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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of November 19, 2014

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter D → Part 316


Title 21: Food and Drugs


PART 316—ORPHAN DRUGS


Contents

Subpart A—General Provisions

§316.1   Scope of this part.
§316.2   Purpose.
§316.3   Definitions.
§316.4   Address for submissions.

Subpart B—Written Recommendations for Investigations of Orphan Drugs

§316.10   Content and format of a request for written recommendations.
§316.12   Providing written recommendations.
§316.14   Refusal to provide written recommendations.

Subpart C—Designation of an Orphan Drug

§316.20   Content and format of a request for orphan-drug designation.
§316.21   Verification of orphan-drug status.
§316.22   Permanent-resident agent for foreign sponsor.
§316.23   Timing of requests for orphan-drug designation; designation of already approved drugs.
§316.24   Deficiency letters and granting orphan-drug designation.
§316.25   Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.
§316.26   Amendment to orphan-drug designation.
§316.27   Change in ownership of orphan-drug designation.
§316.28   Publication of orphan-drug designations.
§316.29   Revocation of orphan-drug designation.
§316.30   Annual reports of holder of orphan-drug designation.

Subpart D—Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval

§316.31   Scope of orphan-drug exclusive approval.
§316.34   FDA recognition of exclusive approval.
§316.36   Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.

Subpart E—Open Protocols for Investigations

§316.40   Treatment use of a designated orphan drug.

Subpart F—Availability of Information

§316.50   Guidance documents.
§316.52   Availability for public disclosure of data and information in requests and applications.

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 360aa, 360bb, 360cc, 360dd, 371.

Source: 57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, unless otherwise noted.

Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 316 appear at 69 FR 13717, Mar. 24, 2004.

Subpart A—General Provisions

§316.1   Scope of this part.

(a) This part implements sections 525, 526, 527, and 528 of the act and provides procedures to encourage and facilitate the development of drugs for rare diseases or conditions, including biological products and antibiotics. This part sets forth the procedures and requirements for:

(1) Submissions to FDA of:

(i) Requests for recommendations for investigations of drugs for rare diseases or conditions;

(ii) Requests for designation of a drug for a rare disease or condition; and

(iii) Requests for gaining exclusive approval for a drug for a rare disease or condition.

(2) Allowing a sponsor to provide an investigational drug under a treatment protocol to patients who need the drug for treatment of a rare disease or condition.

(b) This part does not apply to food, medical devices, or drugs for veterinary use.

(c) References in this part to regulatory sections of the Code of Federal Regulations are to chapter I of title 21, unless otherwise noted.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35132, June 12, 2013]

§316.2   Purpose.

The purpose of this part is to establish standards and procedures for determining eligibility for the benefits provided for in section 2 of the Orphan Drug Act, including written recommendations for investigations of orphan drugs, a 7-year period of exclusive marketing, and treatment use of investigational orphan drugs. This part is also intended to satisfy Congress' requirements that FDA promulgate procedures for the implementation of sections 525(a) and 526(a) of the act.

§316.3   Definitions.

(a) The definitions and interpretations contained in section 201 of the act apply to those terms when used in this part.

(b) The following definitions of terms apply to this part:

(1) Act means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as amended by section 2 of the Orphan Drug Act (sections 525-528 (21 U.S.C. 360aa-360dd)).

(2) Active moiety means the molecule or ion, excluding those appended portions of the molecule that cause the drug to be an ester, salt (including a salt with hydrogen or coordination bonds), or other noncovalent derivative (such as a complex, chelate, or clathrate) of the molecule, responsible for the physiological or pharmacological action of the drug substance.

(3) Clinically superior means that a drug is shown to provide a significant therapeutic advantage over and above that provided by an approved drug (that is otherwise the same drug) in one or more of the following ways:

(i) Greater effectiveness than an approved drug (as assessed by effect on a clinically meaningful endpoint in adequate and well controlled clinical trials). Generally, this would represent the same kind of evidence needed to support a comparative effectiveness claim for two different drugs; in most cases, direct comparative clinical trials would be necessary; or

(ii) Greater safety in a substantial portion of the target populations, for example, by the elimination of an ingredient or contaminant that is associated with relatively frequent adverse effects. In some cases, direct comparative clinical trials will be necessary; or

(iii) In unusual cases, where neither greater safety nor greater effectiveness has been shown, a demonstration that the drug otherwise makes a major contribution to patient care.

(4) Director means the Director of FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development.

(5) FDA means the Food and Drug Administration.

(6) Holder means the sponsor in whose name an orphan drug is designated and approved.

(7) IND means an investigational new drug application under part 312 of this chapter.

(8) Manufacturer means any person or agency engaged in the manufacture of a drug that is subject to investigation and approval under the act or the biologics provisions of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262-263).

(9) Marketing application means an application for approval of a new drug filed under section 505(b) of the act or an application for a biologics license submitted under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262).

(10) Orphan drug means a drug intended for use in a rare disease or condition as defined in section 526 of the act.

(11) Orphan-drug designation means FDA's act of granting a request for designation under section 526 of the act.

(12) Orphan-drug exclusive approval or exclusive approval means that, effective on the date of FDA approval as stated in the approval letter of a marketing application for a sponsor of a designated orphan drug, no approval will be given to a subsequent sponsor of the same drug for the same use or indication for 7 years, except as otherwise provided by law or in this part. A designated drug will receive orphan-drug exclusive approval only if the same drug has not already been approved for the same use or indication.

(13) Orphan subset of a non-rare disease or condition (“orphan subset”) means that use of the drug in a subset of persons with a non-rare disease or condition may be appropriate but use of the drug outside of that subset (in the remaining persons with the non-rare disease or condition) would be inappropriate owing to some property(ies) of the drug, for example, drug toxicity, mechanism of action, or previous clinical experience with the drug.

(14) Same drug means:

(i) If it is a drug composed of small molecules, a drug that contains the same active moiety as a previously approved drug and is intended for the same use as the previously approved drug, even if the particular ester or salt (including a salt with hydrogen or coordination bonds) or other noncovalent derivative such as a complex, chelate or clathrate has not been previously approved, except that if the subsequent drug can be shown to be clinically superior to the first drug, it will not be considered to be the same drug.

(ii) If it is a drug composed of large molecules (macromolecules), a drug that contains the same principal molecular structural features (but not necessarily all of the same structural features) and is intended for the same use as a previously approved drug, except that, if the subsequent drug can be shown to be clinically superior, it will not be considered to be the same drug. This criterion will be applied as follows to different kinds of macromolecules:

(A) Two protein drugs would be considered the same if the only differences in structure between them were due to post-translational events or infidelity of translation or transcription or were minor differences in amino acid sequence; other potentially important differences, such as different glycosylation patterns or different tertiary structures, would not cause the drugs to be considered different unless the differences were shown to be clinically superior.

(B) Two polysaccharide drugs would be considered the same if they had identical saccharide repeating units, even if the number of units were to vary and even if there were postpolymerization modifications, unless the subsequent drug could be shown to be clinically superior.

(C) Two polynucleotide drugs consisting of two or more distinct nucleotides would be considered the same if they had an identical sequence of purine and pyrimidine bases (or their derivatives) bound to an identical sugar backbone (ribose, deoxyribose, or modifications of these sugars), unless the subsequent drug were shown to be clinically superior.

(D) Closely related, complex partly definable drugs with similar therapeutic intent, such as two live viral vaccines for the same indication, would be considered the same unless the subsequent drug was shown to be clinically superior.

(15) Sponsor means the entity that assumes responsibility for a clinical or nonclinical investigation of a drug, including the responsibility for compliance with applicable provisions of the act and regulations. A sponsor may be an individual, partnership, corporation, or Government agency and may be a manufacturer, scientific institution, or an investigator regularly and lawfully engaged in the investigation of drugs. For purposes of the Orphan Drug Act, FDA considers the real party or parties in interest to be a sponsor.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 64 FR 402, Jan. 5, 1999; 64 FR 56449, Oct. 20, 1999; 78 FR 35132, June 12, 2013]

§316.4   Address for submissions.

All correspondence and requests for FDA action under the provisions of this rule should be addressed as follows: Office of Orphan Products Development, Food and Drug Administration, Bldg. 32, Rm. 5271, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993.

[78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

Subpart B—Written Recommendations for Investigations of Orphan Drugs

§316.10   Content and format of a request for written recommendations.

(a) A sponsor's request for written recommendations from FDA concerning the nonclinical and clinical investigations necessary for approval of a marketing application shall be submitted in the form and contain the information required in this section. FDA may require the sponsor to submit information in addition to that specified in paragraph (b) of this section if FDA determines that the sponsor's initial request does not contain adequate information on which to base recommendations.

(b) A sponsor shall submit two copies of a completed, dated, and signed request for written recommendations that contains the following:

(1) The sponsor's name and address.

(2) A statement that the sponsor is requesting written recommendations on orphan-drug development under section 525 of the act.

(3) The name of the sponsor's primary contact person and/or resident agent, and the person's title, address, and telephone number.

(4) The generic name and trade name, if any, of the drug and a list of the drug product's components or description of the drug product's formulation, and chemical and physical properties.

(5) The proposed dosage form and route of administration.

(6) A description of the disease or condition for which the drug is proposed to be investigated and the proposed indication or indications for use for such disease or condition.

(7) Current regulatory and marketing status and history of the drug product, including:

(i) Whether the product is the subject of an IND or a marketing application (if the product is the subject of an IND or a marketing application, the IND or marketing application numbers should be stated and the investigational or approved indication or indications for use specified);

(ii) Known marketing experience or investigational status outside the United States;

(iii) So far as is known or can be determined, all indications previously or currently under investigation anywhere;

(iv) All adverse regulatory actions taken by the United States or foreign authorities.

(8) The basis for concluding that the drug is for a disease or condition that is rare in the United States, including the following:

(i) The size and other known demographic characteristics of the patient population affected and the source of this information.

(ii) For drugs intended for diseases or conditions affecting 200,000 or more people in the United States, or for a vaccine, diagnostic drug, or preventive drug that would be given to 200,000 or more persons per year, a summary of the sponsor's basis for believing that the disease or condition described in paragraph (b)(6) of this section occurs so infrequently that there is no reasonable expectation that the costs of drug development and marketing will be recovered in future sales of the drug in the United States. The estimated costs and sales data should be submitted as provided for in §316.21(c).

(9) A summary and analysis of available data on the pharmacologic effects of the drug.

(10) A summary and analysis of available nonclinical and clinical data pertinent to the drug and the disease to be studied including copies of pertinent published reports. When a drug proposed for orphan drug designation is intended to treat a life-threatening or severely debilitating illness, especially where no satisfactory alternative therapy exists, the sponsor may wish voluntarily to provide this information. A sponsor of such a drug may be entitled to expeditious development, evaluation, and marketing under 21 CFR part 312, subpart E.

(11) An explanation of how the data summarized and analyzed under paragraphs (b)(9) and (b)(10) of this section support the rationale for use of the drug in the rare disease or condition.

(12) A definition of the population from which subjects will be identified for clinical trials, if known.

(13) A detailed outline of any protocols under which the drug has been or is being studied for the rare disease or condition and a summary and analysis of any available data from such studies.

(14) The sponsor's proposal as to the scope of nonclinical and clinical investigations needed to establish the safety and effectiveness of the drug.

(15) Detailed protocols for each proposed United States or foreign clinical investigation, if available.

(16) Specific questions to be addressed by FDA in its recommendations for nonclinical laboratory studies and clinical investigations.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992; 58 FR 6167, Jan. 26, 1993]

§316.12   Providing written recommendations.

(a) FDA will provide the sponsor with written recommendations concerning the nonclinical laboratory studies and clinical investigations necessary for approval of a marketing application if none of the reasons described in §316.14 for refusing to do so applies.

(b) When a sponsor seeks written recommendations at a stage of drug development at which advice on any clinical investigations, or on particular investigations would be premature, FDA's response may be limited to written recommendations concerning only nonclinical laboratory studies, or only certain of the clinical studies (e.g., Phase 1 studies as described in §312.21 of this chapter). Prior to providing written recommendations for the clinical investigations required to achieve marketing approval, FDA may require that the results of the nonclinical laboratory studies or completed early clinical studies be submitted to FDA for agency review.

§316.14   Refusal to provide written recommendations.

(a) FDA may refuse to provide written recommendations concerning the nonclinical laboratory studies and clinical investigations necessary for approval of a marketing application for any of the following reasons:

(1) The information required to be submitted by §316.10(b) has not been submitted, or the information submitted is incomplete.

(2) There is insufficient information about:

(i) The drug to identify the active moiety and its physical and chemical properties, if these characteristics can be determined; or

(ii) The disease or condition to determine that the disease or condition is rare in the United States; or

(iii) The reasons for believing that the drug may be useful for treating the rare disease or condition with that drug; or

(iv) The regulatory and marketing history of the drug to determine the scope and type of investigations that have already been conducted on the drug for the rare disease or condition; or

(v) The plan of study for establishing the safety and effectiveness of the drug for treatment of the rare disease or condition.

(3) The specific questions for which the sponsor seeks the advice of the agency are unclear or are not sufficiently specific.

(4) On the basis of the information submitted and on other information available to the agency, FDA determines that the disease or condition for which the drug is intended is not rare in the United States.

(5) On the basis of the information submitted and on other information available to the agency, FDA determines that there is an inadequate basis for permitting investigational use of the drug under part 312 of this chapter for the rare disease or condition.

(6) The request for information contains an untrue statement of material fact.

(b) A refusal to provide written recommendations will be in writing and will include a statement of the reason for FDA's refusal. Where practicable, FDA will describe the information or material it requires or the conditions the sponsor must meet for FDA to provide recommendations.

(c) Within 90 days after the date of a letter from FDA requesting additional information or material or setting forth the conditions that the sponsor is asked to meet, the sponsor shall either:

(1) Provide the information or material or amend the request for written recommendations to meet the conditions sought by FDA; or

(2) Withdraw the request for written recommendations. FDA will consider a sponsor's failure to respond within 90 days to an FDA letter requesting information or material or setting forth conditions to be met to be a withdrawal of the request for written recommendations.

Subpart C—Designation of an Orphan Drug

§316.20   Content and format of a request for orphan-drug designation.

(a) A sponsor that submits a request for orphan-drug designation of a drug for a specified rare disease or condition shall submit each request in the form and containing the information required in paragraph (b) of this section. A sponsor may request orphan-drug designation of a previously unapproved drug, or of a new use for an already marketed drug. In addition, a sponsor of a drug that is otherwise the same drug as an already approved drug may seek and obtain orphan-drug designation for the subsequent drug for the same rare disease or condition if it can present a plausible hypothesis that its drug may be clinically superior to the first drug. More than one sponsor may receive orphan-drug designation of the same drug for the same rare disease or condition, but each sponsor seeking orphan-drug designation must file a complete request for designation as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) A sponsor shall submit two copies of a completed, dated, and signed request for designation that contains the following:

(1) A statement that the sponsor requests orphan-drug designation for a rare disease or condition, which shall be identified with specificity.

(2) The name and address of the sponsor; the name of the sponsor's primary contact person and/or resident agent including title, address, telephone number, and email address; the generic and trade name, if any, of the drug, or, if neither is available, the chemical name or a meaningful descriptive name of the drug; and the name and address of the source of the drug if it is not manufactured by the sponsor.

(3) A description of the rare disease or condition for which the drug is being or will be investigated, the proposed use of the drug, and the reasons why such therapy is needed.

(4) A description of the drug, to include the identity of the active moiety if it is a drug composed of small molecules, or of the principal molecular structural features if it is composed of macromolecules; its physical and chemical properties, if these characteristics can be determined; and a discussion of the scientific rationale to establish a medically plausible basis for the use of the drug for the rare disease or condition, including all relevant data from in vitro laboratory studies, preclinical efficacy studies conducted in an animal model for the human disease or condition, and clinical experience with the drug in the rare disease or condition that are available to the sponsor, whether positive, negative, or inconclusive. Animal toxicology studies are generally not relevant to a request for orphan-drug designation. Copies of pertinent unpublished and published papers are also required.

(5) Where the sponsor of a drug that is otherwise the same drug as an already approved drug seeks orphan-drug designation for the subsequent drug for the same rare disease or condition, an explanation of why the proposed variation may be clinically superior to the first drug.

(6) Where a sponsor requests orphan-drug designation for a drug for only a subset of persons with a particular disease or condition that otherwise affects 200,000 or more people (“orphan subset”), a demonstration that, due to one or more properties of the drug, the remaining persons with such disease or condition would not be appropriate candidates for use of the drug.

(7) A summary of the regulatory status and marketing history of the drug in the United States and in foreign countries, e.g., IND and marketing application status and dispositions, what uses are under investigation and in what countries; for what indication is the drug approved in foreign countries; what adverse regulatory actions have been taken against the drug in any country.

(8) Documentation, with appended authoritative references, to demonstrate that:

(i) The disease or condition for which the drug is intended affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States or, if the drug is a vaccine, diagnostic drug, or preventive drug, the persons to whom the drug will be administered in the United States are fewer than 200,000 per year as specified in §316.21(b), or

(ii) For a drug intended for diseases or conditions affecting 200,000 or more people, or for a vaccine, diagnostic drug, or preventive drug to be administered to 200,000 or more persons per year in the United States, there is no reasonable expectation that costs of research and development of the drug for the indication can be recovered by sales of the drug in the United States as specified in §316.21(c).

(c) Any of the information previously provided by the sponsor to FDA under subpart B of this part may be referenced by specific page or location if it duplicates information required elsewhere in this section.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

§316.21   Verification of orphan-drug status.

(a) So that FDA can determine whether a drug qualifies for orphan-drug designation under section 526(a) of the act, the sponsor shall include in its request to FDA for orphan-drug designation under §316.20 either:

(1) Documentation as described in paragraph (b) of this section that the number of people affected by the disease or condition for which the drug is to be developed is fewer than 200,000 persons; or

(2) Documentation as described in paragraph (c) of this section that demonstrates that there is no reasonable expectation that the sales of the drug will be sufficient to offset the costs of developing the drug for the U.S. market and the costs of making the drug available in the United States.

(b) For the purpose of documenting that the number of people affected by the disease or condition for which the drug is to be developed is less than 200,000 persons, “prevalence” is defined as the number of persons in the United States who have been diagnosed as having the disease or condition at the time of the submission of the request for orphan-drug designation. To document the number of persons in the United States who have the disease or condition for which the drug is to be developed, the sponsor shall submit to FDA evidence showing:

(1) The estimated prevalence of the disease or condition for which the drug is being developed, together with a list of the sources (including dates of information provided and literature citations) for the estimate;

(2) Upon request by FDA, the estimated prevalence of any other disease or condition for which the drug has already been approved or for which the drug is currently being developed, together with an explanation of the bases of these estimates; and

(3) The estimated number of people to whom the drug will be administered annually if the drug is a vaccine or is a drug intended for diagnosis or prevention of a rare disease or condition, together with an explanation of the bases of these estimates (including dates of information provided and literature citations).

(c) When submitting documentation that there is no reasonable expectation that costs of research and development of the drug for the disease or condition can be recovered by sales of the drug in the United States, the sponsor shall submit to FDA:

(1) Data on all costs that the sponsor has incurred in the course of developing the drug for the U.S. market. These costs shall include, but are not limited to, nonclinical laboratory studies, clinical studies, dosage form development, record and report maintenance, meetings with FDA, determination of patentability, preparation of designation request, IND/marketing application preparation, distribution of the drug under a “treatment” protocol, licensing costs, liability insurance, and overhead and depreciation. Furthermore, the sponsor shall demonstrate the reasonableness of the cost data. For example, if the sponsor has incurred costs for clinical investigations, the sponsor shall provide information on the number of investigations, the years in which they took place, and on the scope, duration, and number of patients that were involved in each investigation.

(2) If the drug was developed wholly or in part outside the United States, in addition to the documentation listed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section:

(i) Data on and justification for all costs that the sponsor has incurred outside of the United States in the course of developing the drug for the U.S. market. The justification, in addition to demonstrating the reasonableness of the cost data, must also explain the method that was used to determine which portion of the foreign development costs should be applied to the U.S. market, and what percent these costs are of total worldwide development costs. Any data submitted to foreign government authorities to support drug pricing determinations must be included with this information.

(ii) Data that show which foreign development costs were recovered through cost recovery procedures that are allowed during drug development in some foreign countries. For example, if the sponsor charged patients for the drug during clinical investigations, the revenues collected by the sponsor must be reported to FDA.

(3) In cases where the drug has already been approved for marketing for any indication or in cases where the drug is currently under investigation for one or more other indications (in addition to the indication for which orphan-drug designation is being sought), a clear explanation of and justification for the method that is used to apportion the development costs among the various indications.

(4) A statement of and justification for any development costs that the sponsor expects to incur after the submission of the designation request. In cases where the extent of these future development costs are not clear, the sponsor should request FDA's advice and assistance in estimating the scope of nonclinical laboratory studies and clinical investigations and other data that are needed to support marketing approval. Based on these recommendations, a cost estimate should be prepared.

(5) A statement of and justification for production and marketing costs that the sponsor has incurred in the past and expects to incur during the first 7 years that the drug is marketed.

(6) An estimate of and justification for the expected revenues from sales of the drug in the United States during its first 7 years of marketing. The justification should assume that the total market for the drug is equal to the prevalence of the disease or condition that the drug will be used to treat. The justification should include:

(i) An estimate of the expected market share of the drug in each of the first 7 years that it is marketed, together with an explanation of the basis for that estimate;

(ii) A projection of and justification for the price at which the drug will be sold; and

(iii) Comparisons with sales of similarly situated drugs, where available.

(7) The name of each country where the drug has already been approved for marketing for any indication, the dates of approval, the indication for which the drug is approved, and the annual sales and number of prescriptions in each country since the first approval date.

(8) A report of an independent certified public accountant in accordance with Statement on Standards for Attestation established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants on agreed upon procedures performed with respect to the data estimates and justifications submitted pursuant to this section. Cost data shall be determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

(d) A sponsor that is requesting orphan-drug designation for a drug designed to treat a disease or condition that affects 200,000 or more persons shall, at FDA's request, allow FDA or FDA-designated personnel to examine at reasonable times and in a reasonable manner all relevant financial records and sales data of the sponsor and manufacturer.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

§316.22   Permanent-resident agent for foreign sponsor.

Every foreign sponsor that seeks orphan-drug designation shall name a permanent resident of the United States as the sponsor's agent upon whom service of all processes, notices, orders, decisions, requirements, and other communications may be made on behalf of the sponsor. Notifications of changes in such agents or changes of address of agents should preferably be provided in advance, but not later than 60 days after the effective date of such changes. The permanent-resident agent may be an individual, firm, or domestic corporation and may represent any number of sponsors. The name of the permanent-resident agent, address, telephone number, and email address shall be provided to: Office of Orphan Products Development, Food and Drug Administration, Bldg. 32, rm. 5271, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993.

[78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

§316.23   Timing of requests for orphan-drug designation; designation of already approved drugs.

(a) A sponsor may request orphan-drug designation at any time in its drug development process prior to the time that sponsor submits a marketing application for the drug for the same rare disease or condition.

(b) A sponsor may request orphan-drug designation of an already approved drug for an unapproved use without regard to whether the prior marketing approval was for a rare disease or condition.

[78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

§316.24   Deficiency letters and granting orphan-drug designation.

(a) FDA will send a deficiency letter to the sponsor if the request for orphan-drug designation lacks information required under §§316.20 and 316.21, or contains inaccurate or incomplete information. FDA may consider a designation request voluntarily withdrawn if the sponsor fails to respond to the deficiency letter within 1 year of issuance of the deficiency letter, unless within that same timeframe the sponsor requests in writing an extension of time to respond. This request must include the reason(s) for the requested extension and the length of time of the requested extension. FDA will grant all reasonable requests for an extension. In the event FDA denies a request for an extension of time, FDA may consider the designation request voluntarily withdrawn. In the event FDA considers a designation request voluntarily withdrawn, FDA will so notify the sponsor in writing.

(b) FDA will grant the request for orphan-drug designation if none of the reasons described in §316.25 for requiring or permitting refusal to grant such a request applies.

(c) When a request for orphan-drug designation is granted, FDA will notify the sponsor in writing and will publicize the orphan-drug designation in accordance with §316.28.

(d) A sponsor may voluntarily withdraw an orphan-drug designation request or an orphan-drug designation at any time after the request is submitted or granted, respectively, by submitting a written request for withdrawal to FDA. FDA will acknowledge such withdrawal in a letter to the sponsor. Any benefits attendant to designation (such as orphan-exclusive approval) will cease once designation is voluntarily withdrawn, from the date of FDA's acknowledgement letter. If a sponsor voluntarily withdraws designation, FDA will publicize such withdrawal in accordance with §316.28.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

§316.25   Refusal to grant orphan-drug designation.

(a) FDA will refuse to grant a request for orphan-drug designation if any of the following reasons apply:

(1) The drug is not intended for a rare disease or condition because:

(i) There is insufficient evidence to support the estimate that the drug is intended for treatment of a disease or condition in fewer than 200,000 people in the United States, or that the drug is intended for use in prevention or in diagnosis in fewer than 200,000 people annually in the United States; or

(ii) Where the drug is intended for prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease or condition affecting 200,000 or more people in the United States, the sponsor has failed to demonstrate that there is no reasonable expectation that development and production costs will be recovered from sales of the drug for such disease or condition in the United States. A sponsor's failure to comply with §316.21 shall constitute a failure to make the demonstration required in this paragraph.

(2) There is insufficient information about the drug, or the disease or condition for which it is intended, to establish a medically plausible basis for expecting the drug to be effective in the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of that disease or condition.

(3) The drug is otherwise the same drug as an already approved drug for the same rare disease or condition and the sponsor has not submitted a medically plausible hypothesis for the possible clinical superiority of the subsequent drug.

(b) FDA may refuse to grant a request for orphan-drug designation if the request for designation contains an untrue statement of material fact or omits material information or if the request is otherwise ineligible under this part.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35133, June 12, 2013]

§316.26   Amendment to orphan-drug designation.

(a) At any time prior to approval of a marketing application for a designated orphan drug, the sponsor holding designation may apply for an amendment to the designated use if the proposed change is due to new and unexpected findings in research on the drug, information arising from FDA recommendations, or unforeseen developments in treatment or diagnosis of the disease or condition.

(b) FDA will grant the amendment if it finds that the initial designation request was made in good faith and that the amendment is intended to conform the orphan-drug designation to the results of unanticipated research findings, to unforeseen developments in the treatment or diagnosis of the disease or condition, or to changes based on FDA recommendations, and that, as of the date of the submission of the amendment request, the amendment would not result in exceeding the prevalence or cost recovery thresholds in §316.21(a)(1) or (a)(2) upon which the drug was originally designated.

[78 FR 35134, June 12, 2013]

§316.27   Change in ownership of orphan-drug designation.

(a) A sponsor may transfer ownership of or any beneficial interest in the orphan-drug designation of a drug to a new sponsor. At the time of the transfer, the new and former owners are required to submit the following information to FDA:

(1) The former owner or assignor of rights shall submit a letter or other document that states that all or some rights to the orphan-drug designation of the drug have been transferred to the new owner or assignee and that a complete copy of the request for orphan-drug designation, including any amendments to the request, supplements to the granted request, and correspondence relevant to the orphan-drug designation, has been provided to the new owner or assignee.

(2) The new owner or assignee of rights shall submit a statement accepting orphan-drug designation and a letter or other document containing the following:

(i) The date that the change in ownership or assignment of rights is effective;

(ii) A statement that the new owner has a complete copy of the request for orphan-drug designation including any amendments to the request, supplements to the granted request, and correspondence relevant to the orphan-drug designation; and

(iii) A specific description of the rights that have been assigned and those that have been reserved. This may be satisfied by the submission of either a list of rights assigned and reserved or copies of all relevant agreements between assignors and assignees; and

(iv) The name and address of a new primary contact person or resident agent.

(b) No sponsor may relieve itself of responsibilities under the Orphan Drug Act or under this part by assigning rights to another person without:

(1) Assuring that the sponsor or the assignee will carry out such responsibilities; or

(2) Obtaining prior permission from FDA.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992; 58 FR 6167, Jan. 26, 1993]

§316.28   Publication of orphan-drug designations.

Each month FDA will update a publicly available cumulative posting of all drugs designated as orphan drugs. These postings will contain the following information:

(a) The name and address of the sponsor;

(b) The generic name and trade name, if any, or, if neither is available, the chemical name or a meaningful descriptive name of the drug;

(c) The date of the granting of orphan-drug designation;

(d) The designated use in the rare disease or condition; and

(e) If the drug loses designation after August 12, 2013, the date of it no longer having designation.

[78 FR 35134, June 12, 2013]

§316.29   Revocation of orphan-drug designation.

(a) FDA may revoke orphan-drug designation for any drug if the agency finds that:

(1) The request for designation contained an untrue statement of material fact; or

(2) The request for designation omitted material information required by this part; or

(3) FDA subsequently finds that the drug in fact had not been eligible for orphan-drug designation at the time of submission of the request therefor.

(b) For an approved drug, revocation of orphan-drug designation also suspends or withdraws the sponsor's exclusive marketing rights for the drug but not the approval of the drug's marketing application.

(c) Where a drug has been designated as an orphan drug because the prevalence of a disease or condition (or, in the case of vaccines, diagnostic drugs, or preventive drugs, the target population) is under 200,000 in the United States at the time of designation, its designation will not be revoked on the ground that the prevalence of the disease or condition (or the target population) becomes more than 200,000 persons.

(d) If FDA revokes orphan-drug designation, FDA will publicize that the drug is no longer designated in accordance with §316.28(e).

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35134, June 12, 2013]

§316.30   Annual reports of holder of orphan-drug designation.

Within 14 months after the date on which a drug was designated as an orphan drug and annually thereafter until marketing approval, the sponsor of a designated drug shall submit a brief progress report to the FDA Office of Orphan Products Development on the drug that includes:

(a) A short account of the progress of drug development including a review of preclinical and clinical studies initiated, ongoing, and completed and a short summary of the status or results of such studies.

(b) A description of the investigational plan for the coming year, as well as any anticipated difficulties in development, testing, and marketing; and

(c) A brief discussion of any changes that may affect the orphan-drug status of the product. For example, for products nearing the end of the approval process, sponsors should discuss any disparity between the probable marketing indication and the designated indication as related to the need for an amendment to the orphan-drug designation pursuant to §316.26.

Subpart D—Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval

§316.31   Scope of orphan-drug exclusive approval.

(a) FDA may approve a sponsor's marketing application for a designated orphan drug for use in the rare disease or condition for which the drug was designated, or for select indication(s) or use(s) within the rare disease or condition for which the drug was designated. Unless FDA previously approved the same drug for the same use or indication, FDA will not approve another sponsor's marketing application for the same drug for the same use or indication before the expiration of 7 years from the date of such approval as stated in the approval letter from FDA, except that such a marketing application can be approved sooner if, and at such time as, any of the following occurs:

(1) Withdrawal of exclusive approval or revocation of orphan-drug designation by FDA under any provision of this part; or

(2) Withdrawal for any reason of the marketing application for the drug in question; or

(3) Consent by the holder of exclusive approval to permit another marketing application to gain approval; or

(4) Failure of the holder of exclusive approval to assure a sufficient quantity of the drug under section 527 of the act and §316.36.

(b) Orphan-drug exclusive approval protects only the approved indication or use of a designated drug. If such approval is limited to only particular indication(s) or uses(s) within the rare disease or condition for which the drug was designated, FDA may later approve the drug for additional indication(s) or uses(s) within the rare disease or condition not protected by the exclusive approval. If the sponsor who obtains approval for these new indication(s) or uses(s) has orphan-drug designation for the drug for the rare disease or condition, FDA will recognize a new orphan-drug exclusive approval for these new (not previously approved) indication(s) or use(s) from the date of approval of the drug for such new indication(s) or use(s).

(c) If a sponsor's marketing application for a drug product is determined not to be approvable because approval is barred under section 527 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act until the expiration of the period of exclusive marketing of another drug, FDA will so notify the sponsor in writing.

[57 FR 62085, Dec. 29, 1992, as amended at 78 FR 35134, June 12, 2013]

§316.34   FDA recognition of exclusive approval.

(a) FDA will send the sponsor (or, the permanent-resident agent, if applicable) timely written notice recognizing exclusive approval once the marketing application for a designated orphan-drug product has been approved, if the same drug has not already been approved for the same use or indication. The written notice will inform the sponsor of the requirements for maintaining orphan-drug exclusive approval for the full 7-year term of exclusive approval.

(b) When a marketing application is approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 355) for a designated orphan drug that qualifies for exclusive approval, FDA will publish in its publication entitled “Approved Drug Products With Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations” information identifying the sponsor, the drug, and the date of termination of the orphan-drug exclusive approval. A subscription to this publication and its monthly cumulative supplements is available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, and is also available online at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/ob/default.cfm.

(c) If a drug is otherwise the same drug as a previously approved drug for the same use or indication, FDA will not recognize orphan-drug exclusive approval if the sponsor fails to demonstrate upon approval that the drug is clinically superior to the previously approved drug.

[78 FR 35135, June 12, 2013]

§316.36   Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.

(a) Under section 527 of the act, whenever the Director has reason to believe that the holder of exclusive approval cannot assure the availability of sufficient quantities of an orphan drug to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated, the Director will so notify the holder of this possible insufficiency and will offer the holder one of the following options, which must be exercised by a time that the Director specifies:

(1) Provide the Director in writing, or orally, or both, at the Director's discretion, views and data as to how the holder can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan drug within a reasonable time to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated; or

(2) Provide the Director in writing the holder's consent for the approval of other marketing applications for the same drug before the expiration of the 7-year period of exclusive approval.

(b) If, within the time that the Director specifies, the holder fails to consent to the approval of other marketing applications and if the Director finds that the holder has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan drug to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated, the Director will issue a written order withdrawing the drug product's exclusive approval. This order will embody the Director's findings and conclusions and will constitute final agency action. An order withdrawing the sponsor's exclusive marketing rights may issue whether or not there are other sponsors that can assure the availability of alternative sources of supply. Once withdrawn under this section, exclusive approval may not be reinstated for that drug.

Subpart E—Open Protocols for Investigations

§316.40   Treatment use of a designated orphan drug.

Prospective investigators seeking to obtain treatment use of designated orphan drugs may do so as provided in subpart I of this chapter.

[74 FR 40945, Aug. 13, 2009]

Subpart F—Availability of Information

§316.50   Guidance documents.

FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development will maintain and make publicly available a list of guidance documents that apply to the regulations in this part. The list is maintained on the Internet and is published annually in the Federal Register. A request for a copy of the list should be directed to the Office of Orphan Products Development, Food and Drug Administration, Bldg. 32, rm. 5271, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993.

[78 FR 35135, June 12, 2013]

§316.52   Availability for public disclosure of data and information in requests and applications.

(a) FDA will not publicly disclose the existence of a request for orphan-drug designation under section 526 of the act prior to final FDA action on the request unless the existence of the request has been previously publicly disclosed or acknowledged.

(b) Whether or not the existence of a pending request for designation has been publicly disclosed or acknowledged, no data or information in the request are available for public disclosure prior to final FDA action on the request.

(c) Upon final FDA action on a request for designation, FDA will determine the public availability of data and information in the request in accordance with part 20 and §314.430 of this chapter and other applicable statutes and regulations.

(d) In accordance with §316.28, FDA will make a cumulative list of all orphan drug designations available to the public and update such list monthly.

(e) FDA will not publicly disclose the existence of a pending marketing application for a designated orphan drug for the use for which the drug was designated unless the existence of the application has been previously publicly disclosed or acknowledged.

(f) FDA will determine the public availability of data and information contained in pending and approved marketing applications for a designated orphan drug for the use for which the drug was designated in accordance with part 20 and §314.430 of this chapter and other applicable statutes and regulations.



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