes only products which are within the general area of professional interest of its members. Following a practice common among taxable magazines which publish advertising, Z requires its advertising to comply with certain general standards of taste, fairness, and accuracy; but within those limits the form, content, and manner of presentation of the advertising messages are governed by the basic objective of the advertisers to promote the sale of the advertised products. While the advertisements contain certain information, the informational function of the advertising is incidental to the controlling aim of stimulating demand for the advertised products and differs in no essential respect from the informational function of any commercial advertising. Like taxable publishers of advertising, Z accepts advertising only from those who are willing to pay its prescribed rates. Although continuing education of itsmembers in matters pertaining to their profession is one of the purposes for which Z is granted exemption, the publication of advertising designed and selected in the manner of ordinary commercial advertising is not an educational activity of the kind contemplated by the exemption statute; it differs fundamentally from such an activity both in its governing objective and in its method. Accordingly, Z's publication of advertising does not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of its exempt purposes; and the income which it derives from advertising constitutes gross income from unrelated trade or business.

(e) Exceptions. Section 513(a) specifically states that the term unrelated trade or business does not include:

(1) Any trade or business in which substantially all the work in carrying on such trade or business is performed for the organization without compensation; or

(2) Any trade or business carried on by an organization described in section 501(c)(3) or by a governmental college or university described in section 511(a)(2)(B), primarily for the convenience of its members, students, patients, officers, or employees; or, any trade or business carried on by a local association of employees described in section 501(c)(4) organized before May 27, 1969, which consists of the selling by the organization of items of work-related clothes and equipment and items normally sold through vending machines, through food dispensing facilities, or by snack bars, for the convenience of its members at their usual places of employment; or

(3) Any trade or business which consists of selling merchandise, substantially all of which has been received by the organization as gifts or contributions

An example of the operation of the first of the exceptions mentioned above would be an exempt orphanage operating a retail store and selling to the general public, where substantially all the work in carrying on such business is performed for the organization by volunteers without compensation. An example of the first part of the second exception, relating to an organization described in section 501(c)(3) or a governmental college or university described in section 511(a)(2)(B), would be a laundry operated by a college for the purpose of laundering dormitory linens and the clothing of students. The latter part of the second exception, dealing with certain sales by local employee associations, will not apply to sales of these items at locations other than the usual place of employment of the employees; therefore sales at such other locations will continue to be treated as unrelated trade or business. The third exception applies to so-called thrift shops operated by a tax-exempt organization where those desiring to benefit such organization contribute old clothes, books, furniture, et cetera, to be sold to the general public with the proceeds going to the exempt organization.

(f) Special rule respecting publishing businesses prior to 1970. For a special rule for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970, with respect to publishing businesses carried on by an organization, see section 513(c) of the Code prior to its amendment by section 121(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 542).

(g) Effective date. This section is applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after December 12, 1967. However, if a taxpayer wishes to rely on the rules stated in this section for taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967, it may do so.

[T.D. 6939, 32 FR 17657, Dec. 12, 1967; 32 FR 17890, Dec. 14, 1967; 32 FR 17938, Dec. 15, 1967; T.D. 7107, 36 FR 6421, Apr. 3, 1971; T.D. 7392, 40 FR 58642, Dec. 18, 1975; T.D. 7896, 48 FR 23817, May 27, 1983]

§1.513-2   Definition of unrelated trade or business applicable to taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967.

(a) In general. (1) As used in section 512(a), the term unrelated business taxable income includes only income from an unrelated trade or business regularly carried on, and the term trade or business has the same meaning as it has in section 162.

(2) The income of an exempt organization is subject to the tax on unrelated business income only if two conditions are present with respect to such income. The first condition is that the income must be from a trade or business which is regularly carried on by the organization. The second condition is that the trade or business must not be substantially related (aside from the need of the organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the profits derived) to the exercise or performance by such organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501, or in the case ofan organization described in section 511(a)(2)(B) (governmental colleges, etc.) to the exercise or performance of any purpose or function described in section 501(c)(3). Whether or not an organization is subject to the tax imposed by section 511 shall be determined by the application of these tests to the particular circumstances involved in each individual case. For certain exceptions from the term unrelated trade or business, see paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) A trade or business is regularly carried on when the activity is conducted with sufficient consistency to indicate a continuing purpose of the organization to derive some of its income from such activity. An activity may be regularly carried on even though its performance is infrequent or seasonal.

(4) Ordinarily, a trade or business is substantially related to the activities for which an organization is granted exemption if the principal purpose of such trade or business is to further (other than through the production of income) the purpose for which the organization is granted exemption. In the usual case the nature and size of the trade or business must be compared with the nature and extent of the activities for which the organization is granted exemption in order to determine whether the principal purpose of such trade or business is to further (other than through the production of income) the purpose for which the organization is granted exemption. For example, the operation of a wheat farm is substantially related to the exempt activity of an agricultural college if the wheat farm isoperated as a part of the educational program of the college, and is not operated on a scale disproportionately large when compared with the educational program of the college. Similarly, a university radio station or press is considered a related trade or business if operated primarily as an integral part of the educational program of the university, but is considered an unrelated trade or business if operated in substantially the same manner as a commercial radio station or publishing house. A trade or business not otherwise related does not become substantially related to an organization's exempt purpose merely because incidental use is made of the trade or business in order to further the exempt purpose. For example, the manufacture and sale of a product by an exempt college would not become substantially related merely because students as part of their educational program perform clerical or bookkeeping functions in the business. In some cases, the business may be substantially related because it is a necessary part of the exempt activity. For example, in the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and engaged in the rehabilitation of handicapped persons, the business of selling articles made by such persons as a part of their rehabilitation training would not be considered an unrelated business since such business is a necessary part of the rehabilitation program.

(5) If an organization receives a payment pursuant to a contract or agreement under which such organization is to perform research which constitutes an unrelated trade or business, the entire amount of such payment is income from an unrelated trade or business. See, however, section 512(b), (7), (8), and (9), relating to the exclusion from unrelated business taxable income of income derived from research for the United States, or any State, and of income derived from research performed for any person by a college, university, hospital, or organization operated primarily for the purpose of carrying on fundamental research the results of which are freely available to the general public.

(b) Exceptions. Section 513(a) specifically states that the term unrelated trade or business does not include:

(1) Any trade or business in which substantially all the work in carrying on such trade or business is performed for the organization without compensation; or

(2) Any trade or business carried on by an organization described in section 501(c)(3) or by a governmental college or university described in section 511(a)(2)(B), primarily for the convenience of its members, students, patients, officers, or employees; or

(3) Any trade or business which consists of selling merchandise, substantially all of which has been received by the organization as gifts or contributions

An example of the operation of the first of the exceptions mentioned above would be an exempt orphanage operating a retail store and selling to the general public, where substantially all the work in carrying on such business is performed for the organization by volunteers without compensation. An example of the second exception would be a laundry operated by a college for the purpose of laundering dormitory linens and the clothing of students. The third exception applies to so-called thrift shops operated by a tax-exempt organization where those desiring to benefit such organization contribute old clothes, books, furniture, etc., to be sold to the general public with the proceeds going to the exempt organization.

(c) Special rules respecting publishing businesses. For a special rule with respect to publishing businesses carried on by an organization, see section 513(c) of the Code prior to its amendment by section 121(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 542).

(d) Effective date. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of §1.513-1, this section is applicable with respect to taxable years beginning before December 13, 1967.

(Sec. 513 as amended by sec. 4, Act of July 14, 1960 (P.L. 86-667, 74 Stat. 536); secs. 121 (b)(4) and (c), Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 536, 542))

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6525, 26 FR 190, Jan. 11, 1961; T.D. 6939, 32 FR 17657, Dec. 12, 1967; T.D. 7392, 40 FR 58643, Dec. 18, 1975; 40 FR 60053, Dec. 31, 1975]

§1.513-3   Qualified convention and trade show activity.

(a) Introduction—(1) In general. Section 513(d) and §1.513-3(b) provide that convention and trade show activities carried on by a qualifying organization in connection with a qualified convention or trade show will not be treated as unrelated trade or business. Consequently, income from qualified convention and trade show activities, derived by a qualifying organization that sponsors the qualified convention or trade show, will not be subject to the tax imposed by section 511. Section 1.513-3(c) defines qualifying organizations and qualified conventions or trade shows. Section 1.513-3(d) concerns the treatment of income derived from certain activities, including rental of exhibition space at a qualified convention or trade show where sales activity is permitted, and the treatment of supplier exhibits at qualified conventions and trade shows.

(2) Effective date. This section is effective for taxable years beginning after October 4, 1976.

(b) Qualified activities not unrelated. A convention or trade show activity, as defined in section 513(d)(3)(A) and §1.513-3(c)(4), will not be considered unrelated trade or business if it is conducted by a qualifying organization described in section 513(d)(3)(C) and §1.513-3(c)(1), in conjunction with a qualified convention or trade show, as defined in section 513(d)(3)(B) and §1.513-3(c)(2), sponsored by the qualifying organization. Such an activity is a qualified convention or trade show activity. A convention or trade show activity which is conducted by an organization described in section 501(c) (5) or (6), but which otherwise is not so qualified under this section, will be considered unrelated trade or business.

(c) Definitions—(1) Qualifying organization. Under section 513(d)(3)(C), a qualifying organization is one which:

(i) Is described in either section 501(c) (5) or (6), and

(ii) Regularly conducts as one of its substantial exempt purposes a qualified convention or trade show.

(2) Qualified convention or trade show. For purposes of this section, the term qualified convention or trade show means a show that meets the following requirements:

(i) It is conducted by a qualifying organization described in section 513(d)(3)(C);

(ii) At least one purpose of the sponsoring organization in conducting the show is the education of its members, or the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry (or segment thereof) of the members of the qualifying organization; and

(iii) The show is designed to achieve that purpose through the character of a significant portion of the exhibits or the character of conferences and seminars held at a convention or meeting.

(3) Show. For purposes of this section, the term show includes an international, national, state, regional, or local convention, annual meeting or show.

(4) Convention and trade show activity. For purposes of this section, convention and trade show activity means any activity of a kind traditionally carried on at shows. It includes, but is not limited to—

(i) Activities designed to attract to the show members of the sponsoring organization, members of an industry in general, and members of the public, to view industry products or services and to stimulate interest in, and demand for such products or services;

(ii) Activities designed to educate persons in the industry about new products or services or about new rules and regulations affecting the industry; and

(iii) Incidental activities, such as furnishing refreshments, of a kind traditionally carried on at such shows.

(d) Certain activities—(1) Rental of exhibition space. The rental of display space to exhibitors (including exhibitors who are suppliers) at a qualified trade show or at a qualified convention and trade show will not be considered unrelated trade or business even though the exhibitors who rent the space are permitted to sell or solicit orders.

(2) Suppliers defined. For purposes of subparagraph (1), a supplier's exhibit is one in which the exhibitor displays goods or services that are supplied to, rather than by, the members of the qualifying organization in the conduct of such members' own trades or businesses.

(e) Example. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. X, an organization described in section 501(c)(6), was formed to promote the construction industry. Its membership is made up of manufacturers of heavy construction machinery many of whom own, rent, or lease one or more digital computers produced by various computer manufacturers. X is a qualifying organization under section 513(d)(3)(C) that regularly holds an annual meeting. At this meeting a national industry sales campaign and methods of consumer financing for heavy construction machinery are discussed. In addition, new construction machinery developed for use in the industry is on display with representatives of the various manufacturers present to promote their machinery. Both members and nonmembers attend this portion of the conference. In addition, manufacturers of computers are present to educate X's members. While this aspect of the conference is a supplier exhibit (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section), income earned from such activity by X will not constitute unrelated business taxable income to X because the activity is conducted as part of a qualified trade show described in §1.513-3(c).
Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, but the only goods or services displayed are those of suppliers, the computer manufacturers. Selling and order taking are permitted. No member exhibits are maintained. Standing alone, this supplier exhibit (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section) would constitute a supplier show and not a qualified convention or trade show. In this situation, however, the rental of exhibition space to suppliers is not unrelated trade or business. It is conducted by a qualifying organization in conjunction with a qualified convention or trade show. The show (the annual meeting) is a qualified convention or trade show because one of its purposes is the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products or services of the industry through the character of the annual meeting.
Example 3. Y is an organization described in section 501(c)(6). The organization conducts an annual show at which its members exhibit their products and services in order to promote public interest in the line of business. Potential customers are invited to the show, and sales and order taking are permitted. The organization secures the exhibition facility, undertakes the planning and direction of the show, and maintains exhibits designed to promote the line of business in general. The show is a qualified convention or trade show described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. The provision of exhibition space to individual members is a qualified trade show activity, and is not unrelated trade or business.
Example 4. Z is an organization described in section 501(c)(6) that sponsors an annual show. As the sole activity at the show, suppliers to the members of Z exhibit their products and services for the purpose of stimulating the sale of their products. Selling and order taking are permitted. The show is a supplier show and does not meet the definition of a qualified convention show as it does not satisfy any of the three alternative bases for qualification. First, the show does not stimulate interest in the members' products through the character of product exhibits as the only products exhibited are those of suppliers rather than members. Second, the show does not stimulate interest in members' products through conferences or seminars as no such conferences are held at the show. Third, the show does not meet the definition of a qualified show on the basis of educational activities as the exhibition of suppliers' products is designed primarily to stimulate interest in, and sale of, suppliers' products. Thus, the organization's provision of exhibition space is not a qualified convention or trade show activity. Income derived from rentals of exhibition space to suppliers will be unrelated business taxable income under section 512.

[T.D. 7896, 48 FR 23817, May 27, 1983]

§1.513-4   Certain sponsorship not unrelated trade or business.

(a) In general. Under section 513(i), the receipt of qualified sponsorship payments by an exempt organization which is subject to the tax imposed by section 511 does not constitute receipt of income from an unrelated trade or business.

(b) Exception. The provisions of this section do not apply with respect to payments made in connection with qualified convention and trade show activities. For rules governing qualified convention and trade show activity, see §1.513-3. The provisions of this section also do not apply to income derived from the sale of advertising or acknowledgments in exempt organization periodicals. For this purpose, the term periodical means regularly scheduled and printed material published by or on behalf of the exempt organization that is not related to and primarily distributed in connection with a specific event conducted by the exempt organization. For this purpose, printed material includes material that is published electronically. For rules governing the sale of advertising in exempt organization periodicals, see §1.512(a)-1(f).

(c) Qualified sponsorship payment—(1) Definition. The term qualified sponsorship payment means any payment by any person engaged in a trade or business with respect to which there is no arrangement or expectation that the person will receive any substantial return benefit. In determining whether a payment is a qualified sponsorship payment, it is irrelevant whether the sponsored activity is related or unrelated to the recipient organization's exempt purpose. It is also irrelevant whether the sponsored activity is temporary or permanent. For purposes of this section, payment means the payment of money, transfer of property, or performance of services.

(2) Substantial return benefit—(i) In general. For purposes of this section, a substantial return benefit means any benefit other than a use or acknowledgment described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, or disregarded benefits described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Certain benefits disregarded. For purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, benefits are disregarded if the aggregate fair market value of all the benefits provided to the payor or persons designated by the payor in connection with the payment during the organization's taxable year is not more than 2% of the amount of the payment. If the aggregate fair market value of the benefits exceeds 2% of the amount of the payment, then (except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section) the entire fair market value of such benefits, not merely the excess amount, is a substantial return benefit. Fair market value is determined as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(iii) Benefits defined. For purposes of this section, benefits provided to the payor or persons designated by the payor may include:

(A) Advertising as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(v) of this section.

(B) Exclusive provider arrangements as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(vi)(B) of this section.

(C) Goods, facilities, services or other privileges.

(D) Exclusive or nonexclusive rights to use an intangible asset (e.g., trademark, patent, logo, or designation) of the exempt organization.

(iv) Use or acknowledgment. For purposes of this section, a substantial return benefit does not include the use or acknowledgment of the name or logo (or product lines) of the payor's trade or business in connection with the activities of the exempt organization. Use or acknowledgment does not include advertising as described in paragraph (c)(2)(v) of this section, but may include the following: exclusive sponsorship arrangements; logos and slogans that do not contain qualitative or comparative descriptions of the payor's products, services, facilities or company; a list of the payor's locations, telephone numbers, or Internet address; value-neutral descriptions, including displays or visual depictions, of the payor's product-line or services; and the payor's brand or trade names and product or service listings. Logos or slogans that are an established part of a payor's identity are not considered to contain qualitative or comparative descriptions. Mere display or distribution, whether for free or remuneration, of a payor's product by the payor or the exempt organization to the general public at the sponsored activity is not considered an inducement to purchase, sell or use the payor's product for purposes of this section and, thus, will not affect the determination of whether a payment is a qualified sponsorship payment.

(v) Advertising. For purposes of this section, the term advertising means any message or other programming material which is broadcast or otherwise transmitted, published, displayed or distributed, and which promotes or markets any trade or business, or any service, facility or product. Advertising includes messages containing qualitative or comparative language, price information or other indications of savings or value, an endorsement, or an inducement to purchase, sell, or use any company, service, facility or product. A single message that contains both advertising and an acknowledgment is advertising. This section does not apply to activities conducted by a payor on its own. For example, if a payor purchases broadcast time from a television station to advertise its product during commercial breaks in a sponsored program, the exempt organization's activities are not thereby converted to advertising.

(vi) Exclusivity arrangements—(A) Exclusive sponsor. An arrangement that acknowledges the payor as the exclusive sponsor of an exempt organization's activity, or the exclusive sponsor representing a particular trade, business or industry, generally does not, by itself, result in a substantial return benefit. For example, if in exchange for a payment, an organization announces that its event is sponsored exclusively by the payor (and does not provide any advertising or other substantial return benefit to the payor), the payor has not received a substantial return benefit.

(B) Exclusive provider. An arrangement that limits the sale, distribution, availability, or use of competing products, services, or facilities in connection with an exempt organization's activity generally results in a substantial return benefit. For example, if in exchange for a payment, the exempt organization agrees to allow only the payor's products to be sold in connection with an activity, the payor has received a substantial return benefit.

(d) Allocation of payment—(1) In general. If there is an arrangement or expectation that the payor will receive a substantial return benefit with respect to any payment, then only the portion, if any, of the payment that exceeds the fair market value of the substantial return benefit is a qualified sponsorship payment. However, if the exempt organization does not establish that the payment exceeds the fair market value of any substantial return benefit, then no portion of the payment constitutes a qualified sponsorship payment.

(i) Treatment of payments other than qualified sponsorship payments. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) treatment of any payment (or portion thereof) that is not a qualified sponsorship payment is determined by application of sections 512, 513 and 514. For example, payments related to an exempt organization's providing facilities, services, or other privileges to the payor or persons designated by the payor, advertising, exclusive provider arrangements described in paragraph (c)(2)(vi)(B) of this section, a license to use intangible assets of the exempt organization, or other substantial return benefits, are evaluated separately in determining whether the exempt organization realizes unrelated business taxable income.

(ii) Fair market value. The fair market value of any substantial return benefit provided as part of a sponsorship arrangement is the price at which the benefit would be provided between a willing recipient and a willing provider of the benefit, neither being under any compulsion to enter into the arrangement and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, and without regard to any other aspect of the sponsorship arrangement.

(iii) Valuation date. In general, the fair market value of the substantial return benefit is determined when the benefit is provided. However, if the parties enter into a binding, written sponsorship contract, the fair market value of any substantial return benefit provided pursuant to that contract is determined on the date the parties enter into the sponsorship contract. If the parties make a material change to a sponsorship contract, it is treated as a new sponsorship contract as of the date the material change is effective. A material change includes an extension or renewal of the contract, or a more than incidental change to any amount payable (or other consideration) pursuant to the contract.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this section:

Example 1. On June 30, 2001, a national corporation and Z, a charitable organization, enter into a five-year binding, written contract effective for years 2002 through 2007. The contract provides that the corporation will make an annual payment of $5,000 to Z, and in return the corporation will receive no benefit other than advertising. On June 30, 2001, the fair market value of the advertising to be provided to the corporation in each year of the agreement is $75, which is less than the disregarded benefit amount provided for in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section (2% of $5,000 is $100). In 2002, pursuant to the sponsorship contract, the corporation makes a payment to Z of $5,000, and receives the specified benefit (advertising). As of January 1, 2002, the fair market value of the advertising to be provided by Z each year has increased to $110. However, for purposes of this section, the fair market value of the advertising benefit is determined on June 30, 2001, the date the parties entered into the sponsorship contract. Therefore, the entire $5,000 payment received in 2002 is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 2. The facts are the same as Example 1, except that the contract provides for an initial payment by the corporation to Z of $5,000 in 2002, followed by annual payments of $1,000 during each of years 2003-2007. In 2003, pursuant to the sponsorship contract, the corporation makes a payment to Z of $1,000, and receives the specified advertising benefit. In 2003, the fair market value of the benefit provided ($75, as determined on June 30, 2001) exceeds 2% of the total payment received (2% of $1,000 is $20). Therefore, only $925 of the $1,000 payment received in 2003 is a qualified sponsorship payment.

(2) Anti-abuse provision. To the extent necessary to prevent avoidance of the rule stated in paragraphs (d)(1) and (c)(2) of this section, where the exempt organization fails to make a reasonable and good faith valuation of any substantial return benefit, the Commissioner (or the Commissioner's delegate) may determine the portion of a payment allocable to such substantial return benefit and may treat two or more related payments as a single payment.

(e) Special rules—(1) Written agreements. The existence of a written sponsorship agreement does not, in itself, cause a payment to fail to be a qualified sponsorship payment. The terms of the agreement, not its existence or degree of detail, are relevant to the determination of whether a payment is a qualified sponsorship payment. Similarly, the terms of the agreement and not the title or responsibilities of the individuals negotiating the agreement determine whether a payment (or any portion thereof) made pursuant to the agreement is a qualified sponsorship payment.

(2) Contingent payments. The term qualified sponsorship payment does not include any payment the amount of which is contingent, by contract or otherwise, upon the level of attendance at one or more events, broadcast ratings, or other factors indicating the degree of public exposure to the sponsored activity. The fact that a payment is contingent upon sponsored events or activities actually being conducted does not, by itself, cause the payment to fail to be a qualified sponsorship payment.

(3) Determining public support. Qualified sponsorship payments in the form of money or property (but not services) are treated as contributions received by the exempt organization for purposes of determining public support to the organization under section 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) or 509(a)(2). See §§1.509(a)-3(f)(1) and 1.170A-9(e)(6)(i). The fact that a payment is a qualified sponsorship payment that is treated as a contribution to the payee organization does not determine whether the payment is deductible by the payor under section 162 or 170.

(f) Examples. The provisions of this section are illustrated by the following examples. The tax treatment of any payment (or portion of a payment) that does not constitute a qualified sponsorship payment is governed by general UBIT principles. In these examples, the recipients of the payments at issue are section 501(c) organizations. The expectations or arrangements of the parties are those specifically indicated in the example. The examples are as follows:

Example 1. M, a local charity, organizes a marathon and walkathon at which it serves to participants drinks and other refreshments provided free of charge by a national corporation. The corporation also gives M prizes to be awarded to winners of the event. M recognizes the assistance of the corporation by listing the corporation's name in promotional fliers, in newspaper advertisements of the event and on T-shirts worn by participants. M changes the name of its event to include the name of the corporation. M's activities constitute acknowledgment of the sponsorship. The drinks, refreshments and prizes provided by the corporation are a qualified sponsorship payment, which is not income from an unrelated trade or business.
Example 2. N, an art museum, organizes an exhibition and receives a large payment from a corporation to help fund the exhibition. N recognizes the corporation's support by using the corporate name and established logo in materials publicizing the exhibition, which include banners, posters, brochures and public service announcements. N also hosts a dinner for the corporation's executives. The fair market value of the dinner exceeds 2% of the total payment. N's use of the corporate name and logo in connection with the exhibition constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. However, because the fair market value of the dinner exceeds 2% of the total payment, the dinner is a substantial return benefit. Only that portion of the payment, if any, that N can demonstrate exceeds the fair market value of the dinner is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 3. O coordinates sports tournaments for local charities. An auto manufacturer agrees to underwrite the expenses of the tournaments. O recognizes the auto manufacturer by including the manufacturer's name and established logo in the title of each tournament as well as on signs, scoreboards and other printed material. The auto manufacturer receives complimentary admission passes and pro-am playing spots for each tournament that have a combined fair market value in excess of 2% of the total payment. Additionally, O displays the latest models of the manufacturer's premier luxury cars at each tournament. O's use of the manufacturer's name and logo and display of cars in the tournament area constitute acknowledgment of the sponsorship. However, the admission passes and pro-am playing spots are a substantial return benefit. Only that portion of the payment, if any, that O can demonstrate exceeds the fair market value of the admission passes and pro-am playing spots is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 4. P conducts an annual college football bowl game. P sells to commercial broadcasters the right to broadcast the bowl game on television and radio. A major corporation agrees to be the exclusive sponsor of the bowl game. The detailed contract between P and the corporation provides that in exchange for a $1,000,000 payment, the name of the bowl game will include the name of the corporation. In addition, the contract provides that the corporation's name and established logo will appear on player's helmets and uniforms, on the scoreboard and stadium signs, on the playing field, on cups used to serve drinks at the game, and on all related printed material distributed in connection with the game. P also agrees to give the corporation a block of game passes for its employees and to provide advertising in the bowl game program book. The fair market value of the passes is $6,000, and the fair market value of the program advertising is $10,000. The agreement is contingent upon the game being broadcast on television and radio, but the amount of the payment is not contingent upon the number of people attending the game or the television ratings. The contract provides that television cameras will focus on the corporation's name and logo on the field at certain intervals during the game. P's use of the corporation's name and logo in connection with the bowl game constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. The exclusive sponsorship arrangement is not a substantial return benefit. Because the fair market value of the game passes and program advertising ($16,000) does not exceed 2% of the total payment (2% of $1,000,000 is $20,000), these benefits are disregarded and the entire payment is a qualified sponsorship payment, which is not income from an unrelated trade or business.
Example 5. Q organizes an amateur sports team. A major pizza chain gives uniforms to players on Q's team, and also pays some of the team's operational expenses. The uniforms bear the name and established logo of the pizza chain. During the final tournament series, Q distributes free of charge souvenir flags bearing Q's name to employees of the pizza chain who come out to support the team. The flags are valued at less than 2% of the combined fair market value of the uniforms and operational expenses paid. Q's use of the name and logo of the pizza chain in connection with the tournament constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. Because the fair market value of the flags does not exceed 2% of the total payment, the entire amount of the funding and supplied uniforms are a qualified sponsorship payment, which is not income from an unrelated trade or business.
Example 6. R is a liberal arts college. A soft drink manufacturer enters into a binding, written contract with R that provides for a large payment to be made to the college's English department in exchange for R agreeing to name a writing competition after the soft drink manufacturer. The contract also provides that R will allow the soft drink manufacturer to be the exclusive provider of all soft drink sales on campus. The fair market value of the exclusive provider component of the contract exceeds 2% of the total payment. R's use of the manufacturer's name in the writing competition constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. However, the exclusive provider arrangement is a substantial return benefit. Only that portion of the payment, if any, that R can demonstrate exceeds the fair market value of the exclusive provider arrangement is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 7. S is a noncommercial broadcast station that airs a program funded by a local music store. In exchange for the funding, S broadcasts the following message: “This program has been brought to you by the Music Shop, located at 123 Main Street. For your music needs, give them a call today at 555-1234. This station is proud to have the Music Shop as a sponsor.” Because this single broadcast message contains both advertising and an acknowledgment, the entire message is advertising. The fair market value of the advertising exceeds 2% of the total payment. Thus, the advertising is a substantial return benefit. Unless S establishes that the amount of the payment exceeds the fair market value of the advertising, none of the payment is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 8. T, a symphony orchestra, performs a series of concerts. A program guide that contains notes on guest conductors and other information concerning the evening's program is distributed by T at each concert. The Music Shop makes a $1,000 payment to T in support of the concert series. As a supporter of the event, the Music Shop receives complimentary concert tickets with a fair market value of $85, and is recognized in the program guide and on a poster in the lobby of the concert hall. The lobby poster states that, “The T concert is sponsored by the Music Shop, located at 123 Main Street, telephone number 555-1234.” The program guide contains the same information and also states, “Visit the Music Shop today for the finest selection of music CDs and cassette tapes.” The fair market value of the advertisement in the program guide is $15. T's use of the Music Shop's name, address and telephone number in the lobby poster constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. However, the combined fair market value of the advertisement in the program guide and complimentary tickets is $100 ($15 + $85), which exceeds 2% of the total payment (2% of $1,000 is $20). The fair market value of the advertising and complimentary tickets, therefore, constitutes a substantial return benefit and only that portion of the payment, or $900, that exceeds the fair market value of the substantial return benefit is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 9. U, a national charity dedicated to promoting health, organizes a campaign to inform the public about potential cures to fight a serious disease. As part of the campaign, U sends representatives to community health fairs around the country to answer questions about the disease and inform the public about recent developments in the search for a cure. A pharmaceutical company makes a payment to U to fund U's booth at a health fair. U places a sign in the booth displaying the pharmaceutical company's name and slogan, “Better Research, Better Health,” which is an established part of the company's identity. In addition, U grants the pharmaceutical company a license to use U's logo in marketing its products to health care providers around the country. The fair market value of the license exceeds 2% of the total payment received from the company. U's display of the pharmaceutical company's name and slogan constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. However, the license granted to the pharmaceutical company to use U's logo is a substantial return benefit. Only that portion of the payment, if any, that U can demonstrate exceeds the fair market value of the license granted to the pharmaceutical company is a qualified sponsorship payment.
Example 10. V, a trade association, publishes a monthly scientific magazine for its members containing information about current issues and developments in the field. A textbook publisher makes a large payment to V to have its name displayed on the inside cover of the magazine each month. Because the monthly magazine is a periodical within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section, the section 513(i) safe harbor does not apply. See §1.512(a)-1(f).
Example 11. W, a symphony orchestra, maintains a Web site containing pertinent information and its performance schedule. The Music Shop makes a payment to W to fund a concert series, and W posts a list of its sponsors on its Web site, including the Music Shop's name and Internet address. W's Web site does not promote the Music Shop or advertise its merchandise. The Music Shop's Internet address appears as a hyperlink from W's Web site to the Music Shop's Web site. W's posting of the Music Shop's name and Internet address on its Web site constitutes acknowledgment of the sponsorship. The entire payment is a qualified sponsorship payment, which is not income from an unrelated trade or business.
Example 12. X, a health-based charity, sponsors a year-long initiative to educate the public about a particular medical condition. A large pharmaceutical company manufactures a drug that is used in treating the medical condition, and provides funding for the initiative that helps X produce educational materials for distribution and post information on X's Web site. X's Web site contains a hyperlink to the pharmaceutical company's Web site. On the pharmaceutical company's Web site, the statement appears, “X endorses the use of our drug, and suggests that you ask your doctor for a prescription if you have this medical condition.” X reviewed the endorsement before it was posted on the pharmaceutical company's Web site and gave permission for the endorsement to appear. The endorsement is advertising. The fair market value of the advertising exceeds 2% of the total payment received from the pharmaceutical company. Therefore, only the portion of the payment, if any, that X can demonstrate exceeds the fair market value of the advertising on the pharmaceutical company's Web site is a qualified sponsorship payment.

[T.D. 8991, 67 FR 20438, Apr. 25, 2002]

§1.513-5   Certain bingo games not unrelated trade or business.

(a) In general. Under section 513(f), and subject to the limitations in paragraph (C) of this section, in the case of an organization subject to the tax imposed by section 511, the term unrelated trade or business does not include any trade or business that consists of conducting bingo games (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section).

(b) Exception. The provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to any bingo game otherwise excluded from the term unrelated trade or business by reason of section 513(a)(1) and §1.513-1(e)(1) (relating to trades or businesses in which substantially all the work is performed without compensation).

(c) Limitations—(1) Bingo games must be legal. Paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to any bingo game conducted in violation of State or local law.

(2) No commercial competition. Paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to any bingo game conducted in a jurisdiction in which bingo games are ordinarily carried out on a commercial basis. Bingo games are ordinarily carried out on a commercial basis within a jursidiction if they are regularly carried on (within the meaning of §1.513-1(c)) by for-profit organizations in any part of that jurisidiction. Normally, the entire State will constitute the appropriate jurisdiction for determining whether bingo games are ordinarily carried out on a commercial basis. However, if State law permits local jurisdictions to determine whether bingo games may be conducted by for-profit organizations, or if State law limits or confines the conduct of bingo games by for-profit organizations to specific local jurisdictions, then the local jurisdiction will constitute the appropriate jurisdiction for determining whether bingo games are ordinarily carried out on a commercial basis.

(3) Examples. The application of this paragraph is illustrated by the examples that follow. In each example, it is assumed that the bingo games referred to are operated by individuals who are compensated for their services. Accordingly, none of the bingo games would be excluded from the term unrelated trade or business under section 513 (a) (1).

Example 1. Church Z, a tax-exempt organization, conducts weekly bingo games in State O. State and local laws in State O expressly provide that bingo games may be conducted by tax-exempt organizations. Bingo games are not conducted in State O by any for-profit businesses. Since Z's bingo games are not conducted in violation of State or local law and are not the type of activity ordinarily carried out on a commercial basis in State O, Z's bingo games do not constitute unrelated trade or business.
Example 2. Rescue Squad X, a tax-exempt organization, conducts weekly bingo games in State M. State M has a statutory provision that prohibits all forms of gambling including bingo games. However, that law generally is not enforced by State officials against local charitable organizations such as X that conduct bingo games to raise funds. Since bingo games are illegal under State law, X's bingo games constitute unrelated trade or business regardless of the degree to which the State law is enforced.
Example 3. Veteran's organizations Y and X, both tax-exempt organizations, are organized under the laws of State N. State N has a statutory provision that permits bingo games to be conducted by tax-exempt organizations. In addition, State N permits bingo games to be conducted by for-profit organizations in city S, a resort community located in county R. Several for-profit organizations conduct nightly bingo games in city S. Y conducts weekly bingo games in city S. X conducts weekly bingo games in county R. Since State law confines the conduct of bingo games by for-profit organizations to city S, and since bingo games are regularly carried on there by those organizations, Y's bingo games conducted in city S constitute unrelated trade or business. However, X's bingo games conducted in county R outside of city S do not constitute unrelated trade or business.

(d) Bingo game defined. A bingo game is a game of chance played with cards that are generally printed with five rows of five squares each. Participants place markers over randomly called numbers on the cards in an attempt to form a preselected pattern such as a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line, or all four corners. The first participant to form the preselected pattern wins the game. As used in this section, the term bingo game means any game of bingo of the type described above in which wagers are placed, winners are determined, and prizes or other property is distributed in the presence of all persons placing wagers in that game. The term bingo game does not refer to any game of chance (including, but not limited to, keno games, dice games, card games, and lotteries) other than the type of game described in this paragraph.

(e) Effective date. Section 513(f) and this section apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.

[T.D. 7699, 45 FR 33970, May 21, 1980]

§1.513-6   Certain hospital services not unrelated trade or business.

(a) In general. Under section 513(e), the furnishing of a service listed in section 501(e)(1)(A) by a hospital to one or more other hospitals will not constitute unrelated trade or business if—

(1) The service is provided solely to hospitals that have facilities to serve not more than 100 inpatients,

(2) The service would, if performed by the recipient hospital, constitute an activity consistent with that hospital's exempt purposes, and

(3) The service is provided at a fee not in excess of actual cost, including straight line depreciation and a reasonable rate of return on the capital goods used to provide the service. For purposes of this section, a rate of return on capital goods will be considered reasonable provided that it does not exceed, on an annual basis, the percentage described below which is based on the average of the rates of interest on special issues of public debt obligations issued to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund for each of the months included in the taxable year of the hospital duringwhich the captial goods are used in providing the service. Determinations as to the cost of services and the applicable rate of return should be made as prescribed by 42 U.S.C. 1395x(v)(1) (A) and (B) and the regulations thereunder (permitting a health care facility to be reimbursed under the Medicare program for the reasonable cost of (its) services, including, in the case of certain proprietary facilities, a reasonable return on equity capital). For taxable years beginning on or before May 14, 1986, the rate of return shall be one and one-half times the average of the rates of interest on public debt obligations described above which were in effect on or before April 20, 1983.

(b) Hospital defined. As used in this section the word hospital means a hospital described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii).

(c) Example. The provisions of this section are illustrated by the following example:

Example. A large metropolitan hospital provides various services to other hospitals. The hospital furnishes a purchasing service to hosptials N and O, a data processing service to hospitals R and S, and a food service to hospitals X and Y. All the hospitals are described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii). All the hospitals have facilities to serve not more than 100 inpatients except hospital N. The services are furnished at cost to all hospitals except that hospital R is charged a fee in excess of cost for its use of the data processing service. The purchasing service constitutes unrelated trade or business because it is not provided solely to hospitals having facilities to serve not more than 100 inpatients.

The data processing service constitutes unrelated trade or business because it is provided at a fee in excess of cost. The food service satisfies all three requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and does not constitute unrelated trade or business.

(d) Effective date. Section 513(e) and this section apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953.

[T.D. 8075, 51 FR 5322, Feb. 13, 1986; 51 FR 8490, Mar. 12, 1986]

§1.513-7   Travel and tour activities of tax exempt organizations.

(a) Travel tour activities that constitute a trade or business, as defined in §1.513-1(b), and that are not substantially related to the purposes for which exemption has been granted to the organization constitute an unrelated trade or business with respect to that organization. Whether travel tour activities conducted by an organization are substantially related to the organization's exempt purpose is determined by looking at all relevant facts and circumstances, including, but not limited to, how a travel tour is developed, promoted and operated. Section 513(c) and §1.513-1(b) also apply to travel tour activity. Application of the rules of section 513(c) and §1.513-1(b) may result in different treatment for individual tours within an organization's travel tour program.

(b) Examples. The provisions of this section are illustrated by the following examples. In all of these examples, the travel tours are priced to produce a profit for the exempt organization. The examples are as follows:

Example 1. O, a university alumni association, is exempt from federal income tax under section 501(a) as an educational organization described in section 501(c)(3). As part of its activities, O operates a travel tour program. The program is open to all current members of O and their guests. O works with travel agencies to schedule approximately 10 tours annually to various destinations around the world. Members of O pay $x to the organizing travel agency to participate in a tour. The travel agency pays O a per person fee for each participant. Although the literature advertising the tours encourages O's members to continue their lifelong learning by joining the tours, and a faculty member of O's related university frequently joins the tour as a guest of the alumni association, none of the tours includes any scheduled instruction or curriculum related to the destinations being visited. The travel tours made available to O's members do not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of O's educational purpose. Rather, O's program is designed to generate revenues for O by regularly offering its members travel services. Accordingly, O's tour program is an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).
Example 2. N is an organization formed for the purpose of educating individuals about the geography and culture of the United States. It is exempt from federal income tax under section 501(a) as an educational and cultural organization described in section 501(c)(3). N engages in a number of activities to accomplish its purposes, including offering courses and publishing periodicals and books. As one of its activities, N conducts study tours to national parks and other locations within the UnitedStates. The study tours are conducted by teachers and other personnel certified by the Board of Education of the State of P. The tours are directed toward students enrolled in degree programs at educational institutions in P, as reflected in the promotional materials, but are open to all who agree to participate in the required study program. Each tour's study program consists of instruction on subjects related to the location being visited on the tour. During the tour, five or six hours per day are devoted to organized study, preparation of reports, lectures, instruction and recitation by the students. Each tour group brings along a library of material related to the subject being studied on the tour. Examinations are given at the end of each tour and the P StateBoard of Education awards academic credit for tour participation. Because the tours offered by N include a substantial amount of required study, lectures, report preparation, examinations and qualify for academic credit, the tours are substantially related to N's educational purpose. Accordingly, N's tour program is not an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).
Example 3. R is a section 501(c)(4) social welfare organization devoted to advocacy on a particular issue. On a regular basis throughout the year, R organizes travel tours for its members to Washington, DC. While in Washington, the members follow a schedule according to which they spend substantially all of their time during normal business hours over several days attending meetings with legislators and government officials and receiving briefings on policy developments related to the issue that is R's focus. Members do have some time on their own in the evenings to engage in recreational or social activities of their own choosing. Bringing members to Washington to participate in advocacy on behalf of the organization and learn about developments relating to the organization's principal focus is substantially related to R's social welfare purpose. Therefore, R's operation of the travel tours does not constitute an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).
Example 4. S is a membership organization formed to foster cultural unity and to educate X Americans about X, their country of origin. It is exempt from federal income tax under section 501(a) and is described in section 501(c)(3) as an educational and cultural organization. Membership in S is open to all Americans interested in the X heritage. As part of its activities, S sponsors a program of travel tours to X. The tours are divided into two categories. Category A tours are trips to X that are designed to immerse participants in the X history, culture and language. Substantially all of the daily itinerary includes scheduled instruction on the X language, history and cultural heritage, and visits to destinations selected because of their historical or cultural significance or because of instructional resources they offer. Category B tours are also trips to X, but rather than offering scheduled instruction, participants are given the option of taking guided tours of various X locations included in their itinerary. Other than the optional guided tours, Category B tours offer no instruction or curriculum. Destinations of principally recreational interest, rather than historical or cultural interest, are regularly included on Category B tour itineraries. Based on the facts and circumstances, sponsoring Category A tours is an activity substantially related to S's exempt purposes, and does not constitute an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a). However, sponsoring Category B tours does not contribute importantly to S's accomplishment of its exempt purposes and, thus, constitutes an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).
Example 5. T is a scientific organization engaged in environmental research. T is exempt from federal income tax under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3). T is engaged in a long-term study of how agricultural pesticide and fertilizer use affects the populations of various bird species. T collects data at several bases located in an important agricultural region of country U. The minutes of a meeting of T's Board of Directors state that, after study, the Board has determined that non-scientists can reliably perform needed data collection in the field, under supervision of T's biologists. The Board minutes reflect that the Board approved offering one-week trips to T's bases in U, where participants will assist T's biologists in collecting data for the study. Tour participants collect data during the same hours as T's biologists. Normally, data collection occurs during the early morning and evening hours, although the work schedule varies by season. Each base has rustic accommodations and few amenities, but country U is renowned for its beautiful scenery and abundant wildlife. T promotes the trips in its newsletter and on its Internet site and through various conservation organizations. The promotional materials describe the work schedule and emphasize the valuable contribution made by trip participants to T's research activities. Based on the facts and circumstances, sponsoring trips to T's bases in country U is an activity substantially related to T's exempt purpose, and, thus, does not constitute an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).
Example 6. V is an educational organization devoted to the study of ancient history and cultures and is exempt from federal income tax under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3). In connection with its educational activities, V conducts archaeological expeditions around the world, including in the Y region of country Z. In cooperation with the National Museum of Z, V recently presented an exhibit on ancient civilizations of the Y region of Z, including artifacts from the collection of the Z National Museum. V instituted a program of travel tours to V's archaeological sites located in the Y region. The tours were initially proposed by V staff members as a means of educating the public about ongoing field research conducted by V. V engaged a travel agency to handle logistics such as accommodations and transportation arrangements. In preparation for the tours, V developed educational materials relating to each archaeological site to be visited on the tour, describing in detail the layout of the site, the methods used by V's researchers in exploring the site, the discoveries made at the site, and their historical significance. V also arranged special guided tours of its exhibit on the Y region for individuals registered for the travel tours. Two archaeologists from V (both of whom had participated in prior archaeological expeditions in the Y region) accompanied the tours. These experts led guided tours of each site and explained the significance of the sites to tour participants. At several of the sites, tour participants also met with a working team of archaeologists from V and the National Museum of Z, who shared their experiences. V prepared promotional materials describing the educational nature of the tours, including the daily trips to V's archaeological sites and the educational background of the tour leaders, and providing a recommended reading list. The promotional materials do not refer to any particular recreational or sightseeing activities. Based on the facts and circumstances, sponsoring trips to the Y region is an activity substantially related to V's exempt purposes. The scheduled activities, which include tours of archaeological sites led by experts, are part of a coordinated educational program designed to educate tour participants about the ancient history of the Y region of Z and V's ongoing field research. Therefore, V's tour program does not constitute an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).
Example 7. W is an educational organization devoted to the study of the performing arts and is exempt from federal income tax under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(3). In connection with its educational activities, W presents public performances of musical and theatrical works. Individuals become members of W by making an annual contribution to W of $q. Each year, W offers members an opportunity to travel as a group to one or more major cities in the United States or abroad. In each city, tour participants are provided tickets to attend a public performance of a play, concert or dance program each evening. W also arranges a sightseeing tour of each city and provides evening receptions for tour participants. W views its tour program as an important means to develop and strengthen bonds between W and its members, and to increase their financial and volunteer support of W. W engaged a travel agency to handle logistics such as accommodations and transportation arrangements. No educational materials are prepared by W or provided to tour participants in connection with the tours. Apart from attendance at the evening cultural events, the tours offer no scheduled instruction, organized study or group discussion. Although several members of W's administrative staff accompany each tour group, their role is to facilitate member interaction. The staff members have no special expertise in the performing arts and play no educational role in the tours. W prepared promotional materials describing the sightseeing opportunities on the tours and emphasizing the opportunity for members to socialize informally and interact with one another and with W staff members, while pursuing shared interests. Although W's tour program may foster goodwill among W members, it does not contribute importantly to W's educational purposes. W's tour program is primarily social and recreational in nature. The scheduled activities, which include sightseeing and attendance at various cultural events, are not part of a coordinated educational program. Therefore, W's tour program is an unrelated trade or business within the meaning of section 513(a).

[T.D. 8874, 65 FR 5773, Feb. 7, 2000; 65 FR 16143, Mar. 27, 2000]

§1.514(a)-1   Unrelated debt-financed income and deductions.

(a) Income includible in gross income:

(1) Percentage of income taken into account—(i) In general. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, there shall be included with respect to each debt-financed property (as defined in section 514 and §1.514(b)-1) as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business the amount of unrelated debt-financed income (as defined in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph). See paragraph (a)(5) of §1.514(c)-1 for special rules regarding indebtedness incurred before June 28, 1966, applicable for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1972, and for special rules applicable to churches or conventions or associations of churches.

(ii) Unrelated debt-financed income. The unrelated debt-financed income with respect to each debt-financed property is an amount which is the same percentage (but not in excess of 100 percent) of the total gross income derived during the taxable year from or on account of such property as:

(a) The average acquisition indebtedness (as defined in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) with respect to the property is of

(b) The average adjusted basis of such property (as defined in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph).

(iii) Debt/basis percentage. The percentage determined under subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph is hereinafter referred to as the debt/basis percentage.

(iv) Example. Subdivisions (i), (ii), and (iii) of this subparagraph are illustrated by the following example. For purposes of this example it is assumed that the property is debt-financed property.

Example. X, an exempt trade association, owns an office building which in 1971 produces $10,000 of gross rental income. The average adjusted basis of the building for 1971 is $100,000, and the average acquisition indebtedness with respect to the building for 1971 is $50,000. Accordingly, the debt/basis percentage for 1971 is 50 percent (the ratio of $50,000 to $100,000). Therefore, the unrelated debt-financed income with respect to the building for 1971 is $5,000 (50 percent of $10,000).

(v) Gain from sale or other disposition. If debt-financed property is sold or otherwise disposed of, there shall be included in computing unrelated business taxable income an amount with respect to such gain (or loss) which is the same percentage (but not in excess of 100 percent) of the total gain (or loss) derived from such sale or other disposition as:

(a) The highest acquisition indebtedness with respect to such property during the 12-month period, preceding the date of disposition, is of

(b) The average adjusted basis of such property.

The tax on the amount of gain (or loss) included in unrelated business taxable income pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be determined in accordance with the rules set forth in subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code (relating to capital gains and losses). See also section 511(d) and the regulations thereunder (relating to the minimum tax for tax preferences).

(2) Average adjusted basis—(i) In general. The average adjusted basis of debt-financed property is the average amount of the adjusted basis of such property during that portion of the taxable year it is held by the organization. This amount is the average of:

(a) The adjusted basis of such property as of the first day during the taxable year that the organization holds the property, and

(b) The adjusted basis of such property as of the last day during the taxable year that the organization holds the property

See section 1011 and the regulations thereunder for determination of the adjusted basis of property.

(ii) Adjustments for prior taxable years. For purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, the determination of the average adjusted basis of debt-financed property is not affected by the fact that the organization was exempt from taxation for prior taxable years. Proper adjustment must be made under section 1011 for the entire period since the acquisition of the property. For example, adjustment must be made for depreciation for all prior taxable years whether or not the organization was exempt from taxation for any such years. Similarly, the fact that only a portion of the depreciation allowance may be taken into account in computing the percentage of deductions allowable under section 514(a)(2) does not affect the amount of the adjustment for depreciation which is used in determining average adjusted basis.

(iii) Cross reference. For the determination of the basis of debt-financed property acquired in a complete or partial liquidation of a corporation in exchange for its stock, see §1.514(d)-1.

(iv) Example. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example. For purposes of this example it is assumed that the property is debt-financed property.

Example. On July 10, 1970, X, an exempt educational organization, purchased an office building for $510,000, using $300,000 of borrowed funds. During 1970 the only adjustment to basis is $20,000 for depreciation. As of December 31, 1970, the adjusted basis of the building is $490,000 and the indebtedness is still $300,000. X files its return on a calendar year basis. Under these circumstances, the debt/basis percentage for 1970 is 60 percent, calculated in the following manner:
   Basis
As of July 10, 1970 (acquisition date)$510,000
As of December 31, 1970490,000
Total1,000,000

Average Adjusted basis:

eCFR graphic ec08oc91.000.gif

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Debt/basis percentage:

Average acquisition indebtedness ($300,000)/Average adjusted basis ($500,000)=60 percent

For an illustration of the determination of the debt/basis percentage as changes in the acquisition indebtedness occur, see example 1 of subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph.

(3) Average acquisition indebtedness—(i) In general. The average acquisition indebtedness with respect to debt-financed property is the average amount of the outstanding principal indebtedness during that portion of the taxable year the property is held by the organization.

(ii) Computation. The average acquisition indebtedness is computed by determining the amount of the outstanding principal indebtedness on the first day in each calendar month during the taxable year that the organization holds the property, adding these amounts together, and then dividing this sum by the total number of months during the taxable year that the organization held such property. A fractional part of a month shall be treated as a full month in computing average acquisition indebtedness.

(iii) Examples. The application of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples it is assumed that the property is debt-financed property.

Example 1. Assume the facts as stated in the example in subparagraph (2)(iv) of this paragraph, except that beginning July 20, 1970, the organization makes payments of $21,000 a month ($20,000 of which is attributable to principal and $1,000 to interest). In this situation, the average acquisition indebtedness for 1970 is $250,000. Thus, the debt/basis percentage for 1970 is 50 percent, calculated in the following manner:
   Indebtedness on the first day in each calendar month that the property is held
Month:
July$300,000
August280,000
September260,000
October240,000
November220,000
December200,000
Total1,500,000

Average acquisition indebtedness:

$1,500,000÷6 months=$250,000

Debt/basis percentage:

Average acquisition indebtedness ($250,000)/Average adjusted basis ($500,000)=50 percent

Example 2. Y, an exempt organization, owns stock in a corporation which it does not control. At the beginning of the year, Y has an outstanding principal indebtedness with respect to such stock of $12,000. Such indebtedness is paid off at the rate of $2,000 per month beginning January 30, so that it is retired at the end of 6 months. The average acquisition indebtedness for the taxable year is $3,500, calculated in the following manner:
   Indebtedness on the first day in each calendar month that the property is held
Month:
January$12,000
February10,000
March8,000
April6,000
May4,000
June2,000
July thru December0
Total42,000

Average acquisition indebtedness:

eCFR graphic ec08oc91.001.gif

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(4) Indeterminate price—(i) In general. If an exempt organization acquires (or improves) property for an indeterminate price, the initial acquisition indebtedness and the unadjusted basis shall be determined in accordance with subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph, unless the organization has obtained the consent of the Commissioner to use another method to compute such amounts.

(ii) Unadjusted basis. For purposes of this subparagraph, the unadjusted basis of property (or of an improvement) is the fair market value of the property (or improvement) on the date of acquisition (or the date of completion of the improvement). The average adjusted basis of such property shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iii) Initial acquisition indebtedness. For purposes of this subparagraph, the initial acquisition indebtedness is the fair market value of the property (or improvement) on the date of acquisition (or the date of completion of the improvement) less any down payment or other initial payment applied to the principal indebtedness. The average acquisition indebtednessith respect to such property shall be computed in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(iv) Example. The application of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example. For purposes of this example it is assumed that the property is debt-financed property.

Example. On January 1, 1971, X, an exempt trade association, acquires an office building for a down payment of $310,000 and an agreement to pay 10 percent of the income generated by the building for 10 years. Neither the sales price nor the amount which X is obligated to pay in the future is certain. The fair market value of the building on the date of acquisition is $600,000. The depreciation allowance for 1971 is $40,000. Unless X obtains the consent of the Commissioner to use another method, the unadjusted basis of the property is $600,000 (the fair market value of the property on the date of acquisition), and the initial acquisition indebtedness is $290,000 (fair market value of $600,000 less initial payment of $310,000). Under these circumstances, the average adjusted basis of the property for 1971 is $580,000, calculated as follows:

[Initial fair market value+(initial fair market value less depreciation)] ÷2=[$600,000+($600,000−$40,000)] ÷2=$580,000.

If no payment other than the initial payment is made in 1971, the average acquisition indebtedness for 1971 is $290,000. Thus, the debt/basis percentage for 1971 is 50 percent, calculated as follows:

Average acquisition indebtedness ÷average adjusted basis=$290,000 ÷$580,000=50 percent

(b) Deductions—(1) Percentage of deductions taken into account. Except as provided in subparagraphs (4) and (5) of this paragraph, there shall be allowed as a deduction with respect to each debt-financed property an amount determined by applying the debt/basis percentage to the sum of the deductions allowable under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(2) Deductions allowable. The deductions allowable are those items allowed as deductions by chapter 1 of the Code which are directly connected with the debt-financed property or the income therefrom (including the dividends received deductions allowed by sections 243, 244, and 245), except that:

(i) The allowable deductions are subject to the modifications provided by section 512(b) on computation of the unrelated business taxable income, and

(ii) If the debt-financed property is of a character which is subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167, such allowance shall be computed only by use of the straight-line method of depreciation.

(3) Directly connected with. To be directly connected with debt-financed property or the income therefrom, an item of deduction must have proximate and primary relationship to such property or the income therefrom. Expenses, depreciation, and similar items attributable solely to such property are proximately and primarily related to such property or the income therefrom, and therefore qualify for deduction, to the extent they meet the requirements of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph. Thus, for example, if the straight-line depreciation allowance for an office building is $10,000 a year, an organization would be allowed a deduction for depreciation of $10,000 if the entire building were debt-financed property. However, if only one-half of the building were treated as debt-financed property, then the depreciation allowed as a deduction would be $5,000. (See example 2 of §1.514(b)-1(b)(1)(iii).)

(4) Capital losses—(i) In general. If the sale or exchange of debt-financed property results in a capital loss, the amount of such loss taken into account in the taxable year in which the loss arises shall be computed in accordance with paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section. If, however, any portion of such capital loss not taken into account in such year may be carried back or carried over to another taxable year, the debt/basis percentage is not applied to determine what portion of such capital loss may be taken as a deduction in the year to which such capital loss is carried.

(ii) Example. This subparagraph is illustrated by the following example. For purposes of this example it is assumed that the property is debt-financed property.

Example. X, an exempt educational organization, owns securities which are capital assets and which it has held for more than 6 months. In 1972 X sells the securities at a loss of $20,000. The debt/basis percentage with respect to computing the gain (or loss) derived from the sale of the securities is 40 percent. Thus, X has sustained a capital loss of $8,000 (40 percent of $20,000) with respect to the sale of the securities. For 1972 and the preceding three taxable years X has no other capital transactions. Under these circumstances, the $8,000 of capital loss may be carried over to the succeeding 5 taxable years without further application of the debt/basis percentage.

(5) Net operating loss—(i) In general. If, after applying the debt/basis percentage to the income derived from debt-financed property and the deductions directly connected with such income, such deductions exceed such income, the organization has sustained a net operating loss for the taxable year. This amount may be carried back or carried over to other taxable years in accordance with section 512(b)(6). However, the debt/ basis percentage shall not be applied in such other years to determine the amounts that may be taken as a deduction in those years.

(ii) Example. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example. For purposes of this example it is assumed that the property is debt-financed property.

Example. During 1974, Y, an exempt organization, receives $20,000 of rent from a building which it owns. Y has no other unrelated business taxable income for 1974. For 1974 the deductions directly connected with this building are property taxes of $5,000, interest of $5,000 on the acquisition indebtedness, and salary of $15,000 to the manager of the building. The debt/basis percentage for 1974 with respect to the building is 50 percent. Under these circumstances, Y shall take into account in computing its unrelated business taxable income for 1974, $10,000 of income (50 percent of $20,000) and $12,500 (50 percent of $25,000) of the deductions directly connected with such income. Thus, for 1974 Y has sustained a net operating loss of $2,500 ($10,000 of income less $12,500 of deductions) which may be carried back or carried over to other taxable years without further application of the debt/basis percentage.

[T.D. 7229, 37 FR 28143, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.514(a)-2   Business lease rents and deductions for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

(a) Effective date. This section applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

(b) In general—(1) Rents includible in gross income. There shall be included with respect to each business lease, as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business, an amount which is the same percentage (but not in excess of 100 percent) of the total rents derived during the taxable year under such lease as:

(i) The amount of the business lease indebtedness at the close of the taxable year of the lessor tax-exempt organization, with respect to the premises covered by such lease, is of

(ii) The adjusted basis of such premises at the close of such taxable year

For definition of business lease as a lease for a term of more than 5 years, and for rules for determining the computation of such 5-year term in certain specific situations, see §1.514(f)-1. For definition of business lease indebtedness and allocation of business lease indebtedness where only a portion of the property is subject to a business lease, see §1.514(g)-1.

(2) Determination of basis. For purposes of the unrelated business income tax the basis (unadjusted) of property is determined under section 1012, and the adjusted basis of property is determined under section 1011. The determination of the adjusted basis of property is not affected by the fact that the organization was exempt from tax for prior taxable years. Proper adjustment must be made under section 1011 for the entire period since the acquisition of the property. Thus adjustment must be made for depreciation for all taxable years whether or not the organization was exempt from tax for any of such years. Similarly, for taxable years during which the organization is subject to the tax on unrelated business taxable income the fact that only a portion of the deduction for depreciation is taken into account under paragraph (c)(1) of this section does not affect the amount of the adjustment for depreciation.

(3) Examples. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples, in each of which it is assumed that the taxpayer makes its returns under section 511 on the basis of the calendar year, and that the lease is not substantially related to the purpose for which the organization is granted exemption from tax.

Example 1. Assume that a tax-exempt educational organization purchased property in 1952 for $600,000, using borrowed funds, and leased the building for a period of 20 years. Assume further that the adjusted basis of such building at the close of 1954 is $500,000 and that, at the close of 1954, $200,000 of the indebtedness incurred to acquire the property remains outstanding. Since the amount of the outstanding indebtedness is two-fifths of the adjusted basis of the building at the close of 1954, two-fifths of the gross rental received from the building during 1954 shall be included as an item of gross income in computing unrelated business taxable income. If, at the close of a subsequent taxable year, the outstanding indebtedness is $100,000 and the adjusted basis of the building is $400,000, one-fourth of the gross rental for such taxable year shall be included as an item of gross income in computing unrelated business taxable income for such taxable year.
Example 2. Assume that a tax-exempt organization owns a four-story building, that in 1954 it borrows $100,000 which it uses to improve the whole building, and that it thereafter in 1954 rents the first and second floors of the building under six-year leases at rentals of $4,000 a year. The third and fourth floors of the building are leased on a yearly basis during 1954. Assume, also, that the adjusted basis of the real property at the end of 1954 (after reflecting the expenditures for improving the building) is $200,000, allocable equally to each of the four stories. Under these facts, only one-half of the real property is subject to a business lease since only one-half is rented under a lease for more than 5 years. See §1.514(f)-1. The percentage of the rent under such lease which is taken into account is determined by the ratio which the allocable part of the business lease indebtedness bears to the allocable part of the adjusted basis of the real property, that is, the ratio which one-half of the $100,000 of business lease indebtedness outstanding at the close of 1954, or $50,000, bears to one-half of the adjusted basis of the business lease premises at the close of 1954, or $100,000. The percentage of rent which is business lease income for 1954 is, therefore, one-half (the ratio of $50,000 to $100,000) of $8,000, or $4,000, and this amount of $4,000 is considered an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business.

(c) Deductions—(1) Deductions allowable against gross income. The same percentage is used in determining both the portion of the rent and the portion of the deductions taken into account with respect to the business lease in computing unrelated business taxable income. Such percentage is applicable only to the sum of the following deductions allowable under section 161:

(i) Taxes and other expenses paid or accrued during the taxable year upon or with respect to the real property subject to the business lease;

(ii) Interest paid or accrued during the taxable year on the business lease indebtedness;

(iii) A reasonable allowance for exhaustion, wear and tear (including a reasonable allowance for obsolescence) of the real property subject to such lease.

Where only a portion of the real property is subject to the business lease, there shall be taken into account only those amounts of the above-listed deductions which are properly allocable to the premises covered by such lease.

(2) Excess deductions. The deductions allowable under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph with respect to a business lease are not limited by the amount included in gross income with respect to the rent from such lease. Any excess of such deductions over such gross income shall be applied against other items of gross income in computing unrelated business taxable income taxable under section 511(a).

(3) Example. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Assume the same facts as those in example 1 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Assume, also that for 1954 the organization pays taxes of $4,000 on the property, interest of $6,000 on its business lease indebtedness, and that the depreciation allowable for 1954 under section 167 is $10,000. Under the facts set forth in such example 1 and in this example, the deductions to be taken into account for 1954 in computing unrelated business taxable income would be two-fifths of the total of the deductions of $20,000, that is $8,000.

[T.D. 7229, 37 FR 28145, Dec. 21, 1972]

§1.514(b)-1   Definition of debt-financed property.

(a) In general. For purposes of section 514 and the regulations thereunder, the term debt-financed property means any property which is held to produce income (e.g., rental real estate, tangible personal property, and corporate stock), and with respect to which there is an acquisition indebtedness (determined without regard to whether the property is debt-financed property) at any time during the taxable year. The term income is not limited to recurring income but applies as well to gains from the disposition of property. Consequently, when any property held to produce income by an organization which is not used in a manner described in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D) is disposed of at a gain during the taxable year, and there was an acquisition indebtedness outstanding with respect to such property at any time during the 12-month period preceding the date of disposition (even though such period covers more than 1 taxable year), such property is debt-financed property. For example, assume that on June 1, 1972, an organization is given mortgaged, unimproved property which it does not use in a manner described in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D) and that the organization assumes payment ofthe mortgage on such property. On July 15, 1972, the organization sells such property for a gain. Such property is debt-financed property and such gain is taxable as unrelated debt-financed income. See section 514(c) and §1.514(c)-1 for rules relating to when there is acquisition indebtedness with respect to property. See paragraph (a) of §1.514(a)-1 for rules determining the amount of income or gain from debt-financed property which is treated as unrelated debt-financed income.

(b) Exceptions—(1) Property related to certain exempt purposes. (i) To the extent that the use of any property is substantially related (aside from the need of the organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the profits derived) to the exercise or performance by an organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting its basis for exemption under section 501 (or, in the case of an organization described in section 511(a)(2)(B), to the exercise or performance of any purpose or function designated in section 501(c)(3)) such property shall not be treated as debt-financed property. See §1.513-1 for principles applicable in determining whether there is a substantial relationship to the exempt purpose of the organization.

(ii) If substantially all of any property is used in a manner described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, such property shall not be treated as debt-financed property. In general the preceding sentence shall apply if 85 percent or more of the use of such property is devoted to the organization's exempt purpose. The extent to which property is used for a particular purpose shall be determined on the basis of all the facts and circumstances. These may include (where appropriate):

(a) A comparison of the portion of time such property is used for exempt purposes with the total time such property is used,

(b) A comparison of the portion of such property that is used for exempt purposes with the portion of such property that is used for all purposes, or

(c) Both the comparisons described in (a) and (b) of this subdivision.

(iii) This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples it is assumed that the indebtedness is acquisition indebtedness.

Example 1. W, an exempt organization, owns a computer with respect to which there is an outstanding principal indebtedness and which is used by W in the performance of its exempt purpose. W sells time for the use of the computer to M corporation on occasions when the computer is not in full-time use by W. W uses the computer in furtherance of its exempt purpose more than 85 percent of the time it is in use and M uses the computer less than 15 percent of the total operating time the computer is in use. In this situation, substantially all the use of the computer is related to the performance of W's exempt purpose. Therefore, no portion of the computer is treated as debt-financed property.
Example 2. X, an exempt college, owns a four story office building which has been purchased with borrowed funds. In 1971, the lower two stories of the building are used to house computers which are used by X for administrative purposes. The top two stories are rented to the public for purposes not described in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). The gross income derived by X from the building is $6,000, all of which is attributable to the rents paid by tenants. There are $2,000 of expenses, allocable equally to each use of the building. The average adjusted basis of the building for1971 is $100,000, and the outstanding principal indebtedness throughout 1971 is $60,000. Thus, the average acquisition indebtedness for 1971 is $60,000. In accordance with subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, only the upper half of the building is debt-financed property. Consequently, only the rental income and the deductions directly connected with such income are to be taken into account in computing unrelated business taxable income. The portion of such amounts to be taken into account is determined by multiplying the $6,000 of rental income and $1,000 of deductions directly connected with such rental income by the debt/basis percentage. The debt/basis percentage is the ratio which the allocable part of the average acquisition indebtedness is of the allocable part of the average adjusted basis of the property, that is, the ratio which $30,000 (one-half of $60,000) bears to $50,000 (one-half of $100,000). Thus, the debt/basis percentage for 1971 is 60 percent (the ratio of $30,000 to $50,000). Under these circumstances, X shall include net rental income of $3,000 in its unrelated business taxable income for 1971, computed as follows:
Total rental income$6,000
Deductions directly connected with rental income$1,000
Debt/basis percentage ($30,000/$50,000)60%
Rental income treated as gross income from an unrelated trade or business (60 percent of $6,000)$3,600
Less the allowable portion of deductions directly connected with such income (60 percent of $1,000)$600
Net rental income included by X in computing its unrelated business taxable income pursuant to section 514$3,000
Example 3. Assume the facts as stated in example 2 except that on December 31, 1971, X sells the building and realizes a long-term capital gain of $10,000. This is X's only capital transaction for 1971. An allocable portion of this gain is subject to tax. This amount is determined by multiplying the gain related to the nonexempt use, $5,000 (one-half of $10,000), by the ratio which the debtedness for the 12-month period preceding the date of sale, $30,000 (one-half of $60,000), is of the allocable part of the average adjusted basis, $50,000 (one-half of $100,000). Thus, the debt/basis percentage with respect to computing the gain (or loss) derived from the sale of the building is 60 percent (the ratio of $30,000 to $50,000). Consequently, $3,000 (60 percent of $5,000) is a net section 1201 gain (capital gain net income for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976). The portion of such gain which is taxable shall be determined in accordance with rules contained in subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code (relating to capital gains and losses). See also section 511(d) and the regulations thereunder (relating to the minimum tax for tax preferences).

(2) Property used in an unrelated trade or business—(i) In general. To the extent that the gross income from any property is treated as income from the conduct of an unrelated trade or business, such property shall not be treated as debt-financed property. However, any gain on the disposition of such property which is not included in the income of an unrelated trade or business by reason of section 512(b)(5) is includible as gross income derived from or on account of debt-financed property under paragraph (a)(1) of §1.514(a)-1.

(ii) Amounts specifically taxable under other provisions of the Code. Section 514 does not apply to amounts which are otherwise included in the computation of unrelated business taxable income, such as rents from personal property includible pursuant to section 512(b)(13) or rents and interest from controlled organizations includible pursuant to section 512(b)(3). See paragraph (1)(5) of §1. 512(b)-1 for the rules determining the manner in which amounts are taken into account where such amounts may be included in the computation of unrelated business taxable income by operation of more than one provision of the Code.

(3) Examples. Subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples it is assumed that the indebtedness is acquisition indebtedness.

Example 1. X, an exempt scientific organization, owns a 10-story office building. During 1972, four stories are occupied by X's administrative offices, and the remaining six stories are rented to the public for purposes not described in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). On December 31, 1972, the building is sold and X realizes a long-term capital gain of $100,000. This is X's only capital transaction for 1972. The debt/basis percentage with respect to computing the gain (or loss) derived from the sale of the building is 30 percent. Since 40 percent of the building was used for X's exempt purpose, only 60 percent of the building is debt-financed property. Thus, only $60,000 of the gain (60 percent of $100,000) is subject to this section. Consequently, the amount of gain treated as unrelated debt-financed income is $18,000 ($60,000 multiplied by the debt/basis percentage of 30 percent). The portion of such $18,000 which is taxable shall be determined in accordance with the rules contained in subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code. See also section 511(d) and the regulations thereunder (relating to the minimum tax for tax preferences).
Example 2. Y, an exempt organization, owns two properties, a restaurant and an office building. In 1972, all the space in the office building, except for the portion utilized by Y to house the administrative offices of the restaurant, is rented to the public for purposes not described in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). The average adjusted basis of the office building for 1972 is $2 million. The outstanding principal indebtedness throughout 1972 is $1 million. Thus, the highest acquisition indebtedness in the calendar year of 1972 is $1 million. It is determined that 30 percent of the space in the office building is used for the administrative functions engaged in by the employees of the organization with respect to the restaurant. Since the income attributable to the restaurant is attributable to the conduct of an unrelated trade or business, only 70 percent of the building is treated as debt-financed property for purposes of determining the portion of the rental income which is unrelated debt-financed income. On December 31, 1972, the office building is sold and Y realizes a long-term capital gain of $250,000. This is Y's only capital transaction for 1972. In accordance with subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph, all the gain derived from this sale is taken into account in computing the amount of such gain subject to tax. The portion of such gain which is taxable is determined by multiplying the $250,000 gain by the debt/basis percentage. The debt/basis percentage is the ratio which the highest acquisition indebtedness for the 12-month period preceding the date of sale, $1 million, is of the averageadjusted basis, $2 million. Thus, the debt/basis percentage with respect to computing the gain (or loss) derived from the sale of the building is 50 percent (the ratio of $1 million to $2 million). Consequently, $125,000 (50 percent of $250,000) is a net section 1201 gain (net capital gain for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976). The amount of such gain which is taxable shall be determined in accordance with the rules contained in subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code. See also section 511(d) and the regulations thereunder.
Example 3. (a) Z, an exempt university, owns all the stock of M, a nonexempt corporation. During 1971 M leases from Z University a factory unrelated to Z's exempt purpose and a dormitory for the students of Z, for a total annual rent of $100,000: $80,000 for the factory and $20,000 for the dormitory. During 1971, M has $500,000 of taxable income, disregarding the rent paid to Z: $150,000 from the dormitory and $350,000 from the factory. The factory is subject to a mortgage of $150,000. Its average adjusted basis for 1971 is determined to be $300,000. Z's deductions for 1971 with respect to the leased property are $4,000 for the dormitory and $16,000 for the factory. In accordance with subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, section 514 applies only to that portion of the rent which is excluded from the computation of unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 512(b)(3) and not included in such computation pursuant to section 512(b)(13). Since all the rent received by Z is derived from real property, section 512(b)(3) would exclude all such rent from computation of Z's unrelated business taxable income. However, 70 percent of the rent paid to Z with respect to the factory and 70 percent of the deductions directly connected with such rent shall be taken into account by Z in determining its unrelated business taxable income pursuant to section 512(b)(15), computed as follows:
M's taxable income (disregarding rent paid to Z)$500,000
Less taxable income from dormitory$150,000
Excess taxable income$350,000
Ratio ($350,000/$500,000)7/10
Total rent paid to Z$100,000
Total deductions ($4,000+$16,000)$20,000
Rental income treated under section 512(b)(15) as gross income from an unrelated trade or business (7/10 of $100,000)$70,000
Less deductions directly connected with such income (7/10 of $20,000)$14,000
Net rental income included by Z in computing its unrelated business taxable income pursuant to section 512(b)(15)$56,000
(b) Since only that portion of the rent derived from the factory and the deductions directly connected with such rent not taken into account pursuant to section 512(b)(15) may be included in computing unrelated business taxable income by operation of section 514, only $10,000 ($80,000 minus $70,000) of rent and $2,000 ($16,000 minus $14,000) of deductions are so taken into account. The portion of such amounts to be taken into account is determined by multiplying the $10,000 of income and $2,000 of deductions by the debt/basis percentage. The debt/basis percentage is the ratio which the average acquisition indebtedness ($150,000) is of the average adjusted basis of the property ($300,000). Thus, the debt/basis percentage for 1971 is 50 percent (the ratio of $150,000 to $300,000). Under these circumstances, Z shall include net rental income of $4,000 in its unrelated business taxable income for 1971, computed as follows:
Total rents$10,000
Deductions directly connected with such rents$2,000
Debt/basis percentage ($150,000/$300,000)50%
Rental income treated as gross income from an unrelated trade or business (50 percent of $10,000)$5,000
Less the allowable portion of deductions directly connected with such income (50 percent of $2,000)$1,000
Net rental income included by Z in computing its unrelated business taxable income pursuant to section 514$4,000

(4) Property related to research activities. To the extent that the gross income from any property is derived from research activities excluded from the tax on unrelated business income by paragraph (7), (8), or (9) of section 512(b), such property shall not be treated as debt-financed property.

(5) Property used in thrift shops, etc. To the extent that property is used in any trade or business which is excepted from the definition of unrelated trade or business by paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 513(a), such property shall not be treated as debt-financed property.

(6) Use by a related organization. For purposes of subparagraph (1), (4), or (5) of this paragraph, use of property by a related exempt organization (as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) for a purpose described in such subparagraphs shall be taken into account in order to determine the extent to which such property is used for a purpose described in such subparagraphs.

(c) Special rules—(1) Medical clinic. Property is not debt-financed property if it is real property subject to a lease to a medical clinic, and the lease is entered into primarily for purposes which are substantially related (aside from the need of such organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the rents derived) to the exercise or performance by the lessor of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501. For example, assume that an exempt hospital leases all of its clinic space to an unincorporated association of physicians and surgeons who, by the provisions of the lease, agree to provide all of the hospital's out-patient medical and surgical services and to train all of the hospital's residents and interns. In this situation, the rents received by the hospital from this clinic are not to be treated as unrelated debt-financed income.

(2) Related exempt uses—(i) In general. Property owned by an exempt organization and used by a related exempt organization or by an exempt organization related to such related exempt organization shall not be treated as debt-financed property to the extent such property is used by either organization in furtherance of the purpose constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501. Furthermore, property shall not be treated as debt-financed property to the extent such property is used by a related exempt organization for a purpose described in paragraph (b)(4) or (5) of this section.

(ii) Related organizations. For purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, an exempt organization is related to another exempt organization only if:

(a) One organization is an exempt holding company described in section 501(c)(2) and the other organization receives the profits derived by such exempt holding company,

(b) One organization has control of the other organization within the meaning of paragraph (1)(4) of §1.512(b)-1,

(c) More than 50 percent of the members of one organization are members of the other organization, or

(d) Each organization is a local organization which is directly affiliated with a common state, national, or international organization which is also exempt.

(iii) Examples. This subparagraph may be illustrated by the following examples. For purposes of these examples it is assumed that the indebtedness is acquisition indebtedness.

Example 1. M, an exempt trade association described in section 501(c)(6), leases 70 percent of the space of an office building for furtherance of its exempt purpose. The title to such building is held by N, an exempt holding company described in section 501(c)(2), which acquired title to the building with borrowed funds. The other 30 percent of the space in this office building is leased to L, a nonstock exempt trade association described in section 501(c)(6). L uses such office space in furtherance of its exemptpurpose. The members of L's Board of Trustees serves for fixed terms and M's Board of Directors has the power to select all such members. N pays over to M all the profits it derives from the leasing of space in this building to M and L. Accordingly, M is related to N (as such term is defined in subdivision (ii)(a) of this subparagraph) and L is related to M (as such term is defined in subdivision (ii)(b) of this subparagraph). Under these circumstances, since all the available space in the building is leased to either an exempt organization related to the exempt organization holding title to the building or an exempt organization related to such related exempt organization, no portion of the building is treated as debt-financed property.
Example 2. W, an exempt labor union described in section 501(c)(5), owns a 10-story office building which has been purchased with borrowed funds. Five floors of the building are used by W in furtherance of its exempt purpose. Four of the other floors are rented to X which is an exempt voluntary employees' beneficiary association described in section 501(c)(9), operated for the benefit of W's members. X uses such office space in furtherance of its exempt purpose. Seventy percent of the members of W are also members of X. Accordingly, X is related to W (as such term is defined in subdivision (ii)(c) of this subparagraph). The remaining floor of the building is rented to the general public for purposes not described in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). Under thesecircumstances, no portion of this building is treated as debt-financed property since more than 85 percent of the office space available in this building is used either by W or X, an exempt organization related to W, in furtherance of their respective exempt purpose. See paragraph (b)(1) of this section for rules relating to the use of property substantially related to an exempt purpose. See paragraph (b)(6) of this section for rules relating to uses by related exempt organizations.
Example 3. Assume the same facts as in example 2, except that W and X are each exempt local labor unions described in section 501(c)(5) having no common membership and are each affiliated with N, an exempt international labor union described in section 501(c)(5). Under these circumstances, no portion of this building is treated as debt-financed property since more than 85 percent of the office space available in this building is used either by W or X, an exempt organization related to W, in furtherance of their respective exempt purpose.
Example 4. Assume the same facts as in example 3, except that W and X are directly affiliated with different exempt international labor unions and that W and X are not otherwise affiliated with, or members of, a common exempt organization, other than an association of international labor unions. Under these circumstances, the portions of this building which are rented to X and to the general public are treated as debt-financed property since X is not related to W and W uses less than 85 percent of the building for its exempt purpose.

(3) Life income contracts. (i) Property shall not be treated as debt-financed property when:

(a) An individual transfers property to a trust or a fund subject to a contract providing that the income is to be paid to him or other individuals or both for a period of time not to exceed the life of such individual or individuals in a transaction in which the payments to the individual or individuals do not constitute the proceeds of a sale or exchange of the property so transferred, and

(b) The remainder interest is payable to an exempt organization described in section 501(c)(3).

(ii) Subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is illustrated by the following example.

Example. On January 1, 1967, A transfers property to X, an exempt organization described in section 501(c)(3), which immediately places the property in a fund. On January 1, 1971, A transfers additional property to X, which property is also placed in the fund. In exchange for each transfer, A receives income participation fund certificates which entitle him to a proportionate part of the fund's income for his life and for the life of another individual. None of the payments made by X are treated by the recipients as the proceeds of a sale or exchange of the property transferred. In this situation, none of the property received by X from A is treated as debt-financed property.

(d) Property acquired for prospective exempt use—(1) Neighborhood land—(i) In general. If an organization acquires real property for the principal purpose of using the land in the exercise or performance of its exempt purpose, commencing within 10 years of the time of acquisition, such property will not be treated as debt-financed property, so long as (a) such property is in the neighborhood of other property owned by the organization which is used in the performance of its exempt purpose, and (b) the organization does not abandon its intent to use the land in such a manner within the 10-year period. The rule expressed in this subdivision is hereinafter referred to as the neighborhood land rule.

(ii) Neighborhood defined. Property shall be considered in the neighborhood of property owned and used by the organization in the performance of its exempt purpose if the acquired property is contiguous with the exempt purpose property or would be contiguous with such property except for the interposition of a road, street, railroad, stream, or similar property. If the acquired property is not contiguous with exempt function property, it may still be in the neighborhood of such property, but only if it is within 1 mile of such property and the facts and circumstances of the particular situation make the acquisition of contiguous property unreasonable. Some of the criteria to consider in determining this question include the availability of land and the intended future use of the land. For example, a university attempts to purchase land contiguous to its present campus but cannot do so because the owners either refuse to sell or ask unreasonable prices. The nearest land of sufficient size and utility is a block away from the campus. The university purchases such land. Under these circumstances, the contiguity requirement is unreasonable and the la